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ECEN5817 Lecture 44

On-campus students:
Pick up final exam
Due by 2pm on Wednesday, May 9 in the instructors office
Off-campus students:
Pick up and submit the exam via D2L
Exam is due in 5 days from the start time but no work will be
accepted after 5pm MT on Wednesday, May 16

ECEN 5817

ECEN5817 Lecture 44

Dual-active-bridge converter*
Q1

Q3

v2
Vg

Q5

1:n

v4

Q7

v6

v8

Q2

Q6

Q4

Q8
_

* R.W.A.A. De Doncker, D.M. Divan, M.H. Kheraluwala, "A Three-phase Soft-Switched High-Power-Density DC-DC
Converter for High-Power Applications," IEEE Tran. on Industry Applications, Jan/Feb 1991, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 63-73.

ECEN 5817

io
Q1

DCX (V/nVg = 1) waveforms


neglecting resonant transitions

v2
Vg

Phase
shift

0<d<1
dTs/2

Q3

il

Q5

Ll

v4
+
vp
_

Q2

1:n

Q7

v6

v8

+
vs
_

Q6

Q4

Q8
_

nI o (1 d ) I pk
2Vg Ts
2 I pk
d
Ll
2
Vg dTs
I pk
Ll 2
Vg Ts
Io
d (1 d )
2nLl

vp
vs/n

il
Ipk
nIo

nio
Ts/2

Ts

Note how phase


shift d controls the
DCX power flow
ECEN 5817

Dual Active Bridge (DAB) DC-DC Converter


Q1

Q3

Q5

Q7

Cp Cp

Cs
Ll

il

Vg

+
vp

1:nt

Q4
Cp Cp

+
vs

Cout

Q6

Q8
Cs

il
vds6
vds2

Cs

Q2

vds4

io

Cs

Rout

+
Vout

150-to-12 V, 100 W
1 MHz
Efficiency: 97.5%

Zero-voltage switching of all


transistors
Relatively low peak and RMS
current stresses
Circuit design trade-offs driven
by primary-side device Cp, and
secondary-side device Ron

[1] D. Costinett, H. Nguyen, R. Zane, D. Maksimovic, GaN-FET based dual active bridge DC-DC converter, IEEE APEC 2011.
[2] D. Costinett, R. Zane, D. Maksimovic, "Automatic voltage and dead time control for efficiency optimization in a dual active bridge
converter," IEEE APEC 2012.
ECEN 5817
4

Effects of primary-side device capacitance


05
0.5

Ll

+
vp

il

Vg

1:nt

Il [A]

il
+
vs

Pout
-0.5

18

Ig,rms
ntiout,rms
Ll

1.3

14

-400

1.25

12

1.2

10

1.15

1.1

1.05

100

200

300

400

Ll [H]

RMS ccurrents [A]

-200

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
time [sec]

0.7

0.8

0.9

Cp = 70 pF
Cp = 40 pF
Cp = 20 pF

16

0.1

200
Vp [V]

1.4

400

400 t 12 V,
400-to-12
V 100 W

1.35

vp
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
time [sec]

0.7

0.8

0.9

Primary ZVS minimizes primary-side


switching losses
A larger device Cp requires larger Ll,
and longer transition times, which
results in larger peak and RMS
currents, i.e. larger conduction loss on
both primary and secondary sides

2
500

Cp [pF]
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ECEN 5817

Device comparison for DAB application

CossR
Ron [pF]

Si vs. GaN Transistors, 20-40V

CossR
Ron [pF]

Si vs. GaN Transistors, 200V

QgRon [pC]

QgRon [nC]

Data-sheet based comparison of Si and GaN (EPC 2011) devices


D t h t Coss att 100V or 20V,
Datasheet
20V and
d Qg att rated
t d voltage
lt
VGS
DAB circuit design trade-offs decided by primary-side CossRon, and
y
device QgRon
secondary-side

ECEN 5817

Device Loss Comparison: 150-12 V DAB


Secondary Gate Drive Loss
Primary Gate Drive Loss
S
Secondary
Conduction
C
Loss

Power Loss [W
W]

Primary Conduction Loss

ECEN 5817

Efficiency optimization via control


100
W

150-to-(10-12) V conversion
0.98
0.97

il
vgs6

0.96

vgs2

vgs4

0.94
0.93

80W
W

Effic
ciency

0.95

0.92
0.91

Manual Optimization
Constant Vout

0.9

Automatic Vout Regulation


g

0.89
20

30

40

50

60
70
80
Output Power [W]

90

100

110

120

20W
W

0.88

Vout/Vg conversion ratio controlled to


maximize efficiency over wider power
range
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ECEN 5817

Dual active bridge DC-DC converter summary


At V/nVg = 1 (DCX), waveforms are close to ideal if F << 1
ZVS of all semiconductors for loads greater than a minimum
ZVS can be extended to lighter loads by adjusting conversion ratio
Phase shift can be used to control the conversion ratio (non-DCX operation)
High step-down, or high step-up conversion ratios feasible at high efficiencies (well
above 90%).
Bidirectional power flow is possible
For standard unidirectional applications, the secondary-side bridge can be just diodes
(operation is similar, but not the same)
Half-bridge and push-pull variations are available
Some DAB issues:
Transformer saturation (may require a series blocking capacitor)
Switching frequency trade-offs (F << 1; transformer and inductor core and proximity losses)

Significant new developments in Power Electronics based on emerging compound


semiconductor (elements from 2 or more groups of the periodic table) devices (e.g.
GaN, GaAs, SiC)
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ECEN 5817

Application example:
Automotive battery power management in a fuel-cell vehicle*

*F. Krismer, J.W.Kolar, Accurate Power Loss Model Derivation of a High-Current Dual Active Bridge
Converter for an Automotive Application, IEEE Trans. On Industrial Electronics, March 2010
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ECEN 5817

Efficiency results

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ECEN 5817

Power flow control in 3-phase AC power distribution*

Purpose: control active and reactive power flow; increasingly important


function in AC power distribution systems with distributed resources
Solution above requires bulky 50/60 Hz transformers, e.g. for a 6.6 kV, 1
MVA unit, each transformer weights around 4,000 kg

* A. Inoue, H. Akagi, A Bidirectional Isolated DCDC Converter as a Core Circuit of the NextGeneration Medium-Voltage Power Conversion System, IEEE Trans. on Power Elect., March 2007

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ECEN 5817

Solution based on modular DCX

Each cell can be switched as +E, -E, or 0


With N = 9 cells, a total 19 levels are
available to synthesize high-quality sine-wave

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ECEN 5817

Converter realization

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ECEN 5817

Spring 2013: ECEN 5807


Modeling and Control of Power Electronics
Averaged switch modeling and simulation (Section 7.4 and Appendix B)
q
of Design-Oriented
g
Analysis,
y , with Application
pp
to Switching
g
Techniques
Converters
Middlebrook's Extra Element Theorem (Appendix C)
Input
p Filter Design
g ((Chapter
p 10))
The n-Extra Element Theorem
Middlebrook's Feedback Theorem
Dynamic modeling and simulation of converters operating in
discontinuous conduction mode (Chapter 11 and Appendix B)
Introduction to sampled-data modeling
Current Programmed Control (Chapter 12 and Appendix B)
Introduction to Digital Control of Switching Converters
Power-Factor Correction Rectifiers (Chapters 16-18)

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ECEN 5817

Professional Certificate in Power Electronics


Awarded upon completion of ECEN5797, ECEN5807 and ECEN5817
Send a request to Adam Sadoff, ECEE graduate program administrator
sadoff@schof.colorado.ed

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ECEN 5817

New courses offered in Fall 2012 and Spring 2013

ECEN5017 Power Electronics for Electric Drive Vehicles

Fall 2012

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ECEN 5817

New courses offered in Fall 2012 and Spring 2013

ECEN5737 Adjustable Speed AC Drives

Spring 2013

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ECEN 5817

NewDOEGATECenter:InnovativeDrivetrainsin
ElectricAutomotiveTechnologyEducation(IDEATE)
http://mocha-java.uccs.edu/ideate/
Joint center between CU-Boulder and UC Colorado Springs campuses
Graduate certificate in battery controls and electric drivetrains

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ECEN 5817 19

Th k you for
Thank
f your hard
h d work,
k good
d luck
l k with
i h the
h finals
fi l

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ECEN 5817