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Painting of L. julii subsp. fulleri var. brunnea Jim Porter and reproduced with kind permission.

Brief additional notes to the Cole Lithops monographs by Keith Green.

Introduction
An abridged version of these notes was published over three issues by the BRITISH CACTUS
AND SUCCULENT SOCIETY in their journal CACTUS WORLD, in December 2007, March 2008
and June 2008. This is the complete, unedited project.
The following notes evolved from my intention to provide an update (without any duplication)
to Professor DESMOND T. COLEs original Lithops monograph - LITHOPS FLOWERING
STONES, published in Randburg, Republic of South Africa by Acorn Books in 1988. An attempt was
made to briefly document all of the subsequent discoveries within the genus, with emphasis on the
originating source. I gave consideration to every new Lithops I saw mentioned (the vast majority of
which were termed cultivars) and documented, further researched and where possible obtained
photographs of those I considered worthy of the rank afforded them. Over the years I therefore
amassed quite a reasonable number of entries. Early in 2003 I learned through the pages of the M.S.G.
Bulletin that Professor Cole was going to update his work and have a second edition Lithops
monograph published. Subsequently I was able to make contact with Professor Cole, and I sent him a
rough copy of these (then embryonic) notes hoping that they would be of some assistance to him in
compiling his new book. Although he and Naureen kindly mention my help on p. 11 of Cole05, I
learnt a great deal more from the Coles than they could ever have learnt from me!
Professor Coles reply (which included some Lithops seed) was most informative. He pointed
out that mere appearance on a seed list or such like does not count as valid publication of a new plant.
Only when properly published in accordance with the INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL
NOMENCLATURE does a new plant become valid (or indeed in the somewhat less exacting
INTERNATIONAL CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR CULTIVATED PLANTS become

established). Somewhat paradoxically though, the Coles Lithops research has highlighted doubts
that historically all the relevant conditions of the Botanical Code have always been met. This point is
highlighted in the Classification section of these notes. Taking Professor Coles guidance into account,
I further rechecked my sources and revised my format, initially splitting these notes into four sections,
which were as follows: Introduction, Classification, New Lithops post Cole 88 and Hybrids. The
publication of DESMOND T. & NAUREEN A. COLES second and updated Lithops monograph
LITHOPS FLOWERING STONES published in Italy by Cactus & Co. in 2005, accordingly
necessitated a 5th section called (rather unsurprisingly): New Lithops post Cole05. A few lines at the
beginning of each of these sections explain the general theme.
Although it has been my experience that many unpublished and un-established Lithops names
have been advertised for sale by various sources, I expressly decided against a section on taxonomic
errata. Suffice to say that in all such cases I have found these names (usually advertised as cultivars) to
be synonymous with taxa already recorded within the Coles monographs or subsequently within these
notes. I venture that any name pertaining to be a Lithops that does not appear in the Classification list
of this project be treated with suspicion, and carefully researched.
Although academically unqualified in botany, Professor Cole stands as the undoubted world
authority on Lithops, and I view his two monographs (the second of which was co-written with his
wife Naureen) as fundamental to the understanding of this fascinating genus. The quality benchmark
of the 1988 Lithops monograph later served to lay the foundations for the superb 2005 revision, which
is now unquestionably the ultimate Lithops publication. By comparison these amateur companion
notes pale into insignificance, but none the less it is my hope that fellow Lithops enthusiasts will find
them of some help and amusement.
Acknowledgements
Even a short set of notes like these could not have been put together without help from many
other people, to who I send my thanks.
Special thanks go to Desmond and Naureen Cole, as without their extensive field research in
the first instance these notes would be impossible and pointless. They have also been readily
forthcoming with help, advice and guidance on all aspects concerning my understanding of Lithops.
Thanks too to Steven Hammer who has been instrumental in the discovery, production and
reporting of "new" Lithops. He further discusses some of these in his book LITHOPS TREASURES
OF THE VELD that was published by the B.C.S.S. in 1999, and I have indicated the plants concerned
in the text. Despite his fame throughout the succulent world his readiness to enter into dialogue with
unknowns such as I is a credit to him.
Even though we do not share a common language Mr. Shimada of Japan too has been of great
assistance. He produced an excellent reference book called THE GENUS LITHOPS that was
published in Japan in autumn 2001. The text is mainly in Japanese, but even for those un-educated in
the language the photography is quite stunning. With help from his son Norihiko and Ms. Miyako
Tannowa as translators we have shared knowledge and plants.
Thanks also to fellow growers: David Blythe, Jonathon Clark, Lindsey Deaves, Will du Toit,
Vincent Formosa, Francois Hoes, Tim Jackson, Kevin Mason (especially for his efficient delves into
his archives), Petr Pavelka, Jim Porter, Terry Smale, Bernd Schloesser and Willie van der Westhuizen
for information, communication, friendship, photographs and plants, and to Suzanne and Tony Mace
for their stoic efforts with the Mesemb. Study Group.
Finally, thanks to my family. To my father Charles, for introducing me to succulent plants at
the age of 5 years; to my mother Louisa, my wife Debra and my two sons Christopher and Clive (who
also took some of the photographs) for support, academic help and tolerance.

Abbreviations used throughout this text include:A (type cv) = "instances of white flowers in
species which are normally yellow flowering"
(Cole88 p. 83).

M.S.G. = Mesemb. Study Group


M.S.G. Bulletin = Quarterly publication of the
M.S.G.

acf = aberrant colour form


p. = page
B.C.S.S. = British Cactus and Succulent
Society

pp. = pages (more than 1)

Botanical Code = INTERNATIONAL CODE


OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE

R (type cv) = instances of unusually red


coloured mutations.

C = Cole (Lithops colony) number


Cole88 = D.T. COLE, LITHOPS
FLOWERING STONES (1988)

R- (type cv) = instances of unusually red


coloured mutations the - sign having been
added in Cole 05 to describe cultivars with
aberrant colour forms.

Cole05 = D.T. & N.A. COLE, LITHOPS FLOWERING STONES (2005)

Shimada (2001) = YASUHIKO SHIMADA


THE GENUS LITHOPS (2001)

Cultivar Code = INTERNATIONAL CODE


OF NOMENCLATURE FOR CULTIVATED
PLANTS

subsp. = subspecies, subspecies

cv = cultivar

vol. = volume

G- (type cv) = "instances of plants which lack


their normal pigmentation and have an
unusually green or yellow green basic colour"
(Cole88 p. 83), the letter Y having been
dropped and the - sign being added in Cole
05 to describe cultivars with aberrant colour
forms.

W- (type cv) = "instances of white flowers in


species which are normally yellow flowering"
(Cole88 p. 83) the letter being changed and
the - sign being added in Cole05 to
describe cultivars with aberrant colour forms.

Hammer (1999) = STEVEN A. HAMMER LITHOPS TREASURES OF THE VELD


(1999)
I.S.H.S. = International Society for
Horticultural Science
I.S.I.J. = International Succulent Institute Japan

var. = varietas, variety

Y- (type cv) = instances of yellow flowers on


normally white flowering Lithops (Cole05 p.
67).
YG (type cv) = "instances of plants which lack
their normal pigmentation and have an
unusually green or yellow green basic colour"
(Cole88 p. 83).
* = invalid, unestablished or excluded name,
number or status.

L. = Lithops

All photographs reproduced with permission of the holders. Text and author photographs
Keith Green (2008).

Lithops Classification
In this project I have tried to maintain the Cole Lithops classification system whilst adhering to
the INTERNATIONAL CODE OF BOTANICAL NOMENCLATURE and the INTERNATIONAL
CODE OF NOMENCLATURE FOR CULTIVATED PLANTS as closely as possible. It should
perhaps be noted that the rules governing cultivar publication in general are less exacting than the
rules that govern publication at the higher botanical ranks (e.g. variety, subspecies, species etc.). In
response to a question I had previously posed him, Professor Cole sent me a fax dated 17th July 2005
in which he stated: You are right, publication of cultivars has less stringent conditions than formal
taxa, for example no Latin diagnosis is required. However, there are rules which must be adhered to.
The Coles emphasise theirs is not a botanical study, and raise doubts that some of the taxa
included in their research has ever actually been correctly published in full accordance with the
Botanical Code (see p. 4 of Cole88 & p. 6 of Cole05). It would obviously be preferable that every
Lithops so thoroughly described and designated within the Coles research project had been accorded
publication that exactly met the requirements of the Botanical Code, and whilst I know for a fact that
all botanical Lithops taxa published by Professor Cole have met all the laid down conditions, it is
possible other authors may not have been so diligent. The publication of Cole88 however, provided
a clear and solid foundation (p. 5 of Cole05) for botanists, taxonomists or horticulturalists to study
and correct.
Along similar lines 8 cultivars were published in Cole88 on the basis of single specimens
that strictly speaking did not conform to the Cultivar Code, where replicable groups of plants are
required. These plants were: L. julii subsp. julii Peppermint Crme, L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. hornii
Greenhorn, L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. minor Witblom, L. meyeri Hammeruby, L. otzeniana
Aquamarine, L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella Albiflora, L. terricolor Silver
Spurs and L. terricolor Speckled Gold. With the exception of L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var.
pseudotruncatella Albiflora (the specific anomaly of which is discussed below), these were all
inadvertently established as cultivars in conformity with the Cultivar Code in Hammer99, although
there the 2 L. terricolor cultivars were recorded under *L. localis.
A further point is that Professor Cole has not applied the minor rank of forma (form) as a
divisive tool when classifying this genus. The following passage is a quote from an article written by
Professor Cole in 1969 that appeared in the BULLETIN OF THE AFRICAN SUCCULENT PLANT
SOCIETY. This part of the text directly followed his negative stance on retaining some examples of L.
julii as varieties: One might reduce them to the rank of forma, but even this does not seem to me to be
justified if we do, then we shall end up with a host of forma in any number of colonies, according
as they may or may not have open windows, reticulations, subcutaneous venations, etc. In fact the
previously held varieties just mentioned were all eventually sunk under subsp. julii (see p. 146 of
Cole88& p. 189 of Cole05). Suffice to say that natural variations within wild Lithops populations
are such that the consistent application of forma (usually abbreviated to f.) is inappropriate. Many
commercial growers however have continued to use this rank in their seed lists and publications,
presumably for their own reasons. The use of the forma rank for mutations or aberrations was also
dismissed on p. 83 of Cole88 and p. 65 of Cole05.
Photographs of L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae Storms Snowcap, L. lesliei subsp.
lesliei var. hornii Greenhorn and a representation of L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var
pseudotruncatella Albiflora are shown here because suitable images were not available when either
of the Coles monographs went to press. The three taxa are depicted so as to ensure every Lithops on
this classification list has a photographic record either in the Coles monographs or within these notes.
Unfortunately the Albiflora representation does not show the white flowers for which these seedlings
were selected, and hence may simply be a normal subsp./var. pseudotruncatella.
The following then is a list of all accepted plants within the Lithops genus. Plants from
Professor Coles original 1988 Lithops classification together with the two new cultivars that first
appeared in Cole 05 are shown in black font; plants from my New Lithops post Cole88 section

are in blue font; plants from my New Lithops post Cole 05 section are in Green font and my
Hybrids section is shown in red font.
Lithops
amicorum
aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae
aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Bettys Beryl'
aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae Firebrandt
aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Jacksons Jade'
aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Storms's Snowcap'
aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. koelemanii
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae Bellaketty
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae 'Hikoruby'
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis 'Chieruby'
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis Green River
bromfieldii var. bromfieldii
bromfieldii var. bromfieldii White Nymph
bromfieldii var. glaudinae
bromfieldii var. glaudinae Embers
bromfieldii var. insularis
bromfieldii var. insularis 'Sulphurea'
bromfieldii var. mennellii
coleorum
comptonii var. comptonii
comptonii var. weberi
dinteri subsp. dinteri var. dinteri
dinteri subsp. dinteri var. dinteri 'Dintergreen'
dinteri subsp. dinteri var. brevis
dinteri subsp. frederici
dinteri subsp. multipunctata
divergens var. divergens
divergens var. amethystina
dorotheae
dorotheae 'Zorro'
francisci
fulviceps var. fulviceps
fulviceps var. fulviceps 'Aurea'
fulviceps var. lactinea
fulviceps var. laevigata
gesinae var. gesinae
gesinae var. annae
gesinae var. annae Hanawared
geyeri
gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata
gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Caf au lait'
gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Ernst's Witkop'
gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. waldroniae
gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. waldroniae 'Fritz's White Lady'
gracilidelineata subsp. brandbergensis

gracilidelineata subsp. brandbergensis Vertigo


hallii var. hallii
hallii var. ochracea
hallii var. ochracea 'Green Soapstone'
Harlequin
helmutii
hermetica
hermetica Green Diamond
herrei
herrei 'Splendido'
hookeri var. hookeri
hookeri var. hookeri 'Envy '
hookeri var. dabneri
hookeri var. dabneri Annarosa
hookeri var. elephina
hookeri var. lutea
hookeri var. marginata
hookeri var. marginata 'Shimada's Apricot'
hookeri var. subfenestrata
hookeri var. susannae
julii subsp. julii
julii subsp. julii 'Hotlips'
julii subsp. julii 'Peppermint Crme'
julii subsp. fulleri var. fulleri
julii subsp. fulleri var. fulleri 'Fullergreen'
julii subsp. fulleri var. brunnea
julii subsp. fulleri var. rouxii
karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana
karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana Rosary
karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. aiaisensis
karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. aiaisensis Orange Ice
karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. lericheana
karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. tischeri
karasmontana subsp. bella
karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii
karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii 'Avocado Cream'
Kikukaseki
Kikusiyo Giyoku
Kosogyoku
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. lesliei
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Albiflora'
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Albinica'
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. lesliei Freds Redhead
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Storm's Albinigold'
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. hornii
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. hornii ' Greenhorn'
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. mariae
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. minor
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. minor 'Witblom'
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. rubrobrunnea
lesliei subsp. lesliei var. venteri

lesliei subsp. lesliei var. venteri Ventergreen


lesliei subsp. burchellii
marmorata var. marmorata
marmorata var. marmorata 'Polepsky Smaragd'
marmorata var. elisae
meyeri
meyeri 'Hammeruby'
naureeniae
olivacea var. olivacea
olivacea var. olivacea Angels of Tony
olivacea var. nebrownii
olivacea var. nebrownii 'Red Olive'
optica
optica 'Rubra'
optica Rubragold
otzeniana
otzeniana 'Aquamarine'
otzeniana 'Cesky Granat'
pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. pseudotruncatella
pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. pseudotruncatella 'Albiflora'
pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. elisabethiae
pseudotruncatella subsp. pseudotruncatella var. riehmerae
pseudotruncatella subsp. archerae
pseudotruncatella subsp. archerae 'Split Pea'
pseudotruncatella subsp. dendritica
pseudotruncatella subsp. groendrayensis
pseudotruncatella subsp. volkii
ruschiorum var. ruschiorum
ruschiorum var. ruschiorum Silver Reed
ruschiorum var. lineata
salicola
salicola 'Malachite'
salicola 'Satos Violet'
schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. schwantesii
schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. marthae
schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa
schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Blue Moon'
schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis
schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis 'Nutwerk'
schwantesii subsp. gebseri
steineckeana
Sunstone
Talisman
terricolor
terricolor 'Silver Spurs'
terricolor 'Speckled Gold'
terricolor 'Violetta'
vallis-mariae
vallis-mariae 'Valley Girl'
verruculosa var. verruculosa
verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Rose of Texas'

verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Verdigris'


verruculosa var. glabra
villetii subsp. villetii
villetii subsp. deboeri
villetii subsp. kennedyi
viridis
werneri
xhybrida

L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. hornii Greenhorn


(see p. 164 of Cole88 & p. 220 of Cole05)
photograph Kevin Mason.

L. aucampiae subsp./var aucampiae Storms


Snowcap
(see p. 102 of Cole88 & p. 86 of Cole05)
photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

Seedlings selected from var. pseudotruncatella C68 by


Kevin Mason for white flowers and hence
L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella
Albiflora
(see p. 182 of Cole88 & p. 259 of Cole05).
Photograph Kevin Mason.

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella Albiflora was not in existence when


either of the Cole Lithops monographs or Hammer99 were published, and accordingly has not been
established in accordance with the Cultivar Code (see point (d) in the New Lithops post Cole88
section of these notes and point (b) in the New Lithops post Cole 05 section). Therefore a rift exists
between the Cole Lithops classification system where var. pseudotruncatella Albiflora is recognised
and the Cultivar Code where it is not. However, the fact remains that *L. pseudotruncatella forma
albiflora was published (? validly) under the Botanical Code by Jacobsen in the NATIONAL
CACTUS & SUCCULENT JOURNAL vol. 10, p. 81 (1955), was subsequently transferred to cultivar
status in Cole88 and given acf status in Cole05. It is really down to the individual to decide
whether to recognise this as a form under the Botanical Code (*forma albiflora) or as an acf cultivar
(Albiflora) under the Cole classification system (or not at all!). As mentioned above I try to adhere to
the Codes as closely as possible, but in relation to Lithops I hold the Cole classification system
supreme and therefore regard var. pseudotruncatella Albiflora as an acf cultivar (albeit an extinct
one). If at some future date a white flowering var. pseudotruncatella should be established in
accordance with the Cultivar Code, the author would then be at liberty to choose a new name.

New Lithops post Cole88


These are the Lithops that came to light and were published subsequent to Professor Coles
1988 monograph, and were included in the second edition 2005 book (although the pattern bred
cultivars were only mentioned there in the Taxonomic index). With two notable exceptions (please
refer to the introduction of the section entitled: New Lithops post Cole05, point (a)) this section can
be seen as a simple add on of newly discovered Lithops to the first (1988) monograph, up to the
point the later work went to press. The plants have been cross-referenced as necessary, and the term
acf applied retrospectively. For an explanation of this term (and my use of the term pattern bred)
please refer to the introduction of the section entitled: New Lithops post Cole05, point (c).
It is perhaps worth commenting on a few of points from Professor Coles 1988 book.
(a) "The problem of Lithops localis" discussed on p. 41 of Cole88 (& p. 36 of Cole05),
now appears to be settled. Steve Hammer reported at the M.S.G. show in Banstead 1996 that Professor
Cole then agreed the name *Lithops localis was correct. After further consideration however,
Professor Cole reverted to the name of Lithops terricolor, and continued to use that name in his
LITHOPS LOCALITY DATA of October 2002, and in Cole05.
(b) The latest thinking on the subject of Lithops steineckeana is that it may be an inter-generic
hybrid between Lithops pseudotruncatella and a Conophytum. The subject was further discussed on p.
108 of Hammer (1999), and further is mentioned in the Hybrids section of these notes.
(c) On pp. 129-130 of Cole88 (& pp. 148-149 of Cole05), concerns were expressed as to
the correct naming of L. gracilidelineata plants from colonies C243 & C385, together with further
doubts as to maintaining the cultivars Ernsts Witkop & Fritzs White Lady as two separate types.
The publication of DESMOND T. COLE LITHOPS LOCALITY DATA in October 2002 however,
saw C243 remaining as var. waldroniae and C385 remaining as var. gracilidelineata. This situation
remained the same when Cole05 was published. I view Professor Coles non-action of transferring
plants from either colony to the other variety as acceptance of the status quo, and therefore that the two
cultivars be maintained as separate types, albeit chiefly due to small differences in flower size. Nature
does not provide for equidistant relationships within or between any categories which we humans find
it convenient to establish (p. 35 of Cole88 & p. 33 of Cole05).
(d) According to the I.S.H.S. (2005), a cultivar pertains to: a group of individual plants, yet
as discussed on pp. 83-85 of Cole88 (& pp. 65-68 of Cole05), an aberration can pertain to a single
plant specimen. Partly to avoid a plethora of dull and unimaginative Lithops named at the rank of
forma, the Coles utilised the cultivar format for publication of colour specific aberrations; the
establishing of which (as cultivars according to the Cultivar Code & the I.S.H.S. above) subsequently
become the focus of many growers. The adoption of the term acf in Cole05 perhaps clarified this
matter further (see points (b) & (c) in the New Lithops post Cole05 section of these notes).
(e) The next point is self explanatory, and is therefore a direct quote (including a couple of
apparent printing errors) from a communication from Professor Cole in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 16,
p. 60 (2001). It read as follows: In the Readers Corner of MSGB [2], p.44, Keith green raises the
question of the colour of Lithops fulviceps var. lactinea as illustrated in Lithops Flowering Stones
[1988]. He is quite correct, of course, in his view that the illustrations on p.123 of the book are
excessively blue. This was manifest when we saw proofs of the book, and we complained at the time,
but because of some colour printing technology concerning which we have no knowledge or insights
they were not able to do anything about it. So, the book came out with the colours of var. lactinea
excessively blue, but it did not seem appropriate at the time for me to write a critical review of my
own book. Perhaps I should have do so!

(f) Another point of discussion occurred on p. 77 of Cole88 (& p. 61 of Cole05) where it


stated: Lithops should be grown in pots or trays not less than 125mm (5 in) deep. Steve Hammer
stated in a special issue of the CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF AMERICA vol. 67, p.
23 (1995) that: "all Lithops will grow and thrive in deep or shallow pots; of course the available depth
will affect root length, one's watering regime, and the ultimate size of the plants." I was perplexed by
this contradiction until (in the same article as (e) above) Professor Cole explained his reasoning. In the
M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 16, p. 60 (2001), he stated: "As regards size of pot: With very rare exceptions,
Lithops do not grow in "open fields", but only in stony areas, usually on ridges or hills. Sometimes a
seed settles in a crevice in a rock, and then one gets a "bonsai" plant which may even flower and
produce two or three heads. However, this is unusual, and typically these plants grow on stony ground
with roots penetrating 2-3 inches (50-75 mm) or more. Respecting their preferences in habitat, we
always grew them in pots or trays/pans with a minimum depth of 4-5 inches [approx 10-12 cm]."
(g) One further point concerns the case of *Lithops halenbergensis as mentioned of p. 222 of
Cole88, where it stated: the problem awaits satisfactory resolution. This is indeed the "lost"
yellow flowering virtual L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii that was described by Dr. Arthur Tischer
in 1932, but cannot be found again. In Hammer (1999) it was suggested that the plants Dr. Tischer
observed could possibly have been natural hybrids between L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii and L.
francisci, a theory discounted by Professor Cole to me in person in 2006. Steve Hammer wrote of his
suggestion in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 11, p. 84 (1996), and talked of it in more detail on p. 118 of
Hammer (1999) where two black and white photographs were illustrated. N.E. Brown also observed
this plant, and produced an illustration of it on p. 31 of his album entitled "Drawings of Succulent
Plants", which was subsequently lodged at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. For many years I
considered *L. halenbergensis may have been a browner than usual form of L. franscisci, a thought I
based on comparison of N.E. Browns illustration and Mr. Shimadas photograph as shown below.
The subject was further explored on pp. 35-36 of Cole05 where the deciphered description stated
alongside another black and white photograph: probably, a network of rubrications. If this is indeed
the case, my L. franscisci guess can be ruled out. Then in October of 2006, I was verbally informed by
Professor Cole that *L. halenbergensis was in fact published without any flowering specimens having
been observed, the yellow flower colour only being assumed (a point expanded on p. 35 of Cole05).
This, when coupled with the extensive and fruitless searches undertaken by the Coles, strongly
suggests L. karasmontana subsp. eberlanzii is in fact the plant in question. Whatever the true identity
here, I am convinced that *L. halenbergensis does not, and never did exist as a separate species.

*L. halenbergensis
photograph Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

L. francisci
photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

(h) The title of L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. venteri on p. 167 of Cole88 has been incorrectly
recorded, as the subspecies rank (ie. The words subsp. lesliei) has been omitted.

Lithops coleorum. (species)

L. coleorum
photographed by the author.

As stated on p. 332 of Cole05, Lithops coleorum was validly published by Steve Hammer and
Ronald Uijs in ALOE vol. 31, pp. 36-38 (1994). This yellow flowering species was found on an
isolated kopjie somewhere in what was the northern Transvaal, well away from any other known
Lithops colony. It had been known to a local farmer for some time, but was recognised as unusual by a
young relative who had begun to study botany. He drew it to the attention of a South African Society
official. L. coleorum is among the smallest of all Lithops, although cultivated specimens tend to be
somewhat larger than their wild counterparts. It was named in honour of Professor Desmond T. Cole,
and his wife Naureen. On p. 52 of Hammer (1999) it stated among further information that the plants
are: usually 2-3(-6) headed, and that the colour is: pale tan to pinkish-grey or orange-buff. This
species was described in detail on pp. 104-105 of Cole05, where the number of heads was given as:
rarely up to 8, mostly 2 and C396 given as the type locality.

Lithops hermetica. (species)

L. hermetica
photographed by the author.

This is the species that re-ignited Professor Coles field trips (see p. 11 of Cole05). This yellow
flowering species was found in the Tsaus area, midway between L. gesinae and L. franscisci by
Graham Williamson and Steve Hammer, growing in dolomite ground and initially appearing to be an
intermediate form. Steve Hammer numbered this plant SH2003 and mentioned it in a talk he gave at
the Banstead M.S.G. show in 1996, where he referred to it as "plasticky looking". SH2003 was also
discussed on p. 61 of Hammer (1999) with a photograph on p. 63. However, as stated by Suzanne
Mace in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 16, p. 22 (2001) valid publication by Professor Cole in the Italian
publication CACTUS & CO vol. 4, pp. 156-161 (2000) was at species rank, and here the plant was
numbered C397. In the same article Suzanne went on to state: "Lithops hermetica has been so named
by Prof. Cole after a proposal by Steve Hammer "in reference to the 'hermetically sealed' Protected
Diamond Area, the only area where Lithops and other succulent plants are reasonably safe from
predators". This same phrase appeared on p. 163 of Cole 05, and the whole naming issue was
explained at length in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21, pp. 43-44 (2006) where it was made clear that the
name was indeed the suggestion of Steve Hammer. It should also be noted that Professor Cole stated
in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 16, p. 60 (2001) that: "In fact L. hermetica is a highly distinctive species,
with no clear relationship whatsoever to any other species", a point reiterated in the M.S.G. Bulletin
vol. 21, p. 44 (2006). L. hermetica was described in detail on pp. 162-165 of Cole05, although due
to a typo error the collection date recorded there was incorrect, it should read 1994 and not 1995 as
explained by Professor Cole in the afore mentioned article in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21, p. 43 (2006).

Lithops aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae 'Jacksons Jade'. (cultivar)

L. aucampiae subsp./var aucampiae Jacksons Jade


photograph Tim Jackson.

This is a YG or G- acf that was established by Professor D.T.Cole in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 7, p.
87 (1992) as follows: "in all other respects the same as L.aucampiae 'Betty's Beryl' (see Cole[88]
P100), but has yellow flowers. It was first noted and reported by Tim Jackson of Whitter, California. It
appeared among cultivated plants grown from seed, and is not known to occur in habitat." It was also
mentioned and tentatively named *'Golden Beryl' by Steve Hammer in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 7, p.
65 (1992). This acf was further mentioned on p. 49 of Hammer (1999) and on p. 86 of Cole05
with a photograph on p. 85.

L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae 'Jacksons Jade'


photographed by the author.

Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae 'Hikoruby'. (cultivar)

L. aucampiae subsp./var. euniceae 'Hikoruby'


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is a "neon red" R or R- type acf that was bred by Yasuhiko Shimada in Japan, and mentioned by
Steve Hammer in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 15, p. 55 (2000). The cultivar title comes from the breeders
Christian name (Yasu)hiko, and it is likely this is the result Steve Hammer was trying to achieve when
he referred to the radiating Jack-o-lantern var. euniceae on p. 49 of Hammer (1999). Hikoruby
was established on p. 90 of Cole05 with a photograph on p. 91.

Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis 'Chieruby'. (cultivar)

L aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis 'Cheiruby'


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is a "neon red" R or R- type acf that was bred by Yasuhiko Shimada in Japan, and mentioned by
Steve Hammer in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 15, p. 55 (2000). It was named after Mr. Shimadas wife
whose name is Chei(ruby). Cheiruby was established on p. 93 of Cole05.

Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis 'Green River'. (cultivar)

L. aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis Green River


photograph Norihiko Shimada (supplied via Will du Toit).

This is a YG or G- type acf of that was mentioned and initially thought by me to have been
established in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steve Hammer following the discovery of a
wild specimen. Frik du Plooy called this cultivar *'Flavivirens' on a seed list in 1997, although he
never attempted to formally establish that name which he numbered it F010a, stating that it originated
from a colony "nr. Hopetown CP". This plant was further mentioned as a work in progress on p. 49
of Hammer (1999), where it was described as having a soft grey-green colour; possibly a reference
to the plants shoulders. Another report of this acf came via e-mail to me from Will du Toit in 2006,
where he reported the earlier collection of a two headed specimen in the veld by Louw Pretorius of
Kimberley. Louw used the title *Jewel of the Gariep (Gariep the old Orange River) for the plant,
but again this title was never established. On p. 68 of Cole05 an un-established G- acf from L.
aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis was recorded (this may have been Louw Pretorius plant),
but on p. 93 the same mutation was given full status as an acf. Editing of these notes for publication
in CACTUS WORLD by Roy Mottram, concluded that due to there not being a reproducible number
of plants in existence at the time, Green River had not in fact been established in accordance with the
Cultivar Code by Steve Hammer in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995. As a reproducible number
of specimens certainly do now exist, I offer the following description here to formally establish Green
River: Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis Green River is an unusually green bodied
aberration, distinctive in colour, but in all other respects essentially as for the type.

L. aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. fluminalis Green River


photograph Waldie Volschenk (supplied via Will du Toit).

Lithops bromfieldii var. bromfieldii White Nymph. (cultivar)

L. bromfieldii var. bromfieldii White Nymph


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

This is a white flowering A or W- type acf that was established by Yasuhiko Shimada of Japan in the
M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 17, p. 62 (2002). In 1994 he noticed a white flower among a batch of plants from
C279 seed sown in 1991, and the subsequent F3 generation was 50% white flowered. A presumably
white flowering var. bromfieldii was offered (without a description) by Frik du Plooy on his 1997 seed
list named as *Albiflorus, numbered as F013 and said to also originate from colony *C279(a). This
mutation was further mentioned on p. 50 of Hammer (1999) without being named, and recorded as
an acf on p. 97 of Cole05.

Lithops gracilidelineata subsp. gracilidelineata var. gracilidelineata 'Caf au Lait'. (cultivar)

L. gracilidelineata subsp./var. gracilidelineata Caf au Lait


photograph Francois Hoes.

Steve Hammer described and established this pattern bred cultivar in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE
1995 as follows: "The "fuscous" form of this species seen in COLE (p. 129) has finally been stabilised,
using seed from C309. The species is usually whitish or buff-coloured, rarely pinkish or grey. The
combination of whipped cream islands floating on a cappuccino sea is unique. Caf au Lait was also
mentioned on p. 65 of Hammer (1999). The reference Steve made to p. 129 of Cole88 included
two photographs taken before this form was stabilised and named. As this is a pattern bred cultivar it
did not appear in the main text of Cole05, although the two photographs just mentioned were
reproduced again: one on p. 147 and one on the back cover. Caf au Lait was recorded on p. 332 of
Cole05 in the taxonomic index.

L. gracilidelineata subsp./var. gracilidelineata Caf au Lait


photographed by the author.

Lithops herrei 'Splendido'. (cultivar)

L. herrei 'Splendido'
photograph Giuseppe Maria Piccione.

This is an A +YG or W- + G- type acf that was established by Giuseppe Maria Piccione of Verona,
Italy, in the CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF AMERICA vol. 73, p. 76 (2001). There he
mentioned the plants pale green body, and the fact it can be distinguished from the otherwise similar L.
marmorata by its facial pattern, smaller flower size, capsule structure and seed form. Splendido was
documented as an acf on p. 169 of Cole05.

Lithops hookeri var. hookeri 'Envy'. (cultivar)

L. hookeri var. hookeri 'Envy'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is a lime green YG or G- type acf that apparently first appeared in cultivation in Australia, but
was grown again from seed ex Cole 336. This cultivar was once referred to as *'Hookersgreen', but
this name was dropped prior to official publication. It was mentioned in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 12, p.
58 (1997), and on p. 73 of Hammer (1999). Envy was established in PIANTE GRASSE
SPECIALE 1995 by Steve Hammer, and further documented as an acf on p. 173 of Cole05.

Lithops hookeri var. marginata 'Shimada's Apricot'. (cultivar)

L. hookeri var. marginata 'Shimada's Apricot'


photographs X2 Yasuhiko Shimada.

This is an R or R- type acf that arose from the normal "red form" of C053. It was produced by
Yasuhiko Shimada, and established by him in the CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF
AMERICA vol. 72, p. 302 (2000). There he stated: "The top surface is bright plum red (although I
consider it orange-pink) and the separating groove is half translucent and slightly greenish red, with
bright red rubrications within. The sides are paler and slightly pinkish". Steve Hammer stated in the
same article that the "plants have an unusual intensity". This acf was further mentioned on p. 182 of
Cole05.

Lithops julii subsp. julii 'Hotlips'. (cultivar)

L. julii subsp. julii 'Hotlips'


X2 photographed by the author.

This is a pattern bred cultivar that was reported and established by Steve Hammer in PIANTE
GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 as follows: "The first anagrammatic cultivar, named for its splendidly
widened and dark fissure markings, familiarly known as "lips" though "lipstick" would be apter." This
plant was further mentioned on p.77 of Hammer (1999), where it stated the plant "was bred to match
a wild plant" Steve "once admired near Rambawd". As this is a pattern bred cultivar it was not
included in the main text of Cole05, although it did get a passing mention on p. 68, and was
documented on p. 337 in the taxonomic index.

Lithops lesliei subsp. lesliei var. lesliei 'Freds Redhead'. (cultivar)

L. lesliei subsp./var. lesliei 'Freds Redhead'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is an R or R- type acf that was established by Steve Hammer in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE
1995, and further discussed by him in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 12, p. 32 (1997). On p. 85 of Hammer
(1999) it was described as: a fantastic neon-red sport of a normal Warrentonian var. lesliei. It
actually came about as an abnormally coloured branch of a normal plant that was taken as a cutting
and self-pollinated. It can be similar to some of the redder forms of var. rubrobrunnea (see p. 167 of
Cole88, p. 225 of Cole05 & p. 227 of Cole05), but grows larger and is brighter in colour. Steve
Hammer also reported in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 19, p. 39 (2004), that the plants have: huge flowers
with red petal tips. Freds Redhead was recorded as an acf on p. 220 of Cole05.

L. lesliei subsp./var. lesliei 'Freds Redhead'


photograph Francois Hoes.

Lithops marmorata var. marmorata 'Polepsky Smaragd'. (cultivar)

Lithops marmorata var. marmorata Polepsky Smaragd


photograph Clive Green.

This YG or G- type acf with a "strong yellowish-green undertone" was referred to in PIANTE
GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steve Hammer as *'Chartreuse'. However, after developing this plant in
the Czech Republic it was established by Petr Pavelka (who actually came up with his name first) as
Polepsky Smaragd in CACTACEAE ETC. vol. I, pp. 24-29 (1996). This plant was further mentioned
on p. 88 of Hammer (1999), where it stated: ""Smaragd" (Czech for emerald) was well-chosen; the
plants have a really green colour". Steve later found a wild specimen during a field trip, and reported it
in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 16, p. 77 (2001). 'Polepsky Smaragd' was recorded as an acf on p. 234 of
Cole05.

Lithops marmorata var. marmorata Polepsky Smaragd


photograph Francois Hoes.

Lithops olivacea var. nebrownii 'Red Olive'. (cultivar)

L. olivacea var. nebrownii 'Red Olive'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is an R or R- type acf. An un-named red form of L. olivacea was actually mentioned by
O.Hoeval in the CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF GB vol. 9, p. 79 (1947), where its
appearance was attributed to: "an extremely rich production of anthozyan pigment". However, as var.
nebrownii was not collected until 1969 (see p. 176 of Cole88 & p. 244 of Cole05) it is doubtful
that this was Red Olive. The possible R-type acf from var. olivacea referred to on p. 68 of
Cole05 raised further suspicions that the 1947 report may have been an unpublished mutation from
var. olivacea. The tenuous difference of profile shape and size would identify O. Hoevals report; var.
nebrownii (& hence Red Olive) being generally cordate and larger than var. olivacea which, is
generally truncate and smaller (see p. 16 of Cole88 & p. 18 of Cole05). Red Olive was
mentioned on p. 92 of Hammer (1999), established in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steve
Hammer and recorded as an acf on p. 246 of Cole05.

L. olivacea var. nebrownii 'Red Olive'


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

Lithops optica Rubragold. (cultivar)

L. optica Rubragold
photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

This yellow flowering L. optica 'Rubra' was classed as an R- + Y- form on p. 67 and a Ywc + Rform on p. 251of Cole05. Initially considered a hybrid, this plant was named *Lithops Ruberoid
by Vincent Formosa in an article in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 13, p. 56 (1998) but not described. Steve
Hammer explained on the following page (M.S.G. bulletin vol. 13, p. 57 (1998)), that this could
actually be a cross between L. optica 'Rubra' and L. geyeri. It was further discussed on p. 93 of
Hammer (1999), where the possibility of it being L. optica 'Rubra' x L. herrei was also mentioned.
The plant was referred to as * L. optica Rubra Yellow Flower form on p. 158 of Shimada
(2001), as a chance mutation from seed of C81A, sown in October 1997. Then in December 2002 Mr.
Shimada informed Professor Cole that he had named it L. optica Rubragold after he had produced 12
more specimens. Professor Cole sent a fax to me on the 28th of May 2003 in which he stated: L.optica
Rubragold to me this is a most astonishing phenomenon, but Shimada is such a careful cultivator,
with whom I have been in contact for very many years, that I have decided to accept his information
on this. Its non-hybrid status is somewhat doubtful, but it qualified as an honorary acf after being
established p. 251 of Cole05. The name had there been corrected from *L. optica Rubra Gold as it
appeared on p. 220 of the book SUCCULENTS published by the I.S.I.J. in 2004, because L. optica
Rubragold was how the originator, Mr. Yasuhiko Shimada presented it to the Coles.

Lithops otzeniana 'Cesky Granat'. (cultivar)

L. otzeniana 'Cesky Granat'


photograph Petr Pavelka.

L. otzeniana 'Cesky Granat'


photograph Clive Green.

This is a red R or R-type acf that was developed in the Czech. Republic, and first mentioned in the
M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 15, p. 55 (2000) by Steve Hammer, where it stated: "("is fantastic plant")". Petr
Pavelka described this plant in 2001 via e-mail to Kevin Mason as follows: "Plants have opaque, light
ruby bodies, islands and peninsulas, and obscurely translucent dark ruby windows. Mr. Hejtmanek got
seeds of typical L. otzeniana from Ed Storms about 20 years ago. Seedlings, however, bore ruby
colour and were eliminated from the collection as freaks. Fortunately few plants were kept till now".
He also said the plant was named: "after Czech famous garnat Czech spelling is different!!!". Prior to
this Petr had established Cesky Granat in the Czech journal KAKTUSY, vol. XXXV11, pp. 27-29
(2001). This plant was briefly mentioned as an acf on p. 255 of Cole05.

Lithops pseudotruncatella subsp. archerae 'Split Pea'. (cultivar)

L. pseudotruncatella subsp. archerae 'Split Pea'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This albinistic YG or G- type acf was established in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steve
Hammer. A photograph was shown on p. 97 of Hammer (1999), and on p. 101 Steve stated that: in
spring they (Split Pea plants) have a very pale and delicate colour which darkens slightly by
summer. It was further documented as an acf on p. 266 of Cole05.

Lithops salicola 'Satos Violet'. (cultivar)

L. salicola 'Satos Violet'


photographed by the author.

This is a striking lilac-purple (or raspberry) colour variant of L. salicola that arose in Japan via Mr.
Tony Sato, and was described as "a really fine thing" by Steve Hammer in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 13,
p. 57 (1998). It was mentioned again by Steve in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 14, p. 24 (1999). On p. 104
and p. 132 of Hammer (1999) this cultivar was further discussed and unfortunately named in error as
*Bacchus, "for the Greek god of wine, [as it] has the beautiful shade of ripe grapes". On p. 173 of
Shimada (2001) it stated: L. salicola Bacchus=Satos Violet. This R- form acf was further
erroneously documented as *Bacchus on p. 278 of Cole05 where it was described as being a dark
red wine colour, which indicates that there can be quite a variation in shade intensity. Editing of these
notes for publication in CACTUS WORLD by Roy Mottram concluded that in fact this acf had been
named as *Bacchus against the wishes of Tony Sato. Therefore in order to comply strictly with the
Cultivar Code the name of Satos Violet had priority and had to be used.

L. salicola 'Satos Violet'


photograph Bernd Schloesser.

Lithops schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Blue Moon'. (cultivar)

L.schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. rugosa 'Blue Moon'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is a pattern bred cultivar that was reported and established by Steve Hammer in PIANTE
GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 as follows: "Norm Dennis,...once sent me an amazing powder-blue
seedling of COLE 247, from which I have now bred several similar plants, named for their rarity
("once in a blue..."), colour, and general resemblance to lunarian backsides". Steve also mentioned this
plant on p. 108 of Hammer (1999) with a photograph on p. 107. Because it is an intensification of the
normal bluish colour of var. rugosa that distinguishes Blue Moon, it qualifies as a pattern bred
cultivar and is not considered to be an acf. It was therefore only recorded in the taxonomic index of
Cole05, on p. 331, where the sometimes used incorrect title of *Bluemoon was highlighted.

Lithops schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis 'Nutwerk'. (cultivar)

L. schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis Nutwerk


photograph Clive Green.

This is a brown pattern bred cultivar with an intensely dark network of markings that was developed
and first mentioned by Steve Hammer in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 13, p. 57 (1998). He named and
established the plant on p. 108 and pp. 132-133 of Hammer (1999), where he also stated that
Nutwerk has: an unusual concentration of brown netting and "can easily be distinguished from the
average Cole 75 by its consistent intensity" (of pattern). In the same book, Figures 214 and 215 on p.
107 showed the original parent plants. Photographs of normal C075 plants (the *nutupsdriftensis form)
can be seen on p. 197 of Cole88 and p. 287 of Cole05, and comparison to the photographs here
highlights the intensified brown netting effect of Nutwerk. As this is a pattern bred cultivar it was
only mentioned on p. 342 of Cole05 in the taxonomic index.

L. schwantesii subsp. schwantesii var. urikosensis Nutwerk


photograph Tim Jackson.

Lithops terricolor 'Violetta'. (cultivar)

L. terricolor 'Violetta'
photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is an R or R- type acf from L. terricolor that has an "intensely purple cast", as reported and
established by Steve Hammer in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995. A similar form was actually
mentioned by O.Hoeval in the CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF GB vol. 9, p. 79 (1947),
where its appearance was attributed to: "an extremely rich production of anthozyan pigment". This
may or may not have been 'Violetta', and it was not named at that time. This plant was further
discussed on p. 87 of Hammer (1999), and on p. 293 of Cole05 as an acf, where it was pointed
out that publication was done under the species name of *localis.

Lithops vallis-mariae 'Valley Girl'. (cultivar)

L. vallis-mariae Valley Girl


photographs X3 Tim Jackson.

This is a white flowering A or W- type acf, otherwise identical to the normal form that was reported
and established in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steve Hammer. Valley Girl was further
mentioned on p. 110 of Hammer (1999) where it stated: "It originated amongst seedlings of Cole 281
reared by Jane Evans", and was recorded on p. 296 of Cole05.

Lithops verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Rose of Texas'. (cultivar)

L. verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Rose of Texas'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

This is a brightly flowered form that was established in PIANTE GRASSE SPECIALE 1995 by Steve
Hammer, where he wrote: This is distinguished by its uniform and shocking rose-red petals, which
emerge from a normal or green body. This cultivar was bred by Ed Storms, and was mentioned on p.
111 of Hammer (1999). Although the flower colour is the point here, Rose of Texas falls into the
patterned bred cultivar group, so in Cole05 was recorded in the taxonomic index (on p. 344). It
seems the natural tendency of L. verruculosa to produce flowers of varying colour is maintained by
this cultivar; Mesa Garden choosing the descriptive term great pink flowers in its seed listings (plant
number 1757.2 in the 2004 catalogue but likewise recorded in other years). The colour range is
highlighted by the two photographs shown here, but note that in both the colour is uniform over the
whole flower.

L. verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Rose of Texas'


photograph Clive Green.

Lithops verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Verdigris'. (cultivar)

L. verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Verdigris'


photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

Although this albinistic YG or G- type acf was mentioned by Steve Hammer in PIANTE GRASSE
SPECIALE 1995, editing of these notes for publication in CACTUS WORLD by Roy Mottram
concluded that the description there was: insufficient to distinguish it from Rose of Texas which
may also be green-bodied. Official establishment by Steve Hammer was therefore on p. 111 of
Hammer (1999), where Steve explained the plant came about accidentally whilst attempting to raise
a stock of L. verruculosa var. verruculosa 'Rose of Texas' plants. Verdigris has normal var.
verruculosa flowers and is only distinguishable from green bodied examples of Rose of Texas
(which has rose-red petals) when flowering. Verdigris was further documented on p. 302 of
Cole05.

Hybrids
Natural hybrids were discussed on pp. 69-71 of Cole88, and on pp. 55-57 of Cole05. Most
of the possibilities there documented however, seem to have a greater affinity for an already given
parent taxon and have been classified accordingly (albeit with the acknowledgement of a possible
hybrid element).
Steve Hammer has produced many cultivated hybrids, and commented on the subject in the
CACTUS AND SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF AMERICA vol. 67, p. 234 (1995), p. 27 (& elsewhere)
of Hammer (1999) and in various other sundry articles.
Many hybrid Lithops have indeed been cultivated (intentionally or otherwise), but few have
been formally described. Some (rare) true intermediates could also currently exist in the wild, such as
Lithops gracilidelineata x Lithops ruschiorum as mentioned on p. 71 of Cole 88 & p. 101 of
Hammer (1999).
As stated elsewhere in these notes, Lithops steineckeana may well be a hybrid, but it has
gained species status courtesy of p. 200 of Cole '88 and p. 290 of Cole05. The link of L.
steineckeana to the genus Conophytum remains a possibility but cannot be confirmed. In a similar
vein Steve Hammer suggested a link between Lithops steineckeana and Muiria hortenseae in the
M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 19, p. 55 (2004), although subsequently this speculation proved unfounded. Steve
reported this in answer to a question I posed him at a B.C.S.S. lecture he gave at Woodley in 2007.
Generally however, I consider inter-generic hybrids that include Lithops to be beyond the scope of
these short notes.
Few inter-species hybrids within the Lithops genus are given any more than a passing mention
within various texts. It should also be noted that by their very nature the progeny of hybrids can be
highly variable, and careful selection is often required in order to maintain some kind of standard in
cultivation. Further, cross-bred Lithops produced from within a given species using subspecies or
varieties are sometimes labeled according to which parent they most resemble, and this can cause
confusion. A hybrid becomes more obvious the greater the difference between the parents or where
some bizarre form using a cultivar or mutant is involved.
To the best of my knowledge there is no laid down rule under either code for the correct
naming of hybrids that have not been formally described, and therefore we must revert to common
English. I consider unestablished or invalid inter-species hybrid Lithops (including those of uncertain
parentage), together with non conformist cross-breeds from within the same species group be best
treated by lumping them all together under the convenience title of hybrid. This name translates to
hybrida using standard life-science Latin, and the addition of the prefix x ensures the hybrid (or
notho-species rank) element is instantly apparent. Hence I include Lithops xhybrida in my
classification list, although this format is perhaps unique to me.

Lithops Harlequin. (hybrid)

L. 'Harlequin'
photograph Lindsey Deaves.

Lithops Harlequin was established by Nick Rowlette of Oregon on p. 62 of his book LITHOPS FOR
THE CURIOUS, THE COLLECTOR AND THE CULTIST, which was privately published in
Portland, Oregon in 1990. This plant looks to be a cross that heavily involves L. julii subsp. julii, and
in my experience this white flowering hybrid is virtually identical to all subsp. julii forms. Indeed I
speculate that in many instances much of any other genetic material has largely been bred out through
subsequent generations. Unfortunately the parent plants were not recorded by Nick in the
establishment article, but his description did include: generally greyish orange-brown. Steve
Hammer has commented to me on the robustness of L. Harlequin, and therefore I venture these
plants need to be selected for colour and size in order to maintain the tenuous standard. Because
details regarding official establishment were unknown at the time, this hybrid was recorded as an
excluded name (& probable selection from subsp. julii) on p. 337 of the taxonomic index of
Cole05.

L. Harlequin
photograph Kevin Mason.

Lithops Kikukaseki. (hybrid)

L. Kikukaseki
photograph Norihiko Shimada.

This is a hybrid of uncertain parentage that was established by Yashiko Shimada on p. 222 of the
Japanese book SUCCULENTS that was complied by Hiroshi Kobayashi and published by the I.S.I.J.
in 2004. Mr. Shimada considered the parents of this plant were probably from the L. julii complex
(which of course encompasses subsp. fulleri) and accordingly the flower colour is white. It is a striking
plant reminiscent of L. Kikusiyo Giyoku (documented below) but with markedly indented margins.
In spite of the publication date, this hybrid was unknown by the Coles when the second edition
monograph went to press.

Lithops Kikusiyo Giyoku. (hybrid)

L. Kikusiyo Giyoku
photograph Norihiko Shimada.

The initial scant information I received regarding this plant was e-mailed to me by Roy Mottram as
follows: Lithops Kikusiyo Giyoku T. Sato, Report of contest Japan Succulent Society 1990 New
Year party in Tokyo, Cactus & Succulent Journal of Japan 4(6): 8. (Feb) 1990. Standard: Japan; photo
of a large cluster, accompanying the protologue. A hybrid of unknown parentage. A comment
relating to the protologue photograph just mentioned was translated into English by Andy Walker of
Surbiton thus: A Lithops made in Japan. Richly pleasant, with a window leaf pattern. Further
investigation revealed this plant was produced by Mr. Kisata Tanaka who once ran a succulent nursery
in Nagano, but is now deceased. The name was actually translated into English incorrectly in the
establishment article (it should have been Kikushou-Gyoku). This was highlighted to me by
Norihiko Shimada who explained that the literal translation means chrysanthemum crest (the mark
on the cover of Japanese passports), and that the word gyoku is often used in naming Japanese
Cactus and Succulents. The exact parents are unknown, but Yasuhiko Shimada (Norihikos father)
considered that L. julii subsp. fulleri may have been strongly involved. It has white flowers, greyish
shoulders and strongly streaked reddish brown windows that pertain to resemble a chrysanthemum.
Under the rules of the cultivar code the name as published must be maintained in this instance. This
hybrid was unknown by the Coles when Cole05 went to press.

Lithops Kosogyoku. (hybrid)

L. Kosogyoku
photograph Norihiko Shimada.

The initial scant information I received regarding this plant was e-mailed to me by Roy Mottram as
follows: Lithops Kosogyoku T. Sato, Cactus & Succulent Journal of Japan 5(4): 11. (Dec) 1990.
Standard: Japan; photo of a large cluster, accompanying the protologue. A hybrid of unknown
parentage. Further investigation revealed this plant was produced by Mr. Kisata Tanaka who once ran
a succulent nursery in Nagano, but is now deceased. The name was actually translated into English
incorrectly in the establishment article (it should have been Kousougyoku). This was highlighted to
me by Norihiko Shimada who explained that the literal translation means red window and that the
word gyoku is often used in naming Japanese Cactus and Succulents. Apparently this plant was
derived from L. Kikusiyo Giyoku, although I would guess that L. salicola was somehow involved. It
has white flowers, greyish shoulders and reddish brown windows. Under the rules of the cultivar code
the name as published must be maintained in this instance. This hybrid was unknown by the Coles
when Cole05 went to press.

Lithops 'Sunstone'. (hybrid)

L. 'Sunstone'
photographed by the author.

L. 'Sunstone'
photograph Kevin Mason.

Lithops Sunstone was established by NICK ROWLETTE of Oregon on p. 61 of his book LITHOPS
FOR THE CURIOUS, THE COLLECTOR AND THE CULTIST, which was privately published in
Portland, Oregon in 1990. Unfortunately the parent plants were not there recorded, but this hybrid
looks to be the result of crossing various forms of L. karasmontana and therefore it flowers white.
Nicks description included: generally light yellow-orange to brownish-orange; and that the:
Markings consist of narrow to broad strips of the window, which usually run continuously from the
fissure to the margin. Usually the plants are marked with a distinct reticulate pattern, but at times the
markings can also be vague and/or irregular. The lighter coloured islands, when present, are usually
not sharply outlined, but rather blend gradually into the window strips. Further he stated: A large
number of plants show hybrid vigor (rapid growth, flowering at an early age from seed, and becoming
quite large as adults). In a personal communication to me Kevin Mason of Carmarthen once aptly
described this hybrid as having "rusted iron coloured windows, with a metallic sheen". Also, in the
M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 13, p.14 (1998) Steve Hammer commented: Sunstone looks like karasmontana
(of the reddish laterita type) x bella. Although L. Sunstone had been offered on many seed lists,
details regarding official establishment were unknown when Cole05 went to press. Therefore this
hybrid was only recorded there as an excluded name on p. 346 in the taxonomic index.

Lithops 'Talisman'. (hybrid)

L. 'Talisman'
photographs X2 Francois Hoes.

Lithops Talisman was established by NICK ROWLETTE of Oregon on p. 61 of his book LITHOPS
FOR THE CURIOUS, THE COLLECTOR AND THE CULTIST, which was privately published in
Portland, Oregon in 1990. Unfortunately the parent plants were not there recorded, but in the M.S.G.
Bulletin vol. 13, p. 14 (1998) Steve Hammer suggested that this yellow flowering plant: might be a
triple hybrid, perhaps pseudo x gesinae x gracilidelineata. Nick Rowlettes original description
included: very light grey-brown (beige) with slight violet tinge; lines are dark purplish-brown, narrow
and distinct, running continuously from the fissure to the margin in a conspicuous and attractive
reticulate pattern. A purple-brown line runs along the entire length of the fissure. Numerous grey spots
are scattered at random across the top, or sometimes coalescing near the lines. In my experience seed
from this hybrid is often not true to type, and careful selection is required to maintain the desired
characteristics. Although L. Talisman had been offered on many seed lists, details regarding official
establishment were unknown when Cole05 went to press. Therefore this hybrid was only recorded
there as an excluded name on p. 346 in the taxonomic index.

Lithops xhybrida. (casual name)

L. marmorata x L. olivacea
photograph Tim Jackson.

L. dinteri subsp./var dinteri Dintergreen


x L. herrei
photograph Francois Hoes.

L. julii subsp./var. fulleri 'Fullergreen'


x L. salicola 'Malachite'
photographed by the author.

L. gesinae var. annae


x L pseudotruncatella subsp. dendritica
photograph Clive Green.

Lithops xhybrida is the name I use for hybrid Lithops that are unrecognised by either the Botanic or
the Cultivar Codes. Although the genetic history of inter-species hybrids must be more diverse than
that of cross-breeds from within the same species group, all cross boundary Lithops present with
similar challenges. All are taxonomically awkward, interesting to fathom and unable to consistently
produce true to type seed through the generations. Perhaps partly for the last reason and also perhaps
because so many hybrids are un-natural, Professor Cole has paid little attention to cultivated hybrid
Lithops in his studies. However, as many such plants have been produced they cannot be over looked.
The images shown are examples of the many officially unrecognised but possible L. xhybrida
formulas.

L. lesliei subsp./var. lesliei Freds Redhead x L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. hornii
photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

New Lithops post Cole 05


A few months before the second edition Lithops monograph hit the bookshelves (both English
and Italian versions were produced), Mr. Lino Di Martino made mention of it in an editorial written in
CACTUS & CO. vol. 8, p. 165 (2004) as follows: It should be emphasised that this new edition is coauthored by Desmond and his wife Naureen. The Coles have painstakingly gone through the old text,
revising and updating it wherever necessary (adding inter alia several new taxa and locality
data).The book will surely stand as a work of art as well as THE standard reference on the
subject. Mr. Di Martinos prediction was indeed correct, and the Coles 2005 updated monograph
quickly became the ultimate single Lithops reference.
Research on the genus did not stop there however, and the following are Lithops that were
validly published after the Coles 2005, second edition monograph went to press.
As with the section on new Lithops post Cole 88 (points (a), (c), (f) & (g) from that section
equally apply here) a few comments now follow.
(a) First of all it should be noted that two new cultivars or aberrant colour forms were
established in this work that I knew nothing about until I saw the book. They are Lithops hermetica
Green Diamond on p. 165 and Lithops ruschiorum var. ruschiorum Silver Reed on p. 274.
(b) Although not so documented in Cole05, by the time this book was published 7 cultivars
(but not L. pseudotruncatella subsp./var. pseudotruncatella Albiflora) recorded from single
specimens in Cole88 had been established (inadvertently) in accordance with the Cultivar Code (in
Hammer99).
(c) On p. 33 of Cole05 reasons for splitting cultivars into two camps were given. The Coles
only included aberrant colour forms abbreviated to acf in the main text when dealing with this
rank (a development of the terminology on pp. 83-84 of Cole88). These are the specific colour
aberrations mentioned in (d) below that have occurred either in nature or in seed collected from nature
without interference (at least initial interference) from human propagators. At the M.S.G. mini-book
launch of Cole05 held in Reading on April 23rd 2005, Professor Cole pointed out that much can be
produced by selective breeding, and cultivars produced in this way are different from aberrant colour
forms as the selectively bred, or in my words pattern bred Lithops (where normal features have been
artificially intensified and or stabilised) are not natural. Although the term acf is not currently
recognised by the Cultivar Code, the two types are of equal rank and both established pattern bred
and acf Lithops have the same status as cultivars. There is of course a clear distinction between
cultivars and hybrids as discussed in the previous section.
(d) In Cole05 the terms G-, W- and R- replaced the terms YG, A and R when dealing
with "aberrant colour forms", and the term Y- was introduced.
(e) Another point of note in the new work was the spelling of Lithops gesinae. In a fax to me
dated 2 December 2004, Professor Cole stated: In the first edition of Lithops I followed the rules as I
knew and applied them to sundry other names, and changed de Boers spelling from gesinae to
gesineae. When we started editing for the new volume, I consulted a taxonomic expert in the Botanical
Institute in Pretoria, and he concluded that while gesineae is the more correct, it is better to stick to the
spelling that de Boer used, that is, gesinae. I really do not follow his logic, but in keeping with his
advice, I have used de Boers original spelling gesinae in the new edition of the book.
(f) Included in a fax to me from Professor Cole dated 7 May 2006, was the following: we
have already noted four typos in the new edition of Lithops Flowering Stones, and may well find
more!

(g) Information gained subsequent to the publication of Cole05 placed *L. salicola
Bacchus (as mentioned there on p. 278) in synonymy of L. salicola Satos Violet. An explanation
for this is given in the relevant entry above.

Lithops amicorum. (species)

L. amicorum
photographed by the author.

L. amicorum
photograph D.T. & N.A Cole.

This white flowering species was found growing in three locations by Professor Cole during a field
trip taken in early May of 2004, after he had received relevant information from Mr. Tok Schoeman.
In a text message to me dated 25th May 2004, Professor Cole described the plants as: small,
maximum facial measurements 18 X 12 mm, generally very pale, almost white, in colour, mostly with
relatively few markings, and VERY difficult to see and find in its habitat of smallish quartzite stones.
Then at the M.S.G. mini-book launch of Cole05 held in Reading on April 23rd 2005, Professor Cole
made several further points. He stated the name pertains to of the friends; the plants are the smallest
yet discovered, generally being only around 15mm across at the widest point (although despite this L.
dinteri subsp. frederici is perhaps on average slightly smaller as its size was given as mostly about 14
X 10 mm on p. 115 of Cole88 & p.117 of Cole05); the flower completely covers the plant body
when fully open and that there is some resemblance to the fulleri complex. Professor Cole validly
published L. amicorum as a new species with a number of C410 in CACTUS & CO. vol. X, pp. 58-60
(2006), where the maximum facial measurement had been revised to 19 X 13 mm, mostly about 15 X
10 mm.

Lithops fulviceps var. laevigata. (variety)

L. fulviceps var. laevigata


X2 photographs D.T. & N.A. Cole.

Compared to the type variety, var. laevigata is smaller, smoother and generally lacking in rubrications.
On p. 60 of Hammer (1999) the observation was made that the Pofadder population of L. fulviceps:
which occurs on yellow gneiss, is quite distinct-looking, and that the plants differ from var.
fulviceps in so much as they are: mustard-coloured, smooth and surprisingly convex. Professor
Cole had not visited this location prior to the publication of Cole88, but subsequently did so with his
wife Naureen in May of 2004. Further to Hammer (1999) Professor Cole made a few points at the
M.S.G. mini-book launch of Cole05 held in Reading on April 23rd 2005. These included that in fact
this colony is quite a considerable distance from Pofadder (I subsequently learnt on a farm named
Swartmodder) and that the dusky dots sometimes form channels and islands. After careful
consideration Professor Cole validly published this plant as a new variety of L. fulviceps in CACTUS
& CO. vol. X, pp. 60-63 (2006), with a number of C412. The photographs here show that there can be
some variation in colour.

L. fulviceps var. laevigata


photographed by the author.

L. fulviceps var. laevigata


photograph D.T. & N.A Cole.

Lithops aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae Firebrandt. (cultivar)

L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae


'Firebrandt photographed by the author.

L. aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae 'Firebrandt


photographs X2 Kevin Mason.

This is an R or R-type acf that was established in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21, p. 42 (2006) by Keith
Green. With hindsight it would have been preferable for me to have used the term formal
establishment in place of valid publication in that article (as I was dealing with the Cultivar Code),
but otherwise it was self explanatory and the relevant section is reproduced here as follows (in this
article D.T. & N.A COLE, LITHOPS FLOWERING STONES (2005) = Cole (2005) :
A colony of Lithops aucampiae subsp./var. aucampiae Nr. Olifantshoek, CP was given the
name *Rubrobrunneus and numbered F005 on Frik du Plooys seed list in 1997. Presumably these
were reddish examples, but no description was offered at that time. Subsequent examples from this
seed I have seen have been dull red at best, not really anything different from normal plants, although I
fully accept that somewhere out there truly red examples may exist.
Around the same time but quite independently, an R-type mutation of subsp./var. aucampiae
was produced by Jossie Brandt from the self-pollination of a "hyper red freak. This was reported in
the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 12, p. 58 (1997) by Steve Hammer, and again mentioned on p. 49 of Hammer
(1999). This form had the name Firebrandt tagged on to it in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 18, p. 55
(2003) with a photograph on p. 56, although the text at that time stated the plant had not been
stabilised.
I have also seen a photograph of a red form of subsp./var. aucampiae on the web page of
Francois Hoes of Belgium with the name * Rudisheim Ruby attached. It seems that this colour freak
appeared in a batch of seed from subsp./var aucampiae that Mr. Shimada of Japan sent to Francois.
This seed was originally collected around Rudesheim farm (the correct spelling is in fact
Rudesheim), which I understand to be the former home of Jossie Brandt. However, I have not been
able to find a source of valid publication for this name.
Although rare, bright red mutations are not completely unheard of in subsp./var. aucampiae,
occurring either by chance or by selective cultivation. Unless we want to split hairs, the three aforementioned reports obviously pertain to the same colour mutation, but do not currently share a common
name. So what name to use?
On p. 344 of Cole (2005) it is stated that *Rubrobrunneus would not be permissible as a
cultivar name even if it had been correctly proposed, and there appears to be no further details relating
to any valid publication of * Rudisheim (Rudesheim) Ruby . Therefore in order to clear up any
ambiguity I propose that we should officially name normal yellow flowering but intensely red aberrant
colour forms of Lithops aucampiae subsp./ var. aucampiae as Firebrandt, in honour of Jossie Brandt,
and as suggested by Steve Hammer.
It follows that the description for Lithops aucampiae subsp. aucampiae var. aucampiae
Firebrandt is an unusually red-coloured mutation, distinctive in colour, but in all other respects
essentially as for the type.

Lithops aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae 'Bellaketty'. (cultivar)

L. aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae Bellaketty


photograph Giuseppe Maria Piccione.

This is a YG or G- type acf that was established by Giuseppe Maria Piccione in the CACTUS AND
SUCCULENT JOURNAL (US) vol. 75, p. 152 (2003). Giuseppe stabilised this cultivar by crossing an
unlabeled, but unusually light, translucent and greenish-sided look-a like var. euniceae with a
normal brown-sided plant. Further back crossing of the offspring resulted in striking green plants in
1997. This cultivar was named after Giuseppes niece Ketty. With the exception of the colour, it is
identical to normal subsp./var. euniceae, and has yellow flowers. In spite of its publication date, this
plant was unknown by the Coles when their second edition monograph went to press.

L. aucampiae subsp. euniceae var. euniceae Bellaketty


photograph Francois Hoes.

Lithops bromfieldii var. glaudinae Embers. (cultivar)

L. bromfieldii var. glaudinae Embers


photograph Chris Barnhill.

This is an R or R-type acf that was established in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21, p. 42 (2006) by Keith
Green. With hindsight it would have been preferable for me to have used the term un-established in
place of unpublished in that article (as I was dealing with the Cultivar Code), but otherwise it was
self explanatory and the relevant section is reproduced here as follows (in this article D.T. & N.A
COLE, LITHOPS FLOWERING STONES (2005) = Cole (2005) :
Lithops bromfieldii var. glaudinae *'Rubroroseus' was offered on Frik du Plooys seed list in
1997 numbered F015a ex. colony *C393(a) but without a description (it should be noted *C393(a) is
not a valid Cole number). However, examples I have seen give instant visual impact and appear to be
true red (R- type) aberrant colour forms.
On p. 50 of Hammer (1999) Steve mentions a single abnormally red var. glaudinae from
Cole 393, and again mentions the same reddish freak as having popped up for several people, in
the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 17, p. 29 (2002).
On p. 68 of Cole (2005) there is also a mention of an unpublished R- type aberrant colour
form of Lithops bromfieldii var. glaudinae.
It would appear these three reports are of the same manifestation, but as pointed out on pp.
344-345 of Cole (2005) the name *'Rubroroseus would not be permissible for a cultivar even if it
had been correctly proposed. Fortunately, I can recall an e-mail from Steve Hammer in which he
referred to these normal yellow flowering but bright red forms of Lithops bromfieldii var. glaudinae as
Embers, and I think few would argue against officially adopting this title.
It follows that the description for Lithops bromfieldii var. glaudinae Embers is an unusually
red-coloured mutation, distinctive in colour, but in all other respects essentially as for the type.

L. bromfieldii var. glaudinae 'Embers'


photographed by the author.

Lithops dorotheae 'Zorro'. (cultivar)

L. dorotheae 'Zorro'
photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

This pattern bred cultivar was developed by Steve Hammer, and was first mentioned in the M.S.G.
Bulletin vol. 13, p. 57 (1998). It was also mentioned on p. 57 of Hammer (1999), and established by
Steve in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 18, p. 66 (2003), where the plants history in the care of Ed Storms
was documented. In the publication article Steve stated: the apical window is reduced to kind of
lightening bolt or zigzagged pattern. Some plants are almost completely opaque, but even in these the
usual red lines are present. I think it bears some resemblance to the imagined cultivar suggested on p.
35 of Cole88 and p. 33 of Cole05. In spite of the publication date, Zorro was too late to be
included in the taxonomic index of Cole 05, although it was mentioned as an excluded name on p.
349. Obviously this plant is no longer excluded.

L. dorotheae 'Zorro'
photograph Chris Barnhill (supplied via Steve Hammer).

Lithops gesinae var. annae Hanawared. (cultivar)

L. gesinae var. annae Hanawared


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

This is an intensely pink, normally yellow flowered R or R-type acf that was developed by Yasuhiko
Shimada from seed of C078 that was originally given to him by Ed Storms in 1981. Mr. Shimada
established the eventual selected progeny in the I.S.I.J. NESWLETTER vol. 7, pp. 1-2 (2005), and
later published the plants in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21, p. 78 (2006). Here, the description finished
with the sentence: The plants give an overall impression of bright pink colour. The article then went
on to explain the name is: derived from the Japanese translation of Lithops gesineae var. annae. In
the book SUCCULENTS published by the I.S.I.J. in 2004 this cultivar was (then validly) named
*Lithops gesineae var. annae Hanawa Red. However, as allowed under the rules of the Cultivar
Code this name was corrected by the plants originator, Mr. Yasuhiko Shimada, when he established
the plants himself as stated above.

Lithops gracilidelineata subsp. brandbergensis 'Vertigo'. (cultivar)

L. gracilidelineata subsp. brandbergensis vertigo


photograph Vincent Formosa (supplied via Tony Mace).

This is a light green, YG or G- type acf that may have been mentioned without a description by Frik
du Plooy on his 1997 seed list, under the cultivar title of *Green, with the number F051 assigned. It
originated from seed collected from colony C394, and was grown in relative profusion by Vince
Formosa. It was also mentioned on p. 65 of Hammer (1999). The name *Greenberg was suggested
by Steve Hammer in 2002 (brandbergensis + greenness), but he was not truly comfortable with that
title, choosing to name the plant Vertigo (my suggestion) when he established it in the M.S.G.
Bulletin vol. 18, p. 66 (2003). There he stated: Anyone who turns verdant at the prospect of heights
will appreciate this cultivar, named for the fear-inducing habitat of subspecies brandbergensis, highest
and grandest of them all. He also mentioned the plants dulled red lines in the same publication
article. In spite of the publication date, Vertigo was too late to be included in Cole 05.

L. gracilidelineata subsp. brandbergensis Vertigo'


photographed by the author.

Lithops hookeri var. dabneri Annarosa. (cultivar)

L. hookeri var. dabneri Annarosa


photograph Giuseppe Maria Piccione.

This is a green bodied YG or G- type acf that was developed by Giuseppe Maria Piccione of Verona,
Italy. He established the plant in CACTUS & CO vol. X, pp. 115-116 (2006), where it stated that the
plants were produced by crossing a look-a-like dull green var. dabneri mutant of unknown origin with
normal var. dabneri from C301. Further back crosses resulted in normal yellow flowering but bright
green plants that are identical in facial pattern to var. dabneri. This cultivar was named after Anna
Rosa Nicola.

L. hookeri var. dabneri Annarosa


photograph Bernd Schloesser.

Lithops karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. karasmontana Rosary. (cultivar)

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana Rosary.


A protologue photograph supplied by Roy Mottram.

This is a most unusual pattern bred cultivar from the Signalberg form of var. karasmontana that was
established by Tony Sato in the CACTUS & SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF JAPAN, vol. 12, p. 16
(1997). Roy Mottram brought this to my attention during the editing process of these notes for
publication in CACTUS WORLD. The establishment text was in Japanese script that I had translated
into English by Andy Walker of Surbiton in August 2007. It reads thus: On a Lithops, the old leaves
die off when the new ones appear each year. On the Rosary, however, the leaves do not wither but
remain, giving the plant 3 years worth of leaves, in some cases forming 3 tiers. A rather odd plant, it
apparently emerged from ten thousand homogenous seeds. Although few have appeared, the Rosary
appears to be extremely well established. It represents an unusual variety that defies the common
wisdom on cacti and succulents. Even though the stacking of old leaves can be induced on any
Lithops through incorrect watering, I have to accept the authors word that in Rosary the old leaves
persist even when the plants are correctly cultivated. This cultivar was unknown when Cole05 went
to press.

L. karasmontana subsp./var. karasmontana Rosary


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

Lithops karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. aiaisensis Orange Ice. (cultivar)

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. aiaisensis Orange Ice


photographed by the author.

This is a stabilized pattern bred cultivar. On p. 81 of Hammer (1999) Steve mentioned a bizarre
bright orange topped var. aiaisensis he grew from seed sent to him by Naureen Cole in 1977. This
plant can be seen top centre in Figure 133 on p. 78 of Hammer (1999), and together with its progeny
Steve first tentatively named Orange Ice in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 19, p.39 (2004). Subsequently
seed was offered via the seed distribution scheme in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 22, p.18 (2007) where it
was numbered 2175, described and in fact inadvertently established by Terry Smale. His brief
description stated: orange area on leaf tips, although the plants origins from var. aiaisensis were not
mentioned.

L. karasmontana subsp. karasmontana var. aiaisensis Orange Ice


photograph Terry Smale.

Lithops lesliei subsp. lesliei var. venteri Ventergreen. (cultivar)

L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. venteri Ventergreen


photograph Yasuhiko Shimada.

This is a YG or G- type acf that was developed from C001 by Yasuhiko Shimada, and established by
him in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 21, p. 78 (2006). Here he explained the plants origins from two mutant
green seedlings he first noticed in 1992 which he crossed together when both specimens produced
yellow flowers in October 1996. The plants have a pleasant contrast of light green and yellow on their
faces, whilst the shoulders maintain a grey hue.

L. lesliei subsp. lesliei var. venteri Ventergreen


photographed by the author.

Lithops olivacea var. olivacea Angels of Tony. (cultivar)

L olivacea var. olivacea Angels of Tony.


A protologue photograph supplied by Roy Mottram.

This chance mutation that falls into the pattern bred cultivar group has crinkly, ruffled-up petals on
its flowers, and was established by T. Sato in the CACTUS & SUCCULENT JOURNAL OF JAPAN
vol. 16, pp. 8-11 (2001). It appeared among cultivated plants grown by Mr. Yoshio Furihata in Japan,
and was subsequently bought by Mr. T. Sato. A Japanese article unknown to me but published in 2003
was translated as follows by Ms. Miyako Tannowa: In one afternoon of late autumn, I found my
collection of [L.] olivacea flowering all together. One of them looked as if it was at the final stage of
flowering, with its petal[s] crinkled up. Then, I found 5 or 6 more plants with the similar petals, but
those looked [like] they had just come out. Some were in between of those (i.e. final stage and the first
state of flowering), and some others had petals with only tips curled up. This phenomenon must be due
to genetic mutation, and my guess is DNA which lacks partial genetic information to stretch petals
after efflorescence caused it. I named this [L.] olivacea 'Angel's of Tony' because, for me, it was as if
angels [had been] fluttering around my flower garden." Unconfirmed suggestions raised the possibility
that this flower mutation was the result of a virus, and it may be that vegetative propagation is the only
method of replicating this plant. However, I was informed by Roy Mottram that in no way does this
affect its standing as a cultivar. Because publication details were unsure, Angels of Tony was
mentioned as an excluded name on p.331 of the taxonomic index of Cole 05. Obviously it is no
longer excluded.

Appendix

The authors collection in the autumn of 2005


photograph Clive Green.

It seems appropriate to comment on my own collection of Lithops, and (from a personal


perspective) to see how my circumstances and growing methods have evolved over the 12 years since
my article entitled LITHOPS ON A WINDOWSILL was published in the M.S.G. Bulletin vol. 11, p.
50 (1996).
I am still not a prolific grower or a cultivar specialist, rather just a keen student of the genus. It
is merely the fact that subsequent to the Coles publications more Lithops were published at the rank
of cultivar than at any other that sees so many recorded in this project.
I choose to keep only a small representative collection of Lithops. The basic remit I set myself
when I began to assemble the plants together was to have just one plant of each species; although
through contact with other growers this goal has long since been surpassed. Some of my Lithops were
purchased (rescued?) from garden centres, whilst others were grown from seed or given to me in
exchange for cuttings or seedlings. Others still were purchased directly from specialist growers. Most
are confined to 2 inch square plastic pots, but a few of the larger growing plants are housed in more
traditional 3 inch terracotta pots. I top dress, usually include a small pebble or two for effect and
generally bottom water.
On occasion I have produced my own seed, but this is a bonus to me and most is distributed
among other growers. By passing on seed and seedlings, and by splitting up multiple headed
specimens that outgrow their pots, I not only maintain a compact and concise collection, but also in a
small way, perhaps help to lesson the demand on wild populations.
All of my plants are numbered and their histories recorded. This exercise was termed the
Swidderly Project during the 1990s by my two sons, following a family visit to the Eden Project in
Cornwall. I cannot fully explain the name to this day!
During the better weather I place my Lithops outdoors whenever possible, under a chickenwire frame for protection from birds, squirrels and the like. They certainly seem to enjoy the natural
sunlight and respond with bright colours and copious flowers. My small plant numbers ensure I know
my Lithops as individuals and can keep my simple collection neat, tidy and a joy to behold.

References
Brown, N.E. (1931)
Drawings of Succulent Plants.
Unpublished: Lodged at the Royal Botanic Gardens
Kew.

Cole, D.T. (2006)


Lithops - Two New Taxa,
Cactus & Co.,
X (1), pp. 57-63.

Cole, D.T. (1969)


Like it or Lump it?,
Bulletin of the African Succulent Plant Society,
4 (3), pp. 97-101.

Cole, D.T. (2006)


On the Naming of Lithops hermetica,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
21 (2), pp. 43-44.

Cole, D.T. (1992)


Lithogram,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
7 (4), p. 87.

Cole, D.T. (2006) Fax to Keith Green, 07 May.


Cole, D.T. (2006) Fax to Keith Green, 11 June.
Cole, D.T. (2006) Fax to Keith Green, 17 August.

Cole, D.T. (1988)


Lithops Flowering Stones.
Randburg: Acorn Books.

Cole, D.T. (2006) Conversation with Keith Green, 15


October.

Cole, D.T. (2001)


Communications from Professor Desmond T Cole,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
16 (3), p. 60.

Cole, D.T. (2007) Conversation with Keith Green, 31


October.

Cole, D.T. (2002)


Lithops Locality Data.
Ansty: Mesemb Study Group.

Cole, D.T. (2008) Fax to Keith Green, 21 May.

Cole, D.T. (2003)


Extracts from Faxlets from Professor Desmond Cole,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
18 (1), p. 6.

Di Martino, L. (2004)
Editorial,
Cactus & Co.
VIII (3), p. 165.

Cole, D.T. (2003) Letter to Keith Green, 17 April.

Du Plooy, F. (1997)
Seed Listing.
Randfontein: Du Plooy, F.

Cole, D.T. (2003) Letter to Keith Green, 30 April.


Cole, D.T. (2003) Fax to Keith Green, 28 May.

Cole, D.T. (2007) Fax to Keith Green, 04 September.

Deaves, L. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 10 August.

Du Toit, W. (2006) E-mail to Keith Green, 12


November.

Cole, D.T. (2003) Letter to Keith Green, 09 September.


Du Toit, W. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 08 August.
Cole, D.T. (2004) Fax to Keith Green, 25 May.
Cole, D.T. (2004) Fax to Keith Green, 02 December.
Cole, D.T. & Cole, N.A. (2005)
Lithops Flowering Stones.
Milano: Cactus & Co.
Cole, D.T. & Cole, N.A. (2005)
Mesemb Study Group mini-book launch of Lithops
Flowering Stones (2005) @ Reading,
Lecture
23 April.
Cole, D.T. (2005) Fax to Keith Green, 17 July.

Formosa, V. (1998)
Data on Lithops Cultivar Names,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
13 (3), pp. 56-57.
Green, K.G. (1996)
Lithops on a Windowsill,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
11 (3), p. 50.
Green, K.G. (2006)
Two New Lithops Cultivars,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
21 (2), p. 42.

Green, K.G. (2007)


Lithops scrapbook: part 1,
Cactus World,
25 (4), pp. 185-197.

Hammer, S.A. (1998)


Comment on Data on Lithops Cultivar Names,
Formosa, V.
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
13 (3), pp. 57-57.

Green, K.G. (2008)


Lithops scrapbook: part 2,
Cactus World,
26 (1), pp. 21-27.

Hammer, S.A. (1999)


Lithops Treasures of the Veld.
Ansty: British Cactus & Succulent Society.

Green, K.G. (2008)


Lithops scrapbook: part 3,
Cactus World,
26 (2), pp. 81-85.

Hammer, S.A. (1999)


Comment in Readers corner,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
14 (1), p. 24.

Hammer, S.A. (1992)


Gems and Purple Passions,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
7 (3), p. 65.

Hammer, S.A. (2000)


Xerotic Lithops,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
15 (3), p. 55.

Hammer, S.A. & Uijs, R (1994)


A New Species of Lithops N E Br. from the Northern
Transvaal,
Aloe,
31 (2), pp. 36-38.

Hammer, S.A. (2000)


Comment on A New Lithops Cultivar: L. hookeri var.
marginata Shimadas Apricot,
Shimada, Y.
Cactus and Succulent Journal of America,
72 (6), p. 302.

Hammer, S.A. (1995)


A Note on Lithops olivacea var. nebrownii cv Red
Olive,
Piante Grasse Speciale Supplemento al n. 4,
15 (4): p. 50.
Hammer, S.A. (1995)
New Cultivars in Lithops,
Piante Grasse Speciale Supplemento al n. 4,
15 (4): 46-50.
Hammer, S.A. (1995)
Mastering the Art of Growing Mesembs,
Cactus and Succulent Journal (U.S.),
67 (4), pp. 195-247.
Hammer, S.A. (1996)
Mesemb Study Group Event @ Banstead,
Lecture
28 September.
Hammer, S.A. (1997)
Cultivariations,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
12 (3), p. 58.
Hammer, S.A. (1997)
Old King Cole,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
12 (2), p. 32.
Hammer, S.A. (1998)
Letters from Keith Green and a Note on Lithops
Hybrids and Terminologies,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
13 (1), p. 14.

Hammer, S.A. (2000) E-mail to Keith Green, 10 May.


Hammer, S.A. (2001)
Wild Emeralds and Ectypums,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
16 (4), pp. 77-78.
Hammer, S.A. (2002)
Notes on Recent Colour Breaks,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
17 (2), p. 29.
Hammer, S.A. (2003)
Two New Lithops Cultivars,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
18 (3), p. 66.
Hammer, S.A. (2003)
Notes on Plates,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
18 (3), p. 55.
Hammer, S.A. (2003) E-mail to Keith Green, 31 August.
Hammer, S.A. (2004)
The Adventure of the Second Stein,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
19 (3), pp. 55-56.
Hammer, S.A. (2004),
Going Wild with Cultivars,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
19 (2), p. 39.
Hammer, S.A. (2006) E-mail to Keith Green, 01 April.

Hammer, S.A. (2007)


BCSS Reading & Basingstoke Meeting @ Woodley,
Lecture
08 March.

Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 13 June.


Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 03 August.
Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 06 August.

Hammer, S.A. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 12 June.


Mottram, R. (2007) Letter to Keith Green, 10 August.
Hammer, S.A. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 13 June.
Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 11 August.
Hammer, S.A. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 05 August.
Mottram, R. (2007) Letter to Keith Green, 31 August.
Hoes, F. (2006) E-mail to Keith Green, 25 April.
Hoes, F.
Available at:
http://users.skynet.be/fhoes/rsasucculents/index.htm
(Accessed: 30 May 2006).
Hoeval, O. (1947)
Separation of Lithops Species,
Cactus & Succulent Journal of GB,
9 (4), pp. 78-81.
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (2000)
Available at: http://www.bgbm.fuberlin.de/iapt/nomenclature/code/SaintLouis/0000St.Luis
title.htm
(Accessed: 31 May 2006).
International Society for Horticultural Science (2005)
Available at: http://www.ishs.org/icra/index.htm
(Accessed: 26 May 2006).
Jackson, T. (2002) Letter to Keith Green, 02 December.
Kobayashi, H. (2004)
Succulents.
Tokyo: International Succulent Institute Japan.
Littlejohn, J. Ed. (1996)
Latin Dictionary 2nd Ed.
London: Harper Collins.
Mace, S. (2001)
Literature Reviews,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
16 (1), p. 22.

Pavelka, P. (2001)
Lithops otzeniana Nel a Jeho Kultivary aneb z
Ameriky do ech.,
Kaktusy,
37 (1), pp. 27-29.
Pavelka, P. (2001) E-mail to Kevin Mason, 06 February.
Pavelka, P. (1996)
Desatero Lithops (1).,
Cactaceae Etc.,
6 (1), p. 24, 26.
Piccione, G. M. (2001)
A New Cultivar in Lithops: L. herrei Splendido,
Cactus and Succulent Journal (US),
73 (2), p. 76.
Piccione, G. M. (2003)
A New Lithops Cultivar: L. aucampiae ssp. euniceae
Bellaketty,
Cactus and Succulent Journal of America,
75 (4), p. 152.
Piccione, G. M. (2006)
Cultivars in Lithops,
Cactus & Co.,
10 (2), pp. 114-117.
Rowlette, N. (1990)
Lithops for the Curious, the Collector and the Cultist.
Privately published: Portland.
Shimada, N. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 07 August.
Shimada, N. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 08 August.

Mason, K. (2006) E-mail to Keith Green, 01 June.


Mason, K. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 03 May.
Mesa Garden (2004)
Seed Listing Catalogue.
Belen: Mesa Garden.
Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 04 June.

Shimada, Y. (2000)
A New Lithops Cultivar: L. hookeri var. marginata
Shimadas Apricot,
Cactus and Succulent Journal of America,
72 (6), p. 302.
Shimada, Y. (2001)
The Genus Lithops.
Kiryu: Dobun Shoin.

Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 06 June.


Shimada, Y. (2001) Letter to Keith Green, 03 December.
Mottram, R. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 11 June.

Shimada, Y. (2002)
A New Lithops Cultivar: Lithops bromfieldii var.
bromfieldii White Nymph,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
17 (3), p. 62.
Shimada, Y. (2002) Fax to Professor Cole, 10 December.
Shimada, Y. (2006)
Two New Lithops Cultivars,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
21 (4), p. 78.
Shimada, Y.
Available at:
http://www5f.biglobe.ne.jp/~yukayan/lithops/lithoframe.htm
(Accessed: 03 March 2008).
Smale, T. (2007)
Seed Distribution 2007,
Mesemb Study Group Bulletin,
22 (1), pp. 17-19.
Smale, T. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 09 February.
Walker, A. (2007) E-mail to Keith Green, 12 August.