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**Limits – Calculation and Visualization
**

Jozef Hvorecky

Vysoká škola manažmentu / City University

Bratislava, Slovakia

LEVEL

High school or university students starting with Calculus.

OBJECTIVES

To comprehend the notion of a limit by drawing graphs and performing their calculations.

Corresponding eActivity

C02ACT1.g1e (for Activity 1), C02ACT2.g1e (for Activity 2), C02ACT3.g1e (for Activity 3)

OVERVIEW

**Intuitively, limits are results of complex stepwise process that factually never reaches the
**

target point. For students, it is rather difficult to grasp the relationship between the

approximation process and its resulting value. To facilitate their comprehension, same

calculations are performed using two different methods: a “long calculation” (simulating

the stepwise approximation) and by a formal (algebra-based) method. The problems

demonstrate the limit of a function at infinity as well as the limit of a function in a given

point.

[Note]

1. We shall use small letter x instead of capital X as shown on the calculator throughout

the paper.

2. The problems from [Tan] have been reformulated and solved using different methods.

EXPLORATORY ACTIVITIES

Activity 1 (C02ACT1.g1e):

The Custom Office Company makes a line of executive desks. The fixed cost of production

is $ 200,000 per year, the costs of material and workforce for one desk is $ 100. Show

that:

a) With the growing production, the unit production cost per year declines.

b) Show that there is a lower bound of this cost.

c) Interpret the result.

© 2005 CASIO Computer Co., LTD. All Right Reserved.

C02-01- 1 -

3 and 4 in the A column – and calculate their corresponding functional values in the column B: With growing number of pieces. A.g. producing 3 pieces per year would result in the cost pre piece equal to $ 66 766. To make the production effective. The functional values are calculated in the same way as before (with the cells referring to their left neighbors). © 2005 CASIO Computer Co. the column B the production per year and the C column the price per piece. The cell B1 refers directly to it (using the formula =A1). All Right Reserved. the series must be much bigger. (b) (Refer to Table 2) To make the size of the series flexible and to become capable of going to even larger numbers.2 - . The cell A1 will contain the beginning of the interval. Table 1 shows the values for all x up to 100. A1 contains 1000. the functional values are becoming smaller. In e-Activity. but for such small series they are apparently too large e. In the below example. let us reorganize the working area of the spreadsheet. Estimating the range of functional values using a spreadsheet calculation: (a) (Refer to Table 1) Let us open the spreadsheet tool and fill in the first few values – small numbers like 1. LTD. 2. the remaining cells in the column B refer to their upper neighbors (starting with =B1+1 in B2)..Limits – Calculation and Visualization Solution: The total cost of production of x desks during one year is expressed by the formula C ( x) = 100 x + 200000 The cost per piece is then expressed by the function A( x) = 100 + 200000 x We use the limit notation to express the dependence between the cost per piece and the growing number of pieces 200000 lim x→∞ A( x) = lim x →∞ 100 + x The limit notation indicates that the upper bound of production does not exist and we want to calculate its “farthest” value. C02-01.

Still.1*$A$1. The functional values become very close to 100. (d) (Refer to Growing by 10%) Change the value in A1 to even bigger numbers and watch what happens in the column C. we use the increment equal 10% of the starting point value. the big moves in A1 will result in observable changes in them. etc. 1. 100.) (c) (Refer to Growing by 10%) Even higher flexibility can be achieved by introducing a pair of parameters – the starting point and an increment. All the values in the B column will be calculated by using the 10% increment.000. The latter formula is copied to the below cells.000. B1 will be evaluated by using the formula = A1. B2 using the formula =B1+0. To simplify our task. All Right Reserved. Can you produce values smaller than 100? Exercise 2. Thus. Formulate a hypothesis on behavior of the function for very big values of x.000.) into A1. LTD.Limits – Calculation and Visualization The changes of the value in A1 are automatically reflected in the column C.000 etc. (Try 100. 1. C02-01.000. set big values (10. Start with formulating your answer to the question: Can 97 become a value in the C column? Why not? © 2005 CASIO Computer Co. EXERCISES A Exercise 1. In the “Growing by 10%” activity. the value of A1 will be an arbitrary (but positive) input value.3 - . Try to generalize your observations.000. replacing 1000 by 10000 results in the next values: The production cost values are smaller with each additional piece but the differences between two consecutive ones become almost negligible. For example.000..

000.000 and 10.Limits – Calculation and Visualization SOLUTIONS to EXERCISES A Exercise 1.y varies from 0 to 300. Then we obtain the following graph: The graph nicely demonstrates that the slope of the curve declines slower and slower. All Right Reserved. See Exercise 2 for details.4 - .The range of functional values on this interval goes from 200.x varies between 1. . . it is impossible. Graphing the function: (a) (Refer to the Viewing it) In the previous section we have learned that: . In View Window. too. it is always bigger than 100. LTD. The set used below is: . As x is positive. for very big x only negligibly. EXERCISES A Exercise 3. No.. Do not change Ymin and Ymax. . The function formula is 100 + (200 000/x). we set up appropriate parameters. Open the graph editor and graph the function A(x). So the result is always bigger than 100.The displayed interval should be very long (up to tens of thousand) to give a realistic view of the function behavior. Set up the values of Xmin and Xmax to different (even higher) values covering large intervals (at least several thousand units). Naturally. Exercise 2. No. © 2005 CASIO Computer Co. C02-01.000 to 100. The curve is much closer to a straight line because all functional values are now close to 100. the second summand is positive.Only the positive half of x axis is to be displayed. B. Notice that with growth of x the slope becomes gentler and gentler SOLUTIONS to EXERCISES A Exercise 3.

Analytical Approach: (a) Calculate the limit manually: 200000 lim x→∞ 100 + = x (b) Discuss the outcome: The limit will never be reached. the value of the function ( x − 4)( x + 1) x −2 is not defined at the point x = 4. the spreadsheet field corresponding to f(4) is empty – typing the formula into it would cause an error (an attempt to divide by zero). why are we interested in the result? Activity 2 (C02ACT2. All Right Reserved. C02-01. What is really happening in its neighborhood? Can we estimate (or even calculate) its “appropriate” value? Solution: If such a value exists. A.. So. LTD.Limits – Calculation and Visualization C. it is expressed as the limit lim x→4 ( x − 4)( x + 1) x −2 The subject of our discussion is the understanding what the notation determines. The FX-9860 SD calculator does not allow drawing © 2005 CASIO Computer Co.5 - . At the calculator screen no more than 5 rows are displayed. Watching behavior of the function in a spreadsheet table: (a) (Refer to TABLE 1) TABLE 1 contains the functional values from a neighbourhood near x = 4. For obvious reasons. Notice that the picture is artificially enlarged using a graphic editor. (b) The B6 cell is intentionally empty.g1e): Due to a danger of dividing by 0.

All Right Reserved. (b) Let us experiment with the content of A1. The investigated point is placed in B5 – in the middle between its neighbors. using the value “20” completes the function in a smooth manner. © 2005 CASIO Computer Co. whilst the functional values in B6 to B9 are all bigger than 20. The A1 cell contains an equidistant step between each pair of consecutive values. too.Limits – Calculation and Visualization a graph from the sheet with a missing field. Its predecessors are in cells B1 to B4. Still. we have to assign a value into B6. its ancestors are in cells B6 to B6. C02-01. The values of the column B and C are automatically changing.. B.The smaller the neighborhood. something does not change: . After return to the worksheet and pressing GPH1 the figure on the right is displayed. a simple comparison of its predecessors (B1 to B5) and successors (B7 to B10) indicates the value of 20 as a good candidate. 0.6 - . Its data are now arranged in a different pattern. So. (c) (Refer to Graph using 20) To draw a line one has to set up its parameters (using SET) to the form in the left.1. Change its value to 0. 0. As one easily see from the above picture. The column C contains their functional values calculated (with an exception for x=4 which is artificially added as before). It is capable of displaying points from neighborhoods specified by the user. the formula in C1 is =(B1 – 4)*(B1 + 1)/(√B1 – 2) See the next picture to observe the difference. etc.001. . the closer are its functional values to 20. LTD. all functional values in C1 to C4 are smaller than 20.01.In every selected neighborhood of 4. For example. Approaching the critical point from even closer distances: (a) (Refer to Modify A1) We open the spreadsheet the next time. Evidently.

So the limit not always exists. the value “20” is the edge dividing the functional values smaller than 20 (on the left side..5 = 20 EXERCISE B Exercise 1. Let us discuss another example: lim x→−3 x +1 x+3 The function is not defined at the point x = –3. What is happening in its neighborhood? Solution: A. cannot always be replaced by a particular value. the behavior of the function in the neighborhood of –3 can be investigated using a spreadsheet. All Right Reserved. Activity 3 (C02ACT3. it is easy to show that the limit is -6.7 - . LTD. despite the fact the function is undefined for x = 4. we left © 2005 CASIO Computer Co. Does the function f ( x) = x2 − 9 x+3 have a limit at x=–3? If so. For same reasons. for x < 4) from the functional values greater than 20 (on the right side. for x > 4). what is its value? SOLUTION to EXERCISE B Exercise 1. C02-01. Analytical Approach: Calculate the value of lim x →4 ( x − 4)( x + 1) x −2 ( ) = lim x→4 ( x + 2)( x + 1) = 4.g1e): The absent value resulted from a division by 0. Watching behavior of the function in a spreadsheet table: (a) (Refer to Values near -3) Similarly to Activity 2. Using spreadsheet approximations. its value can be expressed as a limit lim x→4 ( x − 4)( x + 1) x −2 = 20 C.Limits – Calculation and Visualization Informally speaking. So.

© 2005 CASIO Computer Co. (Refer to closer to -3) Again. allow the flexible borders of the neighborhood and watch the changes.1. the value of the right one is -19.Limits – Calculation and Visualization the spreadsheet field corresponding to f(–3) empty and then try to estimate the value that could be entered to it. we observe the followings: . Now the invariants of the activity differ: . In the above picture. whilst the right-side values change from -4 to -19 as we approach -3. In theory. the value 0 could be a candidate for the limit. the bigger differences between the values on the left and right sides of it appear. Change its value to 0. Compared to Activity 2. LTD.01. However. the value of the left one is 21. let us experiment with the content of A1.The left neighbors of –3 are always positive. C02-01. etc..8 - . we conclude that the limit value of the left neighborhood is +∞. its right neighbors are always negative. So. All Right Reserved. 0.001. The next picture shows that the difference between two closer neighbors is even bigger. In such a case we say that the limit does not exist. Thus. there is no value that is approached from both sides. too.The closer we go to –3. The values of the column B and C are automatically changing. but the limit value of the right neighborhood is –∞. (b) Does the picture change in very close neighborhoods? Again. the column B shows a different picture. The left-side values grow from 5 to 21. 0. The closer we go to the point x = –3. the bigger are differences between the nearest neighbors.

Show that the values do not progress to a constant Exercise 2. Investigations show that all values in the neighborhoods of 0 are positive but they are bigger and bigger. ( x + 17) x2 −1 Exercise 2.Limits – Calculation and Visualization EXERCISES C Exercise 1. All Right Reserved. Using a spreadsheet. T.9 - . 1998. © 2005 CASIO Computer Co. So there is no limit. Tan. investigate the function at a small neighborhood of 1. College Mathematics (Chapter 9). There is no constant that would limit (stop) the growth. Show that the function f ( x) = does not have a limit at x=1. ISBN 0-534-91791-7.. Sow that the function g ( x) = does not have a limit at x=0. REFERENCE [Tan] S. C02-01. 1 x2 SOLUTIONS to EXERCISES C Exercise 1. LTD. PWS-KENT Publishing Company. The limit only exists when it can be fixed as a constant.

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