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ESCOLA POLITECNICA

DA UNIVERSIDADE

DE SAO PAULO

DEPARTAMENTO DE ENGENHARIA DE MINAS

ADVANCED TOPICS OF ROCK MECHANICS

(PMI 5779 - Topicos Avancados em Medinica de Rocbas)

LECTURE 21:

SELLAFIELD REPOSITORY

DESIGN INVESTIGATIONS

IN

THE UK

Most of UK's low level waste (LLW), intermediate level waste (ILW) and high
level nuclear waste (HL W) is temporarily stored at the Sellafield nuclear power
plant site operated by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. This coastal site is on the NW
coast of England, midway between Manchester and neighbouring Scotland. Inland
from the site is the Lake District National Park, with its beautiful mountains where
the candidate geology (tuffs and ignimbrites) outcrops. Nearer the coast the gently
dipping volcanic rocks are overlain by some 400m of sandstones of the St.Bees
formation.

UK Nirex Ltd. who have responsability for locating and designing a repository for
the nuclear power industry in the UK, have spent the last 8 years in selecting a
candidate site from the two options: Dounreay (in Scotland) and Sellafield (in

2

England), and have subsequently

carried out detailed site characterization

and

design studies. For the last seven years NGI (the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute)
have acted as Nirex's geotechnical consultants, working along side many English
geological and hydrogeological

consulting companies in an effort to solve the

problems of long term disposal of Britian' s LLW and ILW waste of which there are
many 100,000' s of m3 waiting to be safely disposed.

Unfortunately for Nirex, efforts to continue working at the potential site using twin
shaft access and developing a rock characterization facility (the so-called RCF)
were prevented in 1997 by environmental pressures in a Public Enquiry due to the
proximity of the site to the National Park and due to perceived uncertainties in
Nirex's

ability to predict radionuclide transport within the rock mass. Pressures to

reduce transport costs and transport risks had caused Nirex to selct a site right "next
door" to the Sellafield nuclear power plant complex where most of the waste is
stored. This resulted in challenging
due to (small) groundwater

geotechnical and geohydrological modelling,

flow gradients towards the coast, and due to the

frequency of jointing and minor faulting in the tuff and ignimbrites. A repository
location some 600-700 meters below the surface was assumed.

The following list of activities summanzes the geotechnical

activities, many of

which will be described in the lecture. Many of the characterization,

logging and

modelling activities described earlier during the course will be illustrated.

l. Field mapping, using the geotechnical (and Q-system) logging chart as a check
list.
2. Core logging, using the geotechnical (and Q-system) logging chart as a check list.
3. Cross-hole seismic tomography, down-hole logging, hydraulic and groundwater
chemistry

testing,

consultants).

and

stress

measurements

(each

performed

by

other

3

4. Index testing of jointed core on site (JRC, JCS, $r).
5. Laboratory testing of the intact rock (o., at,

(5}/(53,

E, v) (performed by other

consultants) .
6. Laboratory testing of joints recovered from drill core (DST -direct shear tests,
CSFT-coupled stress/shear flow tests).
7. Empirical Q-system design of support (B + Sfr) for TBM access tunnels, shafts,
LLW caverns, ILW caverns.
8. Distinct element UDEC-BB (two-dimensional) excavation disturbed zone (EDZ)
modelling, and empirical rock support verification for TBM access tunnels,
shafts, LLW caverns, ILW caverns.
9. Sensitivity studies using UDEC-BB,
orientation (perpendicular

to optimize

caverns

spacmg, cavern

or parallel to en), cavern depth (e.g. 600 or 900

meters) and cavern size (e.g. 16 or 26m span).
l O.Distinct element 3DEC (three-dimensional

modelling

of individual caverns,

optimization of cavern orientations with respect to the complex jointing and
faulting in the BVG ("Borrowdale Volcanics Group") of rocks.
l l.Design of excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) field tests for studying the coupling
of mechanical, hydraulic and seismic velocity phenomena (some of these were
subsequently used in the SKB/ANDRAINIREX-ZEDEX
disturbance experiments") at Aspo.

("zone of excavation

DISPOSAL CONCEPT AT SELLAFIELD. RQDI In x J. • Photographs of NGI and WS Atkins engineering geologists collecting outcrop data from the St. . Bees sandstone. 1991. AND GEOTECHNICAL FIELD LOGGING AT THE SITE • Repository layout and access concepts for Sellafield. orange. Note absence of Jw and SRF data at this stage of the field logging. impermeable St. tuff and ignimbrite). NGI). 2 and 5).IJa = Q' ("Q-prime"). • Sellafield nuclear power plant and early drillhole sites (BH 4. SITE DRILLING. The ReF site was the planned "rock characterization facility". Bees sandstone (and shale). • Geotechnical logging chart data obtained from field logging of the Borrowdale Volcanics (andesite. Brockram breccia. brown and purple strata consist of permeable Sherwood sandstone. and BVG-Borrowdale Volcanic Group of tuffs and ignimbrites. • Geotechnical logging chart data obtained from field logging of the St. Sixteen drillhole locations are shown. the deepest about 2000 meters.4 A. Yellow. and from the BVG ignimbrite which outcrops in the Lake District mountains.. Bees sandstone (top) which outcrops at the coast. with shafts and exploratory drifts. (Grimstad et al.

.~ NGI .-' "n i.

1 Photograph of drilling sites (BH4. 2 and 5) and location map (Nirex Annual Report 1992-1993) .Potential rteoosrto'v Zone Bwh-uO Area 0 0 COVER ROCKS Sancstone Breccia 0 El BASEMENT volcamc Figure 1.

Figure 2,2

Representative exposures of St. Bees Sandstone (at SL Bees
Bay) and of BVG ignimbrite (above ll'ast Water lake)

'6
:z
Z

•...
,...;

~

0

0

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<,

§

-.;;
~
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<.>

QJ

n;

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01

ro

0..

QJ

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>.0

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en

C
01

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c
t=
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w~ ~
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0.. 0.. 0..

LJ

12864

4

[0

~1j~5

=

2 5·1 ·2 -5

2

1

2

2

SRF

[;EJ

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

m

n

5

10 20 50

.1 .2 5

1

2

1

~~

-~----------

CJ[=

1

2

510

11111

I

5

1

2

30 32134136138

I I I

I I

-5 -e -7 -e -I -10 -11 -12 -IJ10·,4
100 10 1 0.10.01 (Lugeon)

2

5

(m/ )

s

79/36
.
78/33
'1 / ,
59/15
~'.
78/51
66/38
57/22
-: y'.
:
~
- ..: . -:1:_/
90/113
....
63/113
,
90/175
87/158 SET OJ 1 SET ~ 1 SET G)
70/35 1 20/220 1 75/90

.-

--

-!-.

.

I

'~.

I,

(MPc)

10 20 50 100150200250300400

- - -

CJ1

permeability
uni?x. sir. (MPa)

2

L
ail

5
=

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

(Mf'a)

Jv

joint length (sets 1 and 2) (m)
=

roughness amplitude/lennlh

20 SO(rrm)

I I I I I I I

td~·.:

1

5 ~

40 1 (degrees)

JOINT ORIENTATIONS (dip0/ dip dire)
N Magnetic
16/185

CJ(

1
=

5

20 22 24126128

m
==

==

~1 1

(MPc)

5 10 20 50 (rrm)

1 2

/

I

K

5

25102050

a/tO

/~

10 20 50 100 150200250300400

5 1

510

a_
L ~

(lSRM)

(core) JRCo= joint roughness
JCSo= wall strength
joint spacing (m) (sets)

joint frequency/m

SET (£)

(£) alO.1

~

Weatherilg
Grade
IV

>60

~YO.'. YW~.

FRESH

V

CD

2

5

K

-4

30-60

~

5 10

ill

5

10-30

L

[

So
(2)

3-10

1-3

SET

J

1:)7-552·5l0050~~5 2-512·5

~
VI

S

(to

SET (£)

CD

lO-J

ilil.

~

=

6

1

1

·66

·05 ·1 ·2 ·33 ·5

W

F

4

0

1 0·75

2

1

1(1)

I~

31 311

~3~

·1 0

preSSlll!

SOIl

lLJ
ICl
lLJ

3

·1 ·2 -5

·2

R

(£)

Ja

CD

-5

J

-least
favw-atU

UIIAllED t£Al

1

I I I
I I

1?71?,ln

-lv

CD

rco..9l1E$S

water

~1j1:)5

:r:

C
0
R
E

Jw

::5-"""'"
.-..JO

O
UZ
w

••
-2

hl\

23 2432 14134136
Schmidt (r.R)

and jointed.

F

~

4

3

·5 1 1'5 1'5 2

(¢p)~1312~865

w
G:N

Bees Shale is deeply weathered

SET

.kilt
alteratirl
- least
faVlU"atU

~
:z (:}o ~
~
o::~ 0
-0
~
z O"l z
Cl
.... ..
....J
I.
....J
<C
LJ

1.3

i?, I?" l xn

2.

~..".
~I- I
a~d.1 E

t. II [;J
comD

I

:r:

)X~)x~

-m. ~~~~ ~~~~stone

GEOLOGY:

most prominent discontinuity is the bedding.
stability reasons in shafts it is taken as

SlI. 20 10 5

(¢.)

L

-.-

0:::

1

Jr

0

I-

Q (mean) =

)x( 0.66 ) ( 86.2
7.4
1-5

)x( 1.5-4

0

0

LJ

( 80-100
6-9

=

~ftm

. u

ViU'l

CO
CO

Q (typical range)

The
For
set
St.

ROCK TYPE : Sandstone, siltstone

I~rmsl m

~

m ~
.. -d

COMMENTS:

/

c
rc

z g

DEPTH ZONE:

RQO %

C
~
••. C!J

C1>
C1>

\J
~

(mm/m)

¢r

-c

vulumetric joint count (No.1m3)

=

residual friction angle

14/207
14h12
21/220
16/23:
24/210
79/85
80/351
86/359
86/17€
Rev.

2

..c

6-

~

;;; ~
0
z
...,

V1

j

"'ls

¥

<.!)
W
I-

10

>.~ i?
CL

ro
0

C
01

v;

(J

c
=Q)ClJ

Q)....,
E
u, o~

.~~

GEOLOGY:
Q (typical range)

ClJ

>
ClJ
0::

§

(70-100
4-12

)X('-1.5
1-2

=
)X(~)

88.4
7.9

1.2

-_

a

~
..q:
~N

~ClJ

Z

m
m
u-

I'"

.~
§1~
0. ro
(j)
>,L
.

~

LJ
0

--'

~

~

Cl

II

lLJ

S
I
Z
E
S ~

RUfJ

%

IClN
p!ml
~~

_
_ mI

=>

SOl 20 10 5

L

(CPr)

«
«
CJ

aid

I-

w

(cpp)

Li:N
« :5..........
:::r::

:z:

LJ

lLJ

~

s

-12

(1.0

CD

10-30

30-60

)60

SET (2)

In

9

I~dl

-

6

4

jilt sets

·2 -5

J

2

1

1

2 5·1 ·2 -5

1

2

5 10

·5

t.Ivtlr.iie

10

5102050

.5125

'Xl

20 SO

·5

1

1·5 1'5

2

3

4

2

4

2

5

6

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22

12510

5125

'Xl

2OSOlnml

Ja

-10

w~
tnl
co
co I
-1"0

[;So
o::~
-0
Z (j)

..

UJ

0

Z

..

I-.
VI
LJD
C)
l.UZ
-,
. I--

C) DO

0:: 0:: :r:

CL CL CL

2013121> 8 65

12 8 6 4

4

3

1

1

0·75

10 20 50 100150200250300400

{MPe}

Jw

JOINT ORIENTATIONS (dipo/dip dirO)
Magnetic

K

·05 ·1

·2 ·n·5

10-3 -4

1

·66

fill.
S

~15~

5

2Oti1) 5

1)7-552·5

SO~

lLJ

ICJ

SET

IivaMtie

0:::

:::r::

~

~

a

....J

«
U

E

·1 0

~eaIb1

I

---.J

NJ£

(J(

CD

oS ·2

-least

I-

CJ

SET

m m

~

1

-~~i_1[fJ
.1'~~
,~",,",~
-r_11 I~I
20

0

---.J

T'o'O

M

2

- least

'+-

:z:

ITH>rr

M

J."

rtJ.9"reSS

cf

~
~

w ~ ~

C0

R

Jr

CJ

u
~

fIl.I!

Volcanics

1

C

~

i nimbrite

)xt--J+-)X~

B_
(

1

L

o ~ ~

Borrowdale

tuff,

Q (mean) =

K

~~o
:::::E 3:

ROCK TYPE: Andesite,

~

<Xl

'"

I COMMENTS:

DEPTH ZONE:

W

SRF

tress
red.db1

-e

-7

-e

-I

-10 -11 -12 -13

-14

10

(mIs)

I lac

lacier

~

100502(1) 52 -512·5

1

2

5

10 20 50 100150200250300400

{IAPe}

2

5

10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

(Mla)

FRESH
Weathering
Grade

~
VI

-5

100 10 1 0.1 0.01 (Lugeon)

V

IV

m

I

a,

(ISRM)

I

1

I

I

F = joint frequency1m (core) JRCo= joint roughness K = permeability
S = joint snacifl" (m) (SptS) JC\ = wall strpngth
uniax. str. (MPa)

L = joint length (sets 1 and 2) (m)
aiL

=

roughness amplitudr

'gth (mm/m)

J, = volumetric joint count (No./m3)
CPr = residual friction angle

Rev.

2

Note apparent effects of faulting (or stress variations or both?). MEASUREMENTS AT NIREX 1993. Approximate direction of crH (166°) is shown.6. sub-parallel to en. sub-parallel crh. sub-parallel to crh. about 600 meters apart.5 B. distance 110-150m.ReM 3 surface. 700m. • BH 2 to BH 4 tomogram. variable direction in relation to crH. sub-parallel to crh. Predominant values of V p between 5 and 6 km/sec.8 km/sec) and BVG (brown. Note good qualities at candidate repository depth of about 600-700m. • ReF 1 to ReM 3 tomogram (non-linear). Vp ~ 4. • BH 2 to BH 5 tomogram. Vp ~ 5. SOME SEISMIC TOMOGRAPHY SELLAFIELD (SCHLUMBERGER. Note fault between sandstone (blue. distance 600m. 1994) • Borehole layout and example Vp tomogram between borehole 2 and 5.6 . . • BH 2 to ReF 3 tomogram.2 km/sec). near the planned ReF. Note good quality in ReF 3. distance 50-200m. • BH 5 to ReF 3 tomogram. distance 400m. distance 520m. • 3D borehole layout showing non-linear ReF 1 .

-~ SCALING VAlUE: 1..~---. W 1H$1fMj ~~ ...-:r:..:----.£:~'- i/.:#~ ~~E~~... - 100 .:~- -!.-....!-=-_ 100 C r=1 .1..J: 500 metres 1200 H 0 6 *10' V"aH2(IIIts...- ~::.--' .-..- 600 5 600 =& -.:::--*- ~~- 500 '- -~-~-- -~... •. . -:>--•..<.- ~.~ 200 0 0 0 0 ~-< ~ ' '"'e. .~~r .~ :~ .-' --' 700 -..-~-- -~ --.". 700 .. Perrnossion Granted 0 ReF Site Potential Repos~ory Zone BuiIt-\ll)NU 503 0 0 502 COYElt ROCKS SMldstoneO SOl Breccia ~ IASEIENT voicanic 0 301 300 302 304 303 305 307 306 309 308 310 Velocity Tomogram *10' Borehole5 5 6 0 400 r'.-.:. 5 600 - ~-::-- ~~ 1200 --...- ~~ ::. -.... 1100 -:...! *10' Borehole2 ~.. *10' ~- '-~~ '1F . -~~- c--_....00 -=-....~ -.~ ~ --:.. 300 OFFSET 400 500 600 0 0 0 8 5 ~< t' -". showing boreholes and a longdistance cross-hole seismic tomogram.sli ". :r. ~:' . ~~.... ... -+ ...I~~..~~ 1100 .. 1993) Above 5940 5860 5780 5700 5620 5540 5460 5380 5300 5220 5140 5060 4980 4900 Below Under - - 6020 6020 5940 5860 5780 5700 5620 5540 5460 5380 5300 5220 5140 5060 4980 4900 . Figure 37 Sellafield repository investigations.. 200 300 400 500 ~i- ~ .. 900 6 400 .:.. ~..._7 .. 6 ~ 0 800 900 1000 -..1- --::. ~.~~ .:=%' . ~~ ' ~S~ ~.... (Nirex.506 IBH141 • 505 UK MIlD DaP IIOR£HOL£S DnIed@ In ~ 504 Procress6. -noo.... 800 ~ ~ . ".~ 1000 ~. ..... ~ .._....• -4 -" - i!~~ . ~.:. 7~ --.4:" ~ _'T-. c::-:.:.."...

S/94/007 FIGURE 1: Perspective 2-D Tomogram Interpretation view of the areal distribution of the cross-hole surveys (schematic).6101O-3 December 1994 . ReF1 / Schlumberger GeoQuest UKJ ..UK Nirex Ltd Report No..

.0 Receiver Well .------0 156.Preferred Version BH2 OFFSET (m) BH4 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 -000 4200 4400 4600 4600 5000 5200 5400 5600 5800 6000 6200 6400 5800 6800 7000 tv 0 0' 3 Velocities (rn/s) " 3 0 <> <> (") 3 0" ~ 'CI ..- ~ 'Q £" C::l .--..·_----_·_-156.0 . Source Well 0-.-..~..•..BH4 Tomogram .FIGURE 5: Interpreted BH2 . 'CI 0 ce .

Preferred Version VELOCITY BH5 TOMOGRAM OFFSET (m) RCF3 400 500~--------~~- 600-f~--~~~------~------~~----~~~ c ~~-s-700 700-'~~----+---------r-------~ 800~--~----~-------+----~~~--~~~800 -- 900~--~----~------~--------~~~--~~ .FIGURE 14: Interpreted BH5 .-- __--G-- __ -000 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5800 5900 6000 6100 6200 Tomogram Velocities (m/s) Source Well o 403 Receiver Well o 40~ .ReF3 Tomogram .

. L- ~_O _ . .•............::_I~---*+_ 600 700-+--------~----~--~--~~~--------~----~~~- 700 900-+~~----+-------~_r------~~----~~----~r_~900 -000 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5600 5900 6000 6100 6200 Tomogram Velocities (m/s) Source Well o 510.....BH2 Tomogram ..... Receiver Well .......•.4 __01 ~ .~~--+-+_-+__+---__::rt_ 500 500 600-+-----l~~-_r__+_--+__H_t_--..• _ •• _.Preferred Version VELOCITY TOMOGRAM i o BH2 500 400 -t-----I--.•••• I 5_1_0_.FIGURE 19: Interpreted ReF3 .•••••......40 .

40 ... I i I I Tomogram 0-."--~H-1000 11 00-+~-------+----i:---+-----+-----I------+-------++~ 1100 ~-------4~------~--~~-+~--~~ 1200 -000 480C 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 S500 5600 5700 5800 i I I 5900 6000 6100 6200 -.FIGURE 8: Interpreted BH5 .:...--i:i6if40 r...---------------.......+-.-. I 1 Velocities Receiver Well o ~ 808..Preferred Version VELOCITY TOMOGRAM OFFSET (m) o 4oo~------~------~------~------~------+-------~~ 500-t-~---+----+----+----+-..--...---------------- I (m/s) Source Well --.-~~500 700~~--~~~-----+~-----+------~-------4------~i-700 800~+-~~~--~+-----+----+---~~~~--~H-800 900~------~------~-----+------~~--~~--~H-900 1000~------~~----~--~-+------~--~--+-"'..--..---------------.--.BH2 Tomogram .--.--..

0 (m/s) --- -- .. 800 700 I I I <.~_~c:e:lverWell r -146. S " I <..0 I . . I I .f+-500 600 +-"""". ..-0 I _ .. <.•. E' 900 -000 4800 4900 5000 5100 5200 5300 5400 5500 5600 5700 5600 5900 6000 6100 6200 ~- Iv Tomogram Velocities Source Well --.•.'-rr: 700 <.•. 61.. 800 --C- --- <.0 -6-1... _----------_ -146..RCM3 Tomogram .FIGURE 27: Interpreted RCF! . 900 <. .. I \ I <.Preferred Version VELOCITY TOMOGRAM RCM3 1200 400 -t---~ ~---+1-400 --.

Weighted mean Q ~ 3. • Q-RMR relationships based on NGIIWSA logging of boreholes RCF 1. in the BVG volcanic rocks. Schmidt hammer tests etc. 2 and 3 close to the planned rock characterization facility. 110 MPa. . 4. (Mean values ~ 5.0. • Photographs of 11. (New joint set names were given when oriented core data became available). obtained from logging the St. Bees sandstone and Brockram breccia in BH 2. joints. JOINTED CORE DESCRIPTION LOGGING AND RMR-LOGGING • USING INDEX TESTING. • Photographs of 11. J2 and J3 joints (according to dip angle) in the St.6 C. • Examples of joint roughness profiles for joint sets 11 to J4 in the BVG. from depths of 675 to 789 meters. Note increased Vp (+ l. Simplified cross-section of the faulted geology. faults and bedding (in the sandstones). Nirex' s deep geological drill holes (BH 1 to BH 14) ranged from 700 to 1900 meters depth. • Q-parameter statistics for BVG for the depth range 650-750m below OD. • Comparison of depth logs for Q-values and RMR-values for borehole RCF 1. veins.0. Bees sandstones. JCSo and <Pr statistics measured in index tests (tilt tests. 23°). based on NGIIWSA Q-Iogging ofBH 2. Q- (NGIIWSA 1990-1993). 5 and 7A. J2 and J3 joints (according to dip angle) in the BVG from candidate depths of 570 to 796 meters.5 kmIsec) and reduced permeability (x 10-3) beneath the sandstone's. • Examples of JRCo. prior to core orientation data. • Example depth logs of Q-parameters and other geotechnical parameters. • Early version of Sellafield "Structural Atlas" showing Golder Associates (1994) presentation of orientation data for artificial fractures.) for joints recovered in BH 2.

-: -100 -200 . aa It I. NGIIWSA core logging quantities are shown cross-hatched (top) (Nirex Repon No. not True Vertical Ordovician Depth... :I St Bees Sandstone I Ormsklrk -1500 Horizontal" Vertical Scale Sandstone St Bees Shale (& equivalents) St Bees Evaporites Brockram Figure 1.BH 1/1A BH 2 BH4 BH3 BH5 BH7 BH 10 BH8 BH 11A BH 14 BH 12 t-··~r:j·· o ~-. -flM)() Potential wsw BH3 BH1/1A BH10 Repository BH2 St Bees Sandstone St Bees Shale Brockram Carboniferous Carboniferous -1800 Sandstone Calder Sandst_ St Bees Evapomes PermIan -1700 Drift Ormsklrk UE:::J Borrowdale Limestone Volcanic Group (Undifferentiated) Zone ENE BH4 -500 -1000 ----- -------- Calder Sandstone I..-":. modified) Carboniferous Limestone Borrowdale Volcanic Qroup ~I I I I I ..2 Summary geology of Nirex 's deep boreholes. with a schematic WSW-ENE geological cross-section through the Sellafield area.r: -1100 ! -1200 -1300 -1400 Triassic -1500 r==:J r==:J r==:J r==:J EJ -1500 ~ All depths for Borehole 1/1 •••• _ured depths. Incllnecl. 525..

Bees Sandstone. steep J1 and J3 joints. from depths between 145 and 404 m. and sub-horizontal bedding (J2) (NGJ 901038-18/1 and 28/6) -- .27 Photographs of joints in St. ~~---- ) I I Figure 3. Top to bottom.. BH2 and BH5.• ~ ~ .

.jrom depths between 570 m and 796 m.----.[Lj. NGI 931005-11/1) J .. ••••• NGI ~ ~I . Examples of steepest (JJ) joints (top left).~ .- '--~ -~. BH4 and BH5.8 Photographs of joints in BVG. four J2 joints (dip 50-75°) and one J3 joint (bottom left) (NGI901038-18/2 and 28/7.' I Figure 3.. '. BH2.

~6m Semple No. from BH2. 553.84m SmnpIe No. 551. 482.00 10711.-----i ---. 1067. J4 3 4 • 1 ~ I • I 7 I I 1 • • 10em I t- I Depth m. NSr2. . 01~\s 752.65m Sample No. 466.!2m Sample No. ~ 4 • •. J3 and J4 joints in BVG. SJa. NCI 1067 BCS ~ In Depth n6.nm Semple No.. NG 551 BCS ._ SamPo _ Figure 3. NCI 466 BCS . _ • IDem . NCI 5:l8 BCS Depth 789.e 1m Sample No. NCI 491 IICS J3 Depth 703.!.2i t- Depth 7Oa.. NCI 55:l BCS - ~ J3 -. r- Depth 67~. Depth 7!2. NG 4870 BCS I Depth 691.a •. 481.~6m Sample No. J3 I Depth 76H5m Sample No.9Om Semple No. ~ and 543..89m SOmple No.85m SompIe II.Slm SmnpIe No.•••••• 01joint.a 1m ~No. 537. Representative roughness profiles of JJ.C: Semple No. IGRD: GEOTECHNlCAl . NCI 456 BCS ecs • IJ2 I-' NG 481 BCS ~J3 Oepth 703. NCI ~87b BCS I I I Sample No. from between 675 and 789 m downhole depth (NGJ90J038-J8/2) J3 J4 ~O:1s-1 1"-" c. 550. NCI BCS ~ Depth 701. IJ1 Depth 69U4m Depth 685. NCI 471 IICS - -- ---"-:. P- I"-- ~ NGI .!' U ~ en. NCI 5017 BCS ~J4 i J4 •.. --- ~ P-" . 1 ---- J t- I--- • ~ -iJ1 - Depth79UOm Sample No. 28..03m Semple No. 534._ 25475. NG 537 BCS -~J3 I Depth 676. 485 and 492. NCI 534 BCS 0 J3 ~J4 _voIi:anic. NSr2.J5m..89 10 m. J2. J1 ---i -. NCI 476 IICS I Depth 69U~m Sample No. NCI 536 BCS I iii I'-" ~ - I I 1 11m.Depth aaa. Depth 76U2m Semple No.43m ~No..from 568. Palo!2a."4 ~O:1s-1 CORE L()CCN. NGI 492 BCS IJ4 Z 1 ..9 J2 ~J2 N1REX GEOTECHNiCAl Z. NCI 501:! BCS I--- . Depth 755. NCI ~7:! BCS 0 -lJl CORE lOCGINC It"". NCI 550 BCS . .. 487 •• 4871>. Sampt 456. 473. 491. J Depth 788. 471.~ Depth 76U7m Semple No.4 l1oD1. NCI ~82 BCS I Depth 68U2m Sample No. 7 . NCI 485 t-----" en ~J3 Depth 710llllm Semple No. --- r'i£.

O I I I I ~ .0 \~ 80 80 w > SO o 23.0 14.1 30 18.0 4..0 0. I I I 3. ~ .0 20..0 33.0 I i ~ r [r~ ~ I I I 300 200 100 110 MPa Weighted average: 100.0 25.0 0 0 g I I I 90 I •..0 CI) z 7..0 8.0 0 90.:) ::E => 0 40 30 20 10 ~ I I 120 160 200 1240 280 60 100 140 180 220 260 300 20 JOINT COMPA.~ ):t= 0.96 Weighted average: I Rep. (") 13.0 I I I I I~ ~~~~~ I T I [~ / I ~i I I i/ I I ~LJ I / I WI I I I Lt 0 ~ 4 12 8 16 JOINT ROUGHNESS COEFF. 0 .. JCSo.0 29. z I 10. 5...l901038lo.0 u.0 3:0 5:0 7.0 11.0 w ~ w II II) z I~~ 2.:) ~ .0 w 7.0 ~ w ~~ I I •.0 8.0 ~ ~ w 8.:) ~ .0 17.0 II / ¢ 40 10 I j 70 0.0 23.0 15.0 17.0 I JOINT COMPA.0 o All samples DATA I I 80. no.30 /" I I I I I II I II ~ I I }Zl I rtf I I rJ I I 0 109 MPa 18.0 I u..0 ~ 6.0 0 28 24 Weighted average: 0 I 20 RESIDUAL FRICTION ANGLE.0 9.• JRC~ 300 mm Arithmetic mean value: 80.0 JOINT ROUGHNESSCOEFF.0 18.0 0 3. (") 100 4.0113. STRENGTH.0 1~ 0.0 W 30.0 II 14.0 1.0 22.:) 40. 0 z 4..0 en s ~ ~ 10.0 70 60 > 50 ~ .0 18.0 R~ .0 6.1 I I I I I I I 11.300 mm ! 18. II Z I I I ~ I W w w a. STRENGTH.0 yf 20 0 I Arithmetic mean value: 12. UK NIREX LTD UX/96/370 JOINT CHARACTERISATION w I 1.0 21.0 2..0 2.0 0 8.0 0.0 16.u I Fi~no.0 20.:) u.0 10.0 I I Depth zone I > SO.8.0 28..( [p-Er 16 I I I 1.0 32.0 30.0 19.0 0 go I •.0 28.0 32 23.0 RESIDUALFRICTION ANGLE.0 I 12. z I 5.0 100 8.0 CD 0 4.96 467-1008 All 70.0 24.0 II) 0 I 40 I 80 2.0 9. Onwnby IlL Cbec:lted BcnboIe 0i>-1l·91 Il!ilmame 5-467S41 NS1'2 I .0 4..0 10. 0.0 I . JCSo• 300 mm 80 Arithmetic mean value: z 0 ~ ~ w I (J) CD 8.0 27.0 12.0 I r.0 31.• JRCD'300 mm 4.

. 650-750m aOlIlhOte 2.~~--+-~~~ B l o C K 70~--~-4---+--4---~~---+--~--4---+-60~--~-4---+--4---~~---+--~--~--+-50 ~~~ 40~--~-4---+--4---~~---+--~--4-30~--~-4---+--~--~~---+--~--~20~--~-4---+--4---~~---+--~~~~ 10r---r-~---r--~--r-~---+---rO~--~~--~--~~~·~~~~~~I ~ .552.5 1 2.5 3 60~~~-L~~~~~~~--~~ULau~~~-u~~ 50r---~~-+--~==~_+----+_-40f-----+----+---~ 30f-----+----+---~ 20r---~--_+--~§§r__+----+_-10~--+_--_+--~~3~~~--+_-- J Joint Roughness Number .05 E S S 60 50 40 30 20 10 E o S T R S SQUEEZE I SWELL STRESS/STRENGTH FAULTS I I I - I I I I ·n I I I I I I - !..m §~ I I 201510 5 201510 5 107.8 = o 0.~~~~~-.984 ao~~~~~-r~~--~-q~-T-L-.133 100 7.~ NGI ROD / 80.least favourable A c T J Joint water pressure I V E 0.75 Joint Alteration Number .0 = 1 / 0.5 2 50r--.52010 I I 5 2 0.--~~~~~r+~~~~~~~ 40r-~--~+_~-+~--~+_~-+--r 30r-~--~+-~-+~--~+-~-+--r 20~~--~+-~-+~--~+-~-+--r 10f---+-+~~~r-r-~+1-+- J o~~--L-~-L-L~~~~-L20 13 12 10 8 6 5 12 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 0..5 / 5.705 / 1.5 SRF Stress reduction factor .8 I = = J / SRF 0.4. 0-10 10-2020-3030-4040-5050-6060-70 zo-so a0-9Dg0-1 00100 S I Z E S J Joint Set Number 20 S H E A R 15 12 6 9 4 0.least favourable o~~~~~--~~~~~~~~ S T R E N G T H 0.0 I 92.1 end below OD 2.0 1.

. ..n ~400 1..os ~400 :::::~:::::: and ::!'::v'::.AFlELD CLIENT: UK NlREX LTD JOB No. -11 10 2 10 5 20 0" STRIKESET A 30" 60' 90" 120" 150" 180" ~ 450 500 1970 I I I 1970 3490 ~Irsw F 3490 [I 3940 II 3690 I 5240 I OJ AZIllUTH 30" 60" 90" 120" 150" 180" LOCATION: SElJ.15 Sandstone 350 1 1 1 1 1 1 400 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 oor:fy p~ggf~ 450~ ~v±vttvi!v~v±vililBreccia 500 v v v v v v BVG -c: -=" <Q.... 350I Oo~ 400 ~~ @tJ:j I 10 -7 10 -8 10 0'.:. 1/.( 20 ~ 250 :::::::::::::::::::::::: rzl 1/6 20 SO St.:':':'::':...~:. RQD% 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 100 500~ WOj • ".~c '1' ':::::::::::.. ~ ~ ~ 150 Oj~ ~~ 200 E tr:i ~:: t ~~ 250 ~ 300 ~.....5 g~ •...01 I .:~......•..• :::::: Jr/ J... OQ C ~ K(m/5) ~~ V ~ ~ ~ a.( 3 2 2 i i 250 I I I I I 300 I I I I I t... 200 :::::::::::: ...: 901038-33/2 FIGURE: 2.:.q': claystones . Bees Sandstone 100 ':':':':':'::::::: Fault 150 ·· . 50 100I .. ....1-..: ~i\i~tone9 ~ c -..3 Revision: 1 ... r.. E CI ~ OQ ~[s 1 15 12 J" 9 6 .:...:. ii' 3 o. ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Yl~ t:1 ~ .::.....09..::::froCkram 400 t:::::::::::: 450 :::::::::::: 1/3 i 1.:::.5 10 200~ d:::::::::d: Interbedded ~ i 150 350 -:........ :--. 1/5 1/2 100 ....... :::::::::::: 300 ':::::::::::..2 DATE: 92....... zone ~ ../0'.. ~ ~i::l c:s -5 o OJ c:)- N~ m/s J1JSW I I JI:mw (I lOW il~ JrNW Approval: /...ROCKTYPE o o 50 •...'rSIf 3940 5240 O' Borehole: NSF2 Depth: 33-467m Rock type: Sl Bees and Brockram 0.

. ~ ~-------------------------.0 ~•.~ NG.c 0 •. BVG only (NGJ 931005-21/3) .19 Depth logs of Q and RMR ratings for ReF1.> I a 0. LL LL LL LLLL LL LL LL LLLL LL LLLL o e:: "Oi= o o o o I!) N Cl)e:: o E •. u. .• o a. ~ r-----------------------------------------------------------------------------..------------~----------~~------------------~ ~ ~ ~ ~----+-~----------~ ~ eiJ "=c: 60 1------ CIl ~ 30 900 100 600 1100 1000 I:!OO Downhole depth below drill collar(m) 1000 100 C!) :J 10 r-----------------------------------------------------------------------------.. c CI) :>"0 31'tfOMOl::ll::108 Figure 3.r.:.- c.1 600 700 100 900 1000 1100 1:100 Downhole depth below drill collar(m) •. Ci . ~--------------------------4~------------~----------~4~--------------------~ I-------..•.

+ I T++'+ ~~~ ~ 'I- ~+ '"' [L} aiA /t v 0./ '*' + ~.90 1 . + + + 30 ++ + + + + + =tY +...•. + + + + ~+ + ....~i±+ '+0 + +.~.50 In (U) + 52.. -* + + I + + I + 52.. +.+ +~ + #+ ~~+... ...5 Borehole ACF3 /(525-990m) IRMR = 5..++ -: -¥+++ + +.1 I I I = = 5..1 0.64 log (0) + 52. + w.. "'"t. ....QI ++ + + + + :..49 In (0) + '*' t ~ + 20 0. -'-t+ -+ T . + 30 + + + 20 0.7 12. t ~+~ + "* ' + + +t ~~ + + + + + + + + + + + + 30 + 20 O.01 1 Q-value 10 100 1000 90 + all r- ~ ~70 ~ bll c: -=c:: 60 ~ '":-J '" 9J t+ ::E ~ U40 + C ~ + .66 log (0) + 52.7 Borehole ACF1 (559-1150m) lAMA AMA 10 Q-value 1000 100 90 :.: + + .1 t Q-value JO 100 1000 .•.•...5 IRMA = 12.01 0.--' + ++T + ± .: +-+" NGI r j + '" T -i.

'---.0 o 1..c:onhrouity Intensily (P4If melre) o 4......• '--_l~ _ond -.I •• +·100 In ~ ffio9rClml 1 circltl equivoltlnt to 10 count.I BEDDING Rose Dlae ~c-...Kont./3_ '_/~k 5"... I~ 2"..... B JIB rNIRT .) B I ~'00N9 L-.8 I ~roHS ~T1ON3 -.tr... w~~ RoM -- Oi..a..nUlty Inten •• ty (•••• motA) 8..0 FAULT VEIN Rose Dlaz= ~ Stereonet •••••.-00nI00n: ft..44 Structural Atlas data for ReF3 (Golder Associates.I.~ Stereonet S\qooI_ ~ OCINCI!NTIIA11ON8 ~'I1OHI -. 1994) >10l< ~~~ . ReD Borehole Characteristics of Individual Discontinuity Ty~.conlinvity Inten •• ly (~( m...t)' (per metre) OO..00 illill c !JI ~ FRACTURE JOINT Stereonet _ .. "-.- UK Nirex Structu-ot ~ Atlo../'" e~/g" Figure 3...> Rose Stereonet ~ "- WeIdnd Conto<n I) 11~1 ond WeIdnd CcnIoIn Oilconlonu.oww ""'-l "-- Rose DIal!!! ~ ~CcnIoIn Stereonet G!GooI .- '-- t-.-f--)OO (2)m ~ 0_ Ij 1 I jI IJ M~~~~...-- D..Iy lotenl..~tiv... I ! . frequerw:)...

Extremely low values of crJcrJ suggest sporadic stress problems at many depths. and significant problems below 550 m depth (for crJcrJ < 5). 1993) for estimating stress problem support measures. • Depth log of crJcrJ for BH 2. (= crc test data divided by crH trend line). Note increasing numbers of joint sets when entering the volcanic rocks below 400 m depth. . • Depth log of In for BH 2. DEPTH LOGS OF INDIVIDUAL Q-PARAMETERS FOR CONVERTING Q' TO Q (Jw AND SRF ESTIMATION) (NGI 1996) • Depth log of RQD for BH 2.depth variations for choosing Jw. Brockram breccia and BVG volcanic rocks. Bees sandstone. • Depth log of RQD/Jn (relative "block size") for BH 2 as a basis for estimating appropriate stress problem (SRF) ratings.values.7 D. Note higher SRF nwnbers for areas of massive rock. • Examples of final Q-depth log for BH 2. The adverse effects of increasing SRF and reducing Jw with depth are very clear. • SRF . and recommended K .RQD/Jn chart (Grimstad and Barton. • Permeability measurements for BH 2. Symbols for St.

A 0) 3 I enl § ir+ ~ Cl.. ! I I I I I I I I I I I II~ I I I I I IJ~ I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I II II I I I I I . I I I I I I I . J j ] j I I I I 1 I 850 I I I I I I I I I I . ~ ~ ~ ~ I I~ OJ o "'" ~ I . sLL.. .doc Borehole 2: RQD versus depth RKB ~ NGI . -50 ·~1f}-20 o 50 JI 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 -I 500 550 600 650 -~ 700 750 800 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ·1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I . .e---.' I'\) ~ I • ~ir+ " OJ -. I ~ II 'I I I ~ I ~ ~ mbOO Figure 5 f:\p\96\ 10\961 020\r:1p\ IO-I. (I) :r I ~ ~rt~ OJ CO' (') -. i I I G) - ~I ~ I I ! I I o g I I I I I I 8e-.Updating of Q-Database for PRZ Boreholes Report No.(-\-60-70 JI 12 ~ 0 o (I) ~ . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~ I I I ~ .: Date: Rev.:t (~ '". .: 961020.10/1 1997-02-13 o Page: ROD ".

doc Borehole 2: In versus depth RKB ~ NGI ... I I I I I I I I.. • i ~ I • • (J) 0 0 A .. I~ I I I I I I I T I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ..Updating of Q-Database for PRZ Boreholes Report No...: 961020-1011 1997-02-13 o Page: 13 In -50 /... . I I I ! I I I I I I I - 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1050 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1 . ... OJ III I 3 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I - OJ OJ . < G) I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I CD CD C/) (J) III :J o. o . I I• I I 1 I I I· I I I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I i ! I I. C/) 0 :J CD I mbOD Figure 6 f:\p\96\ 10\961 020\rap\ IO-I. 1 .: Date: Rev.. .. ..

I en ::D' I I II i .1 I I I~ I . I I I ..doc lLl 1.. OJ U1 . .: Updating of Q-Database for PRZ Boreholes 961020-1011 1997-02-13 0" NGI Page: 11 RQD/Jn ~ -50 o 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 -I 1050 J 1100 I 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1 1450 j I 1500 JI 1550 f i -i -it: 11O I"" I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I']n I")C [V I I I I I I •.>. . I I I I I l~ l~ •.~'I .. i II . . I I I I I I I I I I I 1"). -.. II' :::J c... OJ 0 (") :. RQD/ln versus depth f:\p\96\ 1!Y\96102O\rap\ I O-I.. I.. I I . I 0 ~I ~I N 0 ~ I mbOD Figure 4 Example of SRF updating procedure: Borehole 2.Report No..•. en 0 :::J CD . ~~ II II 0'1 I ~ I c:. I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I en ::D - II II N I I I I I . :0' .. I ~ OJ < G) I I • en• -.I']r~ rv v Ar- ~ r::n t: t: -I'-" -I~ <I:'() en."" OJ - enl :01 OJ ~I 0 en 3 en CD :::r o CD N I CD CD OJ o .'" ::D Ii' .4 J RKB .: Date: Rev... . I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I ~I ~I 0 I I..

• >• • CD 0 ! cD e'l (J) • CD ! I ~ . •• •~ ~ CJ1 CD ..) "'0 .doc RKB ~ NGt .•.•....• CD 0 CD I\:) (J) CD (J) ~ CJ1 ~ '< CD ~ -" CJ1 •~ .....•.04 CJ1 CD Figure 2 Example of SRF updating procedure.J I\)-~.•..~ . •• .•. • (J) CJ1 ! ep • CD zr ~ •• • ~ - I 0> • •I+~• • • \ I. .... I CJ1 CD rb 6 CJ1 ..• • '-r+ ..~ I • • I ~ -" CD • I I I I I I I I II 1 CJ1 CD . versus depth f:\p\96\ I0\961 020\rap\ IO-I..t:..• zr CD 0 ....•.... CJ1 •••• • •••• •• I\:) CJ1 CD • • CD CJ1 CD I CJ1 CJ1 3 0- CD CD 0 0 OJ CJ1 CD CD CJ1 CD CD ro ~ (J) I 1 I • • 04 ~ • • #' •• CJ1 --.. • • •• • • I\:) CJ1 CD -" (. I • r:: :::s lJJ 0> . a/(J]... CJ1 CD ! 04 • ~ (.) CD x + ~ .· Borehole 2..) 04~ CJ1 CD ..: for PRZ Boreholes 961020-1011 1997-02-13 o 9 Page: ~. ·04 II II I CD Q (....: Date: Rev.Updating of Q-Database Report No.•..

:::..::::::.2 .:--- 80.:.:.:.:.:..:-:.::::. 8 m + S(fr) 5 20 cm .00 C • J 60. or B c/c 1.:.:.::::.00 a: 0.:::::::::.:.:.:.-8 ••:•:.:.:::..::.1.000 100 200 300 SRF LEGEND ~ Ordinary jointed rock masses in low stress conditions I·::::::::::::::::::?:::::::::?:::::::) Hard rock under high stress 400 500 .

I I mn u i ~ _-:8+:---+ --""" 11 ~~ __ I ~'+- ~I . . f-HOO _ :. ~~----~--~----r---~ 1 I: : T:- ~ n =Q6~~---~""--~_HI----~--~I-__! h•. I ~ _..1U' __ I I I I 1 '. . '~I •.j".I .--~-L---4~---+-----+------r-----r----'r---~ ~g9--'~~~'!W~_-.~'---+-~""--+-----r-----r---~r---~ I . ~5~ I - ' ~giU~.' \ ~5&-~~~--~~.j----. I' ..--~----4-----~----+---~ L1w=). ' 3 ~ \ H4g'G_~~-----L+---~l__--___. I .: o Page: 17 K (m/s) 1E-4 1E-5 1E-6 1E-7 1E-8 110...--r-~--r----'~~~.. ' "_ ~5G-~~--~+---~l-----~I----rt-----~-----+~ I .• I .. "7"'" ~~ I ." I. .. . u .: HD5~ f ~ • r..I' f--75" - ~O'~"+-~\~~!~r-~ ~5{) I 1-"no"" ! ..~~~~. --~~~~--~---r----~--~... ' ~65~ ~~""Ur·--+-.. I __ +- ~'~ r-__ ~ ~... I •.!..-rt. based on field permeability f:\p\96\1 0\96 I020\rap\ I0. ·~--+-----~O _ -0 9 ~ ~gQ~-~--~~----l----~----~-u~---+-----+-----+-----HOJN ..~--I--~~"--~-r'---4-:~--·+-----+---u-n+-= __--r-----Ir---~ " I.... 1 ~5&-"~+---~L-I--4-~I--~'~~+-----+-----+-~""--r-----r---~ ~g&-. . I I N ~O.•~..... ' a.5. .·~-+~ •. " I I : --~ I I 1 I' .. in .~G_L-----L-----L---~----~----~-----L-----L-----L----~ mbOD Figure 8 Estimation of Jc-values for Borehole 2. ~ \ :: IjI \ \ \• I .Updating of Q-Database for PRZ Boreholes 961 020-1 011 1997-02-13 Report No. 0.u I ~:A I ~~A00_~' ~\. ...-----+-----H 3 0 Irro' '.doc testing RKB ~ NGt .~'~~""~----+-----+-----+-----r---~ .. ~5~ ~ ~I ~ '. 0 OJ~ ~~5G-"'~--~~---'~--~'H----n:4-----+-~E""T-+-----+_----Hg .1--+-----11r--1.•h ~50--+-----.-::vv=. IW I I Ii . 1E-9 1E-10 1E-11 1E-12 1E-13 ' 1E-14 1 ~~~S'~"'~~----~~-----h----'~'----~----~----+-----+-----+I----~ ' I~ : I I ~g'9-~~-----H~--~II~r-~----~----+-----+-----+_----~--~ .. ..I .•: ..: Date: Rev. : n I 0" •. ~9H"-~~--~~I--~'~~. I •~ I ~o~ . -------+m-EH==I-.-+---'~:~----~----+-----r---~----~. 0 ~ 3 ....

c C en <II 0 0 C GO -.t- . 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . 0 0 c . en 0 0 Figure 11 f:\p\96\10\961020\rap\10-I.•. :r: C11 '" 0 0 o ~ .. 0 .•..•...: 961020-101l 1997-02-13 Page: a 21 Q-value 0 a . . 0 0 c N 0 0 w 0 0 . Borehole 2 RKB ~ NGI ..to 0 o .doc Q-value depth log with structural atlas domains. .•....Updating of Q-Database for PRZ Boreholes Report No.• 000 0 0 C GO c CD CD 0 0 c o .•..: Date: Rev.. I p ..•..•. . .•.•.J 3 0 0 cr 0 c . w 0 0 ....•.•.•. 0 0 0 o ...•. ...: I OJ .. o c 0 o Co> C11 0 0 .•..•. N 0 0 c •. .

• Bolted ILW cavern models at 790 meters depth have orientation parallel or perpendicular to crH. 30. 1995 NGI) crH~ 2crh at planned repository depth. crHorientation ~ 166°. 10. Principal stresses and displacement vectors. • Pillar width and height scoping studies for LLW and ILW caverns.6 mm) and joint (=channel) hydraulic apertures (max. Loset 1993. 7.7 and 51. (max. Sets Jl to J4 have successively reducing dip (14 is sub-horizontal). • Principal stresses. EARLY NGI SCOPING STUDIES OF TBM ACCESS TUNNELS. LL WAND IL W CAVERNS AT SELLAFIELD. BGS stress measurements at Sellafield (Tunbridge.(Maximum joint shearing = 36. Geoscience.8 E. • Summary of Gibbs.1 MPa) displacement vectors. Note fault zone modelling. NGI. • AND USING UDEC-BB Assumed jointing and boundary stress distributions for TBM access tunnels in the St. 8. 2. • Bolted LLW cavern models at 720-780 meters depth have orientation parallel or perpendicular to crH. (max.6 mm) joint shearing magnitudes (max. • Jointing complexity for NGI's early UDEC-BB models of BVG behaviour.6 mm).(Maximum stresses = 31. Bees sandstone and BVG volcanic rocks.4 and 68. • UDEC-BB models of bolted. .0 mm) for bolted TBM access tunnel parallel to crH.4 m diameter TBM tunnels when oriented parallel (top) or perpendicular (bottom) to crH.9 MPa).

\ -rrtrftf ~ SOm O'H = \ -325m ...0237·z O'H = O. Bees Sandstone and low stress BVG models (NGI901038-23) (M6(( (1'1V .~ NG. .3 I \ / \ (2 0. .Ol73·z O'v = 0. Ir -275m \ \ ~ \ \ \ \ x I \ ~ \ \ \ \ I r - "\ \ \ ~~ \ .27 in meters) tz in meters) Boundary stress assumptions for the St. I I ~ 7 I . " ~' O'y O'y :: Figure 6.027·z + 0.

•. '(f) 20 10 0 Results from overcoring -10 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 depth m Stress Orientation Measurements 6 2 5 c ill E ~ 4 C'O ill 3 ::J en E 15 ID 2 -D E :J c hydrofracture 1-ffimff breakouts ..GeoSci.. stress orientation Figure 5.18 Synthesis of Gibbs/Geoscience/BGS stress measurements (NGI931005-8111) . o 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 overcoring 210° trueN max. princip.BGS breakouts .z NGI Hydrofracture stress measurements 70 Horizontal 60 al stresses 50 Regression lines cO a. horiz. 40 :E (f) (f) 30 Q) ..

6 UDEC-BB models of the planned 8.~ NGI Figure 1. Principal stresses and deformations are shown (II .4 m (!J access drift at two orientations (JH' L (J~ and two depths (650 and 800 m).

I \y\ -v ..: \ / 7\/1 \...f I I " I. .. .:1-.\.•.11 I ~ . NorwaV I '\..059E·02 maxlmum - ~ ~ ~ ~ r-. r-. 1..... Norwav I ..III:"-.imun) • 1112511991 15:11 cyclo 86200 .! 'I /"7 1"1 ?X~ <.982E-03 rnax hydr aper each Dna thick.. 40 Taasen. / \ I \ 'VV .{ I I \ I hli I" YlV 'VvI \~ \ /Vy 11 L .••• '? .•• ~~ ~~ ~ \Q::lC" 1 r"·.".... block plot ahe.•• YI Modelling' I rl •••• BVG (Bolling) t. NorwaV JOB TiTlE: ..0 1 '12.· UDEC(Vers!on 11125/1991 15:12 cyclo 86200 C1:l {j •.•UVU (t. n. 0 I I I Preliminary /I Y':V <.0 12E. 'Y'\ \A \ IILJ.'J.:: I rl •••• PfelJmlnarv MOO'enlna.•• 1112511991 15:13 cyclo 86200 block plot displacement ~O\ Nlre.l o..•.· 23: Drill Accos.omncu UDEC (Version t..•. 1'1 l .•• ~}-.1 I. .. .~ -.~ \'1. \"\~I'VI .•...·L. t-..."-I.•. I I I r'-l L. ~ ::: ~ ~ . I'.• ~~ {j ~ S'r.~ ! r-.G·~'~E'.\. 0801 Oslo. 1 L... 150 2E 2 0 I on jolnls rlght·lateral Itff.bj ~ I I 1"---( III \' IIIIII'V".•23: Drift Aocou JOB TiTlE: rlO'Ol Prollml""r X \.). mlnlmum _ ~ !'\ ma.1 •••.\ I L . I 23: DrIH Access illill:!Q block plot joint hydro aper.•. '-JV . illill:!Q block plcl prlnclpat stros.\> \ I. I Norwoglan Gootochnlcallnstltula Bo.I)\lOI:-r. . I Norwegian Geotechnical Institute B~.. . 1..•.•. \ I \ +r: ... I I 1'-" I I . I ~lt .. \~/I 1"- INI vr-. JOB TiTlE: Nlre. Norway I ~~ r'· No/weglan Geotochnlcalln.n I t-.on...' "I "I I/VI \/\ ~ l .••• 1.h..-.. 40 T aasan.V f-'-' ."'L f ..•••. "l I .tural ·3.."'- y~ <. 0001 Oslo.. . /VI '\I'\. '1"- I I 1~/tA..A l .J{ " V'I A f7 Vlr~ .000E·05 vectors 1. " . I ~~ ~ c.) r'~ ::!.J .tfT.. r "" "\1 Y 1 f f. r-.. \ r- ---.·: ~llH'(!i -lp. \-rtl' I IN.. .. Bo. 0801 Oslo.•.7) ~ Nltox .. dlsplacoment. 'U ..•. Box ~o Ta ••• n..••• 1 I I I'\.:s " ~ ~ ..•• 1 ~~ ~~ <to~ ~~ " -.' "\'. -or I 11 L . I .i":tI::+lJO "14":' 'l b-\l ~ "\/"\ 'YILJ'\" w\M/ XI I. ~ UDEC(Version t./ '/ . 0801 Oslo.• \ I I 5E ·2 N . 7--.\/.. I Norwoglan GeotochnlcallnsUtut. .• C ~. I \ I I 1\ V'V \ Y I I VIr'.\AIll Il:-" 1 1\ X '7A\' r7J <: \ r )'\/1 \.•....•.. _ YI .•• I..u•• I I I I I 1 • I"'r7f 1\ 1/\/11: • AI L .•• 11 l .•.7} /1/\ ~$ 7 I I " \ I \ I LEGEND ~~ I ~ ~ .7) UDEC (Version t. '" 7'\FI .. .•..wlllhw """""1".. ..•..Utut. ..••• r-.o. 40 Taa...•• illill:!Q 1112511991 15:11 cyclo 86200 .... . II )<..

J NG. p and y. . Figure 7.29 l4. ~ LLW (upper) and ILW (lower) cavern layout studies with systematic variation of a.

IiI HGI LEGE NO: ---- Joint Joint .[L} -. Joint Joint Set Set Set Set J1 J2 J3 J4 Figure 5.. Low stress joint model (NG/ 901038-33/1) lL~s~t(qn.13 Colour code for joint set nomenclature. WG-I) .

... Norway 0....:.....1"".500 0..100 0.__ J_O_B_T_ITL __ E__: _N_IR_EX __ 34 __ -.pe.-4rl~ ~~JOB~~T~ITL~~E~:~N~IR~EX~~34~.:.a.4~IL~VV~P~i~II~~SO~m~.....500 ah 1...:~--:.:....la_r SO-'-m.Hc...r..300 -8.. -l ("10"2) r UDEC (Version 1.500 -8.100 0.500 -S...34 Principal stresses induced in ILW bolted caverns.:...:.300 0.:..500 ma....700 and aH .ve..100 1.100 LEGEND 7/01/1992 15:02 -7..100 1.7OO Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Box 40 Taasen.3OO -8.168E+01 ·7...300 0. with 50 m pillars (NGJ 901038-3411) 1.7) -7..:a......100 LEGEND 612511992 13:02 -7.rpe.C..300 1.....s.1100 ·1...1100 -S.. -3.....:..1100 1.5_IL..:.VV __ P_il..i.700 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Box 40 Taasen..:..m...!:.1 o 2E 2 -7.700 0.1100 1...:..700 0....100 -S..m...I" I! " o II! I 2E 2 -7..!:..IOO -8.. cases...500 0....500 -7.........><.modec. •...:.500 1..... 0801 Oslo...nd.dr::t!::-~::: 9A73E+OO -7...7) -7.:.J.300 Figure 5...300 cycle 521900 block plot principaJ stresses minimum._C~a~v~e~rn~s~p~~~a=I~le~l~m=a~jo~r~str~es~s~(=s~~m=a~h~m~ode~I~) UDEC (Version 1.:....300 cycle 432700 block plot principal stresses minimum •• -5_188E+01 -7..cu~la. 0801 Oslo.700 t. Norway 0..:..700 II! I! "I! .700 1"""".

700 Figure 5.:E::..400 !Hf!-i:lt~!R~ ·7. 0801 Oslo.:s:::s-..n (}i~~p~ E...::iI:.50:.:s:..r s:.100 1..av..] -7.. Norway 0.800 ·8.::s~p::::a~ral~le:.!:pe.:H~m~ode:::::::...200 block plot shear displacements right-lateral on joints -7..:.T..:t::. ':' ~. Norway 0.::.. bolted models..:.000 710211992 cyde 12:24 544846 ·7..:.:..:.:..B.::a::.W:...IT~L~E~: N~I~R::E~X~2~6~.. :::C."S(~: b:t.LI):..4~L=LW~P~i~lIa~r~s.600 ·7.n.:5:::O.100 1.500 1.....400 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Box 40 Taasen..400 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Box 40 Taasen...800 -&.:....1 !!m!!:a~jo::. ~ ("10"2) UDEC (Version 1.:. 0801 Oslo..R:.=.:r...=..=LL::.P.::m~o:...:.O:.m=a·c::0:...23 Joint shear displacements caused by LLW cavern excavations.::s:...300 0....:x..!:.m.es::::s::.:.:N.300 1.ITL:....500 1. ~::~~J -.800 LEGEND -7.!.700 t-_J:.:.800 LEGEND ·7.:s::J.:m~a:...:f·:··n:.000 -&..7) ".l::(S:::1igi!:m.100 0.:c~a~v~e~rn.:.::s::...::m::.....:.G~f...400 !erHater~! !'t!2.700 0.200 block plot shear displacements right-lateral on joints ·7.h.000 6130/1992 cycle 15:30 466000 -7.:.I:.300 1.:.X...:·re:.:d:::e:...000 ·8.::5~0~m!!:.:6:..i !:...:lar.I---_J~O:!B~T.::5~0·.:.200 -8.:2.::d::icu=la=r:.:tr.85~~E··02 f~.r.:.000 1.500 0.I.:. ----------1 (·'0"2) UDEC (Version 1.200 ·8...... and (lH cases (NGI 901038-26/1) . (lh.7) ".:e::.300 0.500 0.:.000 1....pe:.700 0...:...5:.=E:..100 0.800 -7.X ~~~~·~r.!.

for the 16 x 16 m cavern). STRESS. Note anisotropic response. Joint shearing (max.4 MPa) and displacement vectors (max. • Vertical (-y) displacement contours for a 16 x 16 m cavern at 650 m depth. full model.2 mm). • Exaggerated deformation (x 100) plots of block shapes after excavation of the eight cavern options. and joint shear .EDZ. Note invert heave and upwards directed wall displacements.9 F.2 mm). • Comparison of joint shearing EDZ for eight models helps in deciding optimum depth. full model. • 26 x 16 m bolted cavern at 650 m depth. • Detail of joint shearing and hydraulic aperture EDZ. oriented parallel to crH. 6.vertical displacement contours from UDEC-BB model. • Vertical (-y) displacement contours for a 26 x 16 m cavern at 650 m depth.EDZ. . and three-dimensional block geometry from 3DEC model. (Note that same block geometry was used at 650 m and 900 m depth). 20. Note high penetration of y-displacement EDZ due to low crh confinement across arch. Note relatively small size of y- displacement EDZ. span and cavern orientation. SIZE SENSITIVITY MODELLING WITH UDEC-BB • Sellafield Geotechnical Studies . (Note correspondence of y-displacement . oriented perpendicular to crH = 24 MPa. 14. Principal stresses (max. JCSo.3 mm) and hydraulic apertures (of channels) (max. and cavern orientation. • 26 x 16 m bolted cavern at 650 m depth. perpendicular to crH = 24 MPa. • Complex anisotropic jointing with cavern parallel to dominant SIjointing. DEPTH. • Comparison of y-displacement EDZ for eight models helps in deciding optimum depth. • Input parameters for JRCo. perpendicular to crH = 24 MPa. • Detail of stress and displacement EDZ around 26 m span cavern. span. ~r for all the modelled joint sets. 143.

.Sellafield Geotechnical Studies Work produced in support of the Geotechnical Study Group ~.. 1 UDEC-BB and 3 ensitivity Modelling for Cavern Design ~ NGI ..

500 -9.100 1. Oslo.100 -9.700 -8.300 10/13/1994 16:05 cycle 0 -8.100 .100 LEGEND -8.900 -9. Cavern parallel to 81 joint set.700 Norwegian Geotechnical Inst.700 .500 block plot -8.700 .I JOB TITLE: NIREX 51.500 . depth=-900 m.300 -9.300 . 1(*10"2) UDEC (Version 1.14 Cavern ~ize=26x16 m.82) -8. Norway .500 1.900 (*10"2) 1.300 1.

.m~si..:....:..:. Norway lnst.ze=-=..600 LEGEND ·5..m..:.:..0-... C....to-'--"S .... --l rll)"2) UDEC (Version 1...C:...:.500 1..000 block plot principal stresses minimum = -1... -l ('11>"2) UDEC (Version 1....:...m--'...:..4_M P_a:.e_m-...v..:...m--'pe-'-'-rp"" •.091 E+OO o -6.0.to=-S~ig..500 .:.600 -6.4.:....!:.:..100 1..:.:6:.::L.6_m--".:..:.200 Norwegian Geotechnical Oslo.100 .700 ....1.:a:.IT..:E.IR:...!!!!!!!.thc...a..• ig:...000 ·7..200 Norwegian Geotechnical Oslo..f-_J:..:..:.....N..:......P.6..900 rlD"2) 1..=. I!!!!!!!!! o I 2E -1 -6.a..400 -6.B~T....600 LEGEND ·5.800 ·7.:...200 I..-d_e •.X:.:d:.:S.e.E=X~S....:.:..e.c.::L.800 ·7.=...1.em~p:.....500 1..300 ...300 1.::2:..:.c..S..p.0:..S..... ..82) ·5.......e=_2_6_X_1.IT. .100 .82) ·5.:.700 ...a.....:...1..:....B~T..022E-02 -6...200 SE 2 -6..m.N...e.1..:-6:.:......=...800 10/11/1994 cycle 09:18 161390 block plot displacement maximum ·6.....1....0_m--"..:C:.:cM.=. . •.IR..800 10/11/1994 cycle 09:17 161390 -6.000 ·7.700 .000 vectors = 2..::e....:.:.300 1.:E.• p_th_=_-6. Norway lnst.:.av.:.600 -6.:..=...:.:a::..300 .:.=EX..!rp:..0:.a=v..:..900 rlD"2) 1..100 1.-H-'--'-2c.0...m--'....-..700 f--'--'-J:..v...:...•.:....434E+02 maximum = 3...:..si_z.....-H~2....-C:.:.

650 . . . _C_a_ve_m--. I...650 Norwegian Geotechnicallnst.__ ..550 -6. Norway Inst.82) LEGEND ·6.050 .....550 ·6....250 10/11/1994 09:08 cycle 161390 block plot displacement vectors maximum = 2.091E+OO I. ._ +r. .650 1-..850 ('10"2) . ° ·6......-j ('10"2) UDEC (Version 1..P_a..e_=_2. .850 1.:...2S0 1011111994 09:08 cycle 161390 block plot principal stresses minimum = -1.350 I 1E -1 ·6..950 1. .. ...---.ro-_--.850 ('10"2) .750 ...M.. .er.p_.434E+02 maximum = 3..IO.H_2_4.Crra_v_e rm-'-p.022E-02 . .....iz..UDEC (Version 1.. ...82) LEGEND -e.Prth_=_-6r-5_0 =r-: m.s.d_e.S-"i9'-m_a_-. Oslo...050 JO_B_T_I_T_L_E_:_N_I_R_E_X_5_1.650 Norwegian Geotechnical Oslo. .!. .._1_0. . •._. Norway ... " ' I ° 2E 2 -6..6_X_1_6_mr-..750 . ..450 ·6.450 ·6..

200 -6.600 -6.700 .82) LEGEND ·5. Norway .500 1.H __2_4_M_P_a_.400 -6.r-__ J~0~B~T_IT~L~E~:~N~IR~E~X~S~1_.900 rH)"2) 1.300 .800 10111/1994 09:19 cycle 161390 -6.S00E-OS -6.~to~S~i~g=m~a=.100 1.~1~0~.800 ·7.800 10/11/1994 09:19 cycle 161390 -6.500 1.C __av_e_m-.000 ·7200 Norwegian Geotechnical Inst.300 1._d~ep~t_h_=-~6~S~0_m_. Oslo.600 LEGEND ·5.100 . ~r1~) UDEC (Version 1.430E-02 each linethick = 2.600 -6.300 1. Oslo._to_S_I~·g_m_a_.100 .~C~a=v~e~m~p~e=~~.900 rll)"2) 1.82) ·5.800 ·7.S00E-04 -6.248E-03 each linethick = 2.000 block plot jointhydro aper.s_iz_e_=2_6_X_1_6 __m~.500 .~C~a~ve~m~s=iz~e==~2~6=X~1~6~m~.500 .~C~a~v_e_m~p_e~~_.100 1.300 .700 ~ __ ~J~0~B~T~IT~L=E~:~N~IR~E=X~S~1. max hydr aper = 6.000 block plot shear displacements on joints max shear disp = 1. Norway .700 .000 ·7200 Norwegian Geotechnical Inst.1~0~.~H~2=4~M==P~a=' -1r1~2) UDEC (Version 1.~d~ep~t~h~=_·6~5~0~m~.700 .

430E-Q2 each line thick = 2.--.750 .--.82) LEGEND 10111/1994 09:08 cycle 161390 block plot shear displacements on joints max shear disp = 1.UDEC (Version 1.950 1.. max hydr aper = 6.850 1.000E-QS ~.82) LEGEND 10/11/1994 09:08 cycle 161390 block plot joint hydro aper.S00E-04 Norwegian Geotechnical Oslo.--.350 -ll.650 .0!50 .--n (·10"2) UDEC (Version 1.45O -ll. . Oslo. Norway Inst.550 -ll.0!50 ..750 . Norway .248E-Q3 each line thick = 1.--.650 Norwegian Geotechnical Inst.650 .

100 .500E-02 -1.OOOE+OO 5.600 II _-13800 -7.500 1.500 .500E-02 max= 2.82) ·5. Norway .000 boundary plot y-disp contours contour interval= 2. Oslo.2 Cavern si~e=16X16.000E-02 -1.000E-02 -5.300 .000E-02 1.800 10/11/1994 14:24 cycle 402300 -6.200 Norwegian Geotechnicallnst.700 .200 -2.100 1.000E-03 O.900 ("10"2) 1.000 -7.500E-02 -2.700 .300 1.I JOB TITLE: NIREX 51.500E-02 -6. Cavern perpendicular to sigma H 1(*10"2) UDEC (Version 1.000E-03 1.500E-02 -6. depth=-650 m.000E-02 2.400 -6.500E-02 2.600 LEGEND ·5.500E-03 number of contours/color= 2 min=-2.

000E-02 1.000E-02 -1.300 . Cavern parallel to Sigma-H UDEC (Version 1.000E-02 2.500E-02 -1.500E-02 max= 2. I . Norway .800 10/11/1994 13:26 cycle 211578 -6.5.000 boundary plot y-disp contours contour inteNal= 2.000E-03 -6.000E-02 -5. Cavern size =26X16.500E-02 2.000 lliJilll~ti -7.200 -2.500E-02 -6.500 _ .500E-03 number of contours/color= 2 min=-2.200 Norwegian Geotechnicallnst.400 _ -6.82) -5. depth=-650.100 1.700 .900 ('1CY'2) 1.800 -7.600 O.000E-03 1.500E-02 -2.JOB TITLE: NIREX 51.300 1.600 LEGEND -5.700 .OOOE+OO 5.500E-02 -6.500 1. Oslo.100 .

~ .&OOE~ -1...'-ODOE-O> ·5._.5QOE.l..-' ! 2-500E-O:: + -2. c::or'olOIM."...<>:< z.6.•• JOe TITLE'''REX 5' 1 C.000E-0:i! -S.-eee OOntOU" ~moefOl~~ Mn.• ==~~lO~ ••!!!Ii!!~H'- -"rwc '.1..000E~ '. 2.CJOClE. .••• ~ar~~ ~2.000E-Cl'2 -6..c-n== •.OOOE~ • CIlOE-o.!JIXIE._ •••••••• ...!o(X)E-o...•. ...5CXIE-o~ -1.. ---_.·2 • • "ItREX 51. f..000E-Cl'2 2.."-""".CJOCIIE.eo-n=e.50DE-02 ·2.~ "..- I _-=JOO=TITU="..5(X)E·:~ ..- 16:::'8 ~..vem Ill. contour l"Iterv.c.'._==OOO=m.000e-(j"~ -!I.000E. _.-..OOOE+CG S.SOOE"" :2 5C<..".:.Ave'TlllZ@ .lQf'tl" •• ..~ ·1.._-=JOO=TITU=..5OOE-OO mln-2. "' ••• ·2.~ .!5OOE-<X1 2.--- l·r ...Avem~ IOsvna-t-' !-- ...-x==S"".oooHe .()2 ITIAlfa2..:2....5CWJE.!iOOE-<* ""una. ·2..•.._==."-3".~ I!!IJ l~ 2." -----. 'urnoo!'CII~COIC>'"' 2 SOOE·'> •...5OOE._ ".:c.- ------.>C..~·C2 2.c.-."""""'" 2.. 2. >-CXXJE. - -2..5OQE-04' ·'.: -2.000E~ -..S(:~ conkluf: :onIOuf1l't181'V •••• oornour 25ClCE-<: nvmo.50CE-C2 l-~f~QJ~" i i .500E·~ '!5OOE-<X1 UX'OE...••• .". M:M .OJ maxa ..5C:IOE-O:l -a.-.....•••. 13:1.OOOE-C.--v_ 2~ oc~(II~... ._--_. ••• ·2 §()()f..5OOE-~.000E-03 0..-.2.-« -5.. ..-vem sae..c.-.?.OIlIlE-O> UJOOE~ 1..==""""T=.Q2 .>8.QZ _....x'!... \Iii • • SOOE-o< 2.sooE~ c-: -...~===M.5OOE~ -2."y"'" "-CI'SO . 1.. • • ctreorro-~. 500E~ ·1...-.<Xj • JOe TITlE ....5OOE-C:"" .-..()3 O.ta~· • -......02 '.. I SOOE"'" • • • • ..OOOE-03 o ClOCE<OO S.000E C· 2. .'"..000EoOJ 1.!IO.~4l 2. oeor-VOO c. 1..Q.~ 13:28 ""'-"-"''''' ••...: . ----.e-a--to 8q'n!-h ---... NfREX S1 6 L.-<JIIO~~ ~"""I ~(II~._ ---------- "1500::< ::onIO\Ji'"~'" "''''_2 SOOE·Q2 m&1& 2... •.!OOE-C:< .!lOOEoC...ClOOEoO< '!lClOE-<X! lClOllE<l2 '-"OOE...18)(18 -- - -----_.<J2 I • 0010.6QO(.sooE-Q2 1.!!IOO(.-••... oounoo... .<U ~. .OOClE-03 '000E«lC S.••..... • • • •.OOOE-C3 '.5OOE-02 ~ 2:. L4..".OOOE-<::' I 5OOE-<:2 2000E-« 2~-(k I"lUf1'\Oft'"OI Oi:Y'IOV'$ICCtO<" 500E-Ct M~J".1XIOE.OOCIE43 O.ClOCE<OO 5.-....ClDOE-O:' rwv.. 10'1"'" • O.~ :1 SOOf -2.OClOE-03 l.8.""" c::onICU" •••••••••.CXlQE..OOOE-C • 5QOE-c2..000E-W -S. 10'1111""3:2"7 """"""~'"' OO'JII'108rvOlO' ~·080 v-QI. .OOOE-o:? -_ -coce-o!dXlOE-C~ '.~ 2500. I ~-Il ~~ ~ ~.".(I)OE+OC S...0Cl0E-03 O.... -_ 2....::: ''..--..-. ••=•• =_=!..oooE..COOE<r.a? -6...000E-Q'. comcur ••••..000E-O< ...OZ -~..-==•••••••._ S.-... . Oslo.••• to 5qole·- '~111" 001"1I0.5OOE.OOOE.~==.. 2. JOe TInE CIi¥em ~ .. -2.

:h 1M _ •••• dIp. 10'D711V94 17:21 ••• ~ _""'disp. •••••••• •• joHs .=H"-- UDECIV_U2) .. t----:c---'J08=:"-TIlU='-"...E:NRXsIAc....J0811l\..•.. ••••••• --0."'" . -. .al104 W:OI 211$11 ~~-jofts ___ 1.w.!'=...04 --<-. lQ107/1tIW c:.e.-r .••• -02 '**.. ..5e8E~ •••••••. •• ...•....-...I22E... --- 0010..._ ... UDEClVoroIottU2) 15.. t...Qil 1.c-n==-r=""'.....vc$I.E:...&cXE.Jc.1 c.c-n=""=-=""Io""" -l •. -.....Q2 2._ "-'-....... 1 ~_ 2._ .. -"'cIIp.I7IE4l •••..114000 ••..•.. •.Q4 ....... I._ -101'0711"" 1f-.Q4 0010..._ ..•... tcMIW1•••• 11:11 c.•••••• Z.. .•..~. .••••.vc .•.. •••••_ ••• •••••••.. -1QQW'.••.......0. 51.. ••••••••••••••• _ •••••• _ t*a _ 1.04 -_ 0010.:31 ''y 0I'I~ _....... ' IIDI!C IVoroIott UZ) ..ct..........-111000 .••• .. - _ •••••• eMft""ticIl_ _ .. ... .2c. JOBnTl. 1.Q2 1tIIck_2. clip...ICIaE-Ot -_ 0.. ..... IQtD1f1"I721 ..M .....1..... ' •• ...-.. J08T1TLE:~'I.IOCJE.0.. 11:32 .Kl8Tm.----. ••• ..a....452£-02 I.OX=... _..IIXIE-04 ---- H... IIt......- - ...:::NOlEX="'S<....•....••..a.32eE.. •••••••••• •.. z..• ••••••.. H...IGQE...Qil eMft •••• Ihk:II_ t.7ME...- - lQ107/ltIW c.a.. --•..E:..• ...AOCJE.CR H...n •••••• .... ..• LIDCIE-ot --<-..""--="'"""""="'.1 H. '.I. ~ .

~...- ---.'7':12 ••••••• ---'- 1.••.a •••..1Q:r1"11'.- -_ -..•...te:.DCXIE+02 ..•••• .••.GOOE+02 --- 11. 1..- ---llA:1ia'l..--11.... IIOEC~I~I --•••••••••• t.11 .DCXIE+02 ---. ...••••••• ..• .II qrdellnlOO ••••••••• 1._---____ ..Q1f1"1I...0:2 ---.•• .a•.oz ---..oooE..- •.

5 and 51. this "stratification" effect was achieved by applying the moduli given in Table 1.6 based on 1992 joint geometries.7° 26.2_9~~ __ widely jointed zones Qmean = 9. 1982a).2.1 ) JCSo (MPa) 162 90 71 (126) ¢r 28. Table 1.pi ------------------------------------------------NGI how the listed 11 to J4 joint parameters are distributed to the new (1994) joint structures defmed by joint sets SI to S4.51.4. 2 and 3.1 ° (26.5. The deformation moduli for the modelled rock masses were derived from two of the structural zones identified when logging ReF 1. Table 1.8 based on 1992 joint geometries. 25. E 13.1. J Sellafield Geotechnical Studies UDEC-BB and 3DEC Sensitivity Modelling for Cavern Design 1.9° 26.7° (14°) ( ) uncertain values Table 1.4 (3.3° 25.6 5.4 .1 (4. A numerically "glued" horizontal "bedding plane" separated the upper and lower halves of each model.3 Input parameters for 650m bOD Models 51.[ J._~ __~_~_~. 51.4.5 4.4.4 GPa closely jointed zones --------------------- ~~~~~_:== ___~_·~.1 for the case of the PCo\931005\rep\51 931005-51 1st November 1994 .51. 600-700m bOD 850-950m bOD closely jointed zones ---------------------widely jointed zones Qmean = = = E = 3.0 5.7°) ( ) uncertain values In the time available it was not possible to fully investigate rock quality as a fifth variable.4 Input parameters for 900m bOD Models 51. Joint Set J1 J2 J3 J4 Fault JRCo 3.4° 26.:.0° 25. The actual contrasting geotechnical data for each half of the models are shown in Figure 1. Joint Set J1 J2 J3 J4 JRCo 6.8 5. 51.2 GPa --------------------------------- Qmean 10.2 4.3 GPa In the present fifteen models (UDEC-BB and 3DEC). The following average values were obtained using the empirical relation E == 25 10glOQ (Barton.0) JCSo (MPa) 53 160 130 126 (36) ¢r 27.4. each model was "stratified" into two quality zones which had different stiffnesses.3. E = 24. However.7 and 51.5 Assumed Q-values and deformation moduli.

NGIl • 3DEC jointed block generation based on measured joint statistics.7 mm) from 3DEC model of disposal cavern. Bolt length and spacing based on Q-value and span.1 mm of deformation.1 mm. • Normal stresses (proportional to diameter of circles) on sub-horizontal "glued joint # 1". . due to wedge in left wall) from 3DEC model of disposal cavern.4 MPa) and displacements across vertical cross-section (max. • 3D stress (max. showing stress concentration around the face of the cavern in the invert (max. THREE DIMENSIONAL MODELLING OF POSSIBLE DISPOSAL CAVERN GEOMETRY USING 3DEC (SHEN 1994. • Unstable wedge in left wall that escapes bolting causmg the 46.10 G. showing exploded view and "pilot tunnel walk-about". • Systematic bolting in 3DEC cavern resembles "hairbrush". • Detail oflarge left wall displacement of 46. = 59.4 MPa) and displacements across longitudinal section (max. and details of boundaries with minor faults. 44. 46. • 3D stress (max. 141. • Geometry of "core" of jointed rock mass close to cavern.1 mm. 13.6 MPa).

(fH parallel to axis. '. III 3DEC (Version • .' i· U _. (low stress orientation) (NG/ 1931005-5111) (Sker\.~?~~gian Geotechnical lnstuuto Figure 11.I tI.10 3-DEC joint generation and "pilot tunnelling ": 650 m.50) ':: t • i I cy c Lo .~ NGI (J' t" 130 model at depth of 650 .D.h. \"1 11 1.. O. [qqLt{ (vGQ .

14 center O.20 above dd = 144.50) 4-0ct-94 13:08 dip= 57._-------------_._--- ------------------- Geotechnical Institute -..NIREX -.32 above dd = 124.------- NIREX -. O. 30 mag = cycle 19824 Norwegian --- ----- .OOOE+OO cut-pl.37 center O. ------------ - . cavern parallel to sigma-h 3DEC (Version 1.OOOE+OO O..50) 4-0ct-911 12:49 dip= 70.OOOE+OO O.3DEC model at depth of 650m.OOOE+OO O.50 mag = cycle 19824 I Norwegian Geotechnical Institute .OOOE+OO 1.OOOE+OO cut-pl. cavern parallel to sigma-h 3DEC (Version 1.OOOE+OO 2.. O.3DEC model at depth of 650m.OOOE+OO O.

50) 23-Sep-94 15:41 dip= 40.50) 23-Sep-94 15:40 dip= 90. O.00 cycle 0 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute .00 below dd = 90.868E-07 cut-pl.868E-07 -7.OOOE+OO mag = 2.00 center 9.868E-07 -7.000E+00 -7.868E-07 cut-pl.00 cycle 0 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute 3DEC (Version 1.3DEC (Version 1. O.00 center 9.000E+00 -7.OOOE+OO mag = 2.00 below dd = 90.

Ol cut-pl. 370£-02 NOfWegian Geolechnicallnstitut. 2.OOOE. 500£. 750E+01 -3. 000E.000£+00 O.41 Cross section plot: 3-0ct-94 8.000£. 7.00 center 0. 00 O.500£-0) dip.000E-02 5.250E'01 -1. center 74.68U'':. 500E+00 0. O.00 dip. 57. L ----1 I Norwegian Geotechnical Institute . OOOE-O) 0. interval.000E'01 -2.-OO 1.20 above dd· 144.7 geometric scale lE+Ol vector scale 5E-02 dlp.]79~+Ol 1. 00 above dd.81 ". OOOE+OO 0_ OOOE. l5he~ (<('fit.bOV8 13n.3DEC model at depth of 6SOm.- 8. 4. tld. dd· center 90.46 geometric ~ scale lE+01 .500£-OJ 1.01 -2. O. 90.00 ::Z. 3DEC (Version 1_50) 3DEC (Version 1.000£+00 2. 500E+01 -7. 3DEC model at depth of 650m.01 -3.00 above 180. cavem parallel 10 s.00 cycle 19924 ~~rw!9ian Geotech~~_allnstjtul~ Max Displacement .0001.OO 0_ OOOE+OO cut-pl. OOOE.500E+01 -J.500£.5001-03 2. I.NIREX -.OO mag.24 1.08 t. mag· cycle 0.00 cycle 19824 Max compress. 1. mln -4.01 -7. O. 500E-02 1. JO ~g = cycle 19824 '-. ----~------ NI REX _.OOOE+OO Ng • 4.000E-03 7.._--- L I Norwegian Geotechnical Institut. 000£-02 1. I Color by Disp mag..250£-02 1.OO cut-pl. cavern parallel to sigma·h 3DEC (Version 1_50) 3DEC (Version 27-S.500£-OJ 5.50) ~ l Croes se ction plot: L 4-Oct-94 J-Oct-94 13.OODE.00 O.OO 1.3DEC model al depth of 650m.OO cut cp l .OOOE. 180. s t re s e -4.250£+01 -1.50) 10.tr ••• scale 2E+Ol Color by PSl interval. SOOE-03 min eex 1.750E.OOOE'OO O. WGI) .443E+01 dip.00 o •• . OOOE.OOOE+OO O.p-94 1..500£+00 max -J. cavem parallel 10 sigma-h NIREX . 250£-02 7.gma-h J..14 center O.00 l mag.292E.

cavem paranel to slgma·h NIREX .02 -9.tf/f Mif) .ic:.--:----- NIAEX ..00 0.56 scale lE+01 vector scale 5E-02 dip.01 -6.85 center -9. OOOE+OO O.000£-02 3.01 compress.00011.al~5~jlut~ I NIREX .000£-02 2. 000£.000E.OO 1982( cycle ""'9 • 1)1 ~ I NOfW8!1ianGeolechnlcaf InstiMa MAx Ohplacement • 4.000£.342E-01 -1.00 0.OOOE'OO cut·pl.000£.!«:~~.Ol O.OOOE'OO O.3DEC model al depth of 650m.01 0.OOOE·OO cut·pl. 144.50) Cross section 4-Oct-94 plot: 3-Oct-94 13.3DEC model at depth I I I - I ~ \ '- .000£-02 3.30 ma9 • cycle 19824 90.50) 10. 000£-02 2.000!-02 Jain NX 5.01 -3.00 3._----- -_.000£.00 2.55 scale 12+01 stre •• 1. 109.~I (.02 -9.00 dip· dd • center dip..t. .3DEC model at depth of 650m.000E.~!an _~&OI~I~.608£-02 NorMglan Geotechnlcaf InsUtute (JJ..20 above dd. cavern parallel to sigma-h 3DEC (Version 1..01 0.000&-02 0.00011-02 6. interval.OOOE·OO O.0002+01 max -1.000£.000£.00 1.00 below 90. 000£-02 dip.00 2.000£+00 4.01 -3.000£.500E'02 -1.000E.50) 3DEC (Version 1. min -1.01 0.15 above dd. 3DEC model al depth of 65Om..000£.OOOE·OO C.00 19824 cut-pl.00011-02 1.·H scale 2£+02 Color by PSt interval. 000E-02 4.OOOE'OO 1.~~~! I Norweglan 01 650m.000£-02 5. 4142+02 I Norw.'-( VJ \ G.50) NIREX . stress -1.OOOE'OO cuc-pt . dd • center 90.000E.01 -6. 809£-01 4. O.000£-02 4.58 eec t Lcn plot: Cross 3-Oct-94 geometric 8.14 center O.00 ••••9 • o cycle Color by Disp •••• 9.Hl£-01 O. 51.00 below 90.20011. 3.000£. mag • cycle \L Max mag. cavem paranel to IIgma-h 27-Sop-94 3DEC (Version 1. cavem parallel 10 sigma-h 3DEC (Version 1. 1. O. 80. 2. 20011..08 geometric 8.

OOOE+OO 2.32 above dd = 124.000E+01 5.50) scale 1E+02 Color by TRACTION mag interval 1.000E+01 3.37 center O. cavern parallel to siqrna-h 3DEC (Version 1.00 center O.000E+Ol 3.OOOE+OO cut-pl.OOOE+OO O.3DEC model at depth of 650m.000E+01 O. cavern parallel to sigma-h 3DEC (Version Cross section 3-0ct-94 geometric o plot: 14:56 scale 1E+01 stress o 1.NIREX -.000E+01 2.958E+01 Norwegian Geotechnical Institute .3DEC model at depth of 650m.00 cycle 19824 Max traction on plane 5.OOOE+OO O.00 above dd = 270.000E+Ol 2.50) 4-0ct-94 12:49 dip= 70.000E+01 4.000E+01 min max 5.OOOE+OO cut-pl.OOOE+OO -9.000E+Ol 6.000E+01 1.OOOE+OO mag = 4.000E+01 4.50 mag = cycle 19824 L- _ __ I Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NIREX -.000E+00 O.000E+01 dip= 20. O. O.OOOE+OO 1.

000E+01 min max -1.000E+01 -3.50) Cross section plot: I I 3-0ct-94 8:56 geometric o 1E+01 vector ! I o scale ! scale ! ! I 5E-02 \ Color by Disp mag.000E-02 3.000E-02 3.OOOE+OO 3.000E-02 2.50) Cross section plot: 3-0ct-94 8:55 geometric o scale 1E+Ol stress scale o 2E+02 Color by PSl mag.000E+01 -6.000E-02 4.OOOE+OO mag = 4.OOOE+OO cut-pl.00 2.3DEC model at depth of 650m.000E-02 2. interval = 3.OOOE+OO O.000E-02 5.00 2.OOOE+OO O.00 below 90.000E-02 O.NIREX .00 below 90.500E+02 -l.000E+01 O.000E+01 dip= dd = center 90.000E+01 -6.60BE-02 Norwegian GeotechnicalInstitute . O. cavern parallel to sigma-h 3DEC (Version 1.200E+02 -1.000E-02 6.OOOE+OO mag = 4.000E+01 O.OOOE+OO cut-pl.000E+01 -9.000E+Ol O.OOOE+OO l. interval = 1.00 cycle 19824 Max compress.00 cycle 19824 dip= dd = center Max Displacement 4.OOOE+OO O.000E-02 4. cavern parallel to sigma-h 3DEC (Version 1.200E+02 -9.000E-02 min max 5. stress -1.000E+01 -3.000E-02 90. O.000E-02 1.414E+02 Norwegian GeotechnicalInstitute NIREX --3DEC model at depth of 650m.

00 below 90. cavem parallel to siqrna-h 3DEC (Version 1.NIREX . O.OOOE+OO cut-pl.013E+01 -4.00 cycle 19824 dip= dd = L Norwegian Geotechnical Institute .00 cycle 19824 dip= dd = Norwegian Geotechnical Institute NIREX •• 3DEC model at depth of 650rn.OOOE+OO O.00 center O.50) 26-0ct-94 10":15 90.00 below 80. cavern parallel to sigrna-h 3DEC (Version 1.410E+01 cut-pl.50) 2S-0ct-94 10:41 90.OOOE+OO O. O.3DEC model at depth of 650m.OOOE+OO mag = 32.OOOE+OO mag = 2.00 center 1.S00E+00 -1.