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S, N,



M. A., D. Phil.

Bìrla Institute of Tec-hnology ond Science






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P¡hter s

-Srigokul Mudranalaya, Varanaoi

my parents

The present rvork has been my dream for about
a decade. When I was working on the cuitural
study of Somadeva,s Katl¿ãsarilsùgara which earned.
me the D. Phil degree of the University of Alla.
habaci,l f started collecting data on the celebrated
poet Gulrã.Jhya rvhose significance and genius in

many ways may be considered equal to that of
Valrniki and Vyãsa.2 But unfortunately, the
Paidachi language, which our poet had chosen for
his I|yhatkatlt-a ( The Great Tale ),3 had been no
longer in vogue for the last nine hundred years.
lVe know .his iile and ,work now only as a legend.

The loss of the Byltatkathã has made it difficult lor
literary historians to place him in the classical


literary tradition. Not much can be said about
him with sufficient degree of certainty. There
exists a lacuna, the need for filling it has long been
feit by scholars, Flere, for the first time, an attempt
has been made to place before the scholars an
integrated and coherent picture of this famous but
1. This work is published from Chaukhambha Orientalia,
Varanasi, 1976 under the title, Kathasaritsagara and

Indian Culture.



Felix Lacote, Es,sai Sur GunaShya et
Paris, Ernest Leroux, 1908, p. 10.


K. s. s.,





líttle known poet of the Epic Triad,l ancl to
reconstruct the possible theme of the original
B¡hatkathd from the several versions available.

Owing to the loss of the original Byhatkathd
of Gur.rã{hya, the author had no way out but to
rely upon the later versions of the BThatkatha which
have been handed Cown to us. They are the
Brhatkathã-Jlokasamgrh¿ of Budhaswãmi ( 5th century A. D. ), Vasudeaa HiAdo of Dharmadãsagali
( 700 A. D. ), Byltatkathãmañjari of Kçemendra
and the Kaúasaritsãgara of Somadeva ( llth century A. D. ). As one goes through these versions
one is deeply impressed by the work and the variety of stories presented in them. One cannot but
be filled with admiration for what the original
Byhatkatlra of Gufrâ{hya should have been. At the
same time one is greatly pained at the colossal
loss to the classical Indian literature suffered
owing to the extinction of such a priceless treasure
of Indian fiction which served as a model to
classical Indian fiction writers right from the begin.
ning of the ChristÍan era down to the early mediaeval age. There is no room for doubt that the
Brl¿atkathd, of Gulã{hya existed at least during
the time of Somacleva ( llth century A. D. ) and
that Somadeva had profusely used it in his sum1.

Vãlmiki, Vyãsa and Gunã{hya form rhe famous Epic
of the classical Indian literature.


mary of the Bfhatkatha.l The glory of Gupã{hya
was not confined to India alone but encompassed
all the South Asian countries. We have a definite
and irrefutable proof of it in the inscriptions of
Cambodia ( Kambujadeía ) of king Yaiovarman
( 9th century A. D. ). Where Gu+ã{hya has been
mentioned thrice and is depicted as the 'Fri'end of



tlte PrakTta Language.'

greateful to Dr. Ludwik Sternbach
( Paris ) for his valuable suggestions and encourâ'
gement and to Dr. A. L. Basham, Professor and
Head of the Department of South East Asian
History, NationalUniversityCanberra, Australia,
who was first to encourage me and who advised
me to consult Dr. Ludwik Sternbach. I am
also beholden to Prof. J. W. de. Jotg, Professor,
College de Paris, who had invited me to read rny
paper on "The Time af the Byhatkathd'." I cannot
adequately express my sense of obligation to my
Guruuara Dr. U. N. Roy of Allahabad University,
to whom I owe my love for classical Indian literature and its study. I am also obliged to Dr. R. C.
Sharma, Dean, Faculty of Humanities and Social
Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science,
Pilani, who constantly inspired and encouraged
me while the work was in progress.

I am







London. R.. as no scholar in this field can do withqut their monumental work. In the end I. : Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. : Indian Historical Quarterly. Tawney and N. J. J. Bengal. K. B. A. : Annual Report of the Archaeological Survey of India.'The Ocean of Storlt' in Ten Vols. H. A. Essai Sur Gu4ã{hya et la Brhatkatha' paris. R. S. C. HlL. I. C. v. A. l. I. Kiran prasad. A. : Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of I. : Bulletin of the School of Oriental and B. Varanasi. S. : International Congress of the OrientI. : Indian Culture. O. . K. : Journal ol the Asiatic Society. Corpus Inscriptionum Indicarum. J. C. must acknowledge my debt. : History of Indian Literature. A. N. I. Prasad ABBREVIATIONS A. S. H. Essai : : African Studies. R. : Archaeological Survey of India. E. A. for going through the manuscript before sending it to the press. I. porwal. and to Mrs. the Sahadharmili but for whose love and affection this work could never have been completed. C. : Mr. O. I. K. have been profusely used in his monograph. Penzer whose . S. : B¡hatkathã. A. for gladly offering to undertake the publication of. : Indian Antiquary. : Journal of Asiatique. A. Sri Chandrika prasad ji and Srimati Chandravati and to Ndrs. 4. : Epigraphia Indica. M. B. B. S. : Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 2034 S. Calcutta. Bengal. U. the book.. K. A. I. : Brhatkathãmañjari.( viii ) I take this opportunity to express my gratitude towords Kaui-uidaad-bandhaaa I)r. M. J. M. S. I. Ram Kumar Rai ( Banaras Hindu University ) for his love and affection and to the proprietor of the prestigious Chaukhambha Orientalia. Above all. O. I. A. s. alist. H. B."R. S. I record my deep gratitude to my parents. Bhargava for seeing through the press work. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the RoYal Asiatic SocietY. B. R. Santani for preparing the index. B. Q. S. My thanks are specially due to professor S. to Mr. L. J.

J. S. G. : Journal of rhe Ganga Nath Jha Research Institute. D. : Journal of the Oriental I. J. H. : st CONTENTS Research itute. I. BiographY of GuqãÇhYa III. K. U. : The Vãkâtak Gupta Age. G. Historicity of Guqã{hYa II. P. A. v-vlll Abbreviations I. J. : Mahâbhãrata. : Kathãsaritsâgara. G.( J. R. In J. O. V. M. Bh. : Preface Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. : Vikrama Samvat. M. On the B¡hatkathã ( a ) Date of the B¡hatkathã 56 ( b ) Nature of the Bfhatkatha ( c ) Language of the B¡hatkathã Bçhatkathã and its later versions 70 V. R. Z. R. : Bg Veda. Original Home of Guqâ{hYa 48 lV. Ocean. O. N. S. V. Journal of the UttarPradesh Historical Society. J. M. S. : Mythic Journal. : The Ocean of Story. B. R. S. V. 3 8 56 77 83 Appendix ( A ) Chronolbgical Bibliography of works on the B¡hatkathâ and its chief recensions il3 125 ( B ) The Bghatkathã and Indian Fiction ( C ) Some aspects of Indian Culture as gleaned from the Kathãsaritsãgara of Somadeva Bibliography Index 131 150 15s . : Journal x ) of the Bihar and Orisa Re- search Society. S.

Int. 6.a Daíarû. Essai. Vyãsa and Guqã{hya 1 Goverdhana salutes them all in a strain and compares their poe' try to a river with three branches. Saptasati ( of the Ravya Mala compares_him wirh Vyãsa ( lbid..z He feels that Gulã{hya was Vyãsa incarnate. ). Avaloko. IV. 5!.B Dandin mstances rtasa class of Katha. unfortunatel¡ to us it is only the name of Gugãdhya and his Bthatkatlza that have survived. 9.Govardhana. o. Saptasati.{ÃÐHYA The Brl¿atkatha of Gunãdh ya is the earliest regular collection of fables known to mankind. He oi*. 18.ra. Samuddipitakanderpã Kftagauripras¿dhana . Goverdhana.8 Hãlare . 2. I.clambarÌ ( peterson p. Gatha Saptaïafi. 34. Bghatkalhãyãm. 696. 10.39.CHAPTER I HrsToRrCrTY OF GUI. 4. . 8. 7. 33 ).pa names the B¡hatkatlta and Dhanika calls it the source of Muarã. Ka. rùkhsasa and quotes two verses as. His life and work have almost become legend. 5. Ibid. 5 Poets. Frall> . gar+uioràfìs {r¡o*Tfì{fl nìè. p. ís. 33.696. Haralileva lo Kasya Vismayaya 'Brhatkathã.. v iràu ). Kavyadarsa. He was placed third in the Bpic Triad consisting of Valmiki. Iior{o"orta i See also KumnrsambhøvaryIL'2. Lacote. 7 Bãr. Subandhu. But. 3.

t9. to the north of the hill of Changu-Narayar. 7' ll' p' 113. 30. 54. both before leaving NepãI. iva Yasya Kietter gupã{hyâyã dyullarighavarayãd dik Kçamâgambhiryyadhairya p".62. 5.x. S.26 z guqãqivitas tiqlhatu dusito Pi ítnäoärppito gunaÇhyah gado py alãn haraprayuktah kim utãru1tânsuÞ' i"uu puour "ároviU^f..1..rãdhya.ra. Linc 22' 2. YI. 52. lgl2. 57.åìt*rr cfàùrfld õEqd: n Tilakamañjari' t 6. B. "pâradah sthirakalyãno nyakk¡tabhîprãkçtãpçyah anitiryyo ViÉãlâksas Suro 5') The Kambuja inscription mentions Gu4ã{hya as 6a friend of the Prakrit language. because Nãrada. and Gu!ã{hya to heaven erect commz 2 Sanscriie de lam pa et du C ambodge. 28.203-2t4. JRAS - ( 1913 ). Indian Antiquary. the erection of a lingam on a sacred spot difficult of access.IV.2. ll. XLll' 204. because Siva has imposed upon the demi-god of whom he.8. XXVll. 25. 3. the confluent of the two branches of the Virabhadra as the sacred spot worthy to be the cradle of a poem as pure as the Ramayrya Gulã{hya.a Kçemendrar6Dhanapãla. there are certain significant epigraphic evidences-the copper plate oi Kollutto and the Kambuj inscription of the Mahãrãja Yaßovarman.( (4) Uìdyotansuri. M.Vfrf C. Yasasatilaka Champa. VIll. stri gËt*qtrcÈ Îetgnrqa irgm -'àaà. KuvalaYa Mal Køtha.s Somadevasuri. 14.l Dhanikarz Bhoja. 1-3 and PraSasti' 9.35-69. 50.iiu bhusamudrãdirin Nepãia'Ma hatmya' Skandapuraqe himavatkhanÇe nep' ãlmãhâtmya Ch.' These are enough to prove that a poet named Gur. 29. Ch. K.19' 4.u l.3. as condition of his deliverance' after the composition of the Bthatkathã. 59- ch.rã{hya ex' isted but the loss of the Byhatkatlta has made it difficult for literary historians to place him in lite' rary tradition. xxtx. 24.9 z L VllI. to return to his hermitage. 3. points out to him. makah. .I.. i5. Avaloka. is the human incarnation.8.34. LI. 38.64. Vãlmiki. pp.53. ARASI. - fax'Nos' LVI-LX)' Gunã{hyah i. Le Nepal. have referred to the Byhøtakatha in their writings' Besides these strong ancient literary sources. Sarasl. 13.lV..-bú Insciiption of Yalovarman ( Bergaigne' /ns' S 11. 389' Lõvi.387-388' K. xxx. 51.ati Kan¡habhøraPa.35.216-t7. l. K. 36. Súkta 8' 8.54.32. instructed by the gods.328. 10. 2.G Hemachandrar? Somadevars Trivikramaabhagars etc'. "Both come to Nepãl Valmki.B.14.uçunãya c. XXVIII' 6. NalachamPú. Gugãdhya iti tanuãma pçthivyâm prathitam tadã papâlha sakala vidyâ mune vyãkaragâdikãh sa sarvãSãçtr' avettãbhud gunãÇhya guqasamyutah Ch. Nepãlamãhatmya draws a parallel between Vãlrrúki and Gur. 14. ch. S. 7. Gu{râ{hya. 56.

. $ft ì : An inscription from Cambodia of the Maharaja Ya3ovarman of 9th Centnry A. p. what to say of the moon !' M.ative lingams. even the poison that Ís closely united with Sirru .. consecrated to the eulogy of King Ya$ovarman. J. History of Classical Sanskrít Literotu¡e. C. D. Krishnamachariar qcq suspects third alluslon :1 åägqrarql q€õHrturÊq I uÊrcnçrgarff{ qqrrrrrfr û+âÊq.€-qfoil gurt6q: ^^T slfrÍùdl (7) the {tãilÍìq: ****¡Frãilrfrq+: tñùsÊ €qrlrfrùl h wûqr@r rràqai qrc fìrpoua qugîñ: (ft matters not if fr'gererÍg: a virtuous man is ever because he was'really a virtuous man. Vi$ãlaksa a stranger to the niti ( with big eyes but without the rormenr of exile ). 3.rgE{Tq¡ìffiqr gfìûil{rqÈùe. S. 389. r . Bergaigne Insc. mentions Byltat..1 gunÊmfteeg In the copper plates discovered at Kolar dated 40th year of King Durvinita ( early parr of the 6th Century A.. S. Mr. A. These are enough evidences to prove that a wríter named Gulã{hya existed ín ancient perlod- I u 'A Paradah out of which the Kalyãqa subsists ( willing to help bur atways happy ) Guarã{hya who did noù like rhe Prakrit ( rich in virrue bur ). He was Sura having humbled Bhimaka. Guqã{hya was reinstated in his place. Le N€pal.s sufficiently as a graceful ornament. 2. I. 32g. D. not loving harshness ¡ Cambodge l. 14. Lacote. R. 15. has pointed out another allusion. fasc. Lëvi. Nos. Barth C. kaúa: "That inscription is one of the five steles of the Thnal Baray.(6) emor. )z it is said : {rõ:{r{fl Ksùur è*rr¡qqtÈqqEEeqùq fl*<m . Sanscrítes de Camp 2 e.9. Essai. 414. .p. et due tt vilified LVIII.3 cKqÈ€ent. the Valmiki3vara and Bhrugísvara. LVI-LX. ( 1913 ). I I LVnI.. 3g7.

tbe Puraûas ). 3. that Var' aruchi set forth for the holy hermitage of Badarika in order to put off his body. the well-known author of the Byha' tkatha the earliest regular collection of fables. Not much can be said about him with any amount of certainty and owing to a complete lack of auth. As he was going along he beheld on the banks of the Ganges a vegetable eating hermit. How€ver. like myself. A. 100. Mãlayavãna by name. 1908 ). being an excellent Gar. the Prime 1. ' . Felix Lacote. Chaqrakya. Therc is enough to prove that a poet named Gufrã{hya existed but the loss of the Bghatkathã has made it difficult for literary historians to place him in literary tradition. who has forsaken the use of three lan' guages. Vol. He remarks 1.ra. 10. Ministerof Chandra Gupta Maurya. Then Vararuchi turned his blood. The Ocean. as it flowed out. Sanskrit. 5. p.entic biographical details a colourful network of myths and legends has surrourided his name. was placed in the same pedestal as Vãlmiki and Vyãsa."3 Having said this to Katabhüti. was cursed by the goddess in anger. J.z surrounded with his pupils.ll ). Hindu Theatre. N. and while he was looking on. Yol. p. "Now as my curse has spent its strength. I. p.{ÃÐHYA Gu+ã{hya. I will strive to leave the body and O Kafrabhuti do you remain here for the present.l Indian Classical literature has suffered much because of the loss of the B¡hatkaúa. Essai Sur GnpaQhya Et la BfhatkathA. Ernest Leroux. and so shall he.. See the Mudrã Rakshosa that the story is also told differently iÐ. Prasad. who was equal in ability to Brihaspati. until there cornes to you a Brãhma{ra named Gulã{hya.z But to us it is only the name that has survived and he has become almost mythical. for he. retiredt o the Vín' dhya forest. who for taking my part has become a mortal. that hermit's hand was pricked with KuÉa grass. "To him you must tell this tale originally told by '$iva. considering that all his objects had beeq accompli' shedas hehad wreaked his vengeance on Yôgananda ( a king of Nanda dynasty ). ( Paris. Prakrit and his own native dialect.l-4. 2. into sap through his magic for another version of this story ( Wilson. then you shall be delivered from y(ìur curse.r He said. 58.(e) CHAPTER II BIOGRAPHY OF GUI\. an endeavour has been made here to write an authentic biography with the help of the works derived from the Byltatkaúa. Further Note on the Oríginal Itrome of Gu4ØQhya. ( 1970 ). VoL XlI. S. 2. despondent through sorrow for the death of his sons.

and said to him. and making use of the Pai3acha language. Then he remem. ceeded to relate as follows :Storlt of Gurya/þa : In Pratishçhãnar there is a city named Supratishftita. Kar. do me this favour. in order that you and I together. resorted for protection with intense devotion to that goddess who only can protect. 6¡I turned your blood into sap in order to test you. desirous of putting off his mortal condition. after telling him his own name: . Wilson identifies this name with Selivahana." Having thus read that hermit a lesson.. 58-59. as it were. and by her orders he went and beheld Kapabhuti. Then Vararuchi. Vol.¡Qgickly tell me that tale which you heard from Pushpadanta. 11 ) sence the use of sanskrit and two other languages. Then Vararuchi laughed a little. and having been praised by him prostrate in adoration.. he said to Ka?abhuti. with sonowful mind came to pay a visit to Durgã. because even now. having served the King Sãtavãhana. Pratishthãna ( the modern Paithan ) is celebrated as the capital of Salivahãna ( a late form of Sãtavâhana. reached his own heavenly home. There he. passing under the Gulã{hya. told him the secret of that meditation which arises from fire. and she. in it there dwelt once upon a time an l. the dweller in the Vindhya hills. but Dr. the captiat of Siripolemaios. may escape. on beholding that. eager for his desired meeting with Gur. which was different from the three languages he had sworn to forsake. having consumed his body by that form of meditation. but great curio. the Bat. and said to him in joyful mood : "I will tell you the story.). who reigned aû Pratishfhãna after . It is identiûable with Peytan on the Godãvari. pp. Vararuchi went to the tranquil site of the hermitage of Badarînãth. in order to test his egotism. awoke from sleep.( (10) power." and he became puffed up with pride. O hermit. first tell me all your adventures from your birth. my friend. manifesting her real form to him. Thus being entreated by him. my lord.radhyà. the hermit exclaimed: ttHa ! I have attained perfection. Rost remarks that fassen more correctly iden. out of curiosity. O hermit. endeavour to acquire Knowledge by for. hana or Paithana of Ptolemy. sity possesses me.'. and having in accordance with a vow. I. you have not abandoned egotism. to help him to put off the body.The Ocean. saking egotism. Guçã{hya pro. abandoned in his prel.rabhuti bowed before him. and henceforth that Kalabhuti remained in the Vindhya forest. Hearing that. tifies it with thar of Sri pultmän ( pulumayi ) of the Andhra Dynasty.t Then that Mãlayavãn wandering about in the wood in human form. bered his origin and suddenly. from our curse.

and then you and she together shall be freed from your curse. Part 1*4' p. Here Brockhaus has confounded gula and the trans' thus word. 1. had two sons. M.o'-N." Having said this he disappeared. brother's son to Vasuki. Then Vatsa and Gulma began to suspect one another.' N. and after telling me his lineage and his name' made me his wife by the Gãndharva maffiage. my friend was as that son. my friend. XIl. as their curse had died' and I for my part became inconsolable. from heaven : an incarnation of virtue. said to those brothers:'rDo not entertain evil suspicions: listen.1 he saw me when I was going to bathe. And she suddenly becarne pregnant. having in course of time learned all the spent its force.For a note on this form of marriage lbid. too.. P. A. Vol. 99 ff. Vatsa and Gulma said : confidence can we repose in all this !" Then she the overthrow of the house of Salivahana about 133 A. Vol. pp. I will tell you the truth. S. correct the has gaprasad's text of this one of incarnation : Iation should be "an ga4as.z and he shall be called Gu+ã{hya. and those two sons of his remained. to C. She is a glorious heavenly nymph fallen down to earth in consequence of a curse. know me. M' Penzel. have descended to earth for the same reason.1 At that very time a divine voice (rThis child that is born is heard. I." When they heard this spee' r'What ch of their sister's. 1.z he belongs to the Brãhma4 race. Then I flung aside my grief' and though a child I went in the strength of my selÊ reliance to the Deccan to acquire knowledge' Then. and in a few days from that time a son was born to $ru6rthã. and it is by him that I am pregnant.3 and is of the Brãhmar. (13) silently called I I I 1 I I î to mind that Naga prince. the king of the Nãgas. but a son shall without fail be born to your sister here. lt seems . There is a prince of the name of Kirtisena.r caste'" There' upon my mother and uncles. a daughter named $rutãrthã. Vatsa and Gulma and he had also born to him a third child. and he. thereupon he was overcome with love. taking care of their sister. -B. For details of these serpent-demons see Appendix I at the end oîThe Ocean. and you. Tarvney that tvam in Dr' Brockhaus' text must be a misþrint for tam' gaqa' Dur' 2. D. Now in course of time that Brãhman anC his wife died. -tvleans rich in vittues and good qualities' ¡. who saw what was in their minds. because no other man came in their sister's way : thereupon Srutãrthã. 2.(12) excellent Brãhman named Soma$arman. 88. H. ( 1970 ). and immediately he was thought upon he came and said (eln truth I have made your to Vatsa and Gulma : sister my wife. See also the latest theory expounded by the pre' sent author in J. 87.

I returned to my native land to exhibit my accomplishments. No. of Supratishçhita. which was like the court of Indra. and when I entered after a long absence into the city sciences. In one place chanters were intoning according to prescribed custom the hymns of the Sãma Veda. where Sakko makes a garden for the Bodhisattva.(15) (14) and become famous. Once as I was roaming about at leisure on the banks of the Godãvar¡ out of curiosit¡ I beheld a garden called Devik¡ti and seeing that it was an exceedingly pleasant garden. 188). p"251. as Indra is by the gods. and lived there comfortably. Indra's pleasure-ground or Elysium. surrounded by my disciples. is famous upon the earth as skilled in all lore. e. and in another place. he made this heavenly garden with a temple. who were talking to one another about their skill in the art of making money. was pleased with me. . in the midst of a knot of merchants. 325. p.z I asked the gardener how it came there. I saw a wonderfully splendid scene. according to the story which we hear from old people. in another place Brãhmagrs were disputing about the interpre. like an earthly Nandana. O king. Then I married a wife. vol. p. I. with my pupils going before to herald my arrival and saw the King Sãtavãhana sitting in his hall of audience upon a jewelled throne. rich in accomplishments. surrounded by his ministerr." f . and that Brãhmaç being persistently asked by them toid his history. ßuruuuurman and his colleagues. 2. and had been honoured by the king. lers were praising gambling in these deceitful words: "Whoever knows the art of gambling has a treasure in his grasp". and therefore his name Gur. who is threatened with death by the king if is not done. hearing me praised in this style by his ministers. looking after the king's affairs and instructing my pupils. Witnessing strange scenes of this kind at every stepr I reached the palace of the king. i. 220 (Fausboll. ii. and immediately entertained me honourabl¡ and appointed me to the office of Minister. To this latter story there is a very close parallel in Jataka. tation of the sacred books. and he said to me: 6rMy lord. and Gonzenbach's Sicilianische Marchen. long ago there came here a certain Brãhmaqr who observed a vow of silence and abstained from food. After I had blessed him and had taken a seat. Vol. For a similar Zaubergaften see Liebrecht's translation of Dunlop's History of Fiction. then all the Brãhma4ras assembled here out of curiosity. Sarvavarman and the other minisiers praised me in the following words : "'Ihis man. And then I entered it." Sãtavãhana. in another piace gamb.rã{hyar is a true index of his nature. and note.224.

in that kachchha.rf. Then once upon a time the god olthe moon-crest said to him in a dream : . he shall be thy son. whom he valued more than his life. Thereupon she died.."Thuslobtainedaboonfromthegoddess divine nature' From that day forth an. and that king. and plant in Pratish. then in a fit of wandering norr".Listen. and said this' he disapp' keep in good order'' Having made by the eared. splendid as the son. self said to me : Thus speaking' she gave lhãna a glorious garden'" heavenly seed' thereupon me. especially in the north. 2G . pro" : ing ùeheld that goddess.. lVhen Gunã{hya had said this.1 the down the boy.While wandering in the forest thou shalt behold a boy mounted on a lion. I reflected "Peoptre this giver of boons' pitiate with animal offerings beast that I but I wiii slay myself here' stupid am. herself tháu art f. In this way this garden was goddess long ago. and once upon a time a snake bite her as she was sleeping in the garden. Kã?abhüri asked ' "Why. slew it with one arrow. There arJ. There was a king of. riding lion."Havingformedthisresolve'Itookinhanda swordtocutoffmyhead.ThereisinthislandaprovincecalledBakaNarmada. The creature l. was the king called sãtavãhana ?" Then Gulã$hya said : . He had a wife named Saktimatt. thinking only of her. mYlord'" When I had heard from the gardner thís signal mainlestation of the favour of the goddess. then once upon my hunger and thirst disappeared. my lord. annoyance I quitted my as poor. took a vow ofperpetual chastity.rGo. and one day in his passion for the chase he went to a distant wood.J attained. with her own hands. there' that goddess hera"d. take him and go home.. desiring to drink water got and then the king. as I was remaining . I"u*"hereandmaclethisbeautifulgardenby this garden you must means of her power. my Son. it appears litrle in folk-lore. on a lion. do not slay thyselfl remain near me. being propitious.great power named Dvipikar4i.'.(17) (16) The Magic Garden': . I will tell you the reason. f went home penetrated with wonder. remem bering his dream. and rejoiced. being disgusted with life' and to visit the shrine of round the holy places I came hills' and hav' the dweller in the Vindhya Durgã. though he had no son. Owing to the scarcity of the lion in lndia. Then the king woke up. there in the middle of the day thar king beheld on the bank of a lotus-lake a boy. on the banks of the and in former distrìct I was born as a Brãhmaq' as I was lazy as well times no one gave me alms. said to me :'tSon' ess. remembering that dream.Immediatelythatgodd.

-N. it out. and then him uP on the milk boy was born. The Guhyakas like the yakshas are attendants upon Kuvera the god of wealth. then I made her my finding .:. with faces.' end when she gave pointed that her curse should míne should continue birth to offsPring' and that thee with an arrow' longer. and was sprínkled by them with water in return like an elephant by its females. -N.. 1?8 as 78 .r"ør* of mariage. when that King Dvipikarli went to the forest. but misprints vol. the eyes of which Northetn Indiø. and lo ! to'daY having been smitten bY thee with f.. but I brought I am released of other lionesses. those and in course of time he established him in his kingdom. Guhyaka here synonymous with of these I. and descended into the water of the lake to amuse himself in company with his wives. M. Having said this in the middle of his tale in answer to Kaçabhüti's question. in her breast' like she beheld me. P. this Sãtavãhna became sovereign of the whole earth. . Therefore recelve long ago bY give thee. There he sprinkled on his beloved ones sportively water flung by his hands. TawneY. felt love arise wife by the gandhmyself. she in the course of So we became a Pair of died after this time became Pregnant. until I was slain bY lions. in the spring festival. ii. Then once upon a time. that Guhyaka. in their anger cursed her in Your oYou two wicked ones. Having said this. See lion in of The Ocean hermitlolk. named Sata. yaksha. Then. See oote on this M..(le) (18) a lion' and suddthereupon abandoned the form of king exc' enly assumed the shape of a rnan' The Tell me'" And laimed:.rom mY curse. various references Folk-I'ore Crooke' of StorY. disappeared.Alas ! what means this ? I am a then the man answered him : "O king' Yakshaofthenameofsãta'anattendantuponthe the daughter God of Wealth. of which I spake before. 2i0' He refers to p. shall become lions. His wives. long ago I beheld she too' when of a $içhi bathing in the Ganges.r and the king taking the boy went home. l. 1. P. P.-For details mythical beings see AppendixinThe Ocean.l and her relatives' saylng ¡ and me. and because he had ridCen upon Sata he gave the boy the name of Sãtavãhana. Vol. form of marriage on PP' 87' 88. that King Sãtavãhana went to visit the garden made by the goddess. the wise Gugã{ya again called to mind and went on with the main thread of his narrative. doing what is right The hermit-folk own eyes. this noble son which an arrow. for this thing was foretold I ofthe however. He roamed there for a long time like Indra in the garden of Nandan.

crestfallen and full of selÊcontempt.. when asked by us about the state oi the king's health. he flung himself down on a couch. said to ttre king' who : c'Do not was sprinkling water on her with water the king pelt me with water'drops. And he. Then all the king's attendants. bewildered. . she being able to endure more. or between The tilaka. and remained in an agony of grief.õo.caileron. For a distinction serving as an ornaments or a sectarial . Thinking that his only recource was to acquire learning or die. and the atten- with secret shame. not became exhausted with the amusement. do not sprinkle waterdrops on me. andr like a picture. the proportions of which were revealed by their clinging garments. Then he remained lost in thought. that the king was still in an unsatisfactory condition. a mark made upon the forehead 3.z pelted him vigorously. even when asked a question. and which were streaming with water' and with bodies. what do we want with sweetmeats in the water ? b-or I said to you. at once being overpowered queen burst into laughing and said again: "I(ing' detailed note on the hitsory and uses of collyrium and kohl see The Ocean.y"browswithcolouredearths. Vol' I' story of the tenth day of The Z. said this to him. and do you not know the marks on their foreheadss and their ornaments' Then one of his queens.(20) (2t) were slightly reddened by the collyriuml washed into them. --th".( Monier Williams. with body tender as a Sirisha flower. tardy with the weight of her breasts. were utterly themselves began to think what it could mean. so he made his fair lost ones. M. The negative particle mã coalesces and plural instrumental case of udaka ) into modakailr' 'modakaih (the single word) means "with sweetmeats''" Geschichte des The incident is reiated in Târãnatha's p'74' Schiefnet' von uebersetzt inlndien Ai.-¡1. in which the clinging garments of King on effect disturbing a and Isotta have such Charles. and as the wind strips the creepers in the forest of leaves and flowers. P.ud(thismus that chapter of the grammar ¡ How can you be such a blockhead ¡'. V' )' with udakaih ( the 4. Do you not understand the coalescence of the words mã and udaka. we immediately summSo perceiving oned a servant of the king named Rajahansa. the king. and by that time the day was almost at end. S. who knew grammatical treatises. who fled into the adjoining shrubbery. said this : 6'f never before in my life saw . averse to food and other enjoyments. seeing that he had suddenly fallen into such a state. left off roaming in the water and immediately entered his own palace unperceived.pur" with the sixth Ginevra D. Then Suruuvarman and I came at last to hear of the king's condition. he answered nothing." On hearing that' quickly had some sweetmeatsa brought' Then the dants laughed. When the queen.sandai-wood'etc'' 1.

I then sat down near the king and asked him this question:. O king. and these subjects are attached to him. As soon as Sarvavarman had in these terms described his dream. What is the use of rank and power to a blockhead ? They are like ornaments on a log of wood... saying. and after we had passed that night. For there is no enemy in his country the thorns of which are destroyed. Thinklng upon thatn I employed last night a charm to produce a dream. the wise Sarvavarman said as follows ¡-(61 l¡¡6ç the cause : this king is distressed by sorrow for his own igno. and after *.of Taranga . s. But I. in the morning we went to the private apartments of the sovereign. but if his disease is mental it is impossible to find the cure of it. When I had seen so much I woke up. is his having been humiliated by the queen. and we have heard that the occasion of. O king she entered ihy mouth. rance. 'Make me a learned man. the present fit. aquire learning ? Tell me rhis.ffiicated with bodily disease we might introduce the physicians. and then Suruuuur*an uttered this extraordinary speech : r'King. though strict orders had been given that no one was to enter. 72.If the king were a. Thus we debated with one another.King. my sovereigrr.. There... and thus reflected in our dilemrna : .l Then f saw in my dream a lotus fallen frorn heaven. no dearth of any kind is to be seen. for he is always expressing a desire for culture. 'f am a blockhead.. I managed to get in with difficulty.(22) the king in such a state of depression : and the other queen told me with much indignation that he had been humiliated to-day by that superficial blue-stocking. who is diligently taught. Thoogh he heard this. Satavãhan nevertheless remained silent. After we had debated to this effect. I long ago detected this desire of his. 103. so how has the sudden melancholy of the king arisen !'. *frit" gurments. For without learning all this regal splendour has no charm for me.. will teach it 1. When ßuruurur*an and I had heard this from the mouth of the kingrs servant.'.. Surrruuarman (23) slipped in quickly. we fell into a state of despondency. and I think without doubt that the woman who visibly entered thy mouth was Sarasvatr. and it was opened by some heavenly youth. sl. v. ari thou without cause thus despondent ?... the king broke his silence and said to me with the utmost earnestness : (6fn how short a time can a man.Why. thou didst long ago say to me. it is invariably the case that it takes men twelve years to learn grammar. and immediately.'. Then I said : . daughter of Vish{'uÉakti. and out of it carne a divine woman ir.. the gate to all knowledge. So explained by Böhtlingk and Roth.

will carry your shoes on my head for twelve years. on seeing the cloud. Then a trusty Rãjput called Sinhagupta said to him: "When I heard. There.' Therefore. and regretting what he. said to him : "My lord."l Then Su*uuur*an said : 'rAnd If I do not do this. Called also Kumãra. who." When I heard this promise. and the swan grieves. O king' S^rtuturrnan set fasting for that thou wast affiicted I was seized with great despondency. . Then I went out of this city. On hearing that news the kin-g was delighted and I was despondent. I said to him in a rage : "If you teach the king in six rnonths. ßarvavarman suddenly exclaimed. or boy." Having said this. the king's wish shall be fulfilled. expecting that he would attain his object by means of one of us two. Sarvavarman. and determined to implore him. I renounce at once and for ever Sanskrit. steadfast in resolution. in six months. seeing that his promise was very difficult to perform. and the king for his part was comforted. feeding only on air. these three languages which pass current among men. but the poor swan has to take a long journey to the Manasã lake beyond the snowy hills at the approach of the rainy season. and was preparing to cut off my own head before the goddess Durgã in order to ensure thy happiness.(25) (24) to you in six years."2 "It is sor" said Suruuuur-an. pleased with his penance that spared not the bociy.l l. told the whole story to his wife. Sarvavarman. he went out f too went home. he wondered what would happen. This was no doubt indicated by the Kumâra. that Siñhagupta took leave of the king and rapidly dispatched two emissaries ufte. when he heard it.goblins ogres. being ín a dilemma. 'had done. and in the morning I told the king of it. Now I came to hear of it by means of my secret emissaries. Now Sarvavarman I. I believe thou art sure of success. ín a fit of jealousy: "F{ow can a man accustomed to enjoyment endure hardship for so long ? So I will teach you grammar my prince." lVhen he had said this. which seemed ímpossible to make good. Accordingly in the last watch of the night 1. The châtaka lives on raindrops. 2. reached at last the shrine of the Lord Karttikeya. who opened the lotus. He afterwards learns to speak in the language of the PiSãchas. then the two spies sent by Sifrhagupta came into the king's presence and reported the minister's success. out the shrine of the god. Kãrttikeya favoured him according to his desire. as the chãtaka enjoys. observing a vow of silence. and she grieved to hear it." When he heard that. in this difficulty there is no way of escape for you except the favour of the Lord Kãrttikeya. Prãkrit and the vernacular dialect. Then a voice from heaven forbade me' saying : 'Do not do so.

Then that Lord accents : "Rise up. Surrruuur*ut proceeded to relate to the king the whole story acceptance of iiirn. I remember. and the people who were present in the Court were delighted when they witnessed that. and I woke up. mY . being highly pleased with that Rajput Siihagupta who first heard by the mouth of his spies that the boon had been obtained from the six-faced god. ) Then. Then the king said deferentially to Suruuuur-an : csTell me thyself after what fashion the god showed thee favour'" Hearing that. seemed to dance. "sprinkling her with water.'I came in presence of the sovereign.2 made him equal to himself in splendour and power. as it were. And that queen too. Chaukhambha Orientalia. of Karttikeya's favourable that occasion fasting and silent from this place. worn out' I fell senseless on the ground. Varanasi. and after bathing f entered the inner shrine of the god in a state of agítated suspense." XlI. our of Karttikeya. More literally. Ch. Kãrttikeya. overpowered with the weight of my devotion. so when the journey came to an end. and communícated to the king that all the sciences. and he was made governor of the territory called Bakakachchha which lay along the bank of the Narmadã. having taken a vow of silence. Then." By that speech I was. and the king himself addressed him correctly in the Sanskrit language. the daughter of Vishluóakti. a man with a spear in his hand came and said to me in distinct I went. and there a certain Brãhmaf a recited a Éloka he had composed. successful by the fav. Prasad. on son. cailing him his spirituai preceptor. mplish ? Then the kingdom rejoiced on hearing that the king had thus obtained all knowledge. 3. The Kaúasarftsagar and Indian Cuhure. and seemed free from hun' ger and thirst and in good mood. Then I approa' ched the neighbourhood of the god's temple.(27 (26) Then Suruutur*an arrived. and emaciated with my severe austerities. they being fanned by the wind. and that moment banners were flaunted from houses and.l The king. being very despondent. 2. O king. Then Suruurrur*an was honoured with abundance ofjewels fit for a king. who was the cause of his acquiring learning he exalted at one bound above all the queens. immediately bedewed with a shower of nectar. For what cannot the grace of the Supreme Lord acco. N. S. would present themselves to him on his thinking of them. everything shall turn out favourably for thee. by the sovereign who bowed humbly before him. 1976. and there was high festival arranged throughout it. And immediately they were revealed to the King Satavãhana. through affection anointings her with his own hand. l.

Surturrurman ceased speaking. The rules are attributed to Sarvavarman. accompanied by only two disciples. For the highest matters are easily acquired by great"souled ones. Then I proceeded to return. and that hermits's daughter has become incarnate as his queen. as narrated in the text. Then I. he has now become incarnate here. being an incarnation of a holy sagerl when he beholds thee will attain a knowledge of all the sciences according to thy wish. having beheld a hermit. The vritti ( or gloss ) is the work of Durgã Singh. and with my mind bent on the per1. When he had related his advent. and King Satavãhana in cheerful mood rose up and went to bathe. O king. Kula Chandra and ViSveSvara. and went out of that town. on account of its conciseness. manifested before me recited the sätra beginning.the traditional doctrine of letters. Samskâra means "tendency produced by some past infiuence"-often ttworks in a former birth. Skanda is another name of Kârttikeya . Other commentaries are attributed to Gopt Náth. and he. .'. and Kala. having cursed by the 1. named KrishTa. took leave. 2.'.þaka.s daughter who loved him in return. with a low bow only. by the inspiration of Kârttikeya. Vol. ( Note in Wilson's Essays. the real truth of them being recalled by their powerful memories.. and that again.That king of thine in a former birth was himself a holy sage. with the levity which is so natural to mankind. ). and thereupon SarasvaE in visibie shape entered my mouth.. and I went out. guessed the next sätra and uttered it myself.rr. it shall be called Katuntra. So that holy god. and wonderful to say. and these grains of rice were presented to me by the god's servants."z When the god had said this he disappeared. So this King Satavãhana. So. having learnt in a former birth. rvho was very averse to part with me. hermits. from the tail ( kalapa ) of the peacock on which I ride. p. On hearing that I. Having said this. Vararuchi is the supposed author of an illustration of the Conjugations and Sripati Varma of a Supplement. 183. great in austerity. they remained as nurnerous as ever.(28) (2e) Skandal gave me a sight of himself wíthin. being excluded from business by my vow of silence. $ishis. This grammar is extensively in use in the eastern parts of Bengal. As it is. I. 2. is commented on by Trilochana Dãsa and Kavirãja." . suddenly felt the smart of the wound which the shaft of the floweryarrowed god inflicts. a pupil of the hermit Bharadvãja. that god himself in visible form revealed to me that new and short grammarrz and then added this besides : (. Then that god said to me : "ff thou hadst not uttered it thyseli this grammatical treatise would have supplanted that of Palini. of that king. though I consumed those grains on my jounrey day after day.

and beheld this host of Pi3ãchas. wait. In Giles' Stranger Stories from a Chinese Studio ( Vol. and men awake. I witl relate what I heard Siva saying in a conver' sation with Brahma.' I consented. commentin! on Hamlet. Brockhaus renders it : "Fromme. sc. 150. the destined means of thy release from the curse.' So hearing this. by the special favour of destiny. there also they have power. I (tow' ards the end). Where there is a man who abstains from flesh. Now I will relate to thee that tale which Puçhpadanta told.-N. Act I.other. 2. I of entered for that purpose this terrible Vin' dhya forest. a Rãkshasa of the name of Bhutivarman. and where men eat contrary to the holy law. or not in due form. I waited here until your return. A hint given by a Pulinda enabled me to find a caravanr and so somehow or . 3. I then made use of it before you. For the idea of Shakespeare. there they do not go. 177 ) Miss Li. l. Kathasarítsagar and Indîan Cutrture. IIL ) no power in the day. See Farmer. and having been directed by the goddess in a dream to visit formance thee. Part C.(31 (30) austerities came to visit the shrine of the Dweller in the Vindhya hills. l.l which enabled me to break my vow of silence. for Gulãdhya has arrived. They never attack chaste men. 92. On my asking him when my own curse would come to an end.'3 When he said this on that occasion Bhutivarman continued : 'Go. and then I called to mind my origin.on beholding you f welcomed you in the fourth lauguage ( the speech of the Pi6achas ). sc. This is the story of my adventure in this birth. S. Then Bhútivarman said to me:'Listen. I have a friend. Ch. and I went to a garden in Ujjayini. I have come. see pp. N. he said: 'We have l. and by hearing from a distance their conversation with one another. and when night came on I asked him earnestly the reason why goblinsl delighted in disporting themselves. Helden und Weise. l. being dazed with the brightness of the sun. Prasad. who possesses heavenly insight. Rãkshasas. 'called Paisachi. and hearing that you had gone to Ujjayini. and I have seen thee. Yakshas. P.2 And where the gods are not worshipped. Kãr. I. as they were doing. For a note on this language. heroes. and therefore they delight in the night. Hamlet. my lord.rabhuti said to him : "Hear how your arrival was made known to me last night. Act. ot a virtuous woman. p. See also Ch. I managed to arrive here. a female devil disappears as soon as she hears the cock crow. I contrived to learn this Paisacha language. where he resides. and numerous other passages in the same author. When Gu+ã{hya had said this. and Pisãchas have no power in the day. IV. M." . and the Brãhmaîs. and I will tell you at night. 91.

Asceticisim ( Itrindu ). 87 et seq. in the Ency. M. Siva. vol. C. and after that thou shalt attain all thy desire.-N.' Then Govindadatta said to him with an oath : "I will never even touch these wicked. fn course of time that Brãhman had five sons from her. and he craved a boon from. and did his best to appease by royal charter. 3G . (33) ) Vaisvanara is an epithet of Agni.z So Sambhu. the article "Asceticism. in Itrastins. and enjoy pleasures on the earth. Oman. J. p. His hospitable wife also came and said the same to her guest. and that on .-(c{sll¡ 56ng have become outcasts. or Fire. and afterwards he fed only on smoke. and. therefore I will not eat in your house. eager for learningr went to the city of Pãtaliputra. One of Govindadatta." by F.. thinking a life of no value which was thus branded by his parents." Hearing this question from Kalabhuti..... 717 et seq. a Brâhmap.s sons..( 32 but I feel curiosity on one point : tell me why he was called Puçhpadanta and thou Malayavan. he came and saluted his sons. p. like a second god of fire. sons when he saw that. Vai3vãnara by name. For fuller details reference shoull be made to The Mystics. named Bahusuvarqaka.. C. Brit. ii. and they only responded to his salute with a laugh.( vol.l As Govindadatta was away from home when he arrived. manifested himself to hirn. Ency. Ascetics and Saints of India. of mine. if I did so I should l. and he had a wife.. And they. went in a state of despondency to the hermitage of Badarikã to perform penance. Eth.' by A. was grieved at his father's stern_ ness. being handsome but stupid. then Vaiivãnara was with difficulty induced to accept rheir hospitality. not be able to purify myself by any expiatory ceremony. S. and you have lost caste by associating with them. persevering in a long course of austeritiesl in order to propitiate the husband of Umã. Then a guest came to the house of Govindadatta. as being blockheads. Gulã{hya said to hinr : Story of Puphþadønta : On the bank of the Ganges there was a royal district granted to Brãhmar.r in a rage prepared to depart from his house. won over by his severe austerities. ii. Then he. but the excellent Brãhman nevertheless spoke as follows .the god. and there lived a very learned Brãhman named Govindadatta. and according to custom waited on I.. ). Ret. Conybeare. 2. named Devadatta. While he was in this state of wrath Govindadatta came. who was devoted to her husband. grew up insolent fellows.Acq- uire learning. Sambhu thus commanded him : . then that Brãhmar. p. Agnidattã. that he might ever attend upon him. Geden. and asked the cause. there he first ate leaves.

as the goddess $ri upon Vishlu. distracted by passion. In the first of these stories. so that the maiden peeping through her lattice of meshrebíya could coove! m€ss. He also beheld that maiden at a window. but has them interpreted by a friend or teacher. and has also been noticed in different parts of Africa and Ame- cess. A curious fact is that the man to whom the signs are made never understands them. looking like the presiding goddess of the moon. And after he had acquired learning the daughter of the King SuSarman. She then "bared her forearms and opened her five fingers and smote her breast with palms and digits. wenû away without a single word. The seclusion of women in the East. after which she drew it in from the lat[ice and. dipping it and raising it as often. bending down her head the while.lgestures with the mirror and the letting down and raising up and wringing out ol the red kerchief. which had arisen in her heart.302 et.ger. Accordingly Devadatta left that place. looking like love's command ín fleshly form. holding the mirror outside the wicket.There he repaired to an old preceptor named Mantrasvãmin. seq. There he rolled on the rica. as it were. When he was there. shutting the wicket-shutter. Those two were.. not understanding this mysterious signl made by the prin1. with an old wife. singify. p. This is the case in the story of Devadafta." The explanation is. and after this she raised her hands and. Sri by rìame' cast eyes upon the handsome youth. . their ignorance of w¡iting and the risk of conveying a letter to an admire was quite sufficient to create a neeessity for the language of signs. ages quickly and discreetly to her lover or the passing stran. and her. the wife of his preceptor. went home to his preceptor.269 ). and went to Pratishlhana with unwearied zeal. vol. The following may be quoted :-The woman appears at the window with a mirror and a red kerchief. and acquired a perfect knowledge of the sciences. as his studies had been thus interfered with by the God of Love. she took the red kerchief and retired into the room with it. and were unable to separate. He.({34 an ins-tructor named Vedakumbha. but presently returned and putting out her hand with the kerchief..' are numerous examples of the sign language. roaming through the air in a magic chariot.. fastened together by that look which was the chain of love. ii. puzzleC as to what he ought to do. and vol. p. Sit in the dyer's shop till my messen. and she came out of the women's apartments. made violent love to him. let is down towards the lane three several times. ix. The king's daughter made him a sign to come near with one finger. Cansequently we ûnd the language of signs largely introduced into Eastern fiction. that of "Aziz and Azlzah. (35) ) The method of communicating by signs made with objects is widely distributed through the East. and took with her teeth a flower and threw it down to him. the sign with her palm and five fingers : "Return after ûve days. Then she wrung it out and folded iû in her hands. Then he came near her. and also in two stories in the Nights ( see Burton. Alas ! the fancies of women are ever inconstant. and the putting forth of her head out ofthe window.

pp. As for the carob-pod. The lover's heart is wearied. 1809 ( note to Marcel's Contes du Cheykh El-Mohdy. 1833 ). and a piece of cord of a musical instrument. Finally she scratches the sill of the window with an iron stiletto. du Vigneau. As for the date-stone.and nebm also signifying 'we will pass the night.a silk tassel. The .' signified his wish to pay her an evening visit ¡ the flowers. Thy body is present but thy heart is absent." After similar other messages our lady. being called shurrabeh.327.( 36 ) ground unable to utter a word. that they should have sharab ( or wine ) : the sugar-candy. called quipus in a most elaborate manner. î). which is called çabbarah ( from Eabar which signiûes patience-because it will live for many months together without water ). The. artfully quest black cuminseeds. Be patient under our separation with the patience of Job. and she meaneth. Indian Night's Entertainments. No." He gives an example of messages answered in the sanre manner. the stone of a green date and a carob-pod. An thou wert in love thy heart would be burning with passion and thou wouldst not test the delight of sleep. The fan. a posy of flowers and a hair out of the window. See also Stein and Grierson. The meaning of these articles is : "By the single tip-cat stick.608.ancient Peruvians used knotted strings. The interpreta tion of her answer is as follows. Hatim's Tales. three.' denoted his desire to remain in her company until the morning : and the piece of cord. and there by she saith. i.' Paris. being termed sukkar _nebdt.328 : Paris. his wise preceptor guessing what was the matter by these love symptoms. 1\i. cíety in the Míddle Ages. a single tipcat stick. Each time on awakening he finds she has been. it is as if she said to thee. All this means that someone else was in the room. (37) distracted." Lane ( Arabian Nights." Similar sign language occurs in Swynnerton. The piece of an aloeplant. and the cube of bone which she placed upon thy stomach she saith to thee. M. At the moment she was combing her hair.22. bunch of flowers. the colour chosen usually denoting objects and the knots numbers. contenat I' Art de exprimer ses pensles sans se voir. ritaire Turc. and would meet him. shows a mirror. It is well worth quotirìg : "An Arab lover sent to his mistress a fan.21.130 ) says that rhe art of sign language was first "made known to Europeans by a Frenchman. being consumed within with burning pain. and a piece of plant used in washing. Love isnot thus: so do not reckon thyself among lovers. thaû they should be entertained by music. 1923.. where in the story of the goldsmith the lady turns her back. some sugar-candy. implied that he must waiû : the three black cumin-seeds explained to him thaù the period of delay should be three nights : and the plant used in rv¿sþi¡g informed him that she should then have gone to the bath. p. throws some water. being called mirwaþah. for the sweet of love is like a green date which kindleth a coal of fire in the vitals. 1688 in 12.167 et seq. but that he can meet hereby the water-drain in the garden and must be prepared to file through iron railings. Von Hammer has also given an interesting paper on this subject in the ll[ines de I'Orient. and deposited objects on his body while asleep. and she returned for answer a piece of an aloe-plant. I : Vienna. On one occasion he tnds lying on his stomach a cube of bone. et sans slcrire. like one dumb and ger come to thee. a word derived from a root which has among its meanings that of 'going to any place in the evening. sans se parler. but always goes to sleep while hero meets the waiting for her. that the interview should be in her garden : the tassel. His communication is thus interpreted. it signifies to thee. in a work entitled Sec. and Arabian So.

was in such a state that the taper of his life was well-nigh melted away in the fire of bereavement. Cf. K:ama Kal¡ta. the first story intheVetala Ponchaviùïati. . looked at it and passed it on. how did you guess the rnean- ing of that sign of mine !" He replied : "It was my preceptor that found it out. accompained by a certain flower. fearing her secret would be discovered. Each man took it. The Australian message-stick is merely an aici to memory when conveying a message.o' If much spice is put inside ihe leaf and one corner turned down in a peculiar way. Bombay. who was no sooner seen than lost to his eyes. for it was employed by ttrre natives at the outbreak of the trndian Ntutiny. I Adhikarana." Then the princess flew into a passion and said. Siva. 452. pp. and then entered the inner shrine in order to present herself aione before the god. pp.. "Let me go. M. Then the clever '"By letting drop a flower with her tooth she ffiâd. L. while among the regiments a lotus-flower was passed round. 1923. W. "Go. See also Kamasûlra.with you. not I. I have done. spears. and at last he was with difficulty persuaded to tell the whole story. H. M. Lewin. means. The exact meaning of these symbols has nevar been explained.Amer Mus. She exclaimed : "This is strange. The Ancient Quipu. of the name of PanchaÉikha.. ln 1856 mysterious chapattees.(38) (3e) ioned him. ancl said to himl : system is still found in the north of South America. and caused . giving as an excuse that it was the preceptor guessed the riddle.. "I love you. or griddle-cakes. Then he went into that temple and remained there. Devadatta on his part went away. Quoted from notes of N. to procure for him the desire of his heart. III Chapters. the author of this article. 123. 1. The language of signs has a distinct connection with British rule in India. so you had better go now. See ". Thomas. in The Ocean. Bihar and Orissa Research Soc." When he heard this and knew the meaning of the sign. etc.Nat. eight day of the month. who had been before propitiated by him. vol. who was behind the panel of the door. \À ere circulated from village to village. arrows. gives instances of the use of sticks. the youth forgot his grief. and thinking in solitude on his beloved. The princess on her part also went there. then she touched her lover. That excellent Gar. Chapter LXXV of The Ocean.Secret Messages and Symbols used in India." If turmeric is added it means. After referring to the Nights he says that in India a leaf of p1na with betel and sweet spices inside. it signites 'rCome.: a sign to you that you were to go to this temple rich in flowers. and he suddenly springing up threw his arms round her neck. "while the addition of a piece of charcoal means. used symbolically. 1979.77-78. New Yo¡k. commanded an attendant of his. For full details and excellent iliustrarions see J. Locke. P... you are a doltr" and immediately rushed out of the temple. v. TheWild Races of South Eastern lndia. )-N.Hisf.rI cannot come. P." ( See T. 451. called Puçhpadantarand wait there. twings. i. Crooke. vol. 15. p." Journ. P.ra thereupon came and consoled him. In China chopsticks are sometimes used as a mearis of giving instructions in code.

My son has been sent away somewhererl I go to seek him. She has been taken some. gave his own daughter to Devadatta. That daughter-in-law of thine was carried off last night. Hearing that. so give me back my daughter-in- Brãhmar. very foud itself sudden and unpremeditated. and. Then he quickly rent off from the young man his womanrs dress. and in the morning Pancha3ikha resumed the semblance of a 1.ra. And in course of time Su6arman anointed the son of his daughter by Devadatta. sometimes quiie ove-r. afraid of a Brãhma¡t's curse.'The Durgapras better reading _N. supposing him to be a woman. took the young man and placed him in his daughter. : .." King Su3arman of his own motion said to.ra and going with law. alarmed at the prospect of being cursed by the Brãhmar. where or other by magic arts. afraid of being cursed. who are spirits bf tne air. as successor in his room. said this to his ministers : *This is no Brãhmar. dharvas. and retired to the forest. The name of beautiful son ls ä¡róâ¿ somervherl. ûror€." When he heard this. and that in an open manner. and âre. Ihe marriage is due to sexual attraction.. who had no son but him.ra. Then that worthy GaFa went with him to King Suóarman. for such things often happen ín this world.If this be so. the king.z And when she became pregnant that excellent GaTa came on his thinking of him only. and he himself wore the semblance of an aged Brãhmaga.r's semblance. Then Devadatta having recovered his beloved. pretending to be with difficulty won over to pity him. flourished in the power and splendour of his fatherin-law. keep her safely. so he discovered himself to her and secretly married her by the gdndharaø form of marriage. O king. said : . Then hav- . supposing that she had fled somewhere at night." Then the Gar.s guarded seraglio. M.. and became her trusted confidant. said to him : r. Once on a time the princess was full of regretful longing at night. king.ra that had assumed the form of a Brãhmapar prostrating himself before him in fear : ('Spare me. \4ahidhara by name. P. though guarded night and day.ra. the father of that bright-eyed one. 2. and carried him away at night without its being perceived. Then after the departure of Pancha$ikha the Brãhmaqa dwelt in woman's clothes in the seraglio of his beloved.(41 :(4CI) him to assume the dress of a woman. this is some god come to deceive me. I have this day found my son. accordingly I deposit with thee this daughter-in-law of mine." of the marriage is taken from the Gan. give thy daughter in marriage to my son. who had assumed the Brãhmar. ) the young man to the King Su6arman he said: "O king. then Panch3ikha departed. King Su3arman." Then the king..that excellent Gar.

in order that the state of curse of both of us may cease. a.not being desirous of lower pleasures. Then I cast off my mortal frame and immediately attanied the i t I holy state of an attendant on the god. e. possessing . continually striving to propitiate Siva with offerings of many garlands. therefore he became known by the name of Fuçpadanta in the assembly of the Gaças. Because he did not understand the sign given by the flower dropped from the tooth of his beloved. and the heaven above where Kalabhuti was reciting was. that very Mãlyavãna. for ' fear that the Vidyadharas should steal his compo. Siddhas and other demigods came to hear it. therefore do t'hou now tell me {he tale told by Siva. continually covered wite a canopy. sition.Because I have been worshippeci by you with garlands of flowers growing in trackless forest regions.. And Kalabhuti. that mighty gcd. i. and my name r.ra. and I chose the privilege of attending upon him as aGarya. And so my narne of Malyavãna was bestowed upou me by hirn rvho wears the burden of the matted locksrl as a rnark of his special favour. Now hear the origin of my name. wrote it with his own blood i¡r the forest not ink.(42) (43) ing seen the prosperity of his son. Siva. The husband of the daughter of the mounrain. Devadatta considered that he had attained all his objects. by the special favour of the god he attained the position of a Gar. as it were. been degraded to the state of a mortal. 1 Long ago I was a son of that same Brãhmala called Govindadatta. and that great poet. under the name of jayã. And so the Vidyãdharas. And his wife became doorkeeper in the house of the goddess. and shalt bear the name of Malayavãna. I left my home indignant for the sarne reason as Devadatta. The god of the moony crest. when he had seen that great tale composed by Gulã{hya. being pleased.rd having laid aside his rnortal body. revealed himself to me in the same way as he did to my brother. there- fn accordance with this request of Guqâ{hya that heavenly tale consisting of' seven stories was told by l(alabhûti in his own language and Gur. was released from his l.lãdh¡ra for his part using the same Pai3acha language threw them into seven hundred thousand couplets in seven years. brought with thy own hand.. thus addressed me : '. and he too. as thou seest. owing to the curse of the daughter of the mountain. with the princess. retired to the forest" There he again pråpitiated Siva. O Katrabhüti.l'as Somadatta. This is how he came to be cailecl Puçpadanta. And I. and f performed austerities on the lHimalaya. have once more. fore thou shalt be one of my Ga?as. the father of Devadatta.

as the wind diffuses the perfume of the flower. and went himself to that same Pratishlhãna. And his disciples went and showed the poem to King Sãtavãhana. And while he was reading out and burning that heavenly tale. Compare the story of O¡pheus." said Gulã.. unable to quit the spot.. and first prepared a consecrated fire cavity. but the Paiiacha language is barbarous. B¡hatkatha.(45) (44) curse and went to his own place. containing the history of Naravãhandatta. with a sneer : "The seven hundred thousand coup. all the deer. and the other l{andideva.. Away with this Pai$acha tale. and aftcr he had read them aloud to the beasts and birds. attained heaven. having heard that heavenly tale. Who indeed is not inly grieved when scorned by a competent authority ? Then he went with his disciples to a craggy hill at no great distance. where he arranged that they should meet him. Then how shall I make it current ? To whom shall I give it p. being a man of taste. for the sake of his two disciplcs. while his disciples looked on with tearful eyes.. buffaloes and other wild animals came therer leaving their pasturage. and formed a circle round him. lets are a weighty authority. There werc also other Pi6ãchas that accompanied him in his wand- erigns: they too. in an unfrequented but pleasant spot. when he heard itrwas immediately overcome with sorrow. Then that great poet Guqrã{hya began to reflect: 16I must make this great taler of mine current on the earth. Then he took the leaves one by one. telling him at the same time that it was the work of Gur. led astray by pride of learning. said to him : srThe glorious Sãtavãhana alone is a fit person to give this poem tci. And the physicians said that his illness was due 1. But he reserved one storyr consisting of one hundred thousand couplets. and told the whole circumstance to Gulã{hya. . one of whom was called Guqadeva.So be it. \{hen he heard that Pai5ãcha language and saw that they had the appearance ofPiiachas. and the letters are written in blood. listening with tears in their eyes. said l. for. he flung them into the fire. as they particularly fancied it. but remained outside the city in the garden planted by the goddess. and gave the book to those two accompished disciples and sent them to that king with it.l In the meanwhile King Satav-ahana felt sick. all of them.. for that is the condition that the goddess mentioned when she revealed how my course would end. dhyu.râdhya. .' Then his two disciples who had followed him. that king. he will diffuse the poem far and wide. boars. Then the two pupils took the book and returned by the way which they had come. Gulã{hya for his part.

and asked him for that celestial tale that had issued i i li i I I I I language. Tawney. released from the curse. but there is one tale consisting of a hundred thousand couplets. Then the king.. beasts of burden. bowed at his feet. and went to his own city.. and then by strength of devo tion laid aside his earthly body and. they never walder anywhere else..l t. And having recovered the sense of that tale wirh their help. without ever grazing. When he heard this speech of the hunters he made them show him the way. Now that tale was so full of various interest that men were so taken wíth it as Pai$acha to forget the tales of the gods.' So spake Gunâdhya and took leave of the king. and after producing that effect in the city it attained uninterrupteJ renown in the three worlds. owing to his forest Iife. And when the hunters were taken to task they said : "On a hill not very far from here there is a Brãhmar. who throws into a fire every leafias soon as he has read ít. discovering that he was an incarnation of a Gaqa. c. gold.ra then related to the king in the language of the demons his own history as Puçpadanta. That wise Brãhmar.. And when the cooks were scolded for it they said:.. Then Gur. and he beheld him. lands. And there he bestowed on Guqadeva and Nandideva. ascended to his own heavenly home..s translation has been used.rã{hya said to that king Satavãhana : . Then the king recognised him as he stood in midst of the weeping animals. giving an account of the curse and all the circumstances which originated the descent of the tale to earth.ra reading. called Byhatkøthd.O king ! I have burnt six tales containing six hundred thousand couplets. that was almost from the mouth of Siva. palaces and treasures. the pupils of the poet who composed that tale. in order to show how the tale came to be first made known in the extinguished. Then the king took that tale which Gupã{hya had given. and after he had respectfully saluted him.( 46 ) (47) to eating meat wanting in nutritive qualities. Sãtavãhana composed the book named Kathapiçha. garments. consequently this flesh of theirs is wanting in nutritive properties on account of rheir going without food. . overspread with matted locks that looked like the smoke of the ûre of his curse. so all the animals go there and listen.. H. he asked him for an explanation of the circumstances. containing the adventures of I{aravãhanadatta.The hunters bring in to us flesh of this kind. and these two þupils of mine shall explain it to you. take that. and out of curiosity went in person to see Gulãdhya.

2. ond coinage in Z. Felix Lacote.(4e) III ORIGINAL HOME oF GUIITÃÐHYA CHAPTER Indian classical literature has suffered much owing to the loss of the Byhøkatht of the Gulã{hya.. tgl¡. 60 or 70 A. B.34.. G.l The time of Guçã{hya is highly wrapped in obscurity. Pischel. Grammatík Der prakrits prachen. ) cit. p. Ernest Leroux. Avaloka. Vol. p. Vol. 10. J. ). Pischel. II. 11. Itrarsacarita ( Hall ) Int. D. Macdonell. r rr 15.g compares him wirh Vyãsa ( lbid. II. 204. orlrrqñIEgarqlcrsrqr(rakãe-1eq(mql r Ch. 10.6 Bhoja?. The problem is answered differently by competent scholars. g. See e. 3. 389. 1-3 and PraSarsri. 1913 ). 1970. 74. 6. According to him Gulã{hya flourished in the first or second century A. H. Essai Sur GuaaQhya Kçemendrare Dhanapãla. R. S. M. yotansuri. p.33 ). Gaúa Soptoiati. I. J. D. Sarasvati Kanthabharaqa.. 8. have referred to in their writings. p. Sylvain L|vi-in Theatre Indian. poets like Govardhanarl Subandhurz Baryar} Haiar4 Udd. c. patna p. Samuddipitakanderpâ Krtagauriprasãdhanã Haralileva lôkasya Vismayãya B¡hatkathã Kããambari ( Peterson ) p. Besides these strong ancient literary sources there are certain significant epigraphic evidences-the copper plate of Kollarla and the Kambuj inscription of the Maharaja the Byhatkaffia l. Somad.376. yll.line 22. 2. p. XlI. 224). Bühler-in detailed report of a tour in Kashmir lst or 2nd Century A. pp. 7. 317 at the bottom ) 2nd century Le Nepal. C. 35-6?. 19. He 5I. yI. part l-4. 18. op. 3.IV. 216-17.lo Hemachandrall Somadevarl2 Trivikramabha{¡ai3 etc. 5. ).660. M. 2. 7. 29. Saptaíati ( of the K.D. 63.ã Dhanika. 12. N. S.. K. The Byhatkathã of Gutã{hya is a remarkable achievement in Indian classic literature. p.229. lggI ( p.. Indian Antiquary. K. D. 4. p.D. XXIII ( parts t-4 ). Vincent Smith-in his paper on Andhra Ítristory. 9. 147. Sanskrit Literature. JRAS 4G ( XLII. 99. in his Indische Literaturgeschichte (1826) said hesiratinCly ( p. Yaiasatilaka Champu. gt¡i gqrtqr*{ìàË¡gqKrc tirÐar: I àle<qqr.. ( Z..evasuri.Yol. V. the view of Btihler is generally accepted. Nalachampn.s 1. 3. ARASI.. See also S. J. VIII. 13. l90S ) p. Sukta 8.. 696. N. Ruvalaya Mãla Kaha. 376. whose significance and genius is in no way inferior to Valmiki or Vyãsa. prasad. M. The problem is answered differently by competent scholars : lVeber-2nd Century A. p. p. 7. See also Kumãrsambhava. n. Agrawal. l. S. 14.-avya Mãla Et La B¡hatkatha ( Paris. Govardhana. 13. Introduction of the Kqthasarilsagar ( Bihar Rashtra Bhasa parishad. clnqlfio 64s6: l Tilakamañjarí. I 13. g$rqio'ìRe iløHÈrrlc€ I Zasøvadafia. . S. D.z However.lV.

are of great help in locating the birth-placa of GuBã{hya. Lévi. 51.24. 32. Sanscrite de lampa et du Cambodge. P. 19.. According to V.8. Piàsad. 14. 52. ) merits special consideration.. 6.24r25.203-204.mañjart and the l{athasaritsd'gara were the Kashmtri versions of the Bfhatkathø. Guqã{hya iti tanuãma pçthivyãm prathitam tadâ papã' fha sakala vidyã mune vyãkara+ãdikâh sa sarvãSãg' travettãbhud guçã{hya guqasamyutah. Ch. C. 3. 8. ch. D. 4. 36.328. 14.. S. S. V. Le Nepal. Nothing can be said about him with any amount of certainty and owing to a complete lack of authentic biographical details a colourful net work of myths and legends has surr' ounded his name. refer their high 1. 2. V. Mirashi. 29. Ibid. N epala M ahatmy 54.28.tsãgarø ( 1063-1081 A. 53.t The Kambuj inscription mentions Gu4ã{hya as 'a friend of the Prãkrit language-' These are enough to prove that a poet named Gur. 2. of Gwla{hya . K. ) to locate the birth-place of Works derived fromthe Byhatkathd. 50. XXIII. 38 56. N. 13. Bvt a careful obser' vation of the recensions of the Byhatkøthã proves futility of his statement. Vol. Ins. 148. LVI-LX ). 9 : Yasyakirate gúnã{hyãya dhyülaùghanarayãdiva t Patitãbhäga mudrãdina kçamãgãmbhiray adhairyadikt t a.z Owing to the paucity of favourable evidence this view cannot be accepted. 148. 11. 2 fax.s He observes that the works derived from the Bfhatkatha were not based on the original text of tkre Byhatkatha. p. In this chapter an endeavour l.rã{hya exsited but the loss of the Byhatkatha has made it difficult for literary historians to place him in literary tradition. 62.. 30. xxlx. Kambuj Inscription of Yalovarman ( Bergaigne. I.1. 8. S. Note on the oríghal home JGNJRI. PP. 54. V. VI. 57. (51 has been made Gulã{hya. Vol. XXVIII.l It is also mentioned that this city was a part of Pratiçlhãna region. xxx.a The Bthatkøthd. cb. Ch. LTX. 65-69. 15 : "päradah sthirakalyãqo Gunã{hyah prãkçtãp¡yah anitirayô ViSãlãksas Suro nyakk¡tabhimakah. VIII. Skandhapurape H imvatkhanQe.65. S.B.387-388. Nos. Mirashi the present Paitrhãna ( near Bombay ) comprised the old Pratiç1hana. 3. L. Nepal Mahatmya. It describes the poet Gulã{hya as a native of a city named Supratiç' thita. Studies in Indology. These recensions were derived from the original text of the Bghatkathã as it is evident from the internal evidence of the texts and above all they off and on. l.64.26 Z gugâqivitas tiq¡hatu duçito pi sthãnârpito yena punara gu!ã{hyah gadôpay alama cãruvibhuçanãya haraprayuktah kim utãruçtänsuÞ. 35. L<VlIl C. XXVII.(50) Ya3ovarman. 59. The Home of GuqaQhya.. Somadeva's Kathãsari.

cribes the poet Gulã$hya as a native of certain city named Supratiçhita. Pratigçhãna comprised the eastern region of the Prayã. l-65. Vt B. 3..G In the Kathasaritsdgara it is a cityT and not a village.l From the accounts of the Byhatkathãmañjart it appears that Kçemendra a little senior contemporary of Somadeva was ably acquainted with both pratiçt. rbid. Ray. XV.. p. Somadeva. 7. op. S. Ibid. pp. S. xiàuiagì Tå oqìsrrfìHì flfi: ¡rqTTt aq€l fàsrfr tlsilqa: r¡ 14. part r l. 30 ff. Ibid.5 In support of his thesis he refers to certain illustrations of copper grants where Supratiçthita has been described as a village. north of Vol. 65..100. Hístory of Indian Líterature. 4.y ). The extension of prayãga has Pratiç{hãna been described by the author of the Matslta-purãrya also. Winternitz.rã{hya a native of Pratiçlhãnapura. situated in the neighbourhood of Kathdsaritsagaras (53) Kau3amb¡ and that might have been the birth. and the Yamunã. K. cit. 348. g. 8. 2. Ibid. According to the Purã of the celebrated Pai3achi poet Gu+ã{hya.. V. hãnas and possibly he has described Gur. I. 148.. I. This pratiçlhãna was situated east of the river Ganga-probably the area calledJhusi today. 2. CYl. N. Al a I sy ap u rã1ta. 5. . S..õ According to the Matsya- Purdrya the Harhsa Prapattana was situated 1. Jhusia today it was also known in those days as Samudrakupa ancl was a significant minor Known place as of pilgrimage.. S. Prachînø Bharú Mþ NagøraTaúaNøgar p. V. 5. g. Mrrashi. 100.z The locarion of Supratiçthita is highly involved in dispute. p. EI. V. 4. Agrawal. It is probable that there might have been a different Pratiçthãna on the confluence of the Gañgã. 65 69. 183. From the it is evidently clear that Gulã{hya was born in the vicinity of the city Supratiçthita which was the part of Pratiçthãna regiona Mirashi has recently opined elsewhere that present Paithan was comprised of the old Pratiçthana ( in Bomba. 3-32. Matsya Purapa-A Stutiy. 6. S. p. Mal{ala.335. Vl. p. K.152) indebtedness to the original Byltatkatlzã. Mahabharúa.B is one of them.85-76. p.z In the Vana Paruø of the Mal¿Abl¿Aratu four minor centres of pilgrimages have been mentioned. Therefore it is erroneous to presume that the works derived from it had no genetic connection with the original Byltatkatltã^I Derived works ol the fuhatkatha throw considerable light on the obscure problen'r of the original home of Gulâ{hya in a rather inregrated manner..Ibid. 107. p..s Kalhasaritsdgara des. III. which was situated on the confluence of the Gangã and the yamunã. 3. Jiwana. U. vI.

is of the opinion that the Paißachî in which the original Byhøtkathd was written was spoken in the Vindhya region which is not far from JhusÎ. cít.4.r' srgni <rlnorieqtq lä-età: ùc'{rûol: r gorrqrrt ùøra fleeagR: I q.aritsã4arao and the B¡hatkathamañ. V. U.. Vol. D.i crrt sftqruàl'. ll gtCqsat oìà gorq+ tFa Fs¿a: t l'. ed. Agrawal. 1.l great scholar in linguistics. ( crit. lV.c"iàt qì<rqûaÈ ¡ q.Q. ff. op.Q. . S. p' 26 tr. It supports the view that vicinity where Gu!ã'Paißãchi'was spoken in the {hya was born and spent his early life' was in the region of and Reality. Kã[hakam. Roy.3 It is evident from the Kathã. 42. p.ttqq. Kathasarit- sagar. p. tsTtti{'Fr€¡rqlç$ cniluaÈ S(t iqq: I \eg. The Mythic Journal. cit.grqq I E. M.rv rr(qt ga nÈeÈ (qcìsrd.5.1966.rì gcftsrcl <ts: Èilfi{ñ: gï l. qrclÈa'qfrqrcq¡ cldsrl qqlqlil: r q¿n qlte m¡il cÈsi.Bh.6. qìvrdlsrÈE: gl gãilqcwqq: qqÎa: ùqqçqq g6cErì qdlnù rr frÍtqlqr: ärqttdql q1çfu¡q $: gfùraiqcoftülù qrq'ñTft{fut. Translated by Tabard in English. ) 1.¿s. the divine <lamsel.?.B¡haddevat1¿T.\e cr+rùclqù tr{: Sclf. Satapatha Brahmana.¿? q<rlqftìgmrqsl.. 182. Agrawal. Lacote. B¡hatkathãmañjari.Foreword of the paper "Essai Sur GupaQhya Ella | B¡hatkatha" by Prof. Myth Pratiçfhãna and may be rightly identified with the area called Jhusi in*Ro rqr gqldigadqqt a*¡{rsìqrrqÌçc: qìsfù qtqqff.r cff. op. N.I82.qì n so rr I I cfrcrruì ctù qTacEr-(R{qTcE I gqrq< tfÈ ql oìà fà¿aì gqùtqT( ll e?. 8-i0..2.l7. cit. 4.flsà r q. S. It is thirty miles from the historícal city of Kau6ambi.l The swans used to settle at this place in winter after migrating from the Himãlayas. In another context Pratiç1hãna has been mentioned in connection with Urvaii-Ramaqra a place where Purúravas made love to UrvaSi.rq: n q"¿ sfàdlq Èttv* crrì gclf.qËq qraqErcfl cqçì ccfrBiltreì s: r t. 10-22. V.. D.1l.(54) (55) Pratiçfhãna and east of the river Gafrgã.qql q.20.Faotimå I tt?. p.jarzï that the city of Supratiçthita 1. Dr' Grierson. p.lq rla to¿ì gselqc etqtfi(clnengl lc: I Ìq. op.s Br. The main story of tbe Kathdsaritsãgara ( derived from the Byhatkathd of Gur. Kosambi. 2. 3 Vish4upura7a 4.rãIt also dhya ) deals with the kings of Kau$ambi' corroborates that Gufrã{hya's original home was a Jhusi ( ancient Pratiçlhãna ). 107.\er r 5.z Urva3iRamala was situated on the eastern side of Pratiç{hãna.

Essai Sur Gu4a/hya et la Br. 387-388. of Gu?ãdhya is highly wrapped in obscurity. 5. S. Xtl.4 In 1905. G. of Gu4ã{hya. A. Saptasatl ( of the Kävyamâlã ). Le Nepal. D.z Therefore nothing can Felix Lacote. -but the loss of the Byhatkathã has made it difficult for literary historians to accord him a propar place in Indian literature. 1970. and he compares the eloquence of the three writers to the flow of three rivers. J. Indian classical literature has suffered mqch owing to the los of the B. the significance and inge.) Date of the BThatkathd : The problem of the dare of the B. B. Nos. N. i0. 2. nuity of which are in no way inferior to those of Vyãsa or Valmiki. 4. 99 ff.Theatre lndian ( 1891 ) p. 1 13. the MahabÍtarata and the Byhatkatha. 63. Indische Literaturgeschichte ( 1876 ). 1. D. K.2 Bühler in his detailed report centuries of Kã6m¡ra fixes first or second of the Christian era. 1.. 317.. S. 2. Kambuj lnscription of YaSovarman ( Bergaigne. D. yl. XLII. p. K. n. with any amount of certainty and owing to complete absence of any authentict biographical data a colourful network of myths and legends has cropped up around his name.224..tã{hya as a celebrated poet.inbet' ween 60 or 70 A. Prasadn J. p.rã{hya. . as the plausible date for the B. Goverdhana. p.SattaSa: rWe salute the poets of the Rõmd2arya. M.. 328. has been a vexing problem and has been answered differently by competent scholars. There are many sources to prove the existence of Gur. Sylvain Lévi has modiÊed his previous view point and ascribed second century A. Weber hesitatingly ascribes second century A. 204. stanza 14. 3. R. fns. K. 389. 11. Sanscrite de lampa et du Cambodge.l. in a more narrow and precise Kf V. i.7. . l.Gdhd. Sarasvati Kan¡habhara\a. the date of the B. 695. XXllI. 2t3'204. I.l In this chapter an attempt has been made to settle the time of Gur. N. Nala-cømpu of Trivikrama Bhatta.229. Vol.(5x) be said about him CHAPTER IV ON THE BRHATKATHÃ' ( A. D. Fax. Il.22. JRAS ( 1913 ). LVr-LX ). Le Nepal. 4. The time of the composition of the B.35-69.l Hãla says in the .216. S. for the B. Ernesr Lerouxo 1908). p.3 Sylvain Lévi in his famous work Theatre Indian (1891) assigns him somewhere in first and second centuries A. Étr. Levi. 1912.hatkatha ( Paris. Kuvalaya m:ala Kaha. K. 3.K. J. K. I. t48.. p. A Smith proposes ARASI. 8. I.

it can be said that Simuka. can be placed by no manner before the fifth century' A. in K. Speyer. I. K. xx.6 From this narrative it appears that there must be a fairly long gap between the age of the real Vararuchi and the writing i I ri . 20. 5. J. Therefore Gufrã{hya must have lived atleast prior to the sixth century A. ( Bombay ed. Smith. in his Vãsavadatta. cit. 1930.D.3 But the terminu¿s ex quz.I Smith has taken the help of the evidenc of the Hathigumpha inscription of the king Kharavela in fixing the approximate date of the B. G. ranging over a period of five centuries.ndhra Hlstory and Coinage. is alluded too p. A. K..660. the Therefore it is logical to assign that this ^t Pai3achi work is earlier than first century A. 50. to which he has been condemned hy a curse.A. All available sources of the Sãtavãhana dynasty prove that th. Therefore. 3. assigned to dates. Studies about the Kathasarilsagara. D. of Gulãdhya. G. V. must have been posterior to Palini and Vararuchi Kãty-ayana by several centuries. Smith in an articl e on History and Coínage "Lndhra concluded that the original 8. I.l Speyer is of the opinion that the B. Subandhu quotes the B. Itrar sacharít Cowt p. B. Siçut a or Sindhuka had defeated Su$armã Kãlavãyana and . ll a. Ã. 2. S. Thus Guqã{hya the famous author of the B.. S. Z. IV. written in the PaiÉãchi dialect was composed in 60 or 70. 57. K.D.). LVI. oÍ Gufrã{hya also goes to the liberal patronage of the Satavãhana Kings. Vasavadatta. ( tg6l '¡ the Kadambari. S.:y were great patrons of the Prakrita language. 49-57. LVt. The credit for the composition of the B..S. From available inscriptions and literary sources. It is significant to observe that being a Brâhmala the Sãtavãhanas. K. 2.If. Both the great grammarians have been mentioned in the .50. 40. 'Ihe original B. Ibid. 660. ana.4 Here Vararuchi is no other than Puçpa. Speyer. . il of the legendary stories of . The upper limit of his date is almost decided to a certain extent. Et. H. I I I i l.(58) (5e) time bracket. have used the 1. K. D. dafita a ga+a of Siva in his human form.V. D. K. Z. M. cannot at any rate be placed before the beginning of the Christian era. 3.D.K.. thus exterminated the $ungas from the political scene of India. it can be said that the rise of the Imperial SatakarTi dynasty might have taken place in between the first and third centuries of the Christian era. II. ibid.õ^. M. The current poetic work is of an extra-ordinary merit. S. The l{arsacharita of Bana.z Kharavela defeated with the aid of his chaturafigi4i senã the Satakar{ri of Western region. Loc.9. P r as tav K. 4. . and Thomas.

Verse. 1. Matsya Pura¡ta. (61 ) it seems that like the Sanskrit there was a rich literature of Prakrit-Pai$ach¡ languages. K.l Later versions of the B. M. . 3. op. 14. M.G. the .4.. 6.6 Besides this several other useful materials are to be found in the f. 10..3 Therefcre Sylvain Lévi ascribes a date earlier than tbe third century 4.z The difference between the legendary and the historical Satavahana is also maintained in the Paurãpic geneology of the Satavahana kings. 4. trative purposes because it was a language of the common folk and to administer them in their own language was an act of shrewed diplomacy. 3. s. Judging from this back 1. . 556. Buddhism.s From available sources it can be said that the B.. A. S. K. M. S.. K.S. of Guçã{hya was written in Pai$achi dialect.D. 63. Z. 5. hither to unnoticed l.8. was rna. M. cit. Possibly the Ãndhra $ãtavahana of the B. J.26 tr. S. K.. XXX. K. ground Wasiljew in his work on Buddhism mentions that the VaibhãÉikas and the Sthaviras were well versed in the PaiÉacht dialect. 164..D. S.2.S. 9. Surrru.K.D. S. 5.l Thus V. The adequate impact of Prakrita on the Sanskrita lan.4 The first Larhbaka of the ^f. D. A. Wassiljew. Le Nepal. K. G. D. ).D. 2. 295. Smith holds the view that the Satasai of Hala.a According to Grierson PaiÉach¡ was a dialect of Vindhyan region and the province of North West frontier. 7. p. K. I. 2. Hãla was probably a contemporary of the Roman emperor Nero ( 54-68 A. guage is an established fact. ) who praised the anthology in the preamble of his Hara¡acarit¿. and the Katuüra of $arvavarma might have been written in 60 or 70 A. cit.our*u.vanã. Prastã. Smith has differentiated between the legendary Satavahana who was born from the womb of a lioness and the historical Satavãhana. / is placed cerrainly before Baqa (700 A. p. K. B. Itrarçacharifa.. of Gurra{hya. 723.7. It is mentioned in the legends that the Ãndhras were ignorant about the Sanskrit langnage therefore the As{Adh2d4ñ of pãlini proved difficult text for them.. IV. Ch. throws light on the relation of Gu4ãdhya with tbe Satavahana king.2 The work ( B.(60) Prãkrita language for their inscriptions. throw considerable light on the society of the time of Ãndhra Kings. another reputed grammarian has written the Kãtantra for the Ãndhra Kings.gnum oþus of the Pai$ach¡ dialcer. op. s. S. lI. 6 K.3 The B. possibly they have used Prãkrita language for their adminis.was a king of Pratiçlhãna ( in south ).

According to Kern the tradition of chewing betel must have been in vogue in the time of Charaka and Suçruta.We will not be far from truth" writes Speyer. the hero of which is Narvãhandata. p. Studies about the Kathasaritsãgara. ( The great Tale ). 1. J.l There is a mysterious srory regarding l\agarjuna. Charaka was a physician of Kaliçka..2 Probably here Bãr. in which the youthful poet Kãlidasa appeals to the sound judgement of his audience for his literary debut. 10. the physical embodiment of the God of love in the time of Bapa.. S. Moreover the tradition of chewing betel after meal is men_ tioned in the Avadänasataka and Avadãnarnãlã. Thus it proves the existence and popularity of the B. A Hisiory of Sanskrit Líterature. the grear Buddhist theologician in the later versions of the B. The sentiment and spirit of the eloquent praise of Baga rerninds of the Prastãvanã of Malvikagnimitram. K. Thus our terminus e)c qur advances to the latter half of the 3rd century A.4l. . ('that the B. because in the fourth Buddhisr council Nagarjuna had played a significant role. N."t The strength of his reasoning is supported by Bapa' He mentions Gulã{hya in the introduction of the Harçacharita' Bala admires the previous works of Sanskrit and Prakrita literature.41. Tambula has been mentioned by the writers of the Gupta period. Probably the prince eulogised in the Bharata Vãkya belonged to the imperialGupta lineage and hasbeen 1.D. p.z Here it has been maintained that he was born from the Bodhisattva. He was very kind.D. D. . Dasgupta. S. The tradition of chewing betel is of some help in fixing the date of the B. 2 tbid.3 Taranatha maintains that he was a contmeporary of Kagipka" a Kuçãna ruler. 3. itself can be placed by no manner before the 5th century A. generous. submissive. p. Vol. Somadeva has described him as a Parama Bauddha. K. Kern has placed him in t 150 4. S. Further Tambula as a pãli word is quot. In this regard the Bharata Vãkya of Vi6ãkha Datta's Mudrdlõ'kpasa deserves special mention.53. ed by Childers from the Mahãvañsa.ra has not eulogised the stalwarts of Sans' krit literature but he has simply remembered the works of his some previous ( roughly about two centuries ) authorities of the literature' Therefore it is quite obvious that why he has not referred to the names of Vyãsa or Valmiki. K. 502. docile and above all was alreat theologÍcian. (. I.K..S. K. Speyer.(63) (62) with the aid of which the approximate date and anauthentic biodata of Gulã{hya maybesketched out more precisely. llg. Manual of Indian Buildhîsm.750.

79 Verse 136. D. the use of âßraya for body in the forgedz letter. C.3 It appears that possibly Vi3ãkhadatta borrowed the subject matter of his play from the B. K.s The later recensions of the B.S.214. The poetic diction is exquisite and ana raid. S. Act 4. The term SvãÉrayavinã3ena has beed used in the texts of early centuries of the Christian era and is therefore not found in the Petrop's dictionary of Paraarya. Sylvain Lévi.7. accounts the conclusion can be drawn that by the time of Gu4ã{hya. however. 91 ff. lbid. 2. 2. rclates a mythical account regarding the origin of the fämous Mauryan city Pãtaliputra. A. 5. B. In this regard it can be referred that Sômadeva's appears to be a trustworthy recension of the ^6. whereas K. p.G From these l. cit. B. 1938. J.(65) (64) described as the protector from the certain malechPossibly it is used for Chandra Gupta II Vikramaditya. Mudrarakgasa. A...Íudrãr-alcçasa. 6. p. Verse 10.5 Kuzula's successor Wima Kad" phises issued gold coins of three denominationsl. g. 5G 90.. 5. M. 64. 1906. . op.. Verse 12.279 3. Penzerr IX. I.. K. p. Some lexicological facts may indicate an ancient date for its compilation e.. K. But the events that shaped the destiny of Chandra Gupta Maurya are not mentioned. . 17. p. could not resist the temptation of applying his many sided genious and critical vision in the B.I. 54. s.. K.. It is significant to note that rüpyaka has been mentioned in the Amørkô¡a. K.t the style of the play is simple. 9. Lacote. 3.3 The term dinãra seems to have original one used by Guqã{hya. The term dinãra and rtipyaka have been used by Sômadeval and Kçemendraz respectívely.a Dlnãra was an ancient coin" It is mèntioned even in the inscriptions of the 5th century A. p. lll. s. K. 319. M.57. l15. Act V.I. 541.. 17. Q. I. the historical tradition of the foundation of the Pãtaliputra must have been for- gotten and a colourful net-work of myths and legends have grown up. 2. lbid. Therefore his recension is not as trustworthy as that of Sômadeva's K S.226. In the JVludrãrãkshsa the events that happened after Chãgakya's vengeance and his conquest of the royalty has been elaborately mentioned. 4. M. I. the story of extermination of Nanda by Chandra Gupta Maurya is described in a very concise manner. Le Theatre Indien. H. K. part II. tl. Loc.. p. cit. S. op. 64.5. S.25. K. Speyer. B. Act I.5. 310 verse. R.4 In the Ka$miri versions of the B. K...emendra. cit.

. the Pafrjab ) to attened them as mercenaries. as ruler of their land. C.. proves beyond doubt that Gu!ã{hya might have flourished in the .Indian tribes. Ed. p.360. S.. The Tajikas has been mentioned by Sôma.. the . P. 4.Ill. Cowell and Neil. and finally they submitted to the rPessians. S.beginning of the Christian era. Herodotus writes that he conquered upto Gandhãr. K. Div. Sômadeva also mentions Turuçka and Chlnas who overpowered NiÉachayadatta and his friends.r He is said to have led an expedition against India through Gedrosia. G. v. It is quite probable that they occupied already in the fourth and the fifth centuries A." Strabo :tell us that on one occasion the Pesians summoned -the Hydraces ( the Kshudrakas ) from India ( i. We learn from Pliny that he destroyed the famous city of Kapi3i. D. 3. p. Herodotus. 261. l.. lll. Vasudeva Upadhyaya.74. bld. e H. 2. . ). and paid tríbute to Cyrus or Kurush.K.4. S. ancient times subject to the Assyrians. 3.(66) ('67 double dinãra. The history of Indo-Persian contact is very The military invasion towards India was of Cyrus ( 558-30 B. but had to abandon the enterprise. p. S.L I.son of Cambyses. 399. Arrian's Anabasis. GuPta. ) Turuçka could occupy a place in the historical map of India only in sixth century A. Arrians informs us that {the district West of the river Indus as far as the river Cophen ( Kabul ) is inhabited by the Astacenians ( Ãshçakas ). These were :. 16. Chinnock.. K. II. Bharfiya Sike. dinãra and quarter d1nãra.deva¿ but Kçemendra is silent about it. 177. The reference of the dinãra in the . It is clear that Soma' deva's dInãra and not the rtrpyã of the B. M. 2.3 In the tale of Viravara the daily wages of that royal warrior are mentioned as ûve hundred dinãras. C. 37. L. in the . L Patañjali.433. l.l During the Vakataka-Gupta a$e onedinãra (3l4thofa tôla of gold ) was sufficient for the feeding of one anonk throughout the year-z According to the Dialaaailana Pushyamitra Sufiga issued a decla' ration that whoever would present him with the head of u Sru*uqru would be rewarded with one hundred dînãras. represents the coinage of the time of the original B. D. 34.8. & F. From available sources it appears that dînãra was used as coins from the early centuries of the Christian era onwards.4 . Stabo. Coins' 28. Sômadeva is here as usual nearer to the original l. escaping with seven men only.z But he was more successful in Kabul valley. K. afterwords to the Medes. eastern and northern frontiers of the Persian mon' 153. .

R. In the early centuries of the Christian era maritime trade became most vigorous. Coins of the Ãndhra p' 7 ' .rãdhya (Sãtavahana) it seems that the trade and commer. No. especially with the West. D. Malay or China. of Hala is further of Yajna Sri Satakarqri' Some of his th" "oirs undoubtedly coins bear the picture of a boat whch draws our attention towards the fact that it was the age of evolved trade and commerce and the highù developed naval powers of the $ãtavãhanas'3 The era whom Gupã{hya inaugurated somewhere ín the beginning of the Vikrama era of India has Sarivatsara Satra of the classi.z The Milindapañho ( lst Century A.l The story of an early Jataka tells of ship sailing from the port of Bh¡gukaccha to a piace called Baveru. L. From sca and land routes they had started trading with Europe and Central Asia via Rome and Syria they went to Southern Europe or from Oxus and Caspian sea they used to go in the middle Burope.l The ships of the mer- The mania chants were always roaming in the sea' of heaping huge quantity of minerals of the traders had not only contributed a significant epoch in the ûeld of Artha ( economic prosperity ) but had also helped in establishing the Indian culture in the several countries of South'Eastern Asia'e The later the stories recensions of the B. which must be Babylon. become the Sahøstra I el literature in which the several ' Sanskrit and Pali writers of eminent repute have enhanced with their valuable writings. 2. ) mention$ the possibility of a merchant sailing to Alexandria. p. The carts of the Sãrthavahas were always at their wheels covering far and distant lands and their ships were always leaving the Indian shores for east and west. Babylonia and Central Asia. 226- ilur*u. 2. l. l. p' 22' .rã{hya mighthavecollecteclthesestoriesfromthesailors who had visited the distant corners of the world in the company of their Sãrthavahas' The inform' K' and ation received from the recensions of the 'B' corroborated from theGahasatusi. J. A. where the Roman Empire demanded the luxuries of the east in large guantities. 339. cit'.. oP. Basham. Basbam. mainly deal with of daring voyages of Indian sailors' Gur.(6e) (68) From the coins of the patron of Gur. 3.The ll'onder that was India. K. Majnmdr t. Rapson. Elindu Coloníes in the Far East. ce of India had considerably increased.. C. Dynasty. Among them mention . By the land route the traders went to Arab. The standard of living and economic prosperity of the period is well attested from the coins issued by the Satavahana rulers. Con' temporary literary and numismatic sources go to establish the highly developed inland and foreign voyages during the early centuries of the Christian era.267.

. Vol. which the God of Love has. l. Like the MaÍtabhdrata and the Ramõ1drya. IV.l The B yhatkathamañ. the observance of propriety of the natural connection.ri. seems to l. its later versions are of great help in order to reconstruct it to some abridge the prolanguage is selected as tends to and lixiiy of tfr" work. after sweeping away the stars with his trunk in the delirious joy of the evening dance. createotherswiththesprayissuingfromhis ) mouth. so to speak. "Muy the dark neck of Si. 1-3. the northernmost summit thereof 1.26 tr. 1.maryi of Jayaratha. S. assign to you prosperity. are as far as ('I in view.rãQhya. Byhatkathãmañjari of Kçemendra and the Kathãsarüsagar of Sômadeva.gralta of Budhaswamy. who. K.jarl of Kgemendra. protect you' the After worshipping the Goddess of Speech' hissing ( Sitkãra lamp that illuminaies countless objects' I compose thiscollectionwhichcontainsthepithofthe Bthatkatha:'\ ( B ) ilature of the Brhatkatlta : ' Owing to the loss of the Brhatkatlta of the celebrated poet Gur. in pointing out Somadeva was sincere enough preci that his flMgrurn oþus i'e' Kaúasaritsdgar is which it is taken' sely on the model of that tiom thereisnoteventheslightestdeviation. it is difficult to trace out the exact nature and possible form of the Brhatkatha. surrounded with nooses in the form of the alluring looks of Pãrvati reclining on his bosom . Madlyam' Vasudeaa Hind¡ of Dharma Das Gar. throw some valuable light on the BrhatkaúA and its author. The Katltãsarhsùgar begins with an invocation. but in order to tales"'z recollection of a multitude of various under the "There is a mountain celebrated Gand' name of Himavat. Ifowever. The Mythíc Journal.¡. lbid. He has frankly admitted' have not made this attempt through a desire of a repu' facilitate the tation for ingenuity. Vasudan H:tnd. and the Vidyãdharas' a very monarch an mighty hills. designed to become his daughter. p. Triiastiialaka Purusha Cltørita of Hemachandra. Sômadeva's Kathdsarüsagar and Ho.racltarit Chintã.the Brhatkatlta was undoubtedly a great classical epic of immense significance. and' the joining together with portions of the poem so as not to interfere possible kept ihe spirit of the stories. May that Remover of Obstacles - ( GafreÉa ). whose glory has attained such the eminence among mountains that BhavãnÎ' mother of the three worlds. lo-12. haunted by Kinnaras' of harvas. S.( 71 ) (70) may be made of Byhatkathd Koia Sarh. 2.

having gained confidence as she sat in secret 'with him. then tell me some delightful story that is quite new"' And Siva said to her: "What can there be in the world. one of them went upr and the other down. ing through the world in order to behold ffie. and I appeared to them and bade them ask for some boon. that thou dost not know ?" Then that goddess. but I have become such without an effort. roâIr' "Once on a time Brahmã and Nãrayâ$â.There dwells Maheóvara the beloved of parvati. came to the foot of llimavat. which towers many thousand yôjanas in the air. Vol. the chief of things animate and inanimate. Mountain Kailãsa. though he was only one. IV. 2. and said : r'What can I do to please thee f" Then the daughter of the mountain spake:*My lord if you are satisfied with me. Hasting's Ency.l Then they behold there in front of them a great flame liiryaz in order to discover the end of it. on tbat account he has ceased to be worthy of worship. 2. Then that god Narayar. the moon-crested one. the husband of Pãrvatl. standing yellow tufts of his matted hair the new moon edoys the delight of touching the eastern mountaín yellow in the evening twilight. attentive 1. things lost in the Deluge. Phallus is a favourite emblem of Siva. the dart which that monarch had infixed in the heart of the three worlds was. placed her on his lap. .nails being reflected in the crestj-ewels of the gods and Asuras made them s€€m âs if they had been presented with half moons by his favour.(73) ('12) great peak named Kaila$a. Hearing that Brahmã asked me to become his son. When he drove his trident into the heart of Andhaka. wishing to flatter her. 390 to her praise and delighted. strange to say. Once on a time ttrat lord. In the up.ra craved a boon of me.laughs rs a forth with its snowy gleams this boast. . importuned him eagerly because she was proud in soul on account of his affection. Eth. and when they could not find the end of it. they proceeded to propitiate me by means of austerities.r. H. began by telling her a very short story. my beloved. p.. Rel. was gratified with praises by his wife. Then Siva. disgraced by his overweening presumption. referring to her own divine power. .. anci. past or future. saying O revered l. attended upon by Gaqas. Jacobi. The image of his toe. extracted. This mountain served the gods ning stick at the churning of and Asuras as a churthe ocean for the recofourteen other precious vering of the AmTta and -. beloved of Siva. Vidyãdharas and Siddhas.z the King of the Asuras. as it were.Mount Mandaral did not became white as mortar even when the ocean was churned with it. et seq. present.

Siva asked : . 4 Vols. and thus mairaged to here it. men are ever miserable. urite dependent of Siva's. the most worshipped river in the world. But the goddess. no one else knows it. and his entrance was forbidden by Nandin. he heard all the extraordinary and wonderful adventures of the seven Vidyãdharas being narrated by Siva. and bearest Gafigã on thy head l. perceiving the truth by." Then the lord of IJmã. and was born as mine in your form. pãrvati asked. the power of me all powerful.. . being filled with wonder.he Gaùgã. 1884. my belovecl. and promised to tell her a wonderful tale : then she dismissed her anger.. Compare also with Kãlidãsa's Kumara Sarhbhava. entered in where we were. making use of his magic power attained by devotion to prevent his being seen. transported with wrath. exclaimed. . fot who can hide wealth or a secret from women ? Jaya. deep meditation. 2.Wrat else shall I tell you !'. ingly charming.r' When Siva had thus spoken.. attendant-a sacred white bull on 3.z Hearing that.a women be expected to restrain their speech ? And then Pãrvati flew into a passion. See the Bhagavata Purona was translated for details by Burnouf. therefore I now proceed to relate the history of the Vidyãdharas. and when he had thus entered. He narrated it to Jayã.. "Ifow can I have been thy wife in a former birth p¡ Then Siva related her the long story of the Prajãpati Daksha. and Siva began to speak. and having heard them.. paris. and said to Siva. Puçpadanta immediately entered. Sarga V. Siva's favourite' which he rides. the doorkeeper. Do I not know that you worshippest Sandhyã. there arrived a favo. Curious to know why even he had been forbidden to enter at that time without any apparent reason. for you are the same as Nãrãyaqa. Nandin3 thereupon kept the door. of this story. "The gods are supremely blessed. who was guarding the door. She herself gave the order that no one was to enter where they were. How cal.s former birth. went and recited it in the presence of Pãrvati. ßiva began to conciliate her. "Thou didst not tell me any extraordinary tale. l. the actions of demigods are exceed. he in turn went and narrated them to his wife Jayâ. for Jayã knows it also. It 1840-1847.l After narrating the story of Pãrvati. may f become devoted to your service ! Then he became incarnate.ras." \{hile Siuu *u.Thou art a deceiver. Puçpadanta. employing the magic power of devotion..'. thus speaking to his consort. best of Gar. "Morever you were my wife in a former birth. line 86. thou wilt not teil me a pleasing tale even though I ask thee. thus spake : "Puçpadanta. T.(74) (75) one.

E. with grief caused by recalling to mind.. S. S.. asked '$iva : . I\4. 348.' She cursed also the Gar¡a Mãlyavãna who presumed to intercede on his behalf. puçpadanta has been born under the name of Vararuchi in that great city which is called Kau6amb¡. thou disobedient servant. and calling to mind your origin. III. ( It is now called (77 ) Kôsam. S.'.'.2. tell him this tale. R. Winternitz. 4. . Kavyadaria.(76) Having heard this. is what has befallen them. taneously like flashes of lightning. 8. exceedingly enraged.l. XIl. Then the two fell at her feet together with Jayã and entreated her to say when the curse would end. the daughter of the mountain ceased.. Then it came to pass in the course of time that Gauri. O Goddess. t. '..201.38. and pãrvati slowly uttered this speech : ."t Oo. ing. you shall be released from this curse. S. AVee of Indra's Paradise that grants all desires. Having thus spoken.." Having given her this information. lI. then Kãçabhuti shall be released and you Malyavã"na.My lord..40.r t.the degradation of the servants that had always been obedient to him. where on the earth have those excellent attendants. K. When you shall see him. and is on the bank of the river Jamunã ( Yamuna ). when thou hast published it abroad. full of pity. and immediately these Gapas disappeared instan.I-4.A yaksha named Supratika. then. 90 ff 2. the goddess. Prasad. From the later recensions of the Byhatkatha it is clear that the language of the Byhatkathd was Pai3ãchi. 3. p. O. 389. 1970. 8.. S. 216-217. K. lndian Lilerature. Moreover Malyavãna also has been born in the splendid city called Supratishçhita under the name of Guçã{hya. as he stood trembling before her.10.3 This fact is further supported by other literary and epigraphic sources.. say. A. whom I cursed. Puçpadanta. J. B. J. 5. And when Mãlyavãna shall hear this tale from Kã{r.abhuti. shait be free also. N. 1. Vol. that lord continued to dwell with his beloved in pleasure-arbours on the slopes of Mount Kailaia.'Become a mortal. about thirty miles above Allahabad ). ( 1913 )..1 This. Vol... and cursed him. which were made of the branches of the I(alpa tree. p. who has been made a piéacha by the curse of Kuvera. is residing in the Vindhyan forest under the name of Kaqabhuti.. And the moon diademed god answered : "My beloved. caused Puçpadanta to be summoned. A.s 1.z (C) Language of tlte Brhatkaúa : Here an attempt has been made to solve the problem of the language of the Byhatkathã.' The Pai6ãchi language is highly wrapped in obscurity. 42.

2. 7. rich.l The Prãk¡ta literature is also like Sanskrit. 13. Mbh. 18-19.12. Ramaya1a. 91. The popularity of this 1. Rãje3ekhara in his Kaalanr m. X.n3sd6 places the Kekâya country in. Bhagawatpurdpa. 5.gaaataþurã.vara. B. etc. Kavya laítkar a. lII. 2. According to the Greek historian Straboo it was extensive and fertile having in it some 300 cities. They are Kekâya. 6. Lacote. p. Hâla says in his GaúaSatta-Sat. 3. 10. The classification of Markandeya was probably based on the geographical basis. Vl 4. 113-114. H. 3. 68. Saursêni and flow of lthree rivers.7.1. Pt. pp.(78) (7e) The sources 'regarding the Brhatkaúa speak of its high literary maturity.. 96. 2.ryd'. 3. Vararuchl 10. 5. Law. Kambôjas.Indological Studies. The affiuent economic prosperity of this country has been aptly referred in the ancient 61.'s Tr. He has referred the three subdialects of the PaiÉã' cht language.3.s The Kekâya territory.ras.102. the northern division of India along with the Sakas. Some noted Sanskrít writers have reffered it in their writings' Vara' ruchiz and Sirhha Deva GaÊina3 have mentioned Pai3achi. 4.rru was the region of modern Mathura of U. 12. II. 7. Paißachi was the ancient dialect of the Prãk¡ta language. An unknown writer of ancient India has mentioned eleven varieties of Prãkga language. 4. Sut Gur¡alhya et la B¡hatkathã. Kramadií. X. 2. X. "We salute the poets of the Ramalarya' the Mahabharata and tirre Byhatkathõ"' and he compares the eloquence of three writers to the language can be easily summarised from the refe' rence of the Prd. X. and F. p. Essai le08 ).. vast and varied. . P. 7. 2. From the available sources it appear that the significance and ingenuity of Gulã{hya are in noway inferior to those of Vyãsa or Valmiki. 303-324 Pãñchãla.aa lay beyond the Vipãsa or Beas and abutted on the Gandhara territory. 19-22. KavyanuSa sana. VlI. 55.¿ Hemchandra has discussed the grar mmatical rules applied for the Pai3ãchÎ language'õ Probably PaiÉãchi was the vehicle of the express' ion of the majority of the common folk of certain regions in ancient India. Namisadhu in the commentary of the Paióã' Kaalta\afúdr¿ of Rudralha has mentioned the chî language. 7 5.kfta Søraaasaø of Markandeya. C.2 It has been identified with the present district of Shahpur in the Punjab. Paçini in Apladh1ay1 and Patañjali in his Mahabha. Kavyam¡mûr¡tsã. 86.(Patis. Vll 19. t. I. 303-324. 3.qtas refer to it. 84. 3. Hur. 2. 4. VãhlikaS. according to the RLmaltary. 48. 2. 20. Kekâya has been mentioned in the MahabharataL as well as in the Bhã. tI. V agabhat fil añkai a.d. Súrur. 8. 5.

Sarauasua has explained it.25. 5. From thè Daóaräpaka of Dhanañjai it is clear that the Paióach¡ ancl the Ardha Magadhi were languages of the lower strata of the society. 6. This phonetic not. p. I. Pishel. R.. No. S. Vasneka. 100. Hoernale was of the opinion that Paiiachi was the form of that Ãryan language which was spoken by the Dravidians. It roughly literature corresponds to modern Badaun.10.a Piúacha a. J. Ancíent Indian ltristorical Tradition. l. 147-150.. 4. pp.kararya. ãchi was popular in the pi3acha desha. On this basis Cook has inferred that the sounds of the paiSach¡ language would have been akin to rhe English language.(80) of India. O. 126. S. 2. 51. Letters. Mahãraslrl and Magadhi. p.2 It is significant to observe that why this strange connotation has been given to the Paißach¡ langu- Lakshmidhar in his Prã. Sahaya. Prãlc¡tø Saravasva. (Bl) language was Bhûta Bhaça. 121. Kuntala. rr.149. p.3 According to him the language of the Pi$acha country has been termed as Paiéãchi. R. pali and pallava dynastic land grants. Pargiter. Like Sauraseni. Mbh. The paióachi language if viewed from the phonetic grounds it has got much resemblence with the Sanskpta. 78. ( Piia. 12. Bhamaha in his commentary of Vararuchi has mentioned the language of the Pißachas as Paißachi.s Vararuchi has mentioned the Sauraseni language as the basis of the paißãchi.ak from their nostrils.6 Perhaps on these reasons the other popular_ term used for the 1. XII. XXXVII.. 54. It is a popular belief that they sp. 173. Kekêya. Nepal. 3 . ) Law. A. Ancíent Geography of India..6 Probably on ihis ground. But Senart l. age ? On the testimony of the ancient grammarians Pãndya. the paiß. X. vll.s a caste has been mentioned in the Mahabhmn.l Pancala was originally the country north and west of Delhi from the foot of the Himalayas to the Chambal. however. Law. 65-66. R. 157.r Bhuta is the synonym of Pißacha. 413 ( 1924 ed. Farukhabad and the adjoining districts. The ltristory of the Prakrita Langugae. 50.kfta'. Vol XXII. 105. Gãndhâra were the regions known as P¡Éacha desh.19. 1947. B. Vol.2 Bhojadeva has prohibited rhe use of the pai6achi for the upper class o[ the society.+ Hemchandra has accepted this thesis in his book on the Prãkyta V2õ. 2. Itrístorical Geography of Ancîent lndia. p. 170 K. It is quite reasonable to infer that the term (paiiãchi' was used in the resemblence is beginning because of its geographical habitat. i4. . S.chanamø bha¡a Pøìiachi). 8. LX. reliable because of paucity of favourable data. 4. Cunningham. 6G S. 56. ùlathurd in Ancient lndia. Vahalika. XllI. 3.

lV. 2s.l l. 2. The Tamila works Nakadai and peruiga Dai was the literal translation of the B¡hatkathd. Kuntala and Pandya ( Southern India ). Wassiljew. yol.(82) 1 has. D. the Mythic Journal.42 is still a matter of serious examination. R.21..26 fr. Therefore the thesis of Narasinghachari as expressed in Indian Antiquary. S. A. Nepãli recension is unfortu. g. See I. From the close study of the Prakyta Saraaas2ø of Lakshmidhar it appears that the Paißachi was popular in many regions e..l Wassiljew in his work on Buddhism mentions that the Vaibhasikas and the Sthaviras rvere well versed in the Pai3achi dialect. Pai{achi was the language of independent status. J. ular. Lacote. Gandhãra. Vol. because it was discovered from NepãI. nately incomplete. It could be easily admitted as an independent language and could be compared with the rich languages of our countary like Sanskrit. CHAPTBR V BRHATKATHÃ AND ITS LATER . pp. VIl. Nepal ( Nothern 'India ). p.. Buddhism.222. S. The BTlzatkathailokasarhgraha isfamous as the Nepãli recension of the . 204. A. I.. D. Vãhal¡ka ( North'West ).42. 30. rejected his view" According to him it was spoken in the North-West region of India. . VERSIONS Nepãli and Kã6mirr versions of the Byttatkatltd. These works are assigned to second century A. l4g. But the truth appears to be a different one. The Bfhatkathamañjarî. are available. and Kathasaritsdgar are known as Ka6mirl recensions. VlI.Byhøtkathã of Gutãdhya. Probably due to its extensive popularity Guçã{hya might have preferred to select this language for his magnum opus.well-known recensions of the Byhatkathã some other recensions have come to light but their authenticity is still a matter of controversy. K. 1901.2 l. EI. had marked features and was self sufficient.. For detailed study of Tamil anJ Persian recension See F. Esaî Sur 'Gupa/hya Et la B¡hatkatha. S. Perhaps those inscriptions are of great significance where the name of the king appears. 389. VI.l9r3.hatkatha in 6th century A. See also Fleet. Despite these pop. Prãkgta and ApabharafrÉa' Judging from the available sources on the Bfhat' ' kaúait seems that like the Sanskrit there was a rich literature of Pai3achi language. But the basis on which the date of Gaùga dynasty was assigned was a spurious epigraph.295. p. Tabard.4. Yol. Perhaps the well known king Durvanita of Gaùga dynasty has rvritten a translation of the B¡. 1913.

l 1.HaraPrasadSastri. oP.K. Paríshad. . Lacote.. This work shows close aflìnity of IndoGreek relationship when during the beginning of tho Christiaî era the Greek artists were much appreciated in the Northern India. The main story of Narvãhanadatta came in the background and other small stories got prominence in the BrhatkathdíIokasamgrah¿ of BuddhaswãmI. ãr.ns of the B. Winternitz. It was written in 5th century A' . the prostitute's daughter Madan Mañchuka was not suitable bride for Naravãhanadatta. Vol. P. D.D' to ( circa ). Though chronologically the date is a differenc'e of four centuries between but so far' of the original B. P. According to the Nepãli recension of the B. part lll. the 1 Bihar Rastra Bhasa V. The'Greek artists have been eloquently praised in the fifth canto of Byhatkatltaílnhasañr graha.Ill. Agarwal' Inlrocluction to the gar a..ilokasarngraha are indicative of the time of Gu+ã{hya { lst Ccntury A. 150' )' P 245 hanadatta is of a Dhira Lalita Nayaka ( Hero ). also åf afr" Golden glorious Gupta Agt't It is known as the Nepãli recension of the B' K' text The etymological meaning of the title of the io Sloka metre' is that it is the edition of the B' K' itri. The oldest extant recension Buddhaof Byhatkatha is Byhatkøtlti'ilokasantgørha swãmi. ofGulã{hya' In this work i1 th¡ as t<frã ¡ a significani character where he is Byharkathdmlm'jari and the Kathasaritsãgara In the described as an ordinary character' role of NaravãKashmiri versic. 350. Patna. The author oi this text hacl tried mould BrhatkaftaíIokasamgrahø in to the àurt tfr.(s5) (84) of the Brhatkøthã For a proPer understanding it is necessary to krro* something about its later of the recensions. The surviving portions of this work reveal that the nature of the work is humorous and its author was a greàt follower of 'eat drink and be merry' philosophy. H. In its eighteenth canto. It is really a great loss of the Indian classical literature that only some portions of this great work of Buddhaswãmi is available. S.nit work shows that it is more near to the Gomuorigínal B. These surviving stories of the Bfhatkathã.}llL. But quite contrary to it in the Kãßamirî versions of the B. J' A' S' B" Vol.Lacôtehaspublished it in Devanãgari script with French translation there from Paris in 1908. 62 3. tutoable MSS was discovered by M' M' Pt. This was the age of the great Gandhãra School of Art. Kathas arits a ( 1893 2. K' atÃthis recension us' it is the eãrliest recension of the B' 'K' known to Lacôte is of the opinion that the Bfhatkathdílokasam" A' D'3 sraha isa work of Bth or 9th century ilã. there is a description of the daughter of a merchant whose mothef is a native of Greece.. P. K. Kalingasenã. K.zF. cit. this relationship gets recognition. 6. K. p. ). Srstri.

(87) (06) Almost every aspect of human life has been dealt in it in a very lucid style and a superb lan' guage. B. cit. op" cit. cit. According to Kalidasa the story of the Vatsarãja Udayan was sung among the old people of Malawa. Winternitz. 60-163 Lacote. He has occupied a significant place in the history of Indian literature. the Kingof KauÉambi.V. . luciil and interesting. ifhe introductory story pertaining to Gupã{hya has been found in the B. He has given a beautiful des' cription of the palatial house of Kalingasenã and her luxuriant life. P. Ibid. 1. He followed the foot steps of his father . It is a work of Jain tradition.rã{hya cnly as a mere basis of his work. festivals and Jatras have been discussed at various occasions.l Naravãhanadatta. Agarawal. M. õp. The story of Udayan was not only related with the dalliances of the¿romance of Udayan and Vãsavadatta but it would also have contained the romantic episode of his son.290 2. but it is not found in Byhatkøttzaltokasar?r graha The name of Guta{hya appears in the whole text only once. Buddhaswãmi was basically a free lance writer and he had chosen the theme of the "8.rã{hya and Buddhaswãmi. The title of the B ¡ h atkaúa i I o kasangr ahø is partially correct because Buddhaswãmi had discussed those pas¡ages in great details which appealed to him most. The description of Buddhaswãml of the palace of Kalingasenã can be compared with the Vasantasenã of the Mrchakatika ol Sudraka. S. p. This ignorance further shows the affinity of the time of Gur. K. 10. Lacote. of Gur. 7. p.. and the lf. K. 3. The life of the saints of the Kaula'Kapãlika sects have been mentioned'in a great detail in twenty second canto ascetic in twentyfburth canto' The and of Jain epicurean life leading by the artists have been mentioned in the fifth canto' In the tenth canto.' really quite surprising that the work of Buddhaswãmi is different from the Kãémiri versions of the Byhatketha. S. The available incomplete text corrtains lB cantos and 4539 Élokas. of wríting ílokas rather' than in theii collection. 351. The difference is not only It is in the structure but also in the original story. S. the hero of the original B¡hatkathawas the son of Udayan Vatsarâja.s Sometimes it seems that the KaÉmiri recensions of the B¡hatkathã are independent works. op. Gomukha gives a picturesque description of the life of prostitutes.l Religíon. His style is fluent. conscious Perhaps either in the time of the Byhatkathdllokasamgraha æ within a century Salhgha Dasa Gaçi has written a Prãkrita version named as Vasudeoa Hind¿. He was more K.I. S. Naravãhanadatta.

N. the author Dharma Dãsa Gati had interwoven those left portions in his Tasadeaa Hinfli.ras. the son of Udayan but the hero of Vasudeaa Hinda is the famous Vasudeva of Andhaka Vrsh{ra lineage.. ( 2) Dhammila Hin{i. ( 6 ) SarÎra. The Kathasarísdgara p.based the theme of his story on the original B. haps the nature of the original B. It contains 29 Lam' bakas ( cantos ). K.i of Sarirgha Dãsa Gaqi. The Vasudeaa Hinf. The Vasudeaa Hind¡ of Dharmadãsa Ga4i is popularly known as 'Madhyama Khan{a. F. . Though Sarhgha Dãsa Gapi had . P. A perusal of the introduction of this work clearly shows that. But unfortunately this voluminous work is still unpubli' shed.. was Naravãhandatta. Two forms of this book are available to us.If. those themes which were omitted by Sarirgha Dasa Gapi simply because of the fear of unnecessary increase of the volume of the text.ri had given a religious tinge and added several Jain stories in it. cit. andlndian Culture. . The discoveryof the workof Sarhgha Dasa Ga4i again is undoubtedly a significant achievement for reconstructing the nature of the original B¡hatkathã. The last canto is misplaced and stories of the 19th and 20th cantos are also missing' basis of these l. contains seventy' one Lambakas (cantos ) and 17000 Élokas. The second form of this book is known as Madhyama Khanda. yet he had made certain original basic çhanges. 54.ri. in the original Byhatkathd there would have been several stories pertaining to mar' riage. S. They are ( 1 ) Kathôtapatti. 9. whom Sarhgha Dasa Gar.' It may be considered as an appendix of the earlier text. The work of Sarhgha Dasa GaBi is the first form of it. Per. Prasad.8. ( 3 ) Pithikã' ( a ) Mula. op. Sarira is the rnain body of the text.K. The most significant change which he made was that he had changed the hero of the story. therefore nothing can be said with certainty but on the basis of the earlier' text this can be presumed that the work is written on similar patt' ern and he had added some more stories'z On the two available versions it can also be imagined that . K¿ was of romantic story because of the various descriptions of several marriages of Naravãhanadatta. 3.(Be) (88) and estáblished several marital relat"ionships. contains six Prakarar.r Vasudeaa Hind'¡. The original hero of the . 2. N. V. ( 5 ) PratimúIa. at present. in its original form would have contained a number of sex stories. It is written in the Maharãstri-Prãkrita prose and contains 1l thousand ßlokas. Agarawal. It contains 29 lambakas. The literal meaning of Hindi is travel thus the title denotes that the Vasudan HinSt is a travelogue of Vasudeva. This second part ís written about two centuries later by Dharma Dãsa Gar. The .8. . S.

2. They are Kathôtapatti.his famous Har¡a Charita in order to inmortalise the deeds of his monarch. the Greek traders were closely associated with the famous port of Kãveripatana. But this is not mentioned in the KaÉmiri recensions of the .ra (. Pithika' Mukha. 9.r Most probably oDhammil. Dhammila was a special type of women.l Besides Dhammila there were six more divisions in the Vasudeaa Hin{2. In Dhammil. It is also mentioned as Dhammila Charita. Like Naravãhandatta. and Upasarhhãra. there is a story of a trader named Dhanavasu. The climate in which the Silpadikãrama was written was a period of vigorous mercantile activity of India of which she had ever seen and perhaps this word was coined in such an atmos. who has wielded his perl in . According to the Tamil work Silapadikãrama. p. 10.z Baqa the celebrated biogra' pher of King Harça. p. however. Once Praduyamna told to Vasudeva that look. lbid. 1. this word perhaps owes its origin to any south Indian language and most probably to Tamil. Truly from this brief but apt remark of Vasudeva the whole culture of the period is gleaned. Vasudeva on hearing this remarked that $a-bu is like a frog of a well and who used to be easily contented but my nature is differ' ent. p. patron and friend. In the first three divisions the story has been introdu' ced.s coiffure of the Gupta age. While discussing about the origin of the term Dharnmila it is written that his mother rvas in dohad about the concept and nature of religion and that was why his name was given as Dhammila. . lO.. Sarira. the son of Dhanavati.(e0) After the of Kathôtapatti. phere. Sa*bu got married with 108 ladies while oniy sitt' ing in his seraglio. K. would have been a name of any merchant of Southern India. cit. V. Agarawal. The earliest known usage of the term Dhammila is found in the Sanskrit language of the Gupta period. Pratimukba. Dhammila while going for business trips to abroad married thirty two times. S. He has given a very apt description by saying that it-seems that perhaps some ointment of distant sea 1. was taken from the life of the rraders. The whole vigorous mercantile activity has been referred in the Pratimukha by Praduyamna. The theme of the Dhammila Hin{i.el vasu went to Greece for trade with a huge fleet of the traders. But. I have extensively travelled and have enjoyed the mixed pleasure of joy and sorrow simultaneously. I do frankly admit that in my life I had seen various ups and downs. op.8. DhanaPrakarar. ) Ibid. there is a Prakara4a of Dhammila Hin{i in fifty pages but this is quite clear that it is not in its proper place because Dhmmila is a story of a son of merchant.

Vol. IlI. voyage is pasted on the feet of the merchants. arc avialable in which the Byhatkatharnañjariof K¡emendra is older. Now you turn your waves into rock.s Kçemendra appears to be interested in l. S. 302. The literal translation of the title of this work is the . Prasad. see Mythic Jour- nal.l It was a popular belief among the merchants that richmen only becomes after having gone for trade to some distant countries by crossing the sea. Uktivyaktiprakarapa. J. 3. Besides we also find in the . Ksemendra's B¡hatkathamañjarî is a more real version olthe B¡hatkathâ. the abridgement of the original Byhatkathaand tliat too he seems to be more interested in describing the erotic and amorous passages-a characteristic feature of a youth poet.Yol. 1872. Vol. According lo Lacote. D. rament and interest.' The work was written in 1037 A.Bud.s Two Kã3rnir¡ versions of the Byhatkathã. R. p. 3.. p. 5. 19. p. .2 The increasing vol. ¿Introduction of patna Ed.oi rr+fÈ ] r 2. B. Lacote. 123. N. pp. 1887. 154-455. lgg5. ume and significance of trade can very well be realised from the fact that a teacher in Vãrãlasi could have fruits brought from Dvipãntara. V. S. J. The author of the Matl purõrya while protesting to the ocean thus embarked that O ! grèat ocean uptil now only the Rãkshasha-rhe inhabitant of Lankã used to cross you and that is why your water is full of dirt.352. waski Somadeva's Kathasaritsãgara is a more honest and real recension of the llrhatkathâ.z But owing to the loss of the Bghatkatha of Gupã{hya. 4. Bühler. 99 ff. Levi. 8.( (92. S. Matçya Purarya. surnam€d Vyãsadãsa was the son of Praka3endra and grandson of Sindhu.fore we are not in a position to comment on the reality of Kçemendra. it is a matter of only surmise that how far these recensions are honest versions'of the Blhatkathd. A.. A. pp. p.lll. But to Mono. VI. r0.emendra's early phase. is divided into eíghteen lambhakas. Winternitz. The Mythic f ournal. loc.. B. Bühler. Vol. 4. part IU. A. XII.. 2.IV. so that the great lord Mahadeva wants to cross you with his family. p. K.s Kçemendra. J. p.HIL.of the Gre at Tree of the Byhatkathã.l Perhaps both the wrirers have used the original" Byhatkathd and have moulded it according to their own tempe.jart. 85. I waarùa ¿¡ltqrrq. p.i¡ ' (lgs. M. 1970. Agarawal. Most 1. 26 ff. Unfortunately to us it is only the name of Gulã{hya that has survived and there. cit. Vol. IJis Brhatkathãmañ.. S. 4. l. Essai Sur GupaShya Et La B¡hatkatha. Bãqa. I. ( Circa ).4 Winternitz is of the opinion that the Byhatkathãnøñjari is a work of K.s descritpion.rdouble system of subdivisions. Kçemendra was a garrulous by nature.. Boss.a Kçemen- dra was in the court of King Ananta of KaÉmir ( 1029-1064 ).8. S.

Temple in his brilliant Foreword l. KÞemendra was the. ( 12 ) Padamävatt. p. intrigue. ( 7 ) Madana Mañchuka. royalties and the like. Page XII-XIII . bloodshed and despair. Agarawal.( g{. Fenzer shows that he must a mere suffix have composed his verses about A. ft occupies the highest place among the story literature of not only of -[ndia but also of the world. 1070. So while Somedeva was composing his distichs for the delectation of Süryavati. Essai. S. or about two hundred and fifty years after Vasugupta introduced into Ka3mir the Saiva form of the Hindu religion peculiar to Ka3mir.f.l The Brltatkathamañ. Lacote. which subsequently spread widely by his pupil Kallaça Bha!!a.) (e5) the accessory. K."r There is no -a doubt that the Køthasaritsõgara was written before 10Bl A. of the patna edition of author of the original book. S. ( 11 ) Madirãvari. They are ( I ) Kathãpitka. D. (14) Ratana Prabhã.84-85.prolific writer of the 1lth century A. 5." it was also as has often happened in Eastern history time of great religious activity. (17 ) Mahabhiseka and (lS ) Suratamañjari. Later on. {tI judge from the Invocation that Somadeva.jarZ is divided into 18 Lambhakas. 2. of The Ocean of Storlt has remarked. lntroduction the Kathasaritsagara. ( 3 ) Lãvataka. ( g ) ßaßankavati. r14. ( 6 ) Sürya ?rabhã. the Queen of king Ananta of Kaúrnir. but still one hundred years before Somadeva. It is a kind of the index of the several incidents found in the text. ( 5 ) Chaturadãrikã. This method of subdivision. ft can be assumed that Somadeva would have been inspired from the 1.z R. the of in all the manuscripts of the B. The Rajanrangivi of Kalahapa was written slightly earlier than the . V.tales and some of the principal episodes of the hero's history are followed by a colophon which resumes the substance of the talesomething like the marginal subtitles found in the translation of the Kothãsaritsagara of Tawney. Mr. D. at a time the when political situation was "one of discontent. being found of the I'Vol. and it is most convenient for ready reference. (10) VishamaÉila. and then in Somedeva's ow¡r time made popular by Abhinava Gupta. 3BB ßlokas and 124 bilows. His real name was Soma. ( B ) Vëlã. must be rather ancient. ( 2 ) Kathamukha. ( 4 Naravãha) nadatta Janama. (t6¡ Sfrakti " Yaso Lambhaka. was a Saiva Brãhmana of Ka$mir. C. The of Somadeva is the last recension of the Bfl¿atkaúa of Kathãsarítsãgara but most significant Gu4a{hya. the great Saiva writer. and his pupils Kshëmaraja and Yogarãja. it was further spread by Bhaskara. deaa being to the names Brãhmans. It. ( 13 ) Pañcha Lambataha. D. (15) Alafrakãra Vatr.contains 21. S.

and what we may gather of his ideas and religious beliefs from the work itself. 7G I. ar ílokas. ascetics.l fn Somadeva is an honest and conscious writer. I have endeavoured as much as possible to choose the most suitable expressions. S.He felt Íhat his great work united in ítself all stories. XXXI.r-was made by Brockhaus. S.'. Following out his metaphor he has divided the work into one trundred and twenty-four chapters. devils. there is not anywhere the least omission. S.Ibid. till at last fancy would create an ocean full of stories ol. Penzer. as the ocean does all rivers. called tarangas-s. except what he himself has told in the short poem at the end of his work.S. fn the very beginning of the rf. and while describing in the srories the various movements of the passions ( rasas / a work has been produced which may be considered a piece of poetry. .l Unfortunately we know nothing of Somadeva.000 distichs. gamblers.(s7 ) (e6) title of the Râjatarangiryî 'for his Kaúasøritsagarø. The whole work contains 22. prostitutes and bawds.wavesD or. drunkards. he tells that it is not his original work. S. of statecraft and intrigue.'. but simply to facilitate the memorizing of that many coloured net of myths. 'lhe K. This is the KathAsarilsagara.S. It is nearly twice as long as the lliail and Odlssel put together. 10-12 ]-Brockhaus.z real sense he is a true recensionist of the B. so also in this the Byhatkatlzã.S.. stories of animals in fact and fable. . l. part A.. l.. S. Sre Chapter lV. is the earliest collection of stories ex. only the Ianguage is more compact in order to avoid the book becoming too large. p.billowsrr-while a further ( and independent ) division into eighteen lambakas . My work did not spring from the desire to secure fame or learning. I K. of treacher¡ trieker¡ murder and war.'surgesrt or. and storïes too of beggars. but is taken from a much larger collection by Guaã{hya known as or the Great TaIe3 "As in the original work.. K. 2. of kings and cites. 3. goblins and gbouls. other streams from other mountains would do likewise.. Penzer remarks regarding the title which he has chosen for his work. Vol. Penzer. K. which gives some idea of its immense size. I. l. of magic and spells. 3. tales of blood-sucking vampires. the mirror of Indian imagination that Somadeva has left as a legacy to posterity. Introduction. every conceivable descriptiontales of wondrous maidens and their fearless lovers.swells. The Ocean p.. one. of Story. XXXI. tant in the world.. Every stream of myth and mystery flowing down from the snowy heights of sacred Himãlaya would sooner or later reacb the ocean.

The tragic history forms as dark and grim a background for the setting of Somadeva.(. Vol.2.s tales as did the plague ol Florence for Boccaccio's Cento Nouelle nearly three hundred years later.. S. Kalaßa and Harça worthless degenerate life of the former. K. elegance of style. for twenty or thirty years previously . 2. 1872. One can easily imagine that these stories were compiled in an effort to take the mind of the unhappy queen Süryavati off the troubles and trials which so unremittingly beset her court. are as far as possible kept in view. mendra had writtenhis Byltatkathãmañjarl. P.. e.S. bloodshed and despair. at whose court Somadeva was a poet. the of propriety ancl natural connectoin. the but ¡uthless lile of the latter. it does not deviate from it. only such language is selected as tends to abridge the prolixity of the work. and the joining together of the portions of the poem so as not to interfere with the spirit of the stories. I.) ( ee_) in the original such is the copy. the suicide -the brilliant of Ananta himself and resulting chaos-is all well discussed in the Rajarurangi2tt. The story ol Anantats two sons. and the logical sequence. tJ:is magnum opus was written for the amusement of Süryavaü. pared witir Somadeva. He was thes son of a virtuous Brãrhmar. The ff S. wife of King Ananta of Kaimir. Kshemendrars .Vol.The Oceen of StorY. I simply epito' mize the primitive work and I translate. Iacking the charm of the language. The history of l(ãÉmir at this period is one of great discontent.Kshe. material by Bühler. Carefui to observe..ra named Rãma. If com. . 1. that is all the difference.s. BombaY. 'oAs "This book is precisely on the model of that from which it is taken. the iiterary propriety. is nor only rendirion of the B¡hatkatha. I have not made this attempt through a desire of a reputation for ingenuity. Somadeva. even by one line. is doing my best not break off either the narrative or the spirit of the sentiments exprcssed' I am no less careful to arrange a portion of a regular poem"-Lacote. . Moreover. there is not even the slight' est deviation.I. S. masterly arrangement and metrical skill of the later production.s work it pales into insignificance. 3.l. that the narne of our author was Soma-i. S. 10-12. intrigue. but in order to facilitate the observance recollection of a multitude of various tales'" -f¿!y¡sy.3 From this it appears Brockhaus in his textrz but was l. 4. as far as possible.r It is interesting to note that the short biographical poem of Somadeva was not included by printed later from M.

K. It is the most precious jewel of the Sanskrit literature' A study of the. of statecraft and intrigue. doubtless contains phrases.(100) collection is only a third the length of the ¡f. I.S. treckery. ) M. P XXXII. . 2.K. of Gupã{hya. S. p.S. Vol. S. verdict can be given on this issue because of paucity of material.6. metaphors and constructioris which rnay at first strike the "Englishman unacquainted with Sanskrit" as unusual and exaggerted.Penzer. S. Penzer. shows that it is not only a significant work for reconstructing the past of Indian culture and history but also an equally valuable piece of literature.. S. A study of the text shows that this magnum oþus of Somadeva is not well knitted. similies. perhaps after consulting and critically examining the merits and demerits of his previous writers' And perhaps (: 10I that is why in the If. dhu nor the highly ornate style of Bãr. 354.z He had beautifully arranged the stories of wondrous maidens and their fearless lovers. S. Hisory of lndian -Líterature. goblins and 1. may be regarded as an attempt to present as a single whole the essence of that rich Indian imagination which had found expression in a literature and art of India through the ages. diction. Ill. . barî. S. Winternitz. rhetoric. and which give the whole work a charm all its own. S. S. atmosphere. Perhaps the magnitude of the text is to be blamed for or the blind rendering of the original B. He has used through' out his work a well'balanced literary language.' The use of metres have given dynamism to the work.l fn a work of this magnitude it is necessary to say something of the arrangement of the text. of trachery. History of Sanskrit Literature. P' XXXIII. p. No . . of magic and spells. There is no doubt that Somadeva has occupied a place among the authors of the first rank of the classical Indian literature. Somadeva appears to be himself a great critic of literature because he had used carefully and consciously his style. devils. Vol. of Kings and cities. I. 2.ra's Kadam. but none the less a delightful. rnetres and figures of speech and language.282. there is neither the ordinary descriptive style of Vãsaaadattã. Vol. the fame of Somadeva is not becarne of style or arrangem€nt or representation of the text but he is immortal because ol preservation of several unknown yet significant stories of Indian Cul: ture because of his interesting presentation in an untiring manner in such a great magnitude of work. yet the reader as he reads he will find that it is those very '¡peculiarities" which are slowly creating âs ün' English. of Suban.1 The . Keith. murder and war tales of blood-sucking vampires. Although the K. Whatsoever may be the truth.

drunkards. cit. stories of animals in fact and fable. 2. ' .L The basic story of the ll^.IVinternitz.a fndia is indeed the home of story telling. 4. This western mode of fiction is perhaps passing at present in its fancy stage. 356. It was from here that the Persian learned the art. XXXIV. gamblers. op. 'Karma foga' and that is why neither they are astonished to see any new happening nor they are surprised In Indian way of life every thing is predetermined and one has to act accordingly. M.2 In the art of story description. S.. however either he gets the longsought beloved or he gets another beautiful wondrous story maiden. If it is viewed from western viewpoint. cit. the network of l.. op. ) stories are knitted. Somedeva is unparalleled in the Indian literature and no fiction Naravãhanadatta. This magnum oþus may be rightly called the corpus of Indian Stories. 3. Agarawal. there is nothing extraordinary for attraction because the theme of the story is not mysterious and writer has so far reached the ßuency of his style. p. Naravãhandatta after suffering. ^L is of Naravãhan-. Línes. The English poet Robert Browning has beautifully expressed this way of life in his famous poem Rabbi Ben Ezra. ascetics. V. He will encounter such of the story is almost well-known or can be fairly well imagined. various pains.( ]03 ( r02) ghouls. I-8. S. P. From the Middle East the tales found their way to l. op. 21. and time has proved incapable of rubbing them of their freshness and fascination. S.. Thus there is not an element of curiosity which is the basic object of the end the western fiction writers. Lacote. the main hero of the . of Udayana is borrowed fror'n the Buddhíst storiesl yet the original story of Naravãhandatta is different from other stories ( Buddhist stories ). e. There are well-known tales from the Pañehatantrø and the MahabharaÍ¿ as well strange fantastic myths of early Rig-Vedic days.Penzer. F. which Somadeva handles with ease. intelligent and politician minister Yôgandharâyar¡a are more interesting..247. The appeal of his stories is immediate and lasting. prostitutes and bawds. Vol. p.s The general reader will continually recognise stories familiar to him from childhood. The story òf his father Udayarn and his two queens-Vãsavadattã and Padamã' his faithful. p. And around it. Though the vati. cit.S.lf. Browning. and stories of beggars. several whole series of stories as the VctdlapaÌuhaaimíati or cycle of Dçmon stories.. datta. used to win over the hearts of maidens one after another like Don Juan. Indian way of life is wholly motivated with its philosophy of action i. But apart from this the work contains much original matter. lV. J. and passed it on to the Arabian.

357." When the fool said this. which he had purified by heating it. S. There is a beautiful collection of twenty-five stories in the VetãlaþaÌtchaaimiati or cycle of De... and he saw it taken by a customer.24. op.'z There are several such type of amusing anecdotes. K. p.g It seems that in the original B. p. p. the cycle of -Demon stories was not included.. The inclusion of these stories suggest Buddhist impact on Somadeva. 3. cit. rnon stories in the . 2." The chief objective of the Fool's stories 1. For example see the 'Staryt oJ the FooI ar'l his Brother'-T A certain stupid fellow was talking in a crowd of men. 99. The several stories of fools of the /f.75. cit. For instance see the 3Storl oJ the FooI and the CottoÈ.z but the description in the B. K. Keith.9. was only the act of the genius of Somadeva alone and none else.a goldsmith selling gold. Kshemendra has placed ^S."A certain blockhead went to the market to sell Cotton. There are 1206 Slokas in all.stories are also found in the Byhatkathfumafr. 9. S. 2l-3I:.. ate also included in the /f. The influence of {he Arabian J{ights on Euroþean contes poþulaires must not be overlooked. K. K. Somadeva has taken great interest in the stories of fools. and when it was burnt up. nor rnust it unde deriautor be forgotten. so I am not liable for his debts. 2.19-t221. TranslationlromThe Ocean. Seeing a respectable man some way ofl he said: "That man there is brother to me so I shall inherit his property. these stories at one place. It is only in the early quarter of the 20th century that the Indþn origin of the Alfa Lqy\a Wa La2la has been realised and shifting of different recensions been commenced. When the stupid creature saw that. S. Hístory of Sanskrit Literature.(t04) (105) Constantinople and Venice and finally appeared in ûhe pages of Boccaccio.. 335.. s.. 5. V. Western tales owed a deep debt of gratitude to fndia. are now famous in the world literature.. . t. cit. p.S.a because there is no connection between the cycle of Demon stories with Naravãhanadatta. even the stones laughed at p.r The cycle of Demon . s. V. S. In the meanwhile he saw in the bazar . M. op. he threw the cotton into the fire in order to purify it. but I am no relation to [rim. M. S. K. the people laughed. K. S.l The stories can be reduced to such considerable length without losing its sense and S.õ Several stories of the panchatantra. but no one would buy it from him on the ground that it was not properly cleaned. Dey. S. B. the original home of tales. 4. 421. him. 70.Yol. Agarawal. is short and inornate. 61. Winternitz. Chaucer and La Fontaine. op.jarZ of Kshemendra..

p. For instance he writês that. he at once falls in ttre same way as a man who digs a well. He has succesfully tried to impart some lessons in these stories. 2. the result of infatuation. 148. soma has a similar unhappy experience.a The story of Upako3a has a distinct resemblance to the tale o[Devasmitã. ^9. capricious. there are various stories of the ladies of their bad character. S. S. 148. and thus my wife. 150. beautiful at a distance' prone to túrbi' is recreation good fortune does not select for favour a man wanting in resolution. 66. chaste and faithful ladies. Ibid.29 1t. p. produces misery to all men. has run aÍter a leper. 64 and 65 tarangas. branded and throln into a ditch of filth. 2. "" Somadeva concludes : "So attachment to womenr."r The Brhãmala Rudra-. regarding the pious. teaches t}¡at a wise man obtains The K.K". contains several stories of ladies pertaining to their base character.. So a man should be resoluten is much to be preferred. So lbr me also the forest is'the best thingl Outon family lif. The srory perr_ aining to the roguish nature is several and Soma. is famous in the world literature. 61. and so they are as difficult to guard as such rivers are to drink.182. The Ocean. S. S..l The story great wealth without committing a very great crimq. 1. 140. p. cit.. dness. S. after which they are stripped. nB.. The story of Devasmita in Chapter XIII of the ff.J8.2 In the story of "$aÉin's wife and the leper" $a$in said in his grief : "Alas ! women are like torrents that flow in a ravine. K. and when he has gained the advantage. Winternitz. 193. however.. so a life in the forest man.. The merchant Dhanadeva. 3. 34. . they are ever tending downwards.z In 58. 3. 124. she is faithful to her absent husband and shames the would'be adult' l. These tales are strictly '¡¡s¡¿l-the heroine is a virtuous married woman. deva has desscribed them with great interest. na434. Vol. p.:2.'l Besides these kinds of stories there are several stories in the . The story of Dhanadeva's unchaste wife is quite revealing. reflected his grief in these words : "Enough of the folly of being a family for women in a house are a snare ! It is always the story with them. 4. S. though kept in a cellar. De' vasmitã has the gallants drugged.(106) (to7) and Somadeva has achieved success in obtaining his aim completely. The story of a cunning rogue who passed himself off as a minister. ó0. Destiny produces fruit for every man according to his resolution. K. 35a. Ibid. op. But indifference to them produces in the disc' erning ernancipation from the bonds of existence. V. S. S. S.66.

.S.S. Some of these stories derived their source from the Buddhist stories. covetousness does not give pleasure. he had a queen named Nagaßri. sdgar. 4. l.? The impact of Buddhist stories can also be seen in some other stories of the lf.. s. . came there." "Full o[ love is the attachment that subsists among friends. p.E l. S. and after eating he conversed with him during the night.27.prosti- tutes. R. p. 2. 15. So. evidently shows his broad mindedness and religions tole.. S. K. 41. Agrawala.80_102. "Once on a time another hermit. as. Pañchatantra.. V. it only causes annoyanóe to those who cherish it.ã The stories of Vetala are also derived from the Buddhist legends.s but the view of Benefy can not be accepted as a whole. n'!Ve should hoard. but attachment to women is not approved. 53. you see. rance. cit.There once lived a king named Dharmadatta. 3. for the jealousy of the husband . S. S.. 3. who was devoted to her husband and was Arundhati on the earth. 36. 8. op. 4. 62. 50. s. 32. lZ0. she was the chief of virtuous women. 65. g.r There are also certain stories regarding the chaste character of the. -s. 46¡' Il7. 6.ó3. T. l4g. though it is high up. The inclusion of the Buddhist srories in a work of'a great Saivite author Somadeva.. so the first hermit. They imaprt teaching of the mundane world. 3. 17. And the hermit who was his guest said : "Why do you interrupt our conversation to do this !" Where upon the hermit to whom the cell belonged ans' wered hirn : "I have got an evening here in the form of this mouse. the other hermit saicl to him : "In truth this covetousness is the bane of creatures.G Kalahaq's Rajatarangíryi too contains stories of Vetãla. The Buddhist stories are mainly found in the tarangas of 27th and 28th of the KatltãsariÍ. 2. Iike her. gl.." "How a woman behaves when over' jealously watched. S. xxvll. we should not direct our thoughts to excessive hoarding. And I was at that time attempting to carry off the food. s. K. lt6. S. K.a After some modifications we can accept the view of Beiefy. 7. Ibid. 56. 75.. who is always jumping up and carrying off this food of mine. 64. I am trying to frighten him by moving the pot of food with a piece of cane).z Perhaps the story of the such chaste charac- ter of ladies in If. s. 132. owes its origin to the Buddhist stories.38. S. K. a friend of his.(10e) (108) erers.' When he said this. who was listening made the pot resound frequently by striking it with a piece o[ split cane. xxvlil. the lord of KoSala." Some other teachings are worth quoting viz. Somadeva has enhanced the utility of the text by adding some educational stories. 65. 58. because it is open to jealousy.. 33.

. Somadeva.'. .One night Harisvãmina fell asleep as he was reposing with his wife Lãvalyavati in a palace cool with the rays of the moon. . .. being scorched with the fire of grief." While Haris.. Madanavega roaming about at will.r'or . l i I sobbed and lamented: "Alas ! my beloved with face like the moon's orb. and taking her up in his arms asleep.'.. and blinded by love. A fool never takes leave of his wealth until his wealth takes leave of him. His heart was captivated by her beauty.. that.ra .rA fool is as void of sense and discarnment as an animal. he rose up in a state of distraction.s excellence in using the figures of speech can well be attested from the foilowing example. 6. So a wise man should guard his wife without showing her robe. The word can either mean . S. though oil and ghee both possess the property of oiliness ( It is pun. he ). and when he could not find her anywhere. after Immediately her husband." "Then he left his country. or arrows dipped in poison. K. woke and not see' ing his beloved. many surmises of this kind. and comforted me with them. with his Brãhmar. not so his grief at his breavernent. he irnmediately swooped down. Taranga.. .r. came that way through the air. very moon. 61. t'Every man chooses what is good or bad according to the measure of his own intellect :1 6ßA wise man should place no confidence in a wicked person. he wandered here and there that night. fair as the moonlight.u"ul.d her exquisitely rnoulded ceremonious entertainment only. jealousy. flew off with her through the air.. He even searched in the palace garden. At that very moment a Vidyãdhara prince. vãmina was uttering these laments.Fools. seemed to be in fear. looking for her on the rooÇ and in the turrets of the palace. did this night grudge your existence. but oil is oil and ghee is ghee. And a man must by no means reveal a secret to a woman ii he desires prosperity. the night at last slowly passed away..'oiliness.birth as his only fortune. and proceeded to go 1 I . So a wise man should not recklessly tell secrets to women. is a different thing from a real friend..4 friend that shows his friendship . fall into their proper place..raffectiorr. and 1. vanquished by your beauty. He said to himself : What can this mean ! Where has she gone ! I wonder if she is angry with me or has she hidden himself to find out my real feelings and is making fun of me ?" Distracted by aspiring high. S.(110) (nI) teaches the wife to run after the other men. ..People of simple dispositions are easily imposed upon by wicked women. hating your charms that rival hers ! That. as if with burning coals. He saw her sleeping by the side of her hus band.. that had sllipped aside.

Vol. His power of story-telling in a clear entertaining and absorbing way is only equalled by the richness and diversity of his subject-matter. Studies about the K athasarítsagara. pur. yol. Somadeva was a man of genius who rightly ranks next to Kalidasa arnong Indian poets.29-32. with an Account of the Bala_Raltas or Balhar Emþerors.h. Appendix VI. Vol. his style. want 8G . Speyer. with the blazing sun for month_ and wirh a mane composed of his fiery rays.A. J.".Vicramaditya and Satiuahdna : Tluir Respectiae Eras.( 112 ) round to all the holy bathing-places in order to recover his beloved. IX pp. F. R. this bibliography has been gi ven for those sch olars who to proceed further on Gunâ{hya and his work.. 1807. 1819" ft was not issuecl in subsequent l.r Wilford. H. The autho. S.. there came upon him the terribre rion o*f the hot season. And the trees by the road side seemed to lament on account of the departure of the glory of spring making . 28 ff. I{eferences up to lg2l arc based u4on îi. can find. H. VIII. Ocaan of Story. ( 1908 ). "lro place some important researches done on é. Calcutta. K. 8 7. as if it were lips. S.descriptions and the wit and wisdom of his aphorisms are masterl y in their execution..: dhya.'.. J. appeared to be showing their broken hearts.l ft shows that Somadeva got excellence in the use of the simile aná metaphor. with leaves. APPENDIX (A) CHROI{OLOGICAL BIBLIOGRAPHY oF \\¡ORKS ON THE AND ITS CHIEF BÐ. See also Asiatic Researches.907.. However.. Asiatic Researches Vol. . p. wailing heard in the shrill moaning of their bark. as if warned by the breath of sighs furnaced fourth by travellers grieved at being separated from their wives.z l. His knowledge of human nature. he has been deprived of the opportunity ofconsul ting however regrets that as a largé number of early texts and articles mentioned in this bibliogra phy are not available in India.HATKATHÃ. ll7-'24I" Calcutta. with their supply of water diminished by the heat. and their drying white mud. hu.d whith heat.. the beauty and force of his. 2. pp. preface to tl¿e Sanscrit Dictionarlt. And the tanks. . o. The author. X. _ Wilson. The Katl¿asarißagara is really the Ocean ol stories. The Ocean. And the winds blew with excessive heat. 269 which contains the earliest reference to the Virhat-Catl¿a thati. S. And as he was roaming about. S. RECBNSIONS Here an attempt has been made to prepare aft up-to-date bibliography on the Bylzatkatha and its chief recensions.i. p. VII.

No.( 114 ) ( 115 ) editions. sammlung des Sri Somadeuà Bhøtta. C.Die Sage Von Nalaand Damayanti. 4 Yols. Vol.zur feier Ihres Hunderdährigen Jubilaeums ihre Glückwünsche der di'e Konigl. No more was published of this edition.rAnaþse des 6 Bucl¿es aon Soma. H.eua Bhatta aus Kaschrnir. 175-179. pp. but was reprinted in works by the late H. H. Bonn. 214-242. Bd. Wilson. II and IV. II. pp. 1840. Thè author gives the text of the story of Vidnshaka ( The Ocean.p. 63-67. Vol. l0l-109. H. H. Calcutta. The Quarterly Oriental Magazine. 1835. Vol. 1839.628-631.'. 194-208. Brockhaus.on'. pp. 1859. Review and Register.scher Mahrchen. XXVII znd XXVIII of the Ausgewählte Bibliothek der Classiker der Auslandes. Erstes bis ftinftes Buch. Erzählulgen und Fabe\n. BrockhausrH. Sächsische Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften za Leipzig. No. by Dr.p.t und Deutsch. Böhtlingk.chst zu¡n Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen St Petersburg. 1834. nach der Bearbeitung des Somadeaa. and No. Sanskrit-Chrestomathie." The British and Foreign Review. It was printed in Works þt the late H. Sansui." Leípzig. Vol. Die M?lhrche. März.n' aus Kaschmir. 'Hindu Ficti. Paris. The work is continued in the Abhandlungen Jür die Kunde des MmgenLandes.H. see pp. pp. H. H. H. 1825. t Kathasarítsdgara. Sanskrit unl Deutsch. lB47-186l. Vol. (unil. pp. I. IV. with notes on pp. 1824. Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenchaften zu München.. There is also another title-page prefixed to each volume which reads : Sammlung oríentali. Sanskrit und Deutsch ( Edited in Nãgarz types ). 154 pp. pp. Wilson.. O. die Marchensarnmlung des Soma Deaa aus Kaschmîr.:lO8-lb9 are 'on Sornadeaa's Marchen-Sammlung. III. 152. It was reprinted in Works ô7 the Late H. Aus dem Sanskrit ins Deutsche übersetzt. pp. pp. Brockhaus. No. 28. K aúa s arit s d gar ø.It forms Vols.159-252. V. Indiiche Alterthumslqtnde. 633-635.July..lll. 622-627. "Hindu Fiction.'" Blatter für literarische Unterhaltung. Vol. II. pp. Leipzig. H. Brockhaus. 1824-1825. pp..F/. Wilson. Brockhaus. 3+9-354. daßs Mithrchensamrnlung. Wilson. Vol. 224-274. . Lassen. 81-lb9i pp.2 Yols. Leipzig ( Printed ). 194b. Hermann Brockhaus. 1859. Leipzig. Leipzig. 153.. Der Brockhaus. 302-314. 54-80 ) or . Leipzig.. 156-268. Leipzig 1843. "Gründung der Stadt Pataliputra und Geschichte der Upakosa. Wilson. Die Milhrchensammlun! des Somad. H. 1839. " Indi s c he Mar c hen... Fragrnentc aus dem Kathasaritsõgara des Sonø Deaa. 2l. H. Berichte über die Ver- . lB2+.

5. See also Vol.( lr7 (116) bandlungen der Königlich Sächsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig. Herlt{sholms loerde Skole i Juli. II. II. lB7B." Buch VI...... "Somadeaa's Mï. 371-383. 447.'.AISS. VII. R. G. Phil. Band' IV. 1872. III. Bühlher. pp.-Hist. R. ( Invitation to the Annual Public Breaking-up Ceremony in Herlufsholms High School ). H." Edition of the Kathasaritsãgara. Leipzig 1866. 5. Herrn Prof. Dissertatio htauguralis Phitologica. 32-33.rDei sechzehnte Ergihlung du Vetãlaþañcaainlati. 1860. No. . No."Remarks on Proføssor Brockhøus. See pp. IX-XVIII. lB71 ( on the BgihatkathãmañjarÍ )." Festschrift zur feiæ seines. A. Rajputana and Central India. A. 167-182.On the Vyihatkatha of Kshenendla. Benfey. 101-162. 46. ( Sanskrit Text only. 57 "Correspondence seq. l.. C. pts. Detailed Reþort of a Tour in Search of Sanskrít . Lambaka IX-X. made in Kalnir. The Academy. Letter to the Editor of The Acadenry. S. 302-309. dated Tanjore." Extra Number Bombay. Vol. I. ) Abhandlungen für die Kunde des . Bombay. Art...47. As. Vratislaviae. XVIII. Die Milrchens- ammlung des Somadeaa:' Buch. ßKathãsaritsãgara. 1862. T. London. Klasse. Publice DeJendet.. ) Bühlher. No.cellanea-Remarks 0n Indian Ant.og Aørsþr'caer i. Gesellschaft. lB7B. Roman type. Leipzig" 1862. IV. Vol. pp. Fünfzigjährigen Doctorsjubiläums am 24 October. 1873 p. 1873. Pischel. I.. A.lBT4. Göttingen. Furrher remarks on the paper were made by Profl Weber under the title Parts X and X[. Vol. Theodor Benfey. ( NS ). Sörensen. edited by Dr. Zachariae. Roy. G. 15th Sept. n'Indbydelsesskrffi til de ffintlige Afgangs. Br. Soc. Learning. D ie M'd. Brockhaus. Kern. J. 304. Göttingen. Roman type. 1872. A Record Science and p. 1877.Morgenlandes herausgegeben von der Deutschen Morgen' landischen. Indiske Aeventyr og Molbohistorier. Bezzenberger. pp. T.r c h e-ns a.rchenschatzr" Orient und Occident insbesondere in ihren gegensei' tigen Forsòhungen und Mittheilungen. efter . XII. IV of Beitrage <ur Kunde der Indogermanischen Sprachen. Band II. De Grammati. 1878. p. 4th October. S.cis Prdcriticis. ibid. 2lstJuly. VIII. 1867. Bombay. I. pp.. " Kat hãs arit s d gar a. ( Sanskrit Text only. et and Mi. 1871. Vol. ). Brockhaus. This work forms Vol. See pp. 32. of Literature.. H. 360-383. H. Burnell.rnmlung des Somadeaa. Vol III Pt. pp. Indian Antiquary. Vol. II.

III. S." Nijmegen ( printed ). which contain six stories from the K. S. G." Einleitung. l8B0-1887. Memoirs of the Eastern iSection VidyasagararP." 2 Vols. See Vol. New rtnd of old y¿pa¡tte Manuscripfs. Hale "Storlt of Deuasmitã:' Journ. T. when it was revised by Wãsudeva Laxmaqr Shastri Par."Denkbee\den ouer OnsterJelijkheid bij de Hi. C. p. Paris. II. . Saraswati Press.. B. and Vol. S. Edited by Pandit Durgãprasad & Kasinath Pãndurang Parab.. XVI' 1887' This article includes a Danish translation of the 10th book of the Kathasaritsagara with some pp. and again in 1915. Beal. R. pp. '(A Sanskrit Reader : with Voca. pp. A. "The Ocean of Story.ã:' ( Title in Russian.(118) (lre) 10 de Bog of Somadcva's Aeventyrsamling. 169-172.245-255. The 1915 edition lacks the last verses of the poem it sel[. Indian Antiquary.c at antr a in Ks h¿mendr as B y hatkat hlrnañj arî. "Some Remarks on the Suhrillekha ur Fri- of the Imperial Russian Archaeological Society. ). Vol. Soc. 1885. R. 1884. IBBB. Hale "The Stoúes of Jimntaaahana and Hari." J. LXII. N. 1883. ar it s ã gar a of Somad ea ab h att ø. pp.J. Vol. Uebessetzung und AnmerkungenLeipzig. B. Asiatique. Ka ilú. S. See pp. Birníe. Reprinted in 1903. L57-r76. Calcutta. C. bularlt and Notes!' Boston. I. S.A.. Wortham. S. Deventer. Shastri. " Le B yihatkat hdmañj arî d e Ks hemend. St Petersburg.iarÌnan}' J. This lecture includes a translation of the story ofJimutavãhana. Wortham. 1892. Pt. 1883. 1889. col.nto Sanskrit Prose from the Poem of Somad. Tawney. R. p. XVIII. Pt. 41-50. 3. Ol'denburg. "Materials for the inoestigation of the collection af Indianfairy tales : the Byhatkath. I. Von. l886 pp. tome VII' 1886.ndu's door. No. 331-339. . "Der Aus4tg aus dem P afr. "Kathasarüsagara or Ocean d the Streams of Storl Rendered i.rsikar.. XVI. 1888. Vol. Text. Roy. l7B-222. Lévi. Naestved ( IBZB ) endþ Communication oJ Nagarjuna'Bodhi'satoa to King Shatoþohanna?'. 1-74. 49-63 and 233-240. omissions. of BengalVol. Vol. Sylv ain. Bombay. See also pp. l3B et seq. pp. as did Brockhaus' text. L. As. S. pp.+5-+6. pp" L-t2. Huitiéme Série. Pandit Har Prasad. VII. "On a. see D u rgã pra sad. H.ra}' J. in Sanskrit..eua Bhatt. 2. Zapiski.172. Press. Lanman. Mañkowski. New Series.

oom Himalarya. Pandit. London. Texte.o' Schacht.(121 (120) Leyen. J. 1903..ana. 1909. "Somadeaas Kathasaritsãgara. Eerste Stuk. nanda ( The Jol of World of Serpents / A Buddhist Drama by Sr¡ Harsha Deva. 'franslation of Book X. 5. Negende Deel. Bari. Translated frorn the Sanskrit.Mit eincn der Indísclte Marchen übertragen Anltang : Die uerchiedenen Darrjel- lungen und die G¿scl¿ichte der Mitrchen. Brhatkaúa Slokasarygralta i-ix. Printed and publishecl by Tukaram Javaji. Amsterdam Speyer. Texte Sanskri." Series.. Aftleeling Letter- kunde. Qjnrr Verslagenen Mededelingen der Koninklijke Akad.. K. .t Publië þour Ia Premiere Fois et Exþlicatiues et Acconþagnë d. Lausanne and Leipzig. Ersie Vollstilndige deutsclte Wesseskí. F. Vierde Reeks. 1912. F. aaec des lrlotes Critiques B. paris. by.. . pp. Deel dam. 1911. Locote.emie van Wetenschappen Afdeeling Letterkunde. Klasse.. The Golden Town and Other Tales . Geschícht¿n mâ"1ã.Kavya69. M. S . rrUne Version Nouaelle de la Byhatkatha Gurya(þa. pp. F. Note : This volume forms one of lhe "Romance of the East. and parab. 1908. L. pt. J. Asiatique. J. 1901. Edited. Niewe Reeks.. Paris.. Schwitnke und Mdrchen ü0n Somadeaa aus Kaschmir.. . Builhasaõmin.rtom Soma Deaa's Ocean of Romance-Rivers. _Verhandelingen der. "Het þogenaamde Groote Verhaall De Byhatkatha ) en de Tijd Samen-Stelling. Barnett. A.. Amster_ F. Vol. Indische Erzd.". H. Lacote. 1908. ) Lacôte.. 1914-1915. "Deuasrnita : nouella indi. suiai du VIII. 1908. ( Speyer. von on. "Ein altindiscl¿es Narrenbuch. London & New York. Sivadatta. Bartoli.hlungen aus dem Sans- krit zun erstenmal ins Deutscl¿e übertragen ann.o' Berichte iíber die Verhandlungen der Königlich Sächsi.. pp... Hist. KoninklijkeAkademie van l{etenschappen te Amsterdam. 1907. i.'.oder O<ean der Marchenstrome.. Dexiéme Série. tome de VII. "The Buddhist Legend of Jtmatuaãhana from the KathasaritsagaraJ' ( The Ocean River of Story ). No. p. Berlin. J.Tlte Brltatkatltãmañjart of Ksltemendra..schen GesellschaJt der Wissenschdten zu Leipzig:' Phil.. Hale.. J. Bombay. Hertel. Traduziane di".lHalle (1896). L\oaellen. lxiv. München. S. lg0g..'une Traduction Fransaise... D. 19-50. F. 116-146..'. Studies about the Kathãsaritsdgara.. Essai sur GurSã(futø et la Byhatkatha inédit des chapitres xxvii a xxx du Nepãla-Mãhãtmya.cBunte Hertel. Dramatized in the Naga- Wortham. Ausgabe in sechs Banden. 1-67. 1918.

J.jarz of Kshemendra. L'Histoire Romanesgue d'[Jdaltana Roi" de Vatsa extraite du Katl¿dsaritsãgara de Somadeua ct traduite pour la premiëre Joís du Sanserit en Frarcais aaec une Introduction et des þarMotes þar. the Kat hr. .somadewas Nan engeschie htm. The house of Gurya|@a' Oriental Thought.. lg2g. Buhhasuãmin. hler. . Le ilidilesa et la Byhatkathd. Sonad. Tabard. Bfiatkatha Slokasaryg_ raha x'xuä.I Kedar Natha Sharrna has editecl the Kathdsritsã. F. z*- eiurúdreissig Bharataka Geschichten und. Paris. and terminal essays. Lacote. Bangalore City.. Sylvain. E.. fI.. 1960. The above forms vol. Oxford Universiry Press. l/ãsauadafia.Lahore. V S. l0 vols. . of an anzn)mous Lacôte.. N.rLes Classiques de I'Orient" Penzer. 1-55. IV. "Ptolémëe. 1920. 1923.(t22) (r23) Lacôre.nzen Braufahrt.. Patna.." Etudes Asiatiques publides á I'occasion du Vingt-Cinquieme Anniversaire de L'BcoIe Fransaise D' Extrérne-Otient.44 of Studies in Indologl pP' 65-69. Reprenred from the Quarterly Journal of the Myrhic Society. published from the tsihar Rastra Bhasa Parishad. te'vi. With Stanzas attributed to Bhasa in uarious anthologies and extracts bearing on the legeni of Udayanafrom the Slok^orpgroha of Buildhøsoamín.' Roenau. Di. He has given the original text and its Hindi translation' This volume contains the text and translation from I to 7 lambakas.rchenströrne: Aus den Sanskrit übertragen uon. par Ses Membres et ses Collaborateurs. Hertel. Published by the Vidharbha Samasodhana Mandal. 1925. IX of . Vol. Sukthankar. Texte sanskrit pubtië þour ra preniëre Fois aaec des Notes Critìques et Exþlicatíaes et Accampagné d. 1 92 5. 1g24. See also pP+3-+32. UdayPur...eaa.. Being a translation Sanskrit drama Saøpønaãsauadatta attributed to Bhdsa. Lakshman The Vision of Vãsauadøttä ( Svapnavasvãdattam ).u ar it s ã gar a of Som ad eu a. MitBildern und Buchscl¿muck aon Kart Borscike. Note : It was reprinted with lntroducticn notes. pp. yienna. paris..fuIii. V.asritsãgara\ol. Mitrclten und Geschicl¿ten aus dem Kaúasaritsãgarø : Ozean der . 1922.Indiscl¿c Erzâ. Mirashi. M.ea{hlaand the Byhatkathã. Paris. Essa2 on Gw. (wei indiscl¿e Na¡renbücher. the B¡hatkøthamañ. Vol. Des pri. 1924-28.. I. Vol..80is dessinàs et graaès þar Jean Buhot. xx of the series' Itath. F.gar. This work forms Vol. Translated by A.. . Leipzig lg22 This volume furms Band y ol . Sarup. Zå¿ Ocean of Storlt in London. V. F. M.. 1960.. p.une Traduüion Fransaise.

A.tsagør in Russian Language. III translated by pt. Vol. pp. V. S. He has translated almost ten lambakas. 1966. H.hla. 27. . N. Tl¿e Date of tlze Byhatkathd. ( 1968 ) p. Our heritage has sufferecl much owing to the loss of the Byhatkatha of Gula{hya. Vol. Prasad. p. N. Further nnte 0n the Original Home oJ Gupal. XLVII. Published from Chaukhambha Orientalia. l-4. Note ontlze Original Home of l. M. parna. N.l A l. paris. patna.II ( Kedar Nath Sharma has edited the second volume of the KathãsØit_ sdgar. Inter- national Congress of Orientalist. Bombay.. Varanasi. 99-102.) Kaúasarißagara. XII. N. The volume contains the text and the translation from VII to XI lambaks published ) from the Bihar Rastra Bhasa parishad. worldly and spiritual realities of life. It is significant to observe that our class- ical fiction writers have used this formula for writing their novels. K4thasarítsãgara and Inilían Culture. Vol. S. 1976.@a. Jata Shankar Jha and Prafulla Chandra Oja . Reprented in 1968 in 2 vols ( Munshi Ram Manohar Lal. had given a formula for writing fiction. t+7. U. Phit. - APPENDIX (B) THE BBHATKATãJ AND INDIAN FICTION T'he Byhatkathd may rightly be considered the first classical work of fiction in the 'whole world and India at the same time should also be given due credit for being the cradle of fiction writing in the universe. Prasad. A. No. The study of the later versions of the B¡hatkathã will show that Gunãdhyu. S. A Note on the Bírthplace oJ Gwgã{þta.( t24'. Chaukhambha Orientalia. Therefore itihasa ( ancient events ) of ancient period was arranged in a form of fiction in order to discuss the truth of morality. Serebryakov.. Varanasi. 1976. Kathãsaritsagara. Thesis of Allaha. Prasad. S. Pathak. C. Ibid. He is also busy in translating the whole bulk of Kathasari.Muktar. Kathasarilsagara and lndían Culture. æsthetic sense. bad University. 1g72. Igor. Asia Publi' shing House. Prasad. The historical naratives of ancient period was limited to the various facets of the life of the king concerned. Guryã_ J. Vol. S. 4b4. 1970.N. Prasa d. Prasad. the inaugurator of the fiction writings. N. 1961. S. Ancient Historians of India. S. Tawney. JG\JRI. This is a monograph of D. 23. S. p. t. YoI. Delhi with a scholarly foreword by a Russian scholar Dr. 5. pp. D.

1. poet. as preserved in later versions contains a cycle of stories spun around a nucleus which descirbes Naravãhanadattaras having enjoy- ed the imperial suzerainty as a result of his marriage with a Vidyãdhara princess. and in the process obtains the bless' ings o[ Lakshmi. having a real unity between king. E.lV ( B ).( 126) (127) great change had taken place in Indian historiography because of the romantic spirit of the age. S. 59. I. t. Edition 4. For the first time in the post Harça period.a TL'e Har. 3. same kind of description is also fouud in the inscrþtions of the Imperinl Gupta rulersrl the Pãlasrz the Pratihãras3 and the Rãstrakútas. 3. an organ tor kingly propaganda and an instrument for the propagation of new social values-of chivalry and loyalty. t09. It occurs in the Raghuaarhsø. . 1. The Byhatkathd. It became a powerful medium of expression for courtly culture. 4.royal glory in the form of a beautiful princess symbolising the goddess of Royal Fori.z the Balabhî. Act. orians represented the abstract idea of . the king wins after overcoming many difficulties. IX.Ìtka_ charital and Vikramãnkadeaacharita. W. l5l. finally married Madanamañjuka and became the emperor. It was predicted that the husband of Madanmañiuka would be the emperor of the Vidyãdh4ras.ø' charita of Bãpa starts with a story in which Push' yabhúti helps an ascetic to attain the status of a Vidyã. S. E. ft accordingly framed new literary conventions. t. Prologue of N. this motif of Royal glory became popular. p. 2. Padamagupta in Nauasdhaíøhka' c harita and Bilhan a in D aiakumãr ac harit¿ tell similar tales of Vidyãdharas and their help to Navasã' 2. 2. The prince Naravãhanadatta checked the obstructive designs of his adversaries. Verse 4. Verse 18..une ( Rajya Sri whose love ). From the 4th century A.b The ¡. .248. fndian historiography was based on court organisation. The later versions or the Byhatkatha gives an elaborate treatment of this motifl. The idea of . courtier and chronicler.\ p. novel devices of narratives and a different symbolism.dhara. the tradition of the Ramalqa and the Brhatkatl¿ti. 301. Thus the historical tradition assumed a new complexion.ra. Verse 5.rya where immediately after liberating Sita from Rãvar.l the Ratnãaalî. Ill.rataz and in other historical works like Naaasãhasd. in Indian fiction. 5. Now the poet hist. 5. D.. See Ch. the ornate style of the epics.Regna Fortuna' is described in the story of Rama2a. lv. Rama becomes king of Kôsala. In different form it occurs in the various classical works of aucient India.

He was deeply indebted to the Byhatkathã of Guqã{hya for the theme of the Kadambar¡. 2. t9-24.Din Muhammad Ghorl into deadty Jayãnka P¡thaoirùja-aijrya pointed combat. De and Dasgupta. obtained reunion with Sita and became a Chakravartin king. and the three intervening stages the Bffiorts.l Rajya$ri in the Har¡acharítø plays the same role as Ratnãuali in Harça's comedy and Madana¡nafr. the last the End.14. Kathâ sar ít s-a gar a. the incarnation of Lakshmi. 9G . countries. It is also mentioned that Tilottamã alone could be compared with Ramã (S¡tã ) and that she had once played the role of Sita. who symbolizes the 'Regna Fortuna'after the defeat of a formidable enemy. 2. and conventional descriptions of seasons. H. over whom she herself would wave the flywhisk.z The logical development of theme is shown in five stages in the Har¡hacharita the first the beginning.ra. Rãma who killed wicked Rãvar.juka in the Kathãsaritsõgara. Puçyabhuti when the goddess of Royal Fortune gave him her blessings and prophesied that he would initiate a line in which an imperial ruler Harça would flourish. C.(tÊe) (l2B) haßafrka and Vik¡amãditya in wearing the purple robe of sovereignty. Sanslkrti Litercture. pp. which tell the tale of human efforts dirt cted towards the end. p. XVI. B ¡hatkathamañiarî. The Har¡luchar¿'r¿ shows both these traits. The art of emboxing inset stories. is likewise an adaptation of the initial and final stories of the cycle of vampire legends.z The story is based upon the same old formula of the Bthatkaúa-the attainment of universal suzerainty by the hero through his union with the heroine.]Kl. rivers etc. 169. The story begins ( Prãrambha ) at tl¡e time of the dynast. Fate. through turmoil of tirne and under the dictates of l. History 23C-231. It is 1. 3. of X. Nalachampû. in out rhar the goddess of Royal Forutne like llilottamã had purposely drawn both the rivals of Pgithvirãjathe Gurjjara potentate and the Muslim governor Muizz al. ( 2 ) literary stories with long and sonorous compounds. which is a feature of the Katha literature. The eeeesion of flarça to the thronc of Thâneswar and Kanauj is the end ( phala ) in the Har¡acharita. lakes. the Hope of success and the Certainty. was adroitly utilized by Bãla to give the biography of his royal patron in the framework of his own history. 185 f.1.l The episode of Pushyabhuti and Lakshml in Harpacharifø. the Budhist avadãnas and the folk tales. Ancient Indian fictions are of two types : ( I ) a simple story as found in the ancedotal literature of the Brãhmaqas.

- (c) ' . p. the geneology of the rulers ol ancient India mentioned in the MahAbharafu and the Purãlas show the inclination of Indian to keep the record of the past. Ancient Itristorians of lndia.' Áppnttgotx '. N. S. HlL. 3. L. Vol..Chwang had observed that in India each city had its own history. The Mahabhãrat. . S. 4. Vaidya. Prasad. SARITSÃGARA OF SOMADEVA Western scholars are generally of the opinion that in the whole literature of India there is hardly any significant historical work in which we can bestow our reliance for the construction of the history and culture of bygone fndia. ãchãryas. V. The long lists of the name of the.l This state. Wrn¡ernrtz.a The bards of India had also coutributed much for preserving the historical events in their heroic narrations but their tradition was oral and the real element of history in the passage of time used to take the shape of l. ment requires serious examination of available Indian literature of ancient p-eriod.f !'3[ ' . V.z In the vast bulk of the Purãqras there are several singiÊcant historical informations. lII.p. C. p.s The celebrated Chinses pilgrim Yuan. 2.76. Pathak. 89.l. SOME ASPECTS OF INDIAN CULTURE AS GLEANED FROM THE ITATHIT. p. parú l. Kathdsaritsdgara and lndian Culture.

Sukyta Smtiti Kathã. K¡takaumudi. It is true that in India con"ept of history was not materialistic as in the West. Vol.l In Western countries there was no such antique tradition of keeping geneologies as same we have in our Purár. P' E9' part of hístory was concerned. Individuals have also not given was any due significance.s The antiquity o[ story is as old as the existence of mankind. The modern concept of historiography was born in Europel and due credit should be given to Sir William Jones for introducing the Western concept of historiography in India. Rajamrøngiryn. 241-269. At the outset several oustanding works may be mentioned like Hør . S. however. V.9-26. Prasad. The easly stories contain imaginary tales of super-human elements and mythological anecdotes. The Úûahabhdrata'p'76' 2. Vaidya.z Even today the tradition is continuing in majority of Indian villages. Year XVI. Rajendra Karryaþur. Bihãr Râstra Bhãçã Pariqada. Rama Charita. It only requires a cautious analytical study. cit. Vol.z In the historical works of early medieval India we find the cultural interpretation of the facts of the contemporary period. etc. Pariçada Patrikli. We have our own notion regarding history' The chronological account is c"rrtainly not avai' lable because event or its happening had never played a dominant role in the ancient Indian Uirto. It does not mean that in ancient Indian literature there is paucity of historical works. Ibid. . But this much at least can be assumed 1. April 1976. However. IV..rpãIacharita. pp. Nau asahi añkac harita. Winternitz. pp. Oxford. Almost every honourable member of the viilaje community has his own geneology ( Varh$a Vrikça or Sijarã ). Itristoricalllorks of Sanskrit LíteratureA Reappraisal. lII.. their contribution for preserving the historical data cannot be minimised. ac harit a.iogrupt y. however. l-17. Vikr amõñlcadeaacharita. 2. oP. . Gauda Vdhõ.ras. C. Collingwood. Part I and G. Asiatic Researches. 3.( ( 193 ). Kumd. l. 1961. Vol. ldea of f{ístory. But. Therefore' our history never time oriented nor individual oriented" valued the Ancient historians of India had always totality of the impact of incidence and they had nothing to do with the personality o[ an individual but. pp. N. 132) myths and legends. we had our own perspective of writing the history and it was quite suitable for the temperament of Indian Culture. It generally gives the pedigree anC a chronological account of the lineage of the the person concerned. V. R. they were only interested in their was why they achievements' and perhaps that chronology appear to be indifferent as regards the 1. Thus they had evolved their own indigenous methodology of revealing the facts. 1797.

Our stories l..( t. . D. ) Byhatkathnmañ'jarî and Somadeva's Kathãsritasãgara..1. 24. prose was considered as a powerful medium for stories. of the narrative literature of ancient periocl. On the basis of this date it can be assumed that this nagnufiL oþus of Somadeva Bhatta would have been written before 1081 A. Itri-story of Sønskrit Líterarure.t A new style was introduced in the Indian literature populafly known as. Since they were found in Kasmir. viz. The chief queen after the death of her husband ( king Ananta ) gladly accpted the Sati ritual in 1081 A.35i).z fn order to expand the stories a tenedency of mixing several stories within stories. 1920. IV. to keep her in good humour. D. also valuable works of poetry. Somadeva was a junior contemporary of Kçemendra. have made a significant rhârk'in the literature of abroad.â4'¡: that'previously stòry was meant merely for' story but as the passage of tìme elapsed the objective of story changed and it was also considered rhat its objective should also be o[ imparting some knowledge.. Kathã and Kahãni are different styles of stories. N. they are known as Kãsamiri versions of the B¡hatkathã. It can be seen in narrative passages of the Aitare. T'he Kathasaritsdgarais written by Somadeva Bhatta. it seems that Kçemendra for writinghis Byhatkathamnñjarz must have utilised either the original Bfhatkathd or any of its recensions. inorder to keep the dau' ghter ot' the king of Tggarta or KullU Kãnga¡ã' Säryamati the chief consort of Ananta. was a popular device. Prasad. Owing to the loss of the original Byhatkathd of Gulã{hya. D. Buddhist and Jaina ) is full of animal stories. Such stories have only discussed the ethical values of life. the son of Rãma. A. The paucity of literary merits and lack of artistic presentation of stories are to be found in the imaginary tales. 244. 2. Our ancient literature ( Brãhmaîical. Panchatantra etc. The inseparable relationship between man and animal was the theme of these stories. Two recensions of the Byhatkathã are found in Kã(mira. This l.s amgr aha p addhati.8. Katl¿a-lloka. Ifeith. therfore. p. Chaukhamba Oripntalia' 1976' Varanasi. S. p. They are Kçem' endra's ( l0g7 A. Oxford. the king of Kã3amira. In the Rig Veda the fundamentals of a story are available. 13.l The Byhatkatl¿d of Gunã{hya was undoubtedly the most valuable achievement of whole classical literature of India. The narrative literature of Sanskrit is . Ãt tryayita. The inexhaustable treassure of Sanskrit stories are valuable for reconstructing the history of ancient India. (.lta Brhamarya. Kathasarilsagara tathd Bhatatíyø Suit' sakrit.

only such of language. Tawney has rightly translated it as The Ocean of Storlt. .S. l*4. 3-1 2. l. J. In order to popularise the stories of the Bfhatkathã the works of K¡emendra and Somadeva have occupied a significant place. KaúAsarîtsúgara.388 Slokut. Ch.. XII. ( see chapter IV. style. The figures of speech used in it only as an ornament for enhancement of its literarf merit.L Somadeva was a honest and enlightened writer. However. some places the work is not able S. L p. H. a. there is not even the slightest deviation.S. the Byhatkaúa lost its significance. S.z He wrires thar Kothãsarißãgar is precisely written on the model of the original B¡hatkathíi. Prarad. pointing out his main objective of the work and has expressed his deep gratitude to the author of the ByhtakathL. the work stands as a significant literary creation of Somadeva. theme. p. therefore it can be assumed that after the celebrated work of Somadeva. Vol. the title given by Somadeva. ) This frank admittance of the author of the I{athãsaritsãgara tends us to believe that perhaps during the time of Somadeva the original Byhtakatha of Gulã{hya existed. Kaúasaritsagara. Various valuable informations are gleaned from the K. skrÍl. appears to be quite suitable. Now.IV. He has frankly admitted that he had not made this attempt for earning name and scholarship but to facilitate the recollection of a multitude of various stories. C. In spite of its historical signifi' cance. 3. It is a treasure-house which throws wealth of inlormation on our various facets of'contemporary culture and society.l l.s After the Katl¿ãsaritsãgara no reference ofthe Byhatkatha has been given by later writers. .(136) (ls7) work is divided into 124 cantos ( Tarafrga and ) contains 2lr3BB Siokas.. At to retain its solidarity and it is perhaps because of the faithlul recension of the fuhatkatha. that such a volumi' nous work is well-knitted from the view point of its characters. If viewed from the high standard of literary criticism. The most noteworthy aspect is this. The meteres have given easy flow to the language.Vol. The Ocean. It is perhaps because it was written in a language which was not popular during the time of Somadeva.. Prasad. XXX-I. language and figures of speech. No element of artificiality is visible throughout the 21. Seeing the volume of the work. 100. lg70. N. N. He was quite sincere while.. They were used to increase the additional beauty of the language. it ìs remarkable to note that the significance of Somadeva lies not in the diction of story but in its highly l. 2. tatha BhiTratiya San. diction. Tawney. regarding early medieval Indian cul' ture. A" S. its literary aspect is equally important.

' 2. The Ocean of Story. harlots. 335. interesting method of presentation. yet. H.p. Hindi Translation. elegant and fluent style. Several stories are well preserved in the big casket of the Katltasøritsagara.. p. Somacleva's description of stories are unequalled in the Sanskrit lirerature. bards. 8. ascetics. Somadeva was basically a devotee of Siva.l Perhaps the stories of wicked ladies have its origin from the Buddhist literature' The intrusion of such stories suggests the largeheartedness of Somadeva and also of his wide spec' trum of human psychology. sand Slokas.42l. lbid. animals and birds. kings and cities. saritsãgara are mainly dealing with the wonderful ladies. lovers. vampires. beggars. Vol. 'llere certain stories are dealt with the ethical and moral aspects of human life. of the later and sometimes debased Buddhistic doctrines and of tantric practices are campata' tively a recent development. p. Keith. wars and assassinations. C.(. But despite I. A.while reading.. Winternitz. of the work. This will suggest that how vast canvas of life was covered by Somadeva in his Kahdsarit. of Kçemendra but neither are they so lucid nor have they been presented in such a chaste. 359. Tawney. It is evident that the prevailing beließ were a curious the purer forms of Hindu mythology. . tutes. Sathskrtt Sahitya Ka ltihasa. These stories are also found in the Brhatkathdmañjarî.IL. p. XXXI.l the unchaste stories of women there are also some stories o[ noble and faithful ladies' The story of Devasmitã is unparalleled in the whole classical literature of India. The ingenuity of Somadeva lies in the fact that though he has written more than twenty thou.2 .. drunkards. 357. He startö his work with invocation to Lord $iuu.2 They have further enhanced'the value Somadeva's several stories were exported to the Western countries..3 Large number of stories are collected from the wicked and unchaste stories of women.I. The synthesis of medley of the philosophical tenets of Hinduism-and Buddhism and the animistic rites and practices of the forest tribes. prosti. 2.188 ): ( f39 ). This is the great creation of classical Sanskrit literature which Somadeua has left to posterity. De. the reader would never feel boredom. had produced a mixture wbich was not calculated to impart either social or political stab' ility to Hindu India in the coming struggle with Islam. sdgara.H. 3. Hlstory of Sanskrìt Líterature. p. polity and intrigues. The stories in the Kathã. The social fabric of India in the tenth atrd ele' rrenth centuries was composed of the four chief l.

and fine arts. Prior to this period it was not known in the literary works or inscriptions as a caste. 4. According to l(alahaqa they were born to destroy the economic stability of the temples. (111 ) agaínst the Kãyasthas in their writings. 2lr Narmamaía. 2383. VI. lI.1. The comtemporary literature is of great help for writing the history of Indian dresses VIII. In this connection Somadeva' s Kat hã s arit as d gara deserves se rious atten- tion. Kçe. VlI. becomes a 2.82-101. II. scien. 1. but it is remarkable to note that caste did not determine the occupation or profession of a man. sports. Somadeva and Kalaha4a throw much light on various aspects of Indian Society. T. ideas and ideals are not combined within literature. The contemporary literature pro.166. vides interesting account of their corrupt practi. d¡ess and ornaments. They are expressed in every sphere of life. 171: XVII. social and economic conditions of the early medieval India. 10-12. Somadeva and KalahaTa had successfully tried to convey the oppressed voice of the public l. Kçemendra. ces. We come across Brãhmaîas employed in the secular departments of the State. In order to explain it one has to study political.. Sanskrit works of Bilahaça.203. 195. we have a Brahãrmaça becoming a soldier of fortune. expressions of ces our mental and intellectual refinement. It is one of the undisputed masterpieces of world classics. food and drinks. VII.623. the professional class of the writers was transformed into the rigidness of the caste system. R.r This kind of contemporary views were always shared among men of letters from all times and from all climes.VL. K. 3. Chaucer had also given almost the same kind of picture ol a man of law. . religions. XXV. They are in a way. a Brãhma4a youth becomes a professional wrestlerr and another banditz apparently without losing his caste. the views expressed regarding their rougish character deseves serious attention. games and amusements. mendra.' The Kãyastha as a new caste was emerging in early medieval India.s In the story of Viravara. [Y. l-50. and various other objects of our everyday life. 173. It was originally a profession of scribers and later on when the elasticity of Indian Culture lost its vitality. 200. and in all its activities. They had also reasons not to be type.. However. S. This caste was comprised of the twice borns ( dvija ) in which BrãhmaFa elemenr was predominating.( 1d0'¡' castes. The Brãhmaqra Somadatta adopts the occupation of a husbandman. LXXIX. S. of clean The lofty concepts of thought.

Iúanogya Kîirpãsaka pi/ita Stanaha. p. It was tightly fitting on the breasts in order to provide the desired contour to it. V. Kañchuka and Aparapidãna Kañchuka. 56. tbid. Originally it was known as Kurspãsaka because its sleeves used to be above astlna.. Ritusøñhara.. 6. 264. S. S. 84. Sharma. S.5. 7. 5. 4. Early Chauhan Dynasties. Ibid¡. Kadambarí. S. Bãr. Agarawal.( ..l A charming woman looking like the ir¡carnation of beauty would cover her well-developed. Women wore lahanga on some special social or religious occasion and covered the upper portion by Sala. iì Sathsakritika . R. Generally the upper portion of body was covered by uttarf ya and dupa[!ã.8. 351-352. Chand and Co. 175.Ltizen for their Kathãsaritasã. His descrip' of early tion of Malti introduces certain new synonyms of Kañchukas as Cana$ãtaka. Ibid.paln 248.õ Kalahapa mentions the gay laughters of the ladies wearíng the lahangas which reminded the poet the whiteness of camphor. S. 104.. 4. Chata.. T. It seems that bodice was merely designed to cover the breasts. ItrarEacharita Adhyana.3 Owing to the paucity of sufficient data it is difficult to differentiate between Choli. From the description of Kãlidãsa it appears that it was designed to cover the breasts. p. 2. p. breast under tigtrtly worn bodice.ra's description of Mãlti in the Har.gar has valuable servíces rendered to the state. Eka 3. 930. K. 1. 165.. Hargacharíta.' . Vlt. 53.4 'fhe ladies were so fashion-oriented that even they had no cgnsideration for the pains which the tightly-fitting Kurapãsakas used to undergo. choli ) of women. Kürapãsaka and Kañchuka.. Somadeva has also described women wearing Sã¡is streteching upto anklet.Sleeva and sleevesless- i broadly divided the whole complex of male dress into two parts. - both varieties of male Kûrpãsaka was popular.2t3. K. 43.!155.52.z It was also known as (Kürapãska'in Rãjasthãn. 3. It was worn above the waist.. The fføthasøri'tsãgara gives us interesting description of the Kañchukas ( blouse. Dasharatha. Chola. VII.'3 It was a royal decorative piece of cloth trsually given as reward to the c. S. 1959.. The male dress Kürpãsaka resembled with fatuhi or mirjai.acharit¿ is of great value.z Somadeva has thrown a welcome light on a special type of cloth known as 3pa[abandha. Delhi. 2.o The lahanga of such ladies touched the ground and their breats l.t+z ¡ (J43 ) riredieval perlod.a $açaka was made of such a thin fabric that wrapped beauty would peep through the fine transparent cloth of the Sapi. 9J0-931.

Trade and commerce were honourable .9. and the wife lays down the load of her won calamity by burning herself with her husband's corpse. There are some references regarding Brãhmaqãs and others subsisting on royal grants of land. K. S. Slavery appears to be a recognised institution. are vividly portrâyed in several other pass. 2. jambu are mentioned. the husband dies o[ starvation. Reference to the economic condition of the people are unfortunately meagre in the Kaúasaritsagara. or whether the offspring of the union would have become slaves.L In the story of Chandrasvãminz even "'the king begins to play the bandit. embankments of watercourses. at least with certain 1. lll.IV. ntry. . These should have been familiar to the people.' ever. In the story of a Brahmadtta a case of a female slave in the house of a Brãhmana married to rran excellent hired servant in the house of a certain merchant. It would have been interesting to know whether she was only a life slave. 86 ) is based on the habir of hoarding gold-a propensity which has not yet died out of the country. There is however."r In this instance at any rate the bonds of slavery were not rigerous. citron..II. 196 andYi. The same story furnishes a descriptinn of "a grievous famine. ages ín the Katltasaitsãgara. as also triphalã which Tawney interpiets to mean three varieties of myrobolan.. but also ventured across the seas. leaving the right path and taking wealth from his subjects unlawfully. evident that the epoch of rhe Kathdsaritsãgara had no social or religious ban on seavoyages even of considerable duration The Kathdsar:üsagara throws welcome light on food and drinks popular at that time.2?. no description of preventive or protective measures such as grain stores. Among edible fruits. whole families with their cattle frorn fanrine-stricken tracts.ft is. After the Brãhmaga has eaten and went. amalaká.interesting story of Devadãsa ( II. l0c .(145) ( t++) were arrested in tight Kañehukas. for the woman and her ( free ) husband were permitted to set up a separate house of their own.7. S. The miseries and privations suffered during famines. But no details are available of the conditions of tenure of such grants or of other land. The.. and the stories abound in references to." The famine referred in it must have been grievous indeed to compel a Brãhmala to eat cooked rice from the hands of low-caste slaves. mango. rnerchants who not only traded between dift'erent parts of the cou. Fi:h appears to have been popular. . to'gether with the familiar phenomenon of migration of 1.

soon after taking a meal at a friend's house where he has 'rexcellent food" with wine returns home and enjoys again all kinds of viands and wines at his own house in the evening. was an equally popular art both among men and women. lv. where without any hint of disapproval. princesses of noble birth indulge in drinking bouts. Music. The study of the Kathãsaritsõgara shows the wide prevalence of wine drinking. It is a matter of research by the .(146) many references to fishermen and fishing. who believes in good living. 107. 10.4l. 196. 186. for we have quantity of meat-curryr" while Bhogavarman.s It seems that Somadeva perhaps has described a rnuch higher social life of the ladies of the royal seragalio. perhaps it was an accompaniment of the introduction of the custom of strict seclusion of women. t 56. table women in humbler sphere of life.r The dancing teacher for the ladies of the court was apparently a regular institution. curving her hands like a shoot. looking like a creeper of the tree of love agitated by the wind of youth. As per the tales of Arthavarman and Bhogavarmanrl even the abstemious and dyspeptic Arthavarman has a meal consisting of "barley-meal with ghee. In the Parrot's storyrs we find a young merchant "drowsy with wine" and all other members of the house aslo sunk into a drunken sleep. VlI.2 There is no reason to believe that dancing was an art known only in courts and was not practised by respec. Several stories of the Kathasaritsõgara rclate. ) this change in the attitude of the society came due to the influence of the Hindu reformers of the Bhakti lVlovement or was a result of Muslim rule It ? Dancing among respectable ladies was common. vI. IV. The flesh of deer and other wild animals was consumed. . shaking her orna_ ments like flowers. too. 2. There were ãchãryas of singing as well o[ dancing. little rice and a small classês. or was it the result of the impact of the puritanic ideals of Islam. 3.174. VI. painting was also one of l.Indian social history as to why in recent student of of drinking wine openly is not popular among the women of all classes ! Whether time the habit 1. is difficult to pinpoint that as to why in later days dancing in public was confined to women of the 'Devadãsi Class !. III. (t47 2. We have the spectacle of the princess Hamsãvali dancing before her father ( and apparently befbre *urry others present at the court to the music of' great ) tabor. with which also he was closely associated.

islands. S. Kathasarilsagar tatha Bharattya Sathsakrita. Their identification is a ticklish problem. mention may be made of physicians. Picture galleries were a regular feature in royal palaces. 1. (14e) to observe that we have many refbreirces of kingdoms so far apart as Ujjayini. there is no allusion to any state in modern Rajasthan' certain places. Pataliputra and Kashmir. Lata on the west. XIII. Due to the negligence of the geographical aspect of the study of ancient period. Various cities. curiously enough. \1.7A. Ch. Chôla and Kalinga in the south.' The Kaúasa. Prasad. Chaukhambha Orientalia. 2. the fine aits held in high €steem.205.(. however. 1976. It was recognised that there were many quakes in these professions. Ibid. Varanasi.148 ).rißagara is a veritable mine of geographical knowledge of the said period.' Although there is mention of Taksh6ila in the north. N. historical holy places.z The study of the geography of early medieval India has not yet received" due attention by Indo.l It is significant Among the professions of different types. To enhance the beauty and enrich the look of elegant palaces and temples the gardening skill was also highly partronised by the courts. several such places are higiily shrouded in mystery at the present state of our knowledge. logists. astrologers and fortunetellers. . this auother has tried to identify and locate r. rivers. ftountains.l The kindered arts of sculpture and architecture must have flourished at the same time. oceans and villages have been mentioned in it. and much fun is made of the dupes of false astrologers in the story of the Harióarman. and Kãmarüpa in the east.

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Part I,

I(onow, Sten,
IA, XLIII, p. 66.
Kosambi, D.D., M2th and ïlealit2, Bombay.
Lacôte, Felix,
Essai Sur Gwld|þta Et la Byhtakaúa, Ernest Leroux, Paris, 1908.
Law, B. C.,
Indological Studies.
Lévi, S.,
J. A. tBB6, I, 216.
Theatre Indíon, l87l, Pañs. Le





Anciant Historians of


Bombay, 1966.
Pishel, R.,

Tlte Hístory of . the Prakrita

Prasad, S.N.,

A Note on the Birth Place of
A. U. M, Vol. XLVII,
No. 1, pp.45 ff.
Note on the Original Home of
XXXIII, pp; 147 tr, 1966.
Furtl¿er Note on the Original Home




JAS,, Vol. XII,

part l-4, pp.99 tr.


\Date of tlte


Congres fnternational

Des Orientalistes Paris, Juillet,

Rangachar, S.,
Roy, U. N.,

H. P.,

Kailtasaritsãgar tathî Bhdratua
Sanskrita, Chaukhambha Orientalia, Varanasi, 1976.
A Jt[ote onthe Problem of the Language of the Byltatkathã, I I.H.,
Vol. LIV, Part II, pp. 263 ff,
August 1976.
IHQ-,Yol. XIV, 1938, p. 57.
Prdchina Bhd.raia

ne }[agar tatha,

Nagar Jiuanø, Altahabad, 1965.
JASB, LXII, 1893, I, No. 3, p.

Sircar, D. C.,

Select Inscriptions,

Yol. I,

Calcutta, 1942.
Smith, V. 4.,
Speyer,J. S.,



Ãndhra Historlt and Coinage,
ZDMG., Vol. pp. 660 tr
Studies about the Kaúasaritsãgara,

Amesterdam, 1908.
Tawney, C. H., /RHAS,l90B, p. 907.
Tabard, Father, qJMS., Vol. IV, pp. 26
Indi,s c he Lit er atur ges c hic te.



Abhinava Gupta, 95
Agnidatta. 32
Agrawala. V, S., 48n, 53n, 54,
84n, B7n, 90n, 92n, 94n,
103n, 104n,108n, l43n
Aitarey a Brahmaqta, 134
Alexandria, 68
Alfa Layla l4a Layla,I04


Ananta,93,95, q9,135
Andhaka, T2
Ãndhra dynasty, 4n
Ãndhras, 60
Arabian Níghts, 36n, I 01
Ardha Mãgadhî, 81
Arthavarman, 146
Arundhati, 108
Assyrians, 67
Asura, 73

Badaun, 80

Bã9a,3, 49, 60, 63, 92, 128,
Barnett, L. D., l2l
Barth, 6, 91
Bartol, 8., l2l
Basham, A. L., 68n,69n
Beal, 8
Benefy. 108, 116
Bhagavata Pura4o,

Bhakti Movement,
Bhâradvãja, 28
Bhãskara, 95


Bhojadeva, 8l
Bh¡gukaccha, 68
Bhímaka, 6

Bhäta, 81
Bhtita Bhãsã, 8l


Astacenian, 67


Avadanasataka, 62

Birnie, G.,

Avaloka,3n, 4n

Bodhisattva, 62
Böhtlingk, O., 115


Babylonia, 68
Badarikä, 9, 33



Boccaccio, 99,104

Bombay, 5l
Boss, 93n






Childers, 62
Brhatkatha,3,5,6, B, 44n, i7' Collingwood,
R. G., 133
55, 56, 77, 7g, g2, g3, g4n Constantinople, 104
96, gg, gg, 92,93,97,gg, Cowell and Thomas, 5gn
101, 1 I 3,125, 126, 127, l2g, Crook, W., I8n
l2g, 135,8136,137
Cunningham, 4., 8 n
B¡htkatha KoSa Sarhgraha. 70, Cyrus, 67
93, 94, Bg5

Brhatlcathamañjarî, 51,

93, 94, 92, 93,
l28n, l35, l3g




Brhatltathaslokasarhgraha, g6,

l 15,

3ln, 97,



Daiakumnracharí ta,
Dasgupta, 63n



Devadãsa, 145

Devadatta, 33,34,39, 4I, 42
Devasmitã, 107, 139

Devik¡ti, I i
Dhammíla Hin/z,90

Changu Nãräyana, 5

Chaucer, lO4,14l




ll0, lll


Harça, 99
Hargacharita, 49n 58n, 60, 63,
9I, 127, 129, l2g, 135, 142

GaneSa, 70

Häthigumphà, 5,

Gaùgâ, 52,53,74

Hemachandra,'70, 78, 8l
Hemavat, 71, 73
Herodotus, 67
Hertal, J., 120, l2l, 122

liimãlaya, 42; 54; 80, 96
Hoernale, Sl


Hydraces, 67



Igor D Serebryakov,
lliad, 97
lndra, 15n, 19


Govindadattar 33 '
Grierson, 37n, 55, 60
Guhyaka, lg
Gulma, 12, l3
Gunâ{hya, 3, 5, 6,7, 9,70, 13, Iaya, 42, 75,76

Dívyavadana, 66

Don Juan, 102
Dunlop, 15n
Durga, ll , 16, 25
Drrrga Prasãd, l3n, 48n,
Durvanita, 6, 83n





Giles, 31n
Godãvarl, l1n,
Göttingen, I t 7

Dhanavasu, 90



9, 56, 78


Dharma Dãs Gani, ?0,89
Dharmadatta, 108
Dinâra, 65


HariSarman, la8


Cento Novelle, gg


Har acharita Chíwamaqti, 70

Ganges, 9
Gau(a Vaho, 133
Geden, A. S., 33
Gedrosia, 67

Dhanavati, 90

Chan drasvâmin, . 145

Hara Praiad Sãstrí, 84

Gãndhãra,67, 82,
Gandharva, 7l

Caspian sea, 68
Chambala, 80
Chãpakya, 8
Chandra Gupta Maurya, g, 64



Fleet, 83n



Chandra Gupta,


Galta Saptasati, 3, 6n,

Dhanadeva, 106

Cambyses, 67

Hamsãvali, 147
Hãla, 1, 4q, 56, bl



Burnell, A. C.,

Essai, 3n. 80


Buddhism, 6ln
Budhaswâm1,70, g4, g5, g6
Bühler, 48, 57, 93n, 9g, ll7
Burma, 69


Hariisa Prapattana, 53


De, S. K.,
Delhi, 80


tsrhaspati, 8
Brockhaus, 13n,




Gupta, P. L., 66n

Dvipikarní, 17, l9

Brahmã; 73

Brahmadatta, 144

15,17, 19, 30, 31,32,43,
44,45, 46,'47t 49;50, 51,
52,53, 55, 56, 57, 57,59,
62.63, 65, 66, 68, 69, ?0,
71r71, 78, 82, 83,88;93,
94, 101, 125; 128, 729,'13'5,


Jayaratha, T0
Jhäsi, 53, 54




l0l, t42n


49n, 58n,


Kailãsha, 72,77
Kalhaqa, 95, 108,

Kãyastha, 140,

140, l4l, Keith, A.8.,

1Oan, 104n,


I 38n


I(alaSa, 143

Kaliùga, 149
Kãlidãsa, 63, ltz,142
Kaliùgasena' 85, 86
Kalla¡a Bha!!a, 95

Kalpa free,76

Karnbhoja, ?9
Kambuja, 50
Kagabhuti, g, 10, 17, 19030,32,





Kaniçka, 62
KarmadiSvara, 78n

Kãrtikeya, 24, 25,26, 28n
Kasmir, 57 r 95, 149
Kasmiri, 83

Kekaya, 79, 80
Kern, 62, 116
Khãravela, 59
Kinnara, 71

Kírtisena, 12
Kollar, 46,49
KoSala, 1(8, 126
Kosam, 77
Kosambi, D. D, 5ln
Krishna, 28
Krishnamachariar, M., 7
Kçemendra, 41 49, 66, 70, 92,
94,99,104, 135, 137
Kumãra, 24n
Kumar a s ambhav a, 49 n, 56n
Kuntala, 80, 82
Kugãga, 62
Kuvalaya Mala Katha,4n
Kttvalaya M-aIa Kaha,49n, 56n

Kuvera, 19n,76
54, ?0,83,
108, 112, 128n, 129,
Lacote, 13n, 6n, 8n, 48n, 55,
136, 138, l4l, 142, t43,
56,65n, 78n, 83n, 84, 86n'
144, r45,146, 148
92n, 98, 103n, 120, tzl'
Kaula-Kãpãlika sect, 86
La Fontaine, 104
Lakshmi, 129
Lakshmîdhara, 80, 82
Kavyâdar!;a, 1,6n, 4, 77
RavyanuSdsona, 78rLanman, C. R., 119
Kãmaräpa, 149

Katlt:asarit sãgar a, 4n, 49, 51, 52,

Lãvagyavati, ll0
Law, B. C., 80n
Le Nepal, 4n,6n,50, 61, 64n

Monier Williams,20n

Levi, S., 4n,6nr 48n, 57, 118,
Leyen, F., 120
Locke, J. L., 38

Muizz-al-din Muhammad

Macdonell, 4l



1,9n, 63, 64


Nãga, 12, 13
Nagarjuna, 62
NâgaSri, 108

I\fadan Mañchuka,




Madanavega, 110
M adlÐ'sm Vasudeva

ftrin/i, 70

Magadha, 8l

M ¡chchhakalika,86

ahabharata, 53, 56, 7 0, 7 8, 7 9,

80, 103,131

N a lachampn,

4n, 49n, 56n, I 28n

Namisâdhu, 78
Nanda, 6n,91 4l

Nandi, 75
Nandideva, 44,47
Nalmadä, 16,26
Naravãhanadatta, 45, 47, 63,

94, 87, gg, 90,

Mahã'ãç[ra, 81

Nãräyaqa, 73,74




9, 10, 32,43, 76,

ch; a r í t

a, I 26,


Ma I avika gnimitram, 63.

Nepal, 82,83

Mankowski, L. Von, 93, 119,

Nepalamahatmya, 5

Mansã lake,25
Mantraswãmi, 34
Matsya Purâna, 53, 61, 92
Mi lindapoltho, 68

Mirãshi, V. V.,




N av a sah aí-aítlca




52, 123

Ncro, 61
NiSchayadaita, 66

Ocean,9,95, $96n,


Odyssey, 97

Oldenburg, S. T.,
Oman, J. C.r 33



8.74.13J Rãntãyapa. 79 Pushyabhäti.26 Simuka. 19' Srutârthã.58. 63n. S. l2g. 93!. l ln PañchaSikha. 136n. 78 ll. 42. t5.79 Pãrvatî. 1. 23r 28 49n. 149 Patañjali. 103. 47. 51.44. 74 Prakãéendra' 93 Prãl'rta. Somadeva. 47. 1ln Pulinda.. . 28. 127. N. 43. 12. 126' Sandhyã.' 117 Speyer. 108n 44.67. 79 Satopatha Brdhmoea..49. 30n. 53 Prthvirãja. S. '72. 69n Rãstra Kúla. l6.127 Ratnuvali. 12 Sorensen.54. 13ln Penzer. 33 Samudraküpa..53. 61. 59 sitâ.2l Rajasthan.129 Râvaga. 97.54n.109. 100. 51. 112.129 Ramã.8l Sukyta Sm¡ti Katha. 129 Râma. Vincent. 33. 14 R ShAstrî. 26. 4l Pandya.1ln. N. 100n 123 Peruvian. Sarvavarman. 70. 12n. 60. 29. 39.64. Pãla. Sãrasvata. RãjaSekhara. 58. 127 Pratisthãna. 25. 48. 3ln Roenau. 42. 99. 52 P ú hati raj a-Vij a ¡. l'03.. 80 Saka.79 Pathak.9:.27.62t 65. 107 2) Ptolemy. Sitpadhìkarama. 107 Sãta. 96. 124.49 Soma6arman. 149 SoptaSati.7A. 129 Pushyamitra Suirga. 129. I iulumayi. 120 Skanda. 28 Smith. P rak r-ta Sarvosva. 80. 88. 79 Rome. H.75. 135. 30 Pushpadanta. 95. l2O 34 Sri.ha. 32.79 Sauraseni. 49. 23. 55. 49n. 57n. 56n.68 Rost. 137n Simha Deva Gaqina.17. 58 133 Shiva. Pratihãra. l3O t34 PadamaguPta. 53n.39. 5ln. '79.135 Rnma Charíta.45. l42n s 45.75 Sivadatta.. 17 Sätivâhana. Prasad. J. 58. 29. 49.. l3 22. 65.138.126. Lakshman.74 Pargiter. 139. 1 I7 Pra. lln. 78. 59.5. 80. lln Roy. 8. 97n.143 Somadeva Surî. 25 Râjya Sri. Sharmã. 106. 249n Rajafirongiry¡. M. 108. 58n. 12n Raghuvarhía.58. gO Sama Veda. 47. 82 Pãninr.4.160 P Paíichatantra. 80 Pã[aliputra. 6l rràyaga. 81 Subandhu.91 Sambhu. 45.131n. 60 t26 Rapson. 58.44. 96. .l33 Shahpur. 65. 57. 59 Siçuka. 65. 55. 122 Rudrasoma. 65 Pãfrchãla.33.60 Sãtavâhaqa. 54 rlG 58. Sthavira. 80 Pischel. 30. SarasvatíKanthabhara4a. 121 Sudraka.14. 37n PiSãcha. 95. 59 Sindhuka. l07.. 125n.76 81 Shakespeare. 60 79. 52. 10. lo5. 3'4. BI Pallava. 56n. 56.129 Re Veda. V. U. 86 Senart.23. 21. Rudrafa. 57.127 PAII. 125n..87. Pandit.l. 82 Paithana.142 I Robert Brolwning.9l Prajãpati Daksha. 102 SaSin. Satasai. 104.14.Ìyumna. 101 Schacht. 26. 59 Somadatta.130 Siva.63. 126. 17n. 61 Story of Gugã{hYa.98.. 126. 123 ft¿jput. 103 PaiSã. 60. 68 Strabo.39. 11 59. 59 78. Dasharatha. I27 Padamâvatî. 89 Sãmba. a. 6n. 53 PaiÉãchi. Simha Gupta. 134 $tusarhhara. 74 Rãjahansa. 80 26n. 48n. Pandit Har Prasad. ll. 18 Sãtakarli. 94. 79 Sarup. 4¡. 99. 96. 22. 42. l33n' 135n. . 101. 67n.126. S. S. 119 139 Sahaya. (161) ) . 89¡. . Saktimati. 24.

Vâlmiki.88. Wassiljew.80. 105n. 94 Thânelvar. 6. l l3 William.75 Vidyãsãgara. 135 Vararuchi.57 Kadphises. (163) Vãhlika.99. 5. 57 Wortham. 66. Temple. 8. 133 Wilson. Virablradra. 20n.(162) Sukthankar. 66n llg. ll4 'Wima !Þ- Vetala Pañchavimiatí. V. Vâsuki. 9 Yaugandharãyaqa. 103 Syria. Hale. 101. l8n.49n. 5 Upakoéã. 149 Tãrãnatha. i29. 76 Supratisçhita ) ll. 103 Víkr amaítk adev a clnr it a. Jones. 30. 78. 52. 145. w 63 Vana Parva.67' U Udayan. 26 Visqtupur1. g2 Weber. 88. gl Susarma. 68 6n. 48. 34. ll3.10.7.. 87. 70. 34 Venice. 16.. 75 Vã gabha 9F. J. 56. Trivikrama Bhatta. 130 TriSastiilalca purusha Charin. Yogãnanda. l3ln 132n Vidyãdhara. I. 69 Vikramãditya. ll7 S0 103 . H. 92 Süryavati. 93 A. Hin/r. 126.13g. 65 Wfiterrirz. Yuan Chwang. C. P. 53n. S.77n. ll. g6n. l3n..' a.l2l Wilford.53 74 Wesseski. 82 Vaib ãçika. 90. 2. l0J Uddyotanasuri. 94. 55n Vasudeva TakshaSilâ. Vióãkha 9 V n la nlcdr 104 Vaidya.63.qta. 3. 58. 40. 32.92 Tawney.. 63. 4.91 T Tabard. 71.49 Ujjayini.. 87. 122 Supratika.. 69 Yamunâ. 7 8n 2n 60 Data.. llB Vikrama era. 28n.59 Susarman.. 38n 103. 54 UrvaSi Ramala. 54n Vaiévänara. 1+9 U kti vy akt i p ralcar a1a. l. I 33 IJnã. 6l . 56. Vãsudeva.. 78 Vyãsadâsa. 79. 14. 54. 48. V. 56n Turuska. 5. 22.gE. 101n. l3l z Zacharaiae.30.53 Yaíastílalcacharhpn. 49n YaSovarman. 53. 12 Vedakumbha. 48n. l8 121. 87. l3ln 132n. Surasenar Tg Vârânasi. 139 I2l Y Yajña Sri Sãtakarní. 6 Visirlu. 70 l. 3. l2 ) Theatre Indian.64 ViSãlâksa. 8. Tilottamã.H. R.9.136. 10. *92o.ì. 126 Vindhya. Väsudeva Upãrlhyâya. C. 4n. 89.34 Vishpulakti. 4l Väsavadatlâ.3] Vyãsa. 49. B5n. T. 107 UrvaSl. 103n. F. 4. 1l Wilson. 54 ! Vatsa. B.. 118. 95.

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