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COMBINATIONS OF FUNCTIONS:

COMPOSITE FUNCTIONS

Add, subtract, multiply, and divide functions.

Find the composition of one function with

another function.

Use combinations and compositions of

Given: f (x)= 2x 3 and g(x) = x2 1

Sum

Difference

Product

Quotient

The domain of an arithmetic combination of functions

domains of f and g.

restriction that g (x) 0.

Given f (x) = 2x + 1 and g(x) = x2 + 2x 1 find (f + g)(x).

Solution:

(f + g)(x) = f (x) + g(x) = (2x + 1) + (x2 + 2x 1)

= x2 + 4x

When x = 3, the value of this sum is

(f + g)(3) = 32 + 4(3)

= 21.

7

Composition of Functions

Composition of Functions

Given f(x) = x2 and g(x) = x + 1, the composition of f with g

is

f (g(x)) = f (x + 1)

= (x + 1)2.

This composition is denoted as f g

and reads as f composed with g.

Composition of Functions

Figure 1.90

10

Given f (x) = x + 2 and g(x) = 4 x2, find the following.

Solution:

a. The composition of f with g is as follows.

(f g)(x) = f(g(x))

Definition of f g

= f(4 x2)

Definition of g (x)

= (4 x2) + 2

Definition of f (x)

= x2 + 6

Simplify.

11

Example 5 Solution

contd

Definition of g f

= g(x + 2)

Definition of f(x)

= 4 (x + 2)2

Definition of g(x)

= 4 (x2 + 4x + 4)

Expand.

= x2 4x

Simplify.

12

Example 5 Solution

contd

c. Using the result of part (b), you can write the following.

Substitute.

= 4 + 8

Simplify.

=4

Simplify.

13

Composition of Functions

Given h(x) = (3x 5)3 is the composition of f with g where

f(x) = x3 and g(x) = 3x 5.

h(x) = (3x 5)3 = [g(x)]3 = f(g(x)).

14

Application

15

The number N of bacteria in a refrigerated food is given by

N(T ) = 20T 2 80T + 500,

2 T 14

where T is the temperature of the food in degrees Celsius.

When the food is removed from refrigeration, the

temperature of the food is given by

T(t) = 4t + 2, 0 t 3

where t is the time in hours.

(a) Find the composition N(T(t)) and interpret its meaning in

context.

(b) Find the time when the bacteria count reaches 2000.

16

N(T(t)) = 20(4t + 2)2 80(4t + 2) + 500

= 20(16t2 + 16t + 4) 320t 160 + 500

= 320t2 + 320t + 80 320t 160 + 500

= 320t2 + 420

The composite function N(T(t)) represents the number of

bacteria in the food as a function of the amount of time the

food has been out of refrigeration.

17

contd

320t 2 + 420 = 2000. Solve this equation to find that the

count will reach 2000 when t 2.2 hours.

When you solve this equation, note that the negative value

is rejected because it is not in the domain of the composite

function.

18

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