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# Fluid Velocity Measuring

Systems
PE NY USUN:

CAESAR AGUNG S.

(43 933)

DINUR RAFIF N.

( 4393 4)

FIKRA LAKSANA P.

( 4303 0)

FEKY HERMAN

( 4393 9)

VELOCITY
MEASURING
SYSTEM

U (t ) U u

U (t ) U

Ci sin(i t 'i )

## Pitot-Static Pressure Probe

pt=px+

pv=pt-px=

Ux=

u2x
(

u2x

(1)
)

(2)

(3)

The pitot-static pressure probe is relatively insensitive to misalignment over the yaw angle range
of 15 degrees (1). When possible, the probe can be rotated until a maximum signal is
measured, a condition that indicates that it is aligned with the mean ow direction. However, the
probes have a lower velocity limit of use that is brought about by strong viscous effects in the
entry regions of the pressure ports. In general, viscous effects should not be a concern,
provided that the Reynolds number based on the probe radius, Rer= r/v, is greater than 500,
where v is the kinematic viscosity of the uid. For 10 < Rer< 500, a correction to the dynamic
pressure should be applied, pv=Cvpi , where

Cv =1 + (4/Rer )
(4)
and pi is the indicated dynamic pressure from the probe. However, even with this correction, the
measured dynamic pressure has a systematic uncertainty on the order of 40% at Rer 10 but
decreases to 1% for Rer 500.

THERMAL ANEMOMETRY

Principle
The rate at which energy, Q, is transferred between a warm body at Ts and
a cooler moving fluid at Tf is proportional both to the temperature
difference between them and to the thermal conductance of the heat
transfer path, hA. This thermal conductance increases with fluid velocity,
thereby increasing the rate of heat transfer at any given temperature
difference. Hence, a relationship between the rate of heat transfer and
velocity exists forming the working basis of a thermal anemometer.

Thermal Anemometer

## Utilizes a sensor (metallic resistance temperature detector [RTD]) element

makes up one active leg of a Wheatstone bridge circuit

Thermal Anemometer
RESISTANCETEMPERATURE RELATION

Rs =R0[1+(Ts-T0)]

## RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE RATE OF HEAT

TRANSFER FROM THE SENSOR AND THE
COOLING FLUID VELOCITY

## Kings law (14)

Q= I^2 x R = A + BU^n

Thermal Anemometer

## consists of a tungsten or platinum wire ranging

from 1 to 4 mm in length and from 1.5 to 15 mm
in diameter
used in electrically nonconducting fluid

## usually consists of a thin (2 mm) platinum or

gold film deposited onto a glass substrate and
covered with a high thermal conductivity coat
Use inconductingfluids or in nonconducting
fluids when a more rugged sensor is needed.

Anemometer

Anemometer

## There are two methods of measuring flow rate

The main parts of the arrangement are as follows: using a anemometer bridge combination namely:

## Conducting wires placed in a ceramic Constant current method

body.
Constant temperature method
Leads are taken from the conducting
wires
connected to one of the limbs of the
wheat stone bridge to enable the
measurement of change in resistance
of the wire.

## Constant current is passed through the sensing wire.

(Voltage constant)
Due to the gas flow,

## heat transfer takes place from the sensing wire to the

flowing gas and hence the temperature of the sensing wire
reduces causing a change in the resistance of the sensing
wire. (this change in resistance becomes a measure of flow
rate).

## Due to this, the galvanometer which was initially at zero

position deflects and this deflection of the galvanometer
becomes a measure of flow rate of the gas when
calibrated.

## A current is initially passed through the wire.

Due to the gas flow, heat transfer takes place from the
sensing wire to the flowing gas and this tends to change
the temperature and hence the resistance of the wire.

## The principle in this method is to maintain the

temperature and resistance of the sensing wire at a
constant level. Therefore, the current through the sensing
wire is increased to bring the sensing wire to have its
initial resistance and temperature.
The electrical current required in bringing back the
resistance and hence the temperature eof the wire to its
initial condition becomes a measure of flow rate of the
gas when calibrated.

DOPPLER
ANEMOMETRY

Efek Doppler

## Dapat mengukur componen kecepatan

yang lain secara simultan

antara pengukuran volume yang di
peroleh dari warna yang berbeda.

## PIV (PARTICLE IMAGE

VELOCIMETRY)

Particle Image Velocimetry adalah sebuah metode visualisasi dan pengukuran untuk
aliran fluida yang merupakan salah satu metode utama di dalam penelitian fluida.
PIV mengukur kecepatan aliran fluida dalam tampang planar. PIV menggunakan
partikel pengotor untuk mengetahui karakteristik aliran dan kecepatan fluida.

PIV biasa digunakan untuk mengukur kecepatan aliran gas ataupun cairan serta
mengetahui karakteristik aliran gas atau cairan seperti turbulen, laminar, nyata, ideal,
mampu balik, tak mampu balik, seragam, tak seragam, rotasional, tak rotasional.

COMPONENTS
(APPARATUS AND
MATERIALS)
Seeding particles

Assumptions:

- homogeneously distributed

Criteria:

-easily visible

## -particles should not influence fluid flow

For Fluids

Polystyrene (10-100 m); aluminum (2-7 m); glass spheres (10-100 m).
A smallparticle follows better the flow than a large particle
Large particle scatters more light than a small particle.

## Usually particle diameter of 10-20 m is a good compromise

Camera

Faster digital cameras using CCD or CMOS chips were developed since then that can capture
two frames at high speed with a few hundred ns difference between the frames (min30Hz)

COMPONENTS
(APPARATUS AND
MATERIALS)
Laser and optics

## The repetition rate of a pulsed laser is typically 10-30Hz adapt to camera

capturing speed which has 1064 primarily wavelength
Synchronizer

acts as an external trigger for both the camera(s) and the laser. Controlled
by a computer, the synchronizer can dictate the timing of each frame of
the CCD camera's sequence in conjunction with the firing of the laser to
within 1 ns precision.

DATA ACQUISITION

DATA ACQUISITION

DATA ACQUISITION

Besar
interrogation
area 8-64
pixel
Number of
particle per
interrogation
area: 10-25
Deal with
rule of thumb
law

DATA ANALYSIS
Cross Correlation

peak: mean
displacement

DATA ANALYSIS

## Statistical correlations used to find

average particle displacement

DATA ANALYSIS
Error

FORMULAS

## - I1 and I2 are interrogation areas (sub-windows) of the total

frames
- x is interrogation location
- s is the shift between the images

VIDEO
How PIV works

Particles
movement

SETUPS
Stereoscopic PIV

Micro PIV

Holographic PIV

## Scanning PIV (geometric changes detection)

Tomographic PIV

Thermographic PIV

## PROS AND CONS

The method is, to a large degree, nonintrusive. The added tracers (if they
are properly chosen) generally cause negligible distortion of the fluid
flow
High speed data processing allows the generation of large numbers of
image pairs which, on a personal computer may be analysed in real time
or at a later time, and a high quantity of near-continuous information may
be gained.
Sub pixel displacement values allow a high degree of accuracy

In some cases the particles will, due to their higher density, not perfectly
follow the motion of the fluid (gas/liquid).
Particle image velocimetry methods will in general not be able to measure
components along the z-axis (towards to/away from the camera).
PIV systems used in research often use class IV lasers and high-resolution,
high-speed cameras, which bring cost and safety constraints.

APPLICATIONS
Varying from the flow over an aircraft wing in a wind tunnel to vortex
formation in prosthetic heart valves. 3-Dimensional techniques have been
sought to analyze turbulent flow and jets.

FACTOR
Required spatial resolution
Required velocity range

## Required need to quantify dynamic velocity

Acceptable probe blockage of flow

## Ability to be used in hostile environments

Calibration requirements

Video 1

## The simplest and cheapest method available to measure velocity at a point.

Probe blockage of the flow is not a problem in large ducts and away from walls.

Fluid particulate blocks the impact ports, but aspirating models are available for such
situations.
Subject to mean flow misalignment errors.

Require no calibration and are frequently used in the field and laboratory alike.
Mostly use in Airplanes

Video 2

THERMAL ANEMOMETER
Best suited for use in clean fluids of constant temperature and density.

Hot-film sensors are less fragile and less susceptible to contamination than hot-wire
sensors.
Probe blockage is not significant in large ducts and away from walls.
An industrial-grade system can be built rather inexpensively.

LDA.

## LASER DOPPLER ANEMOMETER

Relatively expensive and technically advanced point

Video 1

velocity measuring technique that can be used for most types of flows

It offers good frequency response, small spatial resolution, no probe blockage, and
simple signal interpretation,
but requires optical access and the presence of scattering particles.

flows.

## PARTICLE IMAGE VELOCIMETRY

Relatively expensive

Video 1

Velocity measuring technique that can be used for most types of flow
The method provides an instantaneous snapshot of the flow,
providing excellent views of flow structures

this method measures the velocity of particles suspended in the moving fluid, not the
fluidvelocity, so careful planning is required in particle selection to ensure that the
particle velocitiesrepresent the fluid velocity exactly.