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SEPT 2013

CHAPTER 2: STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM
2.1 MATTER
1. Matter :
 Any substance or material that occupies space and has mass.
 Exists as a solid, liquid or gas (3 states of matter).
 Made up of particles.
 3 kinds of particles – atoms, molecules, ions
 Can be divided into elements and compound.
Particles
Atoms


Molecules



Ions



Matter
Elements

Description
Smallest particles of an element that retain the chemical
properties of the element.
Examples : Sodium atom (Na)
Zinc atom (Zn)
Helium atom (He)
Particles composed of two or more atoms.
Can be with the same or different atoms
Examples : Same atoms – Oxygen gas (O2)
Different atoms – Ammonia (NH3)
Charged particles – positive or negative
Positive charged ion (Cation) – Zinc ion (Zn2+)
Negative charged ion (Anion) – Chloride ion(Cl-)




Compounds



Descriptions
Particles made up of the same atoms only.
Can be in the form of atom or molecules.
Cannot be split into two or more simpler substance by
chemical means.
Examples:
- Metallic  Copper(Cu), Iron(Fe), Gold(Au)
- Non-metallic  Oxygen(O2), Sulphur(S8)
Particles made up of two or more elements.
Can be molecules or ions.
Examples:
- Molecules  Water (H2O)
Sulphur trioxide (SO3)
Tetrachloromethane (CCl4)
- Ions  Sodium chloride (Na+, Cl-)
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Iron(III) oxide (Fe3+, O2-)
Calcium chloride (Ca2+, Cl-)
2. Changes in states of matter
 Matter can change its state.
 Reversible changes.
 Exists in 3 states, solid, liquid and gas.
SOLID

LIQUID

Boiling point

GAS

Melting point

During the changes, the following do not change:
- Mass of particles
- Size of particles
- Type of particles
 Velocity of the particle increases when
- Temperature increases
- Kinetic energy increases
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 Sublimation can only happen to :
- Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)
- Solid carbon dioxide / Dry ice (CO2)
- Iodine (I2)
 Differences between solid, liquid and gas (Kinetic Theory Of Matter):
(Essay)
States of matter
Arrangement of
particles

Solid

Liquid

Gas

compact, orderly
manner

Loosely packed,
disorderly manner

very far apart,
random motion

Vibrate, rotate in
a fixed position

Move freely

Move freely and
randomly

Particles Kinetic
energy
Shape

Very low

Moderate

High

Fixed

Volume
Rate of diffusion

Fixed
Low

Not fixed (follow
the shape of
container)
Fixed
Average

Not fixed (follow
the shape of
container)
Not fixed
High

Attractive forces
between particles

Very strong

Medium

Very weak

Particles motion

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3. Experiment (PeKa)
a. Heating curve of naphthalene/acetamide
 Diagram:

 Graph:

AB: Solid

DE: Liquid + Gas

BC: Solid + Liquid

EF: Gas

CD: Liquid

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 Explanation:
AB: When the solid is heated, heat energy is absorbed. This causes the
particles to gain kinetic energy and vibrate faster.
BC: The temperature remains constant because the heat energy absorbed by
the particles is used to overcome the forces between particles so that the
solid can turn into a liquid. At this temperature, both solid and liquid are
present.
CD: The particles in liquid naphthalene absorb heat energy and move faster.
 During the heating of naphthalene:
- Water bath is used (ensure uniform heating, naphthalene is flammable)
- Naphthalene is stirred continuously (ensure an even heating)
 Water bath: For heating a substance which is less than 100°C.
 Oil bath: For heating a substance which is more than 100°C.
 Latent heat of fusion: heat required to convert solid to liquid without a
change in temperature.
b. Cooling curve of naphthalene/acetamide
 Diagram:

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 Graph:

PQ: Gas

ST: Solid + Liquid

QR: Liquid + Gas

TU: Solid

RS: Liquid
 Explanation:
RS: When the liquid is cooled, the particles in the liquid lose their
kinetic energy. They move slower as the temperature decreases.
ST: The temperature of naphthalene remains constant because the
heat loss to the surroundings is balanced by the heat energy given off
during freezing.
TU: The particles in solid naphthalene release heat energy and vibrate
slower.
 During the cooling of naphthalene:
 Boiling tube containing naphthalene is placed in a conical flask. (to
minimize heat loss which may affect the accuracy of freezing point –
air trapped in conical flask is poor conductor of heat)
 Stirred by using thermometer (to ensure even cooling)

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 Super cooling

i.

ii.

Condition in which the temperature of a cooling liquid drops below the
normal freezing point.
Occurs when conical flask is not used in the experiment.

2.2 ATOMIC STRUCTURES
1. Historical development of the structure of atom
a) John Dalton

- All elements made up of small indivisible particles called atoms.
- Atoms made up of tiny particles which cannot be created or destroyed.
- Atoms of same element – same mass
- Atoms of different elements – different mass
- Atoms join together to form larger molecules or compounds (in simple
ratio)
- Weakness:
 Atoms are not the simplest particles – bigger than proton, neutrons
and electron
 Atoms can be destroyed or breakdown – radioisotopes
 Atoms of same element have different mass – isotopes

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b) J.J. Thomson

- Plum pudding model.
- Electron embedded in a sphere of positive charge.
- Electron spreads randomly throughout the positive charge.
c) Ernest Rutherford

- All positive charge of an atom is concentrated in the nucleus – contain
protons.
- Mass of atom is located in a small area (nucleus).
- Number of protons = number of electron
d) Neils Bohr

- Electrons of atom are arranged and move around the nucleus in orbital
called electron shells.
- Nucleus contains protons.
- The orbital has various radius form the nucleus.
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e) Sir James Chadwick

- Discovered neutrons which are located in the nucleus.
- The neutral particle has the same mass as protons.
2. Atomic Structure
 Made up of subatomic particles; protons, electrons and neutron.
 Nucleus
– situated at the centre of atom.
– has positive charge, protons. Neutrons may also present.
 Electrically neutral. (Number of proton = Number of electrons)
 Have electrons which move around the nucleus in its shells.
 Mass of proton = mass of neutron
 Nucleus contributes a lot of mass in an atom.
Subatomic
particles
Proton
Neutron
Electron

Symbol
p
n

Relative atomic
mass (RAM)
1
1

Charge
+
neutral
˗

3. Electron Configuration
 Maximum number for each shell:
 First shell : 2 electrons
 Second shell : 8 electrons
 Third shell : 8 electrons
 Forth shell : 2 electrons
 Valence electron = electrons found in the outermost shell of an atom.

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4. Atomic number & Mass number
 Atomic number = proton number
 Nucleon number = proton number + number of neutrons
 Mass number = Nucleon number

2.3 KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
1. According to the Kinetic Theory Of Matter,
 Matter consists of tiny and discrete particles.
 Particles always move randomly.
 There are forces of attraction between the particles.
 Particles gain kinetic energy and move faster when heated.
 Particles lose kinetic energy and move slower when cooled.
 Can be proven by using 2 experiments: Diffusion and Brownian
movement.
2. Diffusion
 Occurs when particles of a substance move in between the particles of
another substance.
 Random movement of particles from a high concentration region to a
lower concentration region.
 Happens in three states of matter; solid, liquid and gas.
 Occurs most rapidly in gases, followed by liquid and solid.
 Particles diffuse from one medium to another.
 Rate of diffusion increases with the temperature.
 Rate of diffusion decreases when the mass of matter increases.
 Diffusion in gases:

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 Diffusion of liquid:

(Blue)
 Diffusion of solid:

Jelly

3. Brownian movement

 Random movement that is shown when colliding with other particle.
 Can only be observed under a light microscope.
 Supports the Kinetic Theory Of Matter.

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2.4 ISOTOPES
1. Atoms of same element with the same number of protons but different
number of neutrons.
Uses
Isotopes
Carbon-14

 determination of age of carbon-containing artifacts
 as a biological tracer, for example, in studies of
photosynthesis

Oxygen-18

 biological tracer, for example, in studies of photosynthesis

Sodium-24

 Detect location of leaks in water pipes,
 studies of body electrolytes

Magnesium27

 location of leaks in water pipes

Cobalt-60

 cancer treatment as tumour cells tend to be more
susceptible to radiation than other cells

Krypton-81

 lung ventilation studies

Technetium99

 Medical tracer used to locate brain tumours and problems
with the lungs, thyroid, liver, spleen, kidney, gall bladder,
skeleton, blood pool, bone marrow, salivary
 to detect infection

Iodine-131

Iodine-123

Uranium-235




Medical tracer
treat the thyroid gland &amp
used in the diagnosis of adrenal medulla
for imaging suspected neural crest and other endocrine
tumours
 used in imaging to monitor thyroid function
 detect adrenal dysfunction
 Enriched as a fuel for most nuclear reactors
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Americium241

 Domestic smoke alarms

Phosphorus32

 Treatment of excess red blood cells

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CHAPTER 3: CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATIONS
3.1 Formula and Chemical Equations
1. Reasons of comparing relative atomic mass(R.A.M, Ar) with one carbon-12
atom:
 Solid and easily handled.
 Most abundant carbon isotope.
 Easily available.
 Used as a reference standard in spectrometer.
2. Formulae:
MASS OF
SUBSTANCE, g

÷ M.M.

× M.M.

× M.V.
VOLUME OF
SOLUTION, cm3

NO. OF MOLES, mol
÷ M.V.
× NA
÷ NA
NO. OF
PARTICLES, atoms

3.2 The Mole and the Volume of Gas
1.


2.

Avogadro’s Constant, NA
Number of particles in one mole of substance.
6.02 × 1023
Standard Temperature and Pressure (S. T. P.)
Temperature = 0°C
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3.


Pressure = 1 atmosphere / atm
Molar volume of 1 mole of gas = 22.4dm3 or 22400cm3
Room condition (R. T. P.)
Room temperature = 25°C
Pressure = 1 atmosphere / atm
Molar volume of 1 mole of gas = 24dm3 or 24000cm3

3.3 Molecular Formula and Empirical Formula
1. Molecular formula: actual number of atoms in each element that present
in a molecule of the compound.
2. Empirical formula: simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element
in the compound.
3. Empirical formula =
4. Example : Glucose – M.F.: C6H12O6

– E.F.: CH2O
5. Determining empirical formula by using table form:
Element
Mass/Percentage
x
No. of mole
y(
Ratio
Empirical formula
4. Experiment for empirical formula:
For higher reactivity of metal (Mg, Zn, Ca, Al)

Crucible with lid

Metal tape

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Precaution:
- Lift the lid at intervals to allow oxygen gas to enter for
combustion of metal.
- Lid is closed immediately after it is lifted to prevent white fume
from escaping to the surroundings.
- Stop heating the metal when it is started to glow.
Reactive metal: both reactant and products are solid and thus, the
individual mass of metal and oxygen cannot be determined.
For lower reactivity of metal (Cu, Sn, Pb, Ag)

Chemical used to dry hydrogen gas: Anhydrous cobalt chloride /
anhydrous calcium chloride.
Hydrogen gas is flowed through the apparatus throughout the
experiment to prevent the air for entering it.

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CHAPTER 4: PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS
4.1 INTRODUCTION TO PERIODIC TABLE

1. Classifications of elements with the same chemical properties are placed in
the same group.
2. Elements in:
 Group 1 – Alkali metals
 Group 2 – Alkali earth metals
 Group 3 – 12 – transition elements
 Group 17 – Halogens
 Group 18 – Noble gases
 Group 1, 2, transition elements and 13 – metals
 Group 15, 16 and 17 – non metals
 Same group – same chemical properties and valence electrons
No.
of
1
2
3
4
valence
electrons
Group
1
2
13
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3. Historical Development of the Periodic Table
i. Antoine Lavoisier

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6

7

8/2

15

16

17

18

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 Classify elements into 4 groups which are gases, metals, non-metals and
metal oxide.
 Not accurate – heat and light are included as gases.
ii. Johann W. Dobereiner
 Classify elements with the same chemical properties into groups of three
(triads).
 Discover relationship between R.A.M. in each triad. (Middle R.A.M. =
average R.A.M.)
iii. John Newlands
 Arrange elements in order of increasing nucleon number (mass number)
in horizontal rows. Each row has 7 elements.
 Law of Octaves – every eighth element have similar chemical properties.
– Only accurate for the first 16 elements.
 Discover the existence of periodic pattern.
iv. Lothar Meyer
 Volume of an atom =

of an element

 Graph of volume of atoms against their R.A.M.
 Show the properties of elements recur periodically.
v. Dmitri Mendeleev
 Arrange element in order of increasing atomic mass.
 Left gaps for elements yet to be discovered.
vi. Henry G. J. Moseley
i. Different element with high energy electrons & measured the frequency of
the X-ray emitted by inert gases elements.
ii. Graph of square root of frequency against proton number.
a) Group 18 elements – Noble Gases
 Made up of Helium (He), Neon (Ne), Argon (Ar), Krypton (Kr), Xenon
(Xe), Radon (Rn).
 Exist in monoatomic form.
 Has stable electron arrangement (outermost shell filled with the maximum
number of electrons).
 Chemically unreactive (do not share, donate or accept electrons).
 Duplet – Helium, Octet – other noble gases.
 Physical properties:
 Colourless gaseous state at room temperature.
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 Low boiling and melting point (weak Van der Waals forces /
intermolecular forces of attraction.
 Do not conduct electricity.
 Low density (atoms are far apart).
 Going down the group,
Melting & Boiling point
Atomic size
Forces of attraction between atoms
Heat energy
Density
Atomic mass
 Uses:
Helium
 Fill airship, bicycle tyres of Olympic cyclist &
meteorological balloons.
 Exist in the gas in diver’s oxygen tank.
Neon
 Advertising boards / lights.
 Electric discharge through glass tubes produces a red
light.
Argon
 Electric light bulb.
 Carrier gas in gas-liquid chromatography.
Krypton
 Laser light
 Flash lamps of a light house
Radon
 For cancer treatment.
Xenon
 For flash lamp.
b) Group 1 elements – Alkali metals
 Made up of Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb),
Cesium (Cs), and Francium (Fr).
 Has 1 valence electron.
 Very reactive to become positive ions (easily to donate valence electron).
 Physical properties:
 Soft metal with shiny and silvery surfaces (can be cut by knife).
 Good electric and heat conductor.
 Less dense than water.

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 When going down the group,
Melting and boiling point
Metallic bond
Decreases
Forces of attraction
Atomic size
Increases
Density
Number of occupied shell
 Chemical properties:
 Have same chemical properties.
 Electropositivity: measurement of ability of an element to lose an
electron and form a positive ion.
 Good reducing agent.
 Can be oxidised easily.
 Going down the group, reactivity / electropositivity increases.
 Safety precautions when handling Group 1 elements:
 Kept in paraffin oil.
 Use forceps to take them.
 Wear safety goggles & gloves.
 Reactions:
a) Alkali metal + water
 Hydroxide solution produced will turn red litmus paper red.
 Products: metal hydroxide + hydrogen gas
Alkali metal
Cold water
Lithium
Sodium
Potassium

2Li + 2H2O  2LiOH + H2
Moves slowly with “hiss” sound.
2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2
Moves quickly and randomly with loud “hiss” sound.
2K + 2H2O  2KOH + H2
Burns with reddish-purple light, jumps, “hiss” and “pop” sound.

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b) Alkali metal + oxygen
 Products: metal oxide (white powder).
 When metal oxide dissolves in water, it turns phenolphthalein
indicator red (presence of OH- ions – alkaline)

4Li + O2  2Li2O
Burns slowly with red light.
Sodium
4Na + O2  2Na2O
Burns quickly and brightly with yellow light.
Potassium 4K + O2  2K2O
Burns very quickly and brightly with reddish-purple light.
c) Alkali metal + halogen gas (Chlorine & Bromine)
 Products: metal halides (metal bromide / chloride – white powder)
Lithium

Halogen

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Lithium
Sodium
Potassium

2Li + Cl2  2LiCl / 2Li + Br2  2LiBr
Burns slowly with reddish flame. A white solid is obtained.
2Na + Cl2  2NaCl / 2Na + Br2  2NaBr
Burns brightly with a yellowish flame. A white solid is obtained.
2K + Cl2  2KCl / 2K + Br2  2KBr
Burns very brightly with a purplish flame. A white solid is
obtained.

4.2 HALOGEN
1. Group 17 elements (Halogens)
 Made up of fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and
astatine (At).
 Exist in diatomic molecules.
 Non – metal.
 Physical properties:
 Heat and electrical insulator.
 Low melting and boiling point (weak forces between the molecules).
 When going down the group,
 Atomic size
 Van der Waals forces
 Heat energy used to overcome forces
 Boiling and melting point
 Colour of halogen darker.
2. Chemical properties:
 Same chemical properties (same valence electrons – 7)
 High electronegativity
 When going down the group,
 Reactivity/electronegativity
 Van der Waals forces
 Tendency to accept electron
 Solubility
 Atomic size
 Distance between the nucleus and outermost shell
 Reaction:
 Halogen + water
 Product: two acids.
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 Halogens act as bleaching agent, except iodine water.
 In general, X2 + H2O  HX + HXO, where X is halogen.
 Chlorine water
 Turn blue litmus paper red then decolourise it.
 Prepared from the reaction between potassium manganate
(VII) chips with concentrated hydrochloric acid.
16HCl + 2KMnO4  2MnCl + 8H2O + 5Cl2
 Cl2 + H2O  HCl + HClO
 Products: Hydrochloric acid + Hypochlorous acid
(bleaching agent).
 Greenish–yellow gas dissolves quickly to form a light
yellow solution.
Bromine (liquid)  Br2 + H2O  HBr + HBrO
 Products: Hydrobromic acid + hypobromous acid
(bleaching agent).
 Reddish–brown liquid dissolves slowly, forming a
brownish–yellow solution.
Iodine (solid)
 I2 + H2O  HI + HIO
 Products: Hydroiodic acid + hypoiodous acid (bleaching
agent).
 Very little purplish–black solid dissolves, forming a light
yellow solution.
 Halogen + Sodium hydroxide solution, NaOH.
 Products: Sodium halide + Sodium halite(I) + Water
 In general, X2 + 2NaOH  NaX + NaOX + H2O, where X is
halogen.
Chlorine (gas)

Cl2 + 2NaOH  NaCl + NaOCl(sodium chlorate) + H2O
Greenish-yellow gas dissolves quickly to form a colourless solution.
Bromine Br2 + 2NaOH  NaBr + NaOBr(sodium bromate) + H2O
Reddish-brown liquid dissolve averagely to form a colourless
solution.
Iodine
I2 + 2NaOH  NaI+ NaOI(sodium Iodate) + H2O
Purplish-black solid dissolves slowly to form a colourless solution.
 Halogen + Iron (Fe)
 Product: iron(III) halides (brown solid)
 Apparatus set up:
Chlorine

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/ Lime soda

 Soda lime: mixture of calcium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide
(absorb excess halogen gas)
 Iron wool is heated strongly until red hot.
 Concentrated hydrochloric acid is added to potassium manganate
(VII) through a thistle funnel (to produce chlorine gas).
 In general, 3X2 + 2Fe  2FeX3, where X is a halogen.
Chlorine 3Cl2 + 2Fe  2FeCl3
Iron wool burns lights up strong and bright. Brown solid is formed.
Bromine 3Br2 + 2Fe  2FeBr3
Iron wool glows moderately bright and less vigorously. Brown solid
is formed.
Iodine
3I2 + 2Fe  2FeI3
Iron wool glows dimly and slowly. Brown solid is formed.
3. Precaution:
 Halogens are poisonous gas.
 Must be handled in fume chamber.
 When handling halogens. Safety goggles and gloves must be used.
 Fluorine is a radioactive substance, astatine is radioactive.
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4.3 Elements in a Period
1. Period: horizontal row in the Periodic Table.
2. There are 7 periods in the modern periodic table.
3. When it goes across the period from left to right:
 Electronegativity
 Proton number
Increases
 Valence electrons
 Non-metallic properties
 Nuclei attraction on valence electrons
 Atomic size
 Electropositivity
Decreases
 Metallic properties (Metallicity)
Na2O MgO
Al2O3
SiO2 P4O10 SO2 Cl2O7
Element
Acidic oxides
Characteristics Basic oxides Amphoteric
(Alkali)
oxides
4. Amphoteric oxides: react with both acids and alkalis, have base and acidic
properties. ( acid, alkali)
5. Sodium, Magnesium and Aluminium :
 Metal
 Strong metallic bonds
 High melting and boiling points
 High strength of metallic bond
6. Silicon
 High melting and boiling points
 Has strong covalent bond, forming a 3-dimensional gigantic network.

7. Uses of semi-metals/metalloids(element with properties intermediate
between those of metals and non-metals)
 Silicon and Germanium – makes diodes and transistor/switch
 Conductivity increases with temperature.
 Important in microelectronic industry

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8. Transition Element
 Elements between Group 3 until Group 12.
 Metals
 Show metallic properties:
 Shiny surface
 Ductile
 Malleable
 Can withstand high tension
 High melting and boiling point
 High density (big atomic mass despite small radius)
 Electric and heat conductor
 Form coloured compounds or ions
Transition elements
Colour
3+
Chromium ion, Cr
Green
2+
Iron(II) ion, Fe
Green
3+
Iron(III) ion, Fe
Brown
2+
Copper(II) ion, Cu
Blue
2Chromate ion, CrO 4
Yellow
2+
Manganese ion, Mn
Pink
2+
Cobalt ion, Co
Pink
2+
Nickel ion, Ni
Green
2Manganate ion, MnO 4
Purple
2Dichromate ion, Cr2O 7
Orange
 Act as catalyst to speed up the reaction.
 Iron, Fe – Haber process (producing ammonia, NH3).
 Platinum, Pt – Ostwald process (producing nitric acid, HNO3).
 Nickel, Ni – manufacture of margarine.
 Vanadium (V) oxide, V2O5 – Contact process (producing sulphuric
acid, H2SO4).
 Form complex ions.
 Polyatomic anion/cation consisting of more than 2 metal ions with
other group bonded to it.
 Examples – hexacyanoferrate (II) – [Fe(CN)6]4– Tetramine copper (II) – [Cu(NH3)4]2+

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 Have different oxidation number.
 Iron, Fe - +2, +3, +1
 Manganese - +1, +2, +3, +6, +7
 Nickel - +2, +3
 Chromium - +2, +3, +6
 Give colour to precious stone.
 Presence of ions in a solution can be confirmed by using sodium
hydroxide solution, NaOH / ammonia solution, NH3.
 The ions of transition elements will react with hydroxide ion, OH - to
form coloured solution / precipitate.
Precious stone
Emerald
Ruby
Sapphire
Amethyst

Colour
Green
Red
Blue
Purple

Transition elements
Nickel, Iron
Chromium
Iron, Titanium
Iron, Manganese

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CHAPTER 5: CHEMICAL BONDS
5.1 Formation of Chemical Bonds
1. Ionic bond
 Metal element reacts with non-metal element.
 Metal element (Group 1, 2, and 13)
 Non-metal element (Group 16 and 17)
 Metal elements donate electrons and produce positive ions.
 Non-metal elements will accept electrons to achieve a stable electron
configuration and produce negative ions.
 These ions will attract each other by a strong electrostatic force of
attraction (ionic bond).
 Examples: sodium chloride, magnesium oxide, lithium oxide.
Elements which are reacting
Metal M
Non-metal X
+
Group 1, M
Group 15, M3Group 1, M+
Group 16, M2Group 1, M+
Group 17, MGroup 2, M2+
Group 15, M3Group 2, M2+
Group 16, M2Group 2, M2+
Group 17, MGroup 13, M3+
Group 15, M3Group 13, M3+
Group 16, M2Group 13, M3+
Group 17, M Sodium chloride, NaCl

Formula of ionic
compound
M3X
M2X
MX
M3X2
MX
MX2
MX
M2X3
MX3

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4.2 Covalent Bonds
1. Formed by non-metal elements form Group 14, 15, 16, and 17.
2. Atoms of non-metals will combine to donate one, two or three valence
electrons to be shared.
3. 3 types of covalent bonds:
 Single – sharing one pair of electrons
 Double – sharing two pair of electrons
 Triple – sharing three pair of electrons
4. These will form covalent compound.
5. Examples:
Chlorine molecule, Cl2 (Single)

Water molecule, H2O (Single)

Carbon dioxide molecule, CO2 (Double)

Nitrogen molecule, N2 (Triple)

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Non-metal elements which combined
Element P
Element Q
4+
Group 14, P
Group 17, QGroup 14, P4+
Group 16, Q2Group 15, P3+
Group 17, QGroup 16, P2+
Group 17, Q-

Molecular
Formula
PQ4
P2Q4 / PQ2
PQ3
PQ2

6. Physical properties of ionic compounds:
 High melting and boiling point
 Conducts electricity

 Soluble in water, insoluble in organic solvents
 Able to ionize in water.
 Has strong electrostatic force of attraction
 Need a lot of heat energy to overcome the forces
 Arranged in lattice structure in solid state
 Contain free-moving ions that carry charges
7. Physical properties of covalent compounds:
 Low melting and boiling points
 Has weak Van der Waals forces – less heat energy is needed.
 Insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvent
 Cannot conduct electricity
 Do not contain free-moving ions that carry charges

31

8. Giant molecules covalent compounds:
 Strong covalent bonds combine all atoms in a three-dimensional lattice
structure.
 Have high melting and boiling point
 Unable to conduct electricity.
 Examples: silicon, graphite, silicon oxide, diamond, protein
9. Covalent compound as organic solvents
 Water
 Dissolves all types of food – sugar and salt
 Dissolves food substances in the body
 Cleanses or gets rid of dirt
 Organic solvent
 Ethanol – preparation of shellac, lacquer, paint, cosmetic and
perfumes
 Petrol / kerosene – cleans greasy and oily dirt stains
 Propanone – nail varnish
 Chlorofluorocarbon – cleans circuit board of computer

5.4 Comparisons between ionic and covalent bond
Ionic compound
NaCl, MgO, ZnCl2, CuO
High – has strong
electrostatic forces of
attraction (A lot of heat
energy is needed)
Soluble
in
water,
insoluble in organic
solvent.
Conduct electricity in
both molten and aqueous
state – contain free–
moving charged ions.
Non – volatile

Properties
Examples
Melting and boiling
points

Solubility

Electrical conductivity

Volatility

Covalent compound
O2, CO2, H2O, N2, Cl2
Low – has weak
intermolecular forces of
attraction (Little heat is
needed)
Soluble
in
organic
solvent, insoluble in
water.
Do
not
conduct
electricity.

Volatile

32

Ionic compound

Covalent compound
Simple
Giant

Examples

M/P & B/P
Solubility

High
Soluble
in
water, insoluble
in
organic
solvents

Low
High
Insoluble in Insoluble
organic
both
solvent,
soluble
in
water
Electrical Conduct
in
Does not
Does not
conductivity molten state or
aqueous
solution
Volatility
No
Yes
No

Metal
Cu, Zn, Na,
Ca, Pt, Ni,
Mg
High
in Insoluble in
both

Conduct
in
solid or liquid

No

33

CHAPTER 6: ELECTROCHEMISTRY
6.1 Electrochemistry
1. Electrochemistry: study of the interconversion of chemical energy and
electrical energy.
2. Electrolyte: chemical substances that can conduct electricity in molten or
aqueous form.
Examples:
 Molten potassium iodide, KI
 Molten lead(II) chloride, PbCl2
 Molten aluminium oxide, Al2O3
 Sulphuric acid solution, H2SO4
 Copper sulphate solution, CuSO4
 Sodium chloride solution, NaCl
3. Non-electrolyte: chemical substances that cannot conduct electricity either in
molten or aqueous form as they have no free-moving ions.
Examples:
 Sulphur
 Wood
 Molten sugar
 Naphthalene
 Covalent compounds except ammonia and hydrogen chloride
4. Conductor: substances that can conduct electricity in liquid or solid state (not
regarded as electrolyte as they are not decomposed)
 Copper
 Iron
 Platinum
 Silver
5. Electrolysis: process whereby a compound is separated into its constituent
elements when an electric current passes through an electrolyte.
Electrical energy  chemical energy

34

Set up of apparatus:
Electrolysis of molten compound

Electrolysis of aqueous solution

6. 2 types of electrodes:
a) Active electrode
- do not react with electrolytes
- do not involve in chemical reactions
- Carbon, platinum and graphite electrodes
b) Inert electrode
- react with electrolytes
- involves in chemical reactions
- Copper, silver, or mercury electrodes
7. Anode: electrode that connect to the positive terminal of battery.
8. Cathode: electrode that connect to the negative terminal of battery.
9. Anion: negatively charged ions and attracted to anode.
10.Cation: positively charged ions and attracted to cathode.
11.Half equation:
Positive ions (Cations)
Negative ions (Anions)
+
K +eK
2F - 2e  F2
+
2F-  F2 + 2e
Na + e  Na
Ca2+ + 2e  Ca
2Cl-  Cl2 + 2e
Mg2+ + 2e  Mg
2I-  I2 + 2e
Al3+ + 3e  Al
4OH-  2H2O + O2 + 4e
Zn2+ + 2e  Zn
2O2-  O2 + 4e
Fe2+ + 2e  Fe
2Br-  Br2 + 2e
Sn2+ + 2e  Sn
Pb2+ + 2e  Pb
2H+ + 2e  H2
Cu2+ + 2e  Cu
Ag+ + e  Ag
35

12.Electrolysis of molten compounds
Metal
Sodium
Lead
Nickel
Copper
Gas
Bromine
Iodine
Chlorine
Oxygen
Hydrogen

Observation
Shiny grey solid is formed.
Shiny grey solid is deposited.
Shiny grey solid is formed.
Brown deposit is formed.
Observation
Brown gas is produced. (pungent smell)
Purple gas is produced.
Yellowish-green gas is produced.
Colourless gas bubbles are formed. (effervescence)
Colourless gas bubbles are formed. (effervescence)

Test for Oxygen gas, O2

Test for Hydrogen gas, H2

A glowing splinter is placed near the
mouth of the test tube containing
oxygen gas. It will light up.

A lighted splinter is placed near the
mouth of the test tube containing
oxygen gas. A “pop” sound is
produced.

6.2 Electrolysis of Aqueous Solution
1. Aqueous solution:
 Produced when solute is dissolved in water.
 Electrolyte containing cations, anions, H+ and OH- ions.
2. During electrolysis of aqueous solution:
 2 cations are attracted to cathode (-).
 2 anions are attracted to anode (+).
 Only one of the four ions will be chosen to be discharged at anode and
cathode.
3. Factors affecting which ions are chosen to be discharged:
 Position of ions in the electrochemical series (ECS)
 Concentration of ions in the solution
 Type of electrodes used

36

4. Position of ions in the electrochemical series (ECS)
Cations
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
Zn
Fe
Sn
Pb
H
Cu
Ag

Kalau
Nak
Cari
Minum
Air
Zappel
Free
Sila
Pergi
Hotel
Curi
Agar

Anions
-

F
SO42NO3ClBrIOH-

Father
Say
Nothing
Can
Buy
Indian
Oranges

 The lower the position of the ion, the higher the tendency of the ions to be
discharged.
 Sulphate ion, SO42- and nitrate ion, NO3- cannot be discharged.
5. Concentration of ions
 The anions in a lower concentration solution will be chosen to be
discharged. (diluted)
 The cations in a higher concentration solution will be chosen to be
discharged.
 Diluted – 0.0001, 0.001, 0.01 dm-3
 Concentrated – 0.1, 1.0, 2.0 dm-3
 K+ and Na+ cannot be discharged even if their concentration of the
solution is high.
6. Types of electrodes used
 Inert electrodes: Carbon, graphite and platinum (Both of these electrodes
do not react with the electrolytes or products of electrolysis)
 Active electrodes: Silver, copper and nickel (Active anode ionises and
concentration of cations in the electrolyte does not change)

6.4 Application of Electrolysis
1. Electroplating of metals
 Objectives: to prevent corrosion / to improve appearance.
 Plating metals: gold (Au), Platinum (Pt), Chromium (Cr), copper (Cu),
Silver (Ag), & Nickel (Ni).
37

 Conditions:
 Object to be plated  cathode
 Electroplating metal  anode
 Electrolyte used must contain the metal ions.
 Surface of electroplating metal must be cleaned.
 Set-up apparatus:

2. Extraction of metals
 Reactive metals (Na, Ca, Mg, Al) are extracted from their ores
compounds using electrolysis.
 These metals cannot be extracted by reduction using carbon.
a) Extraction of aluminium metal from bauxite (aluminium oxide)

 Cryolite is added to bauxite to lower the temperature of bauxite from
2000°C to 950°C.
 Bauxite dissociates.
Al2O3  2Al3+ + 3O2 Half equation at cathode : Al3+ +3e  Al
38

 Half equation at anode : 2O2-  O2 + 4e
 Overall equation : 4Al3+ + 6O2-  4Al + 3O2
 Carbon electrodes react with the oxygen gas to produce carbon
dioxide.
 Hall Heroult’s Process.
b) Extraction of sodium metal from sodium chloride
 Iron : cathode
 Carbon : anode
 Set – up apparatus:

 Calcium chloride is added to lower the melting point of sodium
chloride.
 Half equation at cathode : Na+ + e  Na
 Half equation at anode : 2Cl-  Cl2 + 2e
 Overall equation : 2Na+ + 2Cl-  2Na + Cl2
 Downs’ Process
3. Purification of metals
 Impure metal containing impurities can be purified.
 Conditions:
 Impure metal : anode
 Pure metal : cathode
 Electrolyte used must contain the metal ions.

39

 Set-up apparatus:

 Observation:
 Copper anode becomes thinner and the impurities are deposited below
it.
 Copper cathode becomes thicker.
 Intensity of blue solution remains the same. Rate of formation of
copper(II) ions of anode = rate of discharge of copper(II) ions of
cathode. Concentration remains the same.
 Half equation at anode : Cu  Cu2+ +2e
 Half equation at cathode : Cu2+ + 2e  Cu

6.5 Voltaic Cell
1. Simple voltaic cell
 Uses two metal plates being immersed in an electrolyte (must contain
one of the metal ions).
 Two different metals used must have different positions in the
electrochemical series.
 Voltage can be measured by using voltmeter.
 The further the distance between those two metals in electrochemical
series, the higher the voltage produced.
 Higher position of metal will donate electrons more easily to form
positive ion and become a negative terminal (anode).
 Lower position of metal will accept electrons from the electrolyte to
form metal and become a positive terminal (cathode).
 This results in the thinning and thickening of the plates.
 Unstable and will decrease rapidly.

40

2. Daniell cell
 Produces more stable cell voltage.
 Cell built with two pieces of different metal immersed in a salt solution
of their respective metals.
 Porous pot: to complete the circuit by allowing the transition of ions and
separate both solutions.
 Porous pot can be replaced by salt bridge.
 Salt bridge: consists of filter paper soaked with a concentrated salt
solution such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride, potassium nitrate,
ammonium chloride and dilute sulphuric acid.
 Weaknesses:
 Electrolyte can spill out easily.
 Difficult to carry around.
 Voltage produced decreases quickly due to the polarity of the
cell(formation of gas bubbles around the electrodes)

41

3. Examples of voltaic cells:

42

4. Advantages and disadvantages of voltaic cells:

5. Comparison between electrolytic cell and voltaic cell:

43

6.6 Construction of Electrochemical Series through Cell Potential
Difference
1. Procedure:
 30cm3 of 1 moldm-3 copper(II) sulphate solution is added into a beaker.
 A piece of magnesium tape and copper metal are cleansed with sand
paper and immersed into copper(II) sulphate solution.
 Both pieces of metals are connected to a voltmeter using wires as shown
in the diagram.
 The voltmeter reading is recorded. The positive and negative terminals
are determined.
 The procedure is repeated by using zinc, iron, lead, aluminium and
copper metal.
2. More electropositive metal : negative terminal
3. The further apart two metals are in the ECS, the higher the voltage of the
cell.

6.7 Construction of Electrochemical Series through Displacement
Reaction
1. Metal which is more electropositive (placed higher) in the ECS will displace
other metals less electropositive (below it) from its salt solutions.
2. Summary:
Solution Copper(II)
salts
Metal
(Cu2+)
Copper
~
Lead
Yes
Iron
Yes
Zinc
Yes
Magnesium
Yes

Lead(II)
salts
(Pb2+)
No
~
Yes
Yes
Yes

Iron(II)
salts
(Fe2+)
No
No
~
Yes
Yes

Zinc salts
(Zn2+)
No
No
No
~
yes

Magnesium
salts
(Mg2+)
No
No
No
No
~

44

Chapter 7: Acids and Bases
7.1 Acids and Bases
1. Acid
 Chemical substance that dissociate in water to produce hydrogen ions, H+
or hydroxonium ions, H3O+.
 Depicted as proton donors (H+).
 Strength of acid depends on the degree of dissociation/ionization.
 3 types of acids:
 Monoprotic acid (HCl, HNO3)
 Diprotic acid (H2SO4)
 Triprotic acid (H3PO4)
 Physical properties:
 Sour in taste
 pH value: less than 7
 Turns blue litmus paper red.
 Conducts electricity (has free-moving ions).
 Chemical properties:
 Acid + metal  salt + hydrogen gas
 Hydrogen gas can be tested by using a glowing splinter.
 Less reactive metals (Pb and Cu) are not suitable for the reaction.
 Acid + carbonate salt  salt + water + CO2 gas
 CO2 gas turns lime water chalky/milky/cloudy.
 Acid + alkali (base)  salt + water
 Neutralisation reaction.
Non-organic/mineral acid (strong acid)
a. Sulphuric acid, H2SO4
b. Hydrochloric acid, HCl
c. Nitric acid, HNO3
d. Carbonic acid, H2CO3
e. Phosphoric acid, H3PO4
f. Sulphurous acid, H2So3

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

Organic acid (weak acid)
Methanoic acid, HCOOH
Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH
Lactic acid (sour milk)
Citric acid (citrus fruit)
Ascorbic acid (vit. C)
Ethanediodic acid, H2C2O4
Formic acid (insect bites)

45




Strong acid
Dissociate
completely
into
hydrogen ions in water.
Degree of dissociation is 100%.
Produces higher concentration of
hydrogen ions and lower pH
value.
Eg:
 Hydrochloric acid
 Sulphuric acid
 Nitric acid




Weak acid
Dissociate partially into hydrogen
ions in water.
Degree of dissociation is <100%.
Produces lower concentration of
hydrogen ions and higher pH
value.
Eg:
 Ethanoic acid
 Methanoic acid
 Citric acid

2. Water and acidic properties
 Acid shows its acidic properties in the presence of water.
 Acid will ionise to form hydrogen ions that are responsible for the acidic
properties.
 Acid cannot be ionized in an organic solvent.
Acid
Hydrogen
chloride

Condition
Dissolved in
methylbenzene
(non-acid)

Aqueous
solution (acid)

Observation
Inference
No changes in the colour Does not show
of litmus paper. Bulb does acidic properties.
not light up.
Does not conduct
electricity as there
are no free moving
ions.
Blue litmus paper turns Show
acidic
red. Bulb lights up.
properties.
Conduct electricity
as there are free
moving ions.

3. Bases
 Chemical substances that can neutralise an acid to produce salt and water
(Neutralisation process).
 Most are not soluble in water. Soluble bases are called alkali.
 Eg:
 zinc oxide, ZnO
 copper(II) oxide, CuO
 magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2
46

4. Alkali
 Chemical substance that dissociate in water to produce hydroxide ion,
OH-).
 Have alkaline properties as the formation of freely moving hydroxide
ions in water.
 Eg:
 Sodium hydroxide, NaOH
 Aqueous ammonia, NH3
 Potassium hydroxide, KOH
 Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2
 Physical properties:
 Feel soapy when in touch
 Bitter in taste
 Turns red litmus paper blue
 Has a pH >7
 Conducts electricity
 Chemical properties:
 Acid + Alkali  Salt + Water (neutralization)
 Alkali + ammonium salt  salt + water + ammonia gas
5. Water and alkaline properties
 Alkaline properties only can be shown in the presence of H2O (presence
of free-moving ions).
 Ionic compound – NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH)2
 Cannot show their properties in organic solvent.
 Ionisation of alkali produces hydroxide ions in water.
 Covalent compound – NH3
 Can dissolve in both water and organic solvent (trichloromethane).
 Only show its properties in water.
 Conduct electricity only in water.
 There is no mobile ion in organic solvents.

47

7.2 The Strength of Acids and Alkalis



Strong alkali
Dissociate
completely
into
hydroxide ions in water.
Degree of dissociation is 100%.
Produces higher concentration of
hydrogen ions and higher pH
value (pH 14).
Eg:
 Sodium hydroxide, NaOH
 Potassium hydroxide, KOH




Weak acid
Dissociate partially into hydrogen
ions in water.
Degree of dissociation is <100%.
Produces lower concentration of
hydroxide ions and low pH value.
Eg:
 Magnesium hydroxide,
Mg(OH)2
 Aqueous ammonia, NH3
 Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2

1. pH concept
 To measure acidity and alkalinity of a solution.
 From pH 0  14
 pH 7 : the concentration of H+ ions = the concentration of OH- ions

2. Acid – base indicator
Indicator
Litmus paper /
litmus solution
Phenolphthalein
Methyl orange
Universal
indicator
Bromothymol
blue

Acid
Red

Alkali
Blue

Neutral
Purple

Colourless
Red
Red/orange/yellow

Pink
Yellow
Green

Colourless
Orange
Blue/purple/violet

Yellow

Blue

Green

48

3. Concentration / molarity

 No. of moles =

/

 1000cm3 = 1dm3

 Concentration =

/

4. Standard solution: solution which has a known concentration.
 Prepared by using volumetric flask.
 Dilution method:

7.4 Neutralisation
1. Neutralisation




Titration method
Reaction between an acid and a base to produce salt and water.
Acid + Base  Salt + Water
H+ ions from acid will react with OH- ions from the alkali to produce
water molecules.
H+ + OH-  H2O (ionic equation)
Neutral solution produced pH 7.
Titration: method used to determine the molarity of a solution by using
another solution with a known molarity.
49

 End point: all the ions dissociated from acid and alkalis have reacted
completely to form water molecules. (neutral, pH 7)
 The water molecules dissociated into ions and thus do not conduct
electricity.
 Formula:

=

(ratio of acid and alkali)

 Graph:

50

CHAPTER 8: SALTS
8.1 Salts
1. Salts
 Ionic compound that is formed when H+ ions in an acid is replaced by a
metal ion or ammonium ion.
 Neutral [ pH 7 – phenolphthalein (colourless)]
 Neutral in term of electrical charges.
 Can be produced through neutralisation process.
 Examples:
Acids
Hydrochloric acid
HCl
X chloride
Nitric acid
HNO3
X nitrate
Sulphuric acid
H2SO4
X sulphate
Carbonic acid
HCO3
X carbonate
Phosphoric acid
H2PO4
X phosphate
Ethanoic acid
CH3COOH
X ethanoate
2. Solubility of salts
Type of salts
Solubility in water
Sodium, potassium & ammonium All are soluble except oxide,
salts
hydroxide and carbonate
Nitrate, ethanoate salts
All are soluble
Chloride salts
All are soluble except PbCl2, AgCl,
HgCl2
Sulphate salts
All are soluble except PbSO4, BaSO4,
CaSO4
Carbonate, oxide & hydroxide salts
All are insoluble except sodium,
potassium & ammonium
Lead(II) salts
All are insoluble except Pb(NO3)2
and Pb(CH3COO)2
***Lead hallides such as lead(II) chloride, lead(II) bromide and lead(II)
iodide are insoluble in cold water but soluble in hot water.
***Lead(II) nitrate is soluble in both cold and hot water.
3. Preparation of soluble salts except soluble salts of sodium, ammonium and
potassium
 Acid + alkali  salt + water
 Acid + metal  salt + hydrogen
 Acid + base  salt + water
 Acid + metal carbonate  salt + water + carbon dioxide
51

4. Preparation of soluble salts of sodium, ammonium and potassium
i. Titration of an acid and alkali (Neutralisation)
ii. Crystallization (Heating)
iii. Recrystallization (Filtration)
5. Crystals
 Formed when a saturated salt solution is cooled down.
 Physical characteristics:
 Fixed geometrical shape
 Flat surfaces, straight edges and sharp corners
 Fixed angle between two adjacent surfaces
 Hard and brittle
 Colour of crystal depends on the ions in the crystals.
Salt / metal oxide
Solid
Copper(II) salts
Copper(II) carbonate
Copper(II) sulphate, copper(II)
nitrate, copper(II) chloride
Copper(II) oxide
Iron(II) salts
Iron(II)
sulphate,
Iron(II)
nitrate, Iron(II) chloride
Iron(III) salts

Colour
Aqueous solution

Green
Blue

Insoluble
Blue

Black

Insoluble

Light green

Light green

52

Iron(III) sulphate, Iron(III)
nitrate, Iron(III) chloride
Zinc oxide
Lead(II) oxide
Magnesium oxide, aluminium
oxide
Potassium oxide, sodium oxide,
calcium oxide

Brown
Yellow (hot)
White (cold)
Brown (hot)
Yellow (cold)
White
White

Brown /
Green – brownish
Insoluble
Insoluble
Insoluble
Colourless

6.

8.2 Qualitative Analysis of Salts
53

1. Test for gases:
Gases
Colour

Smell

Oxygen, O2

Colourless

-

Hydrogen, H2

Colourless

-

Carbon
dioxide, CO2

Colourless

-

Ammonia,
NH3

Colourless

Pungent

Chlorine, Cl2

Greenish –
yellow

Pungent

Hydrogen
chloride, HCl

Colourless

Pungent

Sulphur
dioxide, SO2

Colourless

Pungent

Nitrogen
dioxide, NO2

Brown

Pungent

2. Production of gases:
Gases

Effect on damp
litmus paper
-

Confirmation
test
Light
up
glowing splinter
Lighted splinter
is placed near
the mouth of the
test tube. A
“pop” sound is
produced.
Damp blue litmus Bubbled through
paper turns red lime water. It
will turn milky.
Damp red litmus Forms
dense
paper turns blue white
fumes
with hydrogen
chloride gas.
Damp blue litmus Tested by using
paper turns red, litmus paper.
then decolourises
/ bleaches it.
Damp blue litmus Forms
dense
paper turns red white
fumes
with ammonia.
Damp blue litmus Decolourise
paper turns red purple colour of
potassium
manganate(VII)
solution
/
changes orange
potassium
dichromate(VI)
solution
Damp blue litmus Tested by using
paper turns red litmus paper.

Production
54

Oxygen, O2
Hydrogen, H2
Carbon dioxide, CO2
Ammonia, NH3
Chlorine, Cl2

Heating a chlorate(V) or nitrate salt
Acid-metal reaction
Heating a metal carbonate or acid-carbonate reaction
Heating a mixture of ammonium salt and alkali
Heating a mixture of manganese(IV) oxide and
concentrated hydrochloric acid
Hydrogen chloride, HCl Heating a common salt and concentrated sulphuric
acid
Sulphur dioxide, SO2
An acid-sulphite reaction
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2
Heating a nitrate salt
3. Action of heat on salts
 Carbonate salts

55

Nitrate salts

Sulphate salts
i. Group 1 and 2 sulphate salts do not decompose when heated.
ii. The sulphates of heavy metals decompose into metal oxides and
sulphur trioxide when heated except iron(II) sulphate which
release sulphur dioxide gas.
iii. Ammonium sulphate sublimates at first and decompose into
ammonia and hydrogen sulphate when further heating.
56

Chloride salts
i. All are stable to heat except ammonium chloride.
ii. Ammonia gas emerges first, then followed by hydrogen chloride.
4. Test for anions

57

5. Confirmatory tests

58

6. Tests for cations

59

CHAPTER
INDUSTRY

9:

MANUFACTURED

SUBSTANCES

IN

9.1 Sulphuric Acid
1. Uses:
 To manufacture fertilizers
 To manufacture detergent
 To manufacture pesticides
 To manufacture synthetic fibres (boat, wall)
 To manufacture paint
 To manufacture metal oxide
 As an electrolyte (lead-acid accumulator)
2. Contact process
Step I

Sulphur, S

Step II

Sulphur
dioxide, SO2

Sulphur
trioxide, SO3
Step III

Sulphuric acid,
H2SO4

Oleum, H2S2O7

Catalyst: Vanadium(V) oxide
Temperature: 450°C - 550°C
Pressure: one atmosphere (atm)

60

 Step I
i. Production of sulphur dioxide
ii. S + O2  SO2
 Step II
i. Production of sulphur trioxide
ii. 2SO2 + O2 2SO3
iii. High % of SO2 is converted into SO3.
 Step III
i. SO3 + H2SO4(concentrated)  H2S2O7 (oleum)
ii. H2S2O7 + H2O  2 H2SO4

9.2 Ammonia
1. Main uses:
 To manufacture fertilizers
 As a cooling agent in refrigerator
 To produce nitric acid (Ostwald process)
 To make explosives
 To prevent coagulation of latex
 To produce ammonium chloride
2. Haber process
Nitrogen, N2

+

Hydrogen, H2

Ammonia, NH3

Excess N2 and H2
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Catalyst: Iron powder
Promoter: Aluminium oxide
Temperature: 450

– 550

Pressure: 200 – 500 atm

3. Nitrogen gas is obtained from fractional distillation of liquid air.
4. Source of hydrogen gas:
 Reaction between steam and heated coke (carbon)
 Reaction between steam and natural gas (methane)
5. Equation: N2 + 3H2  2NH3
6. Ratio of nitrogen gas to hydrogen gas  1 : 3

9.3 Alloy
1. Advantages of alloying:
 Increase the hardness/strength of metal
 Prevent corrosion/rusting
 Improve appearance of metal
2. Physical properties:
 Ductile – can slide over when external force is applied.

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Malleable – slide into new positions in the empty spaces of alloy.
High boiling and melting points
High density
Good conductor of electricity

Alloy
Carbon steel

Composition
99% iron
1% carbon

Properties
Hard

Stainless steel

74% iron
18% chromium
8% nickel
90% copper
10% tin

Rust resistant

Bronze

Hard & shiny

Brass

70% copper
30% zinc

Hard & shiny

Magnalium

70% aluminium
30% magnesium
95% aluminium
1% magnesium
4% copper
97% tin
3% lead and
antimony

Light & hard

Duralumin

Pewter

Solder
Cupro-nickel

50% tin
50% lead
Copper, nickel

Uses
For
construction,
bridges,
vehicles,
tools, heavy machinery
For
crockery,
kitchenware
and
machine parts
For kitchenware, ship
propellers, decorative
ornaments and art
crafts.
For
musical
instrument, electrical
connecter, decorative
ornaments

Light & hard

Hard & shiny

Hard, shiny and
low melting point
Hard, shiny and
corrosion resistant

For
mugs,
candlesticks,
decorative ornaments
and souvenirs.
For soldering electrical
wires and metal pipes
For coins

9.4 Synthetic Polymers
1. Polymers: large long-chain molecules formed by joining together many
identical repeating sub-units called monomer.
2. Polymerisation: chemical process by which the monomers are joined
together into chain-like molecule called polymer.
3. Natural polymer: polymer obtained from animals and plants.
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4. Advantages of synthetic polymers
 Strong and light
 Cheap
 Able to resist corrosion
 Inert to chemical reactions
 Easily moulded or shaped and be coloured
 Can be made to have special properties
Name(s)
Monomer
Properties
Polyethylene
ethylene
soft, waxy solid
low density
CH2=CH2
(LDPE)
Polyethylene
ethylene
rigid, translucent
high density
CH2=CH2
solid
(HDPE)
Polypropylene
propylene
atactic: soft, elastic
(PP) different
CH2=CHCH3
solid
grades
isotactic: hard,
strong solid
Poly(vinyl
vinyl chloride
strong rigid solid
chloride)
CH2=CHCl
(PVC)
Poly(vinylidene
vinylidene
dense, high-melting
chloride)
chloride
solid
(Saran A)
CH2=CCl2
Polystyrene
styrene
hard, rigid, clear
(PS)
CH2=CHC6H5
solid
soluble in organic
solvents
Polyacrylonitrile
acrylonitrile
high-melting solid
(PAN, Orlon,
CH2=CHCN
soluble in organic
Acrilan)
solvents
Polytetrafluoroeth tetrafluoroethylen resistant, smooth
ylene
e
solid
(PTFE, Teflon)
CF2=CF2
Poly(methyl
methyl
methacrylate)
methacrylate
(PMMA, Lucite, CH2=C(CH3)CO
Plexiglas)
2CH3
Poly(vinyl acetate)
vinyl acetate
(PVAc)
CH2=CHOCOC
H3

hard, transparent
solid

soft, sticky solid

Uses
film wrap,
plastic bags
electrical
insulation
bottles, toys
similar to LDPE
carpet,
upholstery
pipes, siding,
flooring
seat covers,
films
toys, cabinets
packaging
(foamed)
rugs, blankets
clothing
non-stick
surfaces
electrical
insulation
lighting covers,
signs
skylights
latex paints,
adhesives
64

cis-Polyisoprene
natural rubber
Polychloroprene (c
is + trans)
(Neoprene)

isoprene
CH2=CHC(CH3)=CH2
chloroprene
CH2=CHCCl=CH2

soft, sticky solid

requires
vulcanization
for practical use
tough, rubbery solid synthetic rubber
oil resistant

9.5 Glass and ceramics
1. Properties of both glass and ceramics:
 Main component: silica or silicon dioxide, SiO2
 Hard but brittle
 Inert towards chemicals
 Insulator of heat and electricity
 withstand compression but not stretching
 Can be easily cleaned
 Low cost of production
2. Differences between glass and ceramics:
 Glass – transparent , ceramic – opaque
 Glass – cannot withstand high temperature, ceramics – can withstand
high temperature
3. Type of glass:

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4. Special purpose glass and ceramics
I. Photochromic glass
II. Conducting glass – produced by adding tin(IV) oxide (conduct
electricity) used to make LCD.
III.
Super conductor – ceramics used to make light magnets, electrical
generators & electric motors

9.6 Composite Materials
1. New material produced from a complex mixture of two or more materials
with different physical properties.

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/ Optical fibres

~ THE END ~
~ febianhenry_96 ~
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