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Ns FACULTY OF ENGINEERING, BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

FAKULTEIT INGENIEURSWESE, BOU-OMGEWING EN INLIGTINGTEGNOLOGIE

INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT / INDIVIDUELE WERKSOPDRAG
Surname / Van

MAKIWA

Initials / Voorletters

P. J

Student Number /
Studentenommer

1

4

2

Module Code /
Modulekode
Assignment number /
Opdrag nommer

5

Name of Lecturer /
Naam van Dosent

DR MARITA TURPIN

Date of Submission /
Datum ingehandig

28 APRIL

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9

INF :

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Declaration / Verklaring: I declare that this assignment, submitted by me, is my own work and that I have
referenced all the sources that I have used. / Ek verklaar dat hierdie opdrag wat deur my ingehandig word,
my eie werk is en dat ek na al die bronne wat ek gebruik het, verwys het.

Signature of Student /
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MARK / PUNT

.......................................7 References.................................4 2......................................................... MAIN TOPIC ......................................................3 Research Strategy...........................................................................................................5 RESEARCH PLAN 2: GIDDENS’ STRUCTURATION THEORY............................................................................................ MAIN TOPIC......4 2............................................2 Research Question..................................................................... PROBLEM STATEMENT..........................................................................Table of Contents 1..........................5 How GIDDENS’ STRUCTURATION THEORY will be utilised.............6 3.............................................4 Data collection and analysis strategy........................3 3......................4 2.............1 Research Paradigm............4 2...........................................................................................................6 3...........................2 Research Question...............................................4 Data collection and analysis strategy.................................1 Research Paradigm.................................................................6 3........6 3......................................................................................................... 2................................................6 3......... 3 2.......................5 How TAM will be utilised...................... 8 1..3 Research Strategy..................

African economies which include Zimbabwe have failed to ensure efficient SME integration with modern industrial development due to a lack of adequate infrastructure. Despite the upsurge of research on SME ICT adoption and use. According to Bryman (2007). the interpretivists view seeks to reveal . Technology is currently the biggest driver of contemporary business practises and innovation most successful SMEs (Chacko & Harris. economic instability. 2. PROBLEM STATEMENT Since independence most developing countries in Africa have not realised the full value and potential of SMEs in fostering economic growth and poverty eradication poverty (Helmsing & Kolstee. This study therefore aims at analysing the key reasons behind the inadequate utilisation of ICT in Zimbabwean SMEs and to give relevant recommendations and an implementation framework that will facilitate the effective utilisation and adoption of ICT. research on the impact of ICT use and adoption in Zimbabwean SMEs is still under-researched and unexplored. The idea of ICT being a critical element and ingredient for quality service and products has not been grasped by most Zimbabwean SMEs and hence most have failed to excel competitively (Sanderson. 2014). Over the years Zimbabwean SMEs have failed to keep abreast with technological advancements and to effectively utilise ICT to achieve their goals and to provide quality products and services and hence they have become irrelevant agents of economic development (Tsarwe. and alarming levels of corruption and hence they are currently faced with high levels of unemployment and poverty (Ruvinga & Zhou 2014). 2011). Despite the ICT strategic plans put into place by the Zimbabwean Government most SMEs are still lagging behind their counterparts in developed countries in terms of ICT adoption and utilisation. 1993).Developing an Implementable Framework for Effective ICT Adoption and Utilisation in Zimbabwean SMEs 2. 2014).1 Research Paradigm The epistemological view that will be adopted for this study will be that of interpretivist. chronic poverty.

Self-administered questionnaires will be distributed to conveniently sampled Zimbabwean SMEs. what and how” which according Bryman (2007) can only be effectively addressed using a qualitative research mode.3 Research Strategy This study will take on a triangulated approach that will employ both a survey strategy and case studies.and investigate the social context and human behaviour world whereas a positivist approach would only focus on explaining the situation. The target respondents will be I.2 Research Question What are the key predictors that inhibiting the effective utilisation and adoption of ICT in Zimbabwean SMEs? 2. A case study protocol will then . 2. A survey and Case studies will be employed during this study. Transcription will be done soon after the interviews and I will use Transcribe which is an efficient online transcription tool that will ensure efficiency and speed. Both approaches will use a qualitative research mode because the inductive nature of the study will lead to questions that involve “why. 2. This study will also be inductive in nature which focuses on observing ICT use in Zimbabwean SMEs in a particular context and aims at verifying the TAM theory. The interpretivist approach will be adopted since the research topic requires an exploratory stance in order to verify weather perceived ease of use or perceived usefulness are the major predictors affecting effective use and adoption of ICT in Zimbabwean SMEs (Davis. 1989).T managers. managing directors and administrative managers.4 Data collection and analysis strategy A triangulated data collection method will be used to assist in increasing the validity of the research findings. An audio recording device will be used to capture the interviews. After collecting and assessing the questionnaires cases will then be selected using purposive probability sampling for semi-structured interviews and an interview protocol will be used as a guide. owner-managers.

2. Content analysis will be used mainly to identify the number of SMEs that use ICT. ICT adoption and usage hindrances.be used to thoroughly investigate further these SMEs and will include company document analysis. The interviews and case studies will be analysed using thematic analysis where the collected data will be grouped into different themes to ensure effective analysis the perceived ease of use and usefulness in ICT. The themes will be based mainly on the literature review and from observations during the study. TAM will be used to establish which one of its two main constructs namely perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use plays a key role in ICT acceptance and use behaviour in Zimbabwean SMEs. 1989). The main themes will include: i. RESEARCH PLAN 2: GIDDENS’ STRUCTURATION THEORY .5 How TAM will be utilised TAM highlights that the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of ICT can be used as attitude predictors of users towards the use of ICT including subsequent actual use and behavioural intentions (Davis. Therefore for this study TAM will be used to analyse ICT user acceptance and to verify the factors affecting ICT adoption and use amongst Zimbabwean SMEs. For the survey phase descriptive statistics and content analysis will be employed to analyse the quantitative data collected using the self-administered questionnaires. Level of ICT use within SMEs ii. Impact of ICT on SME business operations iii. For this study a repeated pattern of responses will be used to identify the themes. 3. observations and further interviews with other employees.

In order to effectively collect data the researcher will have to immerse into the SME environment as a participant and observer and take field notes. 1997). A case study strategy is relevant for this research because the study is mainly concerned with the investigation of social agent behaviour towards ICT adoption and use and also because the boundaries between phenomenon and perspective are not clear (Keeves.1 Research Paradigm The analytic view that will be adopted for this study is the structuration theory and hence the study will take on an interpretative paradigm.3. 3. Giddens (1984) is also on record in stating that he does not approve of social inquiries that take on a positivist-empiricist view. 3. In addition to participant observation document analysis and semi . A case study approach will facilitate the identification of routine social practices that SME organizational members engage in when applying and adopting ICT.3 Research Strategy This study will take on a normative case study methodology as the research strategy. 1988). norm behaviours and facilities that affect ICT adoption and utilisation amongst organizational members in Zimbabwean SMEs? 3. The ethnographic nature of the research favours an interpretative view over positivist one.4 Data collection and analysis strategy Since the nature of this study is ethnographic the main method of data collection will have to be participant observation where it will be critical for the researcher to have more intimate interactions with the social actors under consideration (Bryman. 2007).2 Research Question What are interpretive structures. Records of verbal and non-verbal communication of SME organisational members as they interact with ICT will be taken. The qualitative research strategy seeks to reveal an all-inclusive view of the practises of social actors with Zimbabwean SMEs. This ethnographic study seeks to explore an in-depth description of everyday cultures and practices in relation to ICT use and hence it will take on a qualitative-exploratory research approach (Surry & Farquhar.

Thematic analysis will also be employed to identify patterns and themes from the various sources of data.structured interviews will be conducted with employees and management in selected case SMEs. This view will help give in-depth interpretations and reveal ICT use and adoption factors that relate to processes. choices and ability to make decisions or by the organisational structure and institutional norms. This analyses will also facilitate to superimpose these practices onto a structuration view point and reveal whether the practises verify the proposed structuration processes. Furthermore Giddens structuration theory will assist in identifying how the three main structural aspects of normative. This will involve the filtering of coded transcripts. Transcribed records and real-time notes will serve as a basis of analysis of how ICT use and adoption affects social norms that result in identity construction of SME organisational members. ideational and material are represented within Zimbabwean SMEs (Giddens. interviews and documents. . 1984). structures and technology (Giddens. 1984). Coding will mainly be based on some of the routine practises and verbal communication that occur as a result of ICT use amongst organisational members. Digital recording devices will be utilised to capture interviews The study will utilise meta and thematic analysis of data. Meta-analysis will be used to analyse and validate the pooled data from observations. field notes and documents in order to categorise social practises and behavioural norms associated with ICT use.5 How GIDDENS’ STRUCTURATION THEORY will be utilised Giddens’s structuration theory will be utilised in this study as a means of facilitating our understanding of ICT adoption and use in Zimbabwean SMEs . For this study Giddens structural theory will also provide a framework for the analysis of weather ICT adoption and use in Zimbabwean SMEs is influenced by the employees’ own attitudes.This is because the structuration theory provides a way of comprehending the complexity of the interactions between SME organisational members. organisational norms and the attitudes of organisational member. 3. It also allows the bidirectional analysis of these interactions.

Sanderson A. Polity Press: Cambridge. London: Intermediate Technology Publications. A.Available: http://theherald. Giddens. J. Revised edition. 16(1):45–50 8. Journal of Instructional Science and Technology. Methodology and Measurement: An International Handbook. and Bell. & Zhou.zw[Accessed 7 July 2014]. A. Small Enterprises and Changing Policies: Structural Adjustment. MIS Quarterly. and Harris. 9. 1984. Challenges of financing Small to Medium Enterprises. Medium and Micro Enterprises in Asia Pacific Size Does Matter. The Herald. 5. 2016]. (Ed. F. [Online]. 6 January 2014. 1997. G. eds.J and Kolstee. perceived ease of use. Business Research Methods. Davis. Chacko.Available :< http://www..herald. 3. ICT and Small. 6. Keeves. and Farquhar.Available: http://cyber. Perceived usefulness. The Constitution of Society.J and Kolstee. and user acceptance of information technology. B3.harvard. 2007. M.html. D. 2. Oxford University Press: London. 7.P.edu/wsis/Article2. Effective utilisation of ICT is the key to Business success  : Case Study of SMEs in Zimbabwe. . Ruvinga. 2014. 13(3). Small Enterprise Promotion in a Changing Policy Environment in Africa: Raising Issues and Attempting Answers in Helmsing. Tsarwe. 1993.H. [Accessed on 25 April. [Online] .UK. 4.zw/is-there-value-out-of-the-informalsector> [Accessed 25 April 2016].law. Diffusion Theory and Instruction Technology.co.2014. C. G.Is there value out of the informal sector? The Herald Business. A. E.co. 2(1):269-278. T. T.H.) (1988). [Online]. Oxford: Pergamon. J. J. UK. A. L. Journal of Computer Engineering. Educational Research. Financial Policy and assistance Programs in Africa. Surry. 10. 319–339. 2011. (1989).References 1. Bryman. Helmsing. 2014. D.