You are on page 1of 25

37

CHAPTER-III
EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
3.0 INTRODUCTION
Reactive powder concrete (RPC) has initiated an interest and
possibility of expecting ultra high performances from commercially
available materials. They possess ultra high strength and high ductility
with advanced mechanical properties and consist of a specific
microstructure, which was optimized by precise gradation of all
particles in the mix to yield maximum density. It uses extensively the
pozzolanic properties of highly refined silica fume and optimization of
the Portland cement chemistry to produce the high strength hydrates.
The properties of hardened Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC)
were determined by the very dense structure of this material. The
microstructure of UHPC differs significantly from normal- and highstrength concrete. With respect to the mechanical behavior, UHPC with
fibres shows, depending on the type and quantity of fibres contained in
the mix, ductile behavior under compression as well as in tension. In
contrast to this, UHPC without fibres behaves brittle, if no additional
measure such as confinement is chosen. Since the pre-peak behavior
does not show significant differences, the elastic properties of UHPC
with and without fibres can be described, in common whereas the
influence of fibres has to be described separately. By introducing fine
steel fibres, they can exhibit remarkable strengths and energy
absorptions. However, lot of research works were carried out for the

38
production of RPC, which is an UHPC, very few studies, precisely
compares in detail their mechanical properties with UHPC. In addition,
the role of fibre addition on the compressive and flexural strengths of
RPC is required to understand and set optimum limits on the fibre
content.
This chapter presents the details of development of Reactive Powder
Concrete and the various test programs conducted. The study is aimed
at identifying and optimizing the salient parameters that influenced the
mixture proportions of the Reactive Powder Concrete and its curing
methods. Also, study of various mechanical properties of RPC is carried
out to find the feasibility of using RPC as structural components such
as angle sections. The various test programs are as follows.
3.1

EXPERIMENTAL SCHEDULE
Production

of

RPC

with

target

compressive

strength

of

approximately 200 MPa using conventionally available materials (viz.,


cement, fine aggregate, silica fume, quartz powder, and micro fibre) and
following appropriate heat curing cycles.
1. Study of mechanical properties of RPC
2. The effect of fibre addition on the compressive and flexural strengths
was also studied to establish optimum limits on fibre content.
3. Investigation on use of RPC for specific application.
4. Design of RPC mixes for target compressive strength of 150-200 MPa
5. Material

characterization

Mechanical properties

by

conducting

studies

on

following

39
i. Study of compressive strength of RPC
ii. Stress-strain characteristic of RPC under compression
iii. Study of Tensile Properties of RPC by conducting
a)Direct tension test using Dog-bone shaped specimen
b) Evaluating the cracking behavior of RPC under tension using
the micro-mechanical modeling technique.
iv. Three point bending test
v. Shear strength
6. Investigation on use of RPC for specific Applications
i.

Performance Evaluation of RPC

angle section with various

heights under compression.


ii.

Performance Evaluation of RPC angle sections under flexure.

iii.

Performance

Evaluation

of

RPC

infilled

tubes

under

Compression.
7. Investigation on Connection Details.
i.

Study of Bolted RPC plates under direct tension.

3.2 MATERIALS USED AND THEIR PROPERTIES


Ordinary Portland cement confirming to IS: 12269 was used for the
study. The silica fume used in this study had a Blains fineness of
20m2/g. The silica fume contained 94% silicon dioxide while the quartz
powder contained mostly silicon dioxide. The chemical composition and
the particle size distribution of the cementitious powders are shown in
Table 3.1 and 3.2. Standard sand confirming to IS: 650 were used for
producing Reactive powder concrete (RPC). The maximum and nominal

40
size of aggregates used for RPC is 2.36mm respectively. Based on size
of aggregates, two lengths of micro steel fibres were used 6mm, and
13mm micro-steel fibres (for RPC). Eventually the workability was
controlled using adequate quantities of third generation poly-carboxylic
based superplasticizers. The properties of these fibres are shown in
Table 3.4. The mix proportions used for the production of RPC are
tabulated in Table 3.5.
3.3 FORMULATION AND PROPERTIES OF RPC
A Reactive Powder Concrete formulation developed at the Structural
Engineering

Research

Center,

Chennai,

based

on

extensive

investigations [Harish et. al., 200719, Dattatreya.J.K., et. al., 200835]


was used for production of RPC and the behavior of cylinders with
various combinations of fibre content are

investigated. The various

experimental activities involved in this study were presented in the


following paragraphs.
Table 3.1 gives the properties of the materials used in this
investigation
The materials used in the present investigation are listed below:
1. Ordinary Portland cement of Grade 53 conforming to IS: 12269 :
1987
2. Silica Fume
3. Quartz powder
4. Standard Ennore Sand conforming to IS: 383 : 1970

41
5. Quartz sand
6. Poly-acrylic ester type Super plasticizer
7. Steel fibre of diameter 0.16mm and length 13mm & 6mm having
tensile strength of 2000MPa.
3.4 PREPARATION OF RPC MIX
The standard mix proportion and quantity of materials per m 3 of
reactive powder concrete mix formulation developed at CSIR-SERC,
Chennai is shown in Table 3.5.

1. A Hobart Planetary mixer (Fig.3.1) machine (10 kg capacity) was


used to mix the RPC
2. Well-mixed dry binder powder was then slowly poured in to the
bowl while the mixer was rotating at a slow speed.
3. The water and admixture were slowly added to the mixing bowl
and mixing was continued at slow speed
4. The speed of the mixer was increased and the mixing process was
continued for two to three minutes.
5. Additional mixing was performed at this speed until a uniform
mixture was achieved and the mixture was transformed to a
flowable self-compacting consistency by dosing with additional
SP, if necessary. The total mixing time for the various mixtures
ranged from 5 to 10 minutes.
6. In case of RPC mixtures with fibres, after all the powder

42
ingredients were mixed thoroughly with water and Super
plasticizer (SP) and when flowable consistency was achieved, the
fibres were added to the mixing bowl slowly with the mixer
operating in low gear. Care was taken to ensure random
distribution of fibres. The speed was increased and further
mixing was carried out by incorporating additional SP, if
necessary, to account for the possible stiffening of mixture due to
fibre addition.

Fig. 3.1 Hobart Planetary Type Mixer Machine

These mixing sequences did not result from an optimization process;


rather, they were selected to allow for RPC samples to be taken with
different lengths fibres, to observe the influence of fibres on the
rheology of RPCs.
While in usual fibre reinforced concretes, the addition of steel fibres
results in a drastic decrease of the workability of the mix the opposite
occurs in RPCs. This behaviour can easily be explained by the

43
differences in the relative size of steel fibres with respect to the
maximum size of the coarse aggregate. In usual fibre reinforced
concrete, steel fibre length is of the same order at the maximum size of
coarse aggregate, creating a strong interference with the aggregates.
That is why it was always recommended to slightly decrease the
maximum size of the coarse aggregate in steel fibre reinforced concrete
and to increase the sand content. On the contrary, there is no such
interference in RPC because the steel fibres are 20 times longer (13mm)
than the coarser aggregate (600m). As a comparison, keeping the
same aspect ratio, adding steel fibres to RPC like adding 400mm long
rebar to a normal concrete made with a 20mm coarse aggregate.
The physical properties such as density, water absorption and air
voids were determined as per ASTM C 642 already tested and
confirmed at CSIR-SERC while formulating the mix proportion. In
addition, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) measurements were taken
using the PUNDIT apparatus as per ASTM C 597 procedure. The fresh
and physical properties of the RPC mixtures were tabulated in Table
3.6.

44
Table 3.1 Chemical composition of powders
Oxides
Sio2
Al2O3
Fe2O3
CaO
MgO
Na2O
K2O
TiO2
Mn2O3
SO3
Free Lime
Chlorides
LOI

Portland
cement
20.49
5.91
4.07
62.90
1.13
0.20
0.47
0.20
0.08
1.87
0.45
0.012
2.29

Silica
fume
94.73
_
_
_
0.51
_
_
_
0.2
_
0.07
1.5

Table 3.2 Physical Properties of the Materials


Sl.No

Materials Used

Sym

1.

Cement

2.

Silica Fume

SF

Properties
OPC: 53 Grade; SG
= 3.15; SC = 28%;
IST = 110 min; FST
= 260 min; CS = 58
MPa at 28 days
SG = 2.25; %
Passing through
45m sieve in
WSA=92 %.

SG = 2.59; %
Passing through
45m sieve in
WSA=75 %

Super Plasticizer

SP

Micro-steel fibres

STF

SG = 2.63
Poly-Acrylic Ester
Based
L=6, and 13 mm &
D=0.16mm

3.

Quartz Powder

4.

Ennore Sand

5.
6

Note: OPC Ordinary Portland cement, SG Specific Gravity, CS Cube Strength, PSR Particle
size range, SC Standard Consistency, WSA Wet sieve analysis of aggregates, L Length, D
Diameter.

45

Table 3.3 Particle Size Distribution of Powders

Particle size(m)

Specific
gravity

Powders

D10

D30

D50

D60

Cement

3.15

49

33

21

14

Quartz

2.59

47.5

31.75

19.5

13.8

Silica
fume

2.2

0.55*

3*

7*

9*

* Higher average particle size of silica fume is due to use of fused silica fume

Table3.4 Properties of steel fibres

Type of fibres
Beakaert carbon straight micro-steel
fibres

Dimension of fibre
L(mm)
D(mm)
6
0.16
13

Strength
MPa
2000

Table 3.5 Standard Mix Proportions for Reactive Powder Concrete


Mix
Proport
ions

SF
0.25
SF
kg
194

C
1

Q
FA
w/c
0.4
1.1
0.22
Quantity of Materials / m3
C
Q
Sand
w/c
kg
Kg
kg
l
777
311
855
171

SP
STF
3
0.2 (2% by vol.)
of concrete
SP
STF
L
kg
29
160

SF Silica Fume, C Cement Q Quartz, FA Fine Aggregate, W Water,


SP Super Plasticizers

46
Table 3.6 Fresh and Physical Properties of the Mixtures
Types of Concrete

Flow

Density(kg/m3)

Porosity(%)

RPC

135

2297

4.25

RPC-1% 6mm

110

2341

2.95

RPC-2% 6mm

105

2378

3.1

RPC-3% 6mm

100

2549

0.65

RPC-1% 13mm

110

2385

2.85

RPC-2 % 13mm

90

2415

3.82

3.5 CURING REGIME


The curing protocol adopted is indicated in Fig. 3.2 and is the
outcome of a study of different combinations of normal water curing,
hot water curing and high temperature curing. [Harish et al., 2008]36
Fig. 3.3 shows the equipments used for the different curing regimes.
After 7 days of different regimes of curing, the specimens were cured in
water until the testing.

47

300
Temper
ature

(C )

250
ROC: 1 hr
200

ROH: 1 hr

150

HAC

ROH: 4.8 hrs


HWC

100
ATC

50

NWC

NWC till DOT

0
0

10

Curing Period (days)

Fig. 3.2 Curing Regime for RPC


ATC-Ambient temperature, NWC-Normal water curing, ROH- Rate of heating, HWC-Hot Water
Curing, HAC-Hot Air Curing, ROC-Rate of curing, DOT-Date of Testing

i) Normal water curing

ii) Hot water curing @ 900C

iii) Hot air curing @2000C

Fig.3.3 Equipments Used For Different Curing Regimes

3.6 TESTS FOR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


The tests conducted for studying mechanical properties of RPC
include compression, direct tension, and flexure. Table 3.7 illustrates
the test program of this investigation. The standard procedure followed
and the dimensions of specimen used for the mechanical tests are

48
shown in Table 3.8. The static modulus of elasticity was determined
from compression test as per ASTM C 469 procedure using 100 x 200
mm cylinders for RPC. All the tests were conducted after 28 days of
respective curing cycles. The toughness characteristics of these
concretes were calculated by first plotting the flexural strength deflection plot and then calculating the area under the plot. The
toughness index was calculated at different deformation levels namely
I5, I10 and I20 as per ASTM C 1108. The energy absorption characteristic
was conducted for RPC concretes by first plotting the stress-strain
curve in compression and then determining the area under the stressstrain plot. Table 3.9 gives the mixture proportions of RPC mixtures
with different fibre contents and Table 3.6.
Table 3.7 Experimental program
Fibre
Mix ID
RPC
RPC - 1%
RPC - 2%
RPC - 3%
RPC - 1%
RPC - 2%
RPC - 3%
RPC 1%+1%
RPC 1%+2%

Compressio
n

Fle
xur
e

Toughne
ss

Energy
absorption

Direct
tension

0
1
2
3
1
2
3

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C

C
C
C
C
C
C
_

_
C
C
C
C
C
_

6+13

6+13

Length
(mm)
6
6
6
13
13
13

C Tests Conducted

49
Table 3.8 Tests conducted to study the Mechanical Properties of
RPC
Tests

Compression

Properties
studied

Type of
concrete

Standards

Specimen size

Stress-strain plot
& Energy
absorption

RPC with all


% fibres

ASTM C 469

100 x200 mm
cylinder

Direct tension

RPC

Flexure and
toughness

RPC

ASTM C 348

Tension

Briquettes
shape(dogbone shape)
70x70x350
mm prism

Table 3.9 Mixture proportions

Mix proportions of RPC concrete with


respect to cement
FA
SP
SF
C
S
Q
W
%
%
1.1
1 0.25 0.4
0.17
1.5
_

Mix ID

Fibre Length

RPC

RPC -1%

6mm

0.25

0.4

1.1

0.17

RPC -2%

6mm

0.25

0.4

1.1

0.17

RPC - 3%

6mm

0.25

0.4

1.1

RPC - 1%

13mm

0.25

0.4

RPC -2%

13mm

0.25

RPC - 3%

13mm

6mm+13mm
6mm+13mm

RPC1%+1%
RPC1%+2%

0.20

1.2
2.2
5
2.5

1.1

0.17

1.2

0.4

1.1

0.17

0.25

0.4

1.1

0.20

2.2
5
2.5

0.25

0.4

0.25

0.4

1.1
1.1

2
3

0.17

2.2
5

0.20

2.5

C.A.&F.A.,coarse and Fine aggregate, W Water, SP Superplasticizers (quantity of SP is


represented in percentage by weight of cementiitous material), SF Steel fibres (quantity of SF is
represented in percentage by volume of the total mixture

50
3.7 PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMENS
3.7.1. Preparation of Compression Specimens
The RPC cylinders of 100mm diameter and 200mm height were cast
with various fibre content and combinations as follows.
i.

1% of 6mm fibres

ii.

2% of 6mm fibres

iii.

3% of 6mm fibres

iv.

1% of 13mm fibres

v.

2% of 13mm fibre

vi.

1% of 6mm fibres + 1% 13mm fibres

vii.

1% of 6mm fibres + 2% 13mm fibres


The specimen for compression tests consisted of 100mm diameter

by 200mm long cylinders. All the specimens were subjected to the


curing regimes as specified in Fig. 3.2 and prepared for the test. Both
the end of the specimen were carefully leveled and coated with sulphur
to get plain and parallel surfaces.
3.7.2 Preparation of Tension Specimen
The most commonly used specimen geometrics for testing of UHPC
(Ultra High Performance Concrete) behavior under tension were socalled dumb-bell prisms. The shape of such prisms avoids failure in the
area of bond introduction in the specimen, which otherwise occurs due
to an unavoidable multiaxial stress state and/or an abrupt change in
stiffness in the transitory region from loading plates to specimen. A
smooth transition from or wider part of the specimen to the narrow,

51
middle portion as used in the experiments appears to be, at least
theoretically, the most appropriate geometric shape needed to avoid
local stress concentration.
To overcome the problems associated with specimen grips, end
tapered specimen were tested in tension. The geometry of typical
specimen was shown in Fig.3.4. The cross section in the constant
width portion is 200mm. The overall height of the specimen was
350mm and both end edge is 150mm. Special steel moulds were
designed and fabricated for the preparation of direct tension test
specimens. The tension tests were carried out on Dog-bone shaped
tensile specimens with notches 10mm deep 2mm wide cut at middle
length.

The cross-sectional area of a typical specimen, at the double-

notched points, is 1886mm2.The geometric details of the specimen are


shown in the Fig. 3.4. Typical test specimen with end grips is shown in
Fig.3.5. Overall, about 32 specimens were prepared and tested
(Fig.3.6).

52

Fig. 3.4 Typical Tension Specimen with dimension

(All dimensions are in mm)

Fig. 3.5 Photographic View of Tension Specimen with End Grips

Fig. 3.6 Over All View of Tension Specimen with various fibre dosages

53
3.7.3 Preparation of Flexure and shear Specimen
RPC beams of size 70 x 70 x 350 mm with different lengths of fibres
[l/d (mm), 6/0.16, 13/0.16] single or in combination and different
volume fractions were prepared and tested.

Note: All Dimensions are in mm

Fig.3.7

Fig. 3.8

Fig. 3.7 Beam Specimen Schematic Diagram


Fig. 3.8 Photographic views of Beam Specimens

Table 3.10 Details of Notched RPC Beam Specimens


Serial no.

ID

1
2
3
4
5
6

R0
RS2
RD21
RD32
RS2L
RS3L

Fibre content (%)


6mm

13mm

0
2
2
3
0
0

0
0
1
2
2
3

3.7.3.1 Specimen Geometry


Specimens prepared were beams of rectangular cross section with a
notch at the mid-length to a depth of 1/6 times the beam depth. The
depth (D) and width (B) of the cross section of the specimen were both
70 mm. The loading span (S) was 300 mm (0.3D). The total length of
the specimen (L) was 350 mm (3.5D). The notch depth width (ao) was

54
5mm. The notch was formed by embedding an acrylic plate of the 5mm
thickness during casting. Adequate measures were taken to prevent
bonding between the plate and concrete. The specimens shall be
subjected to testing in a condition immediately after completion of the
specified curing procedure.
3.7.4 Preparation of test specimen for Bolted Plates
A Reactive Powder Concrete formulation developed at the Structural
Engineering

Research

Centre,

Chennai

based

on

extensive

investigations is used for production of RPC plate elements and the


behaviour of bolted plates was investigated under direct tensile loading
which is the most critical condition for a bolted connection. The various
experimental activities involved in this study are presented in the
following paragraphs.
3.7.4.1 Casting
RPC panels were cast in wooden moulds of clear dimensions of 350
x 350 mm and thickness 15mm. The RPC mix was poured into the
mould and compacted in two layers using a Table vibrator. After 24
hours specimens were demoulded and subjected to the specified curing
regimes optimized by CSIR-SERC (Fig.3.2). Cured specimens were cut
to the required dimensions using concrete cutting machine. Holes were
drilled using concrete drilling machine at 1.5d, 2.5d and 3.5d from the
edge of plates (d- diameter of the bolt hole).

55
3.7.5 Preparation of Angle Specimens
3.7.5.1

RPC-Angle casting device

For casting the RPC angles, a special device was designed and
fabricated as shown in the Fig-3.10. Using the special mould angle
sections of 80mm x 80mm x 10mm angle sections were cast for 1m
length. Then the angle sections were cut to different heights or lengths
to conduct the flexure and compression tests. The mould consists of
two V-shaped plates, one fixed and the other one movable, which is
fitted with a handle. The concrete is placed on the fixed angle and
pressed against, by the movable angle plate. A plate with bolt holes is
fixed at the bottom angle mould to fix the thickness of angle sections.
The thickness of the angle sections can be adjusted, by fixing the
moving angle mould to the corresponding bolt holes fixed at the bottom
angle mould. With this mould one can cast angle sections of thickness
5mm, 6mm, 8mm, 10mm, 12mm, 14mm, 16mm and 20mm.
The following describes the specimens used in this study for
determining

the

mechanical

properties

of

various

RPC

angles.

Specimens of 80mm x 80mm x 10mm angles sections with the


following volumes of fibres contents were caste for testing.
1. 1% of 6mm fibres
2. 2% of 6mm fibres
3. 3% of 6mm fibres
4. 1% of 13mm fibres
5. 2% of 13mm fibres
6. 1% of 6mm fibres + 1% 13mm fibres
7. 1% of 6mm fibres + 2% 13mm fibres

56

57

Fig. 3.11(a)

Fig. 3.11(b)

Fig.3.11 a &b Angle casting mould for RPC

3.7.5.2 Description of the mould


A rigid four-legged self-straining frame with top sides connected by
angle section is the main frame of the mould. At 17 cm from the bottom
of the mould, a channel section was fixed as crossbeam as shown in
Fig. 3.10. Over the cross beam a 20 x 12 cm angle section of 100 cm
length was connected longitudinally. Another channel section was
placed in inverted position to get flat surface on top and welded over
the movable angle section as shown in Figs.3.11a&b. Over the flat top
surface of 100 cm length 10 cm size angle was placed with both free
edges faced top and free edges in same horizontal line and the angle
joint portion on middle line of the base channel and rigidly welded. End
plates on both sides of the bottom angle were fixed by bolt and nut to
avoid the RPC mix leakage at sides. This angle acts as base of the
mould. A rotatable vertical shaft was fixed at the centre of the movable
angle. The vertical shaft was fully threaded and passed through the
threaded hole which was fixed at the top of the frame. By rotating, the

58
pressure is transferred through the movable angle to the materials in
the base fixed angle mould. Fig.3.10, Figs.3.11 (a) &3.11(b) shows the
details and photographic view of the device.
The entire loading device was placed on the table vibrator. The well
mixed RPC mixture was poured in the female angle mould to uniform
thickness. The male angle was lowered up to touch the RPC material
placed in the female angle by rotating the vertical shaft. Vibration was
applied on the entire device. Simultaneously vertical pressure was
applied through the male angle to the material in the female mould.
The thickness guides were fixed on both sides of the female mould.
Pressure was applied until the male angle reaches the thickness guide.
The excess material if any was squeezed out through the gap between
the guide and the male angle. The thickness of the RPC angle product
was possible from 5mm to 20mm. After 24 hours, the pressure on the
material was released by raising the male angle. The specimen was
removed from the female mould and cured by the standardised curing
regime (Fig. 3.2).
3.7.6 Preparation of Reactive Powder Concrete Infilled Tubes
The mix proportion for the infill and the quantity of material used
per m3 of reactive powder concrete mix formulation are as per the Table
3.2 and 3.3.

59
3.7.6.1 Details of Reactive Powder Concrete infilled tubes(RFIT)
Specimens Used

To investigate the performance of RPC infilled steel tubes,


compressive test were carried out. The test specimen details are shown
in Table3.11.
Table: 3.11 Details of infilled RPC Specimen
Specimen

Compressive Test Specimen

Hollow tubes
In filled Steel tubes

3
9

3.7.6.2 Fabrication of Steel Tubes


Locally available hollow steel tubes of the following dimensions are
used for the fabrication.
Steel tube specification:Steel tube diameter = 60 mm
Steel tube length
= 600 mm
Steel tube thickness = 2 mm
Steel plate diameter (Bottom) = 75 mm
Steel plate diameter (Top) = 60 mm
Steel plate thickness = 6 mm
The fabricated steel tube specimens are shown in Fig. 3.12

Fig 3.12 Steel Tube Specimens

3.7.6.3 Casting of Infilled Steel Tube And Controlled Specimens


The prepared mix was poured into the hollow steel tube by a small
trowel and the tube was filled with the prepared mix and it was

60
properly compacted by a table vibrator. A 10 mm aluminium tube was
provided at the centre of the steel tube, for inserting the 7 mm
prestressing wire. The inside portion of the steel tube is shown in Fig
3.13.

Fig. 3.13
Fig 3.13 Inside Portion of the Steel Tube
Fig 3.14 Steel Plate

Fig. 3.14

After the casting, the steel tube is closed with a plate with a central
hole (Fig. 3.14). A central hole was made in the plate for the insertion
of the pre-stressing wire. The pre-stressing of steel tube was carried out
after the curing of the specimen. Inside of the steel tube contains 8 mm
rod which act as a shear connector. It also helps to increase the
bonding between steel tube and the concrete.
3.7.6.4. Casting of Infill
The selected RPC mix details are shown in Table 3.2. The casting
was done in an EIRICH Intensive Mixer, which consist of a rotating pan
of speed 30 rpm placed at an angle of 300 to the horizontal. The inclined
rotor consists of three numbers of steel blades, which can rotate at a
speed varying from 0 to 300 rpm. The mixing was carried out in EIRICH
mixer, until a highly fluid consistency was achieved First dry mixing of

61
ingredients consisting of combination of cement, sand, silica fume was
done for 5 minutes. Subsequently 75% of water and 75% of superplasticizer (Structuro-100) with the dry mix was added and again mixed
for 3 minutes. Further the rest of water along with the super-plasticizer
was added and mixed for 5 minutes. Finally steel fibre were slowly
added and mixed for few minutes, till the desired mix consistency was
obtained. The fibre was uniformly distributed throughout the mix
volume. The mixing was continued till the required flow was achieved.
Fig 3.15 shows steel tube specimen just after the casting.

Fig 3.15 Steel Tube Specimens Just After the Casting