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KineticsLabExplained:IodinationofAcetone|OnlineHomeworkHelp|SchoolWorkHelper

KineticsLabExplained:IodinationofAcetone
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Introduction:
Kineticsinchemistrydealswiththerateatwhichachemicalreactionoccurs.Thisrate,whichisreferredtoas
thereactionrate,isdefinedasthechangeinconcentrationofareactantorproductwithtime,andismeasured
inM/s.Therateofareactionisproportionaltotheconcentrationofreactants.Anequationcalledtheratelaw
expressestherelationshipofthereactionratetotherateconstant,k,andtheconcentrationsofthereactants
raisedtosomepowers,xandy,foundexperimentally.Theratelawisexpressedas,rate=k[A]x[B]y.The
constantkisequaltotheratedividedbytheconcentrationofacertainsubstance.Thepurposeinthislabwasto
experimentallydeterminetherateconstantk,aswellastheexponentialvaluesofxandyintheratelaw.
Experimental:
Theprocedureofthislabwasobtainedfromthestudentlaboratorycoursewebsite.
Results:
Table1:ReagentVolumes
Trial

I2

Acetone

H+

dH2O

TotalVolume

0.5mL

0.8mL

0.8mL

1.9mL

4.0mL

0.5mL

1.6mL

0.8mL

1.1mL

4.0mL

0.5mL

0.8mL

1.6mL

1.1mL

4.0mL

Table2:InitialConcentrations,Times,andRateforEachTrial
Trial

[I2]

[Acetone]

[H+]

Time(sec)

Rate[I2]

6.25e2M

0.68M

0.2M

184sec

3.40e6M/sec

2.50e5M1s1

6.25e2M

1.36M

0.2M

125sec

5.00e6M/sec

1.84e5M1s1

6.25e2M

0.68M

0.4M

88sec

7.10e6M/sec

2.62e5M1s1

SampleCalculations:

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Discussion:
Toconductthisexperiment,thegroupsplaced1.9mLofdistilledwater,0.8mLH+(HCl),and0.8mLofan
acetonesolutionintoa4.0mLcuvette.0.5mLofI2wasthenaddedtothecuvette,andthegroupimmediately
startedtimingthereaction.Theymixedthecontentsofthesolutionbyinvertingthecuvetteseveraltimesbefore
placingitintoacalibratedspectrometer.Theabsorbanceratewasmonitoredat400nmuntilitreacheda
nominalzerovalue.Thetimewasthenstopped,andthegroupswereabletodeterminetherate.Twomoretrials
wereconducted,firstdoublingtheoriginalvolumeoftheacetoneandkeepingtheH+ataconstant,thenintrial
3,doublingthevolumeoftheH+andusingtheoriginalvolumeofacetone0.8mL.Constantlykeepingthe
volumeofI2at0.5mL,anddoublingonesolutionwhilekeepingtheotherconstantmadeitpossibletolater
calculatethevalueoftherateconstant,k.Thechemicalreactionbeingstudiedwaschemicalkineticstherate
atwhichI2disappeared.TodeterminetherateofdisappearanceofI2inthereaction,theequation
M1V1=M2V2wasusedtofindtheconcentrationofI2.Then,thatvaluewasdividedbythetimeelapsedtoresultin
therate.WhenI2wasfirstaddedtothecuvette,itwasdarkredincolor.Asthereactionprogressed,thesolution
lostitscolorandbecameclear,consumingtheI2completely.Atthispoint,thespectrophotometerdisplayedthat
at400nm,zerolightwasbeingabsorbedinthesolution.Thestartingconcentrationswerevariedaccordingto
theexperimentdesigninordertocalculatetheratelawexponents.Theratelawdoesnotinclude[I2]becauseI2
doesnotimpacttherateofchemicalreactionundertheconditionsselected.Itisntincludedbecausetherateof
disappearanceofI2waswhatwasbeingsolvedfor.Theratelawdeterminedfromthislabisrate=k[Acetone]
[H+].Byusingthevaluesof[Acetone],[H+],andtherate,andtakingtheaverageofthethreetrials,thevalueofk
wasfoundtobe2.32e5M1s1.

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Thegoalofdeterminingthevaluesofk,theexponentsx
andy,andtherateofdisappearanceofI2weresuccessfully
met.Theexpectedresultsmatchedupwiththeobtained
resultstheconcentrationofacetoneandH+aredirectly
relatedtotherateofreaction.Both[Acetone]and[H+]are
firstorderreactions,resultinginanoverallsecondorder
reaction.Themainsourceoferrorinlabcamefromnot
correctlymeasuringoutthesubstances,resultinginavery
askewtimeandrateofreaction.Havingincorrectamounts
ofeachsolutioninthecuvettedirectlyaffectedtherateat
whichI2disappeared,whichinturnmadetheresultsnotas
clearorconcise.
Conclusion:
Thegoalofthislabwastoexperimentallydeterminehow
theconcentrationsofAcetoneandH+affecttherateat
whichI2disappearsinareactionbycalculatingthevalues
ofk,theexponentsxandy,andputtingthosevaluesinto
theratelawequation.Thosenumberswerefoundby
alteringtheamountsofeitheracetoneorH+usedineach
trial,whichmadeitpossibletouseanequationprovided
abovetosolveforthevalueofk,andtheexponents,xand
y,intheratelawequation.ItwasfoundthatbothAcetone
andH+haveadirecteffectonthereactionrateofI2.The
ratelawforacetoneiodinationisrate=k[Acetone][H+].The
averagevalueofkcalculatedfromthethreetrialswas
foundtobeabout2.32e5M1s1.

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