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# CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING

1. MATHEMATICS

Rev. 2002

...................3 4............................ 1..................... 1....i Rev............................................................... 2002 ..... Algebra .... Solid Geometry................... Plane Geometry ............................CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING VADE-MECUM SECTION 1 – MATHEMATICS Table of Contents 1..............2 3. 1....................................................... Trigonometry........1 2............................................................................... 1......................4 Index .......

ex + fy + gz = h .1 Rev.CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING VADE-MECUM 1. 2002 .3026 log10 a f) Determinants Simultaneous equations: ax + by + cz = d . ix + jy + kz = l If: a b c d b c D = e f g D1 = h f g i j k l j k a d c a b d D2 = e h g D1 = e f h i l k i j l a =a n a * n b = n ab The solution is: n x= d) Factoring ax + ay = a( x + y ) a 2 − b 2 = (a + b )(a − b ) ) e) Logarithms n n a na = n b b ) a3 + b3 = (a + b ) a 2 − ab + b2 a3 − b3 = (a − b ) a 2 + ab + b 2 D1 dfk + bgl + cjh − ( cfl + gjd + khb ) = D afk + bgi + cje − ( cfi + gja + keb ) D 2 ahk + dgi + cie − ( chi + gla + ked ) y= = D afk + bgi + cje − ( cfi + gja + keb ) D3 afl + bhi + dje − ( dfi + hja + leb ) = z= D afk + bgi + cje − ( cfi + gja + keb ) a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 = (a + b )2 1.4343 In a In a = 2. Algebra a) Exponents (a )∗ (a ) = a m n m+n (a ) = a (am )∗ (bm ) = (a ∗ b)m m n am an mn = am−n an a =  bn  b  n a1 / k = k a 1 a −n = an n am / n = am b) Fractions a c a±c ± = b b b a c a∗c ∗ = b d b∗d a c a∗d a d ÷ = = ∗ b d b∗c b c c) Radicals (n a )n = a SECTION 1 – MATHEMATICS a 2 − 2 ab + b 2 = (a − b )2 ( ( log x + log y = log( xy ) x log x − log y = log y ( ) x * log y = log y x 1 log n x = * log x n log10 a = 0.

- pico = 10 −12 deka = 101 ( da ) nano = 10 hecto = 10 (h) c) Any Triangle h) Power of Ten ( p) (n) −9 ( µ ) micro = 10 ( m ) milli = 10 (c) (d ) b a sin A = c b cos A = c a tan A = b b 2 − 4 ac = 0 . the roots are imaginary.b 2 − 4 ac > 0 . 2002 . = 2 cos 2 A − 1 1 − cos A =± 2 1 − cos A =± 1 + cos A A sin 2 A tan 2 A 1 + cos A cos = ± 2 2 a 2 = b 2 + c 2 − 2bc cos A b 2 = a 2 + c 2 − 2 ac cos B c 2 = a 2 + b 2 − 2 ab cos C Law of tangents A− B 2 = a −b A+ B a +b tan 2 B−C tan 2 = b−c B+C b+c tan 2 A−C tan 2 = a−c A+C a +c tan 2 tan where a > b where b > c where a > c 1.2 Rev.CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING VADE-MECUM g) Quadratic Equation SECTION 1 – MATHEMATICS b) Right Triangle ax 2 + bx + c = 0 c − b ± b 2 − 4 ac x= 2a A If: . - a −6 −3 centi = 10 − 2 deci = 10 −1 kilo = 10 2 3 mega = 10 (k ) 6 giga = 10 9 tera = 10 12 (M ) (G ) c a c sec A = b b cot A = a csc A = a C b B A c (T ) Law of sines a) General Relationships a b c = = sin A sin B sin C sin 2 A + cos 2 A = 1 Law of cosines 2. b 2 − 4 ac < 0 . the roots are real and equal. Trigonometry sec 2 A = 1 + tan 2 A csc 2 A = 1 + cot 2 A 1 1 sin A = cos A = csc A sec A sin A cos A tan A = cot A = cos A sin A sin ( A + B ) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B 2 sin A = 2 sin A cos A cos 2 A = cos 2 A − sin 2 A = 1 − 2 sin 2 A . the roots are real and unequal.

= πr r 0. Plane Geometry a) Rectangle b+c+d 2 ( p − a )( p − b )( p − c ) 2 p tan = p−a If p = 2 tan = 2 tan = Area S = = = = = = = b b) Parallelogram a ( p − a )( p − b )( p − c ) p p−b ( p − a )( p − b )( p − c ) p p−c c) Triangle a c Area: 0.3 Rev. = 2πr D Area: 2 2 = 0.25πD . p( p − a )( p − b )( p − c ) a 2 sin B sin C 2 sin A 2 b sin A sin C 2 sin B 2 c sin A sin B 2 sin C Area: a * b a Tangents of half angles c Circumference: = πD . = 2rsin β 2 1.5 * a * b b+c+d 2 Area: p * ( p − b ) * ( p − c ) * ( p − d ) If p = d) Circle s h r ß ac sin B 2 ab sin C 2 x −x sinh x = e + e 2 x −x cosh x = e + e 2 d b bc sin A 2 d) Hyperbolic Area: a * b b 2 .CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING VADE-MECUM SECTION 1 – MATHEMATICS Newton's formula c sin C 2 = a+b A− B cos 2 3. 2002 .25c 2 + h 2 = 2h c = 2 * h * ( D − h ) .

6339 s2 4.c*(r-h)) Area 2 = πr ß c* ( r − h ) * 360 2 d c Area Area = π 2 ( D − d2 ) 4 D b a = 0.5 [b*(H+h) + ch + aH] 4.7205 s2 2.5 rs. = 0. = 0.CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING VADE-MECUM h 2 2 = r − r − 0.01745 rβ 360 Area r = 0.1818 s2 Trapezoid = 0.008727 r2ß ( β in °) Area f) Circular Segment s h r ß c j) n Area = nr 2 tan 5 6 7 8 9 10 1.5981 s2 3.4 Rev.5*n*s*r e) Circular Sector s Where: n is the number of sides ß r = 0.8284 s2 6.25c s = SECTION 1 – MATHEMATICS i) Polygon s ß πD .5 (rs . Solid Geometry a) Cube a h) Ellipse c a A H h g) Circular Ring 180° n Area = π Aa 4 b Volume: Surface area: = abc = 2(ab+bc+ca) 1. 2002 .

CEMENT PROCESS ENGINEERING VADE-MECUM SECTION 1 – MATHEMATICS b) Cylinder f) Sphere Volume = h D D π D3 6 Surface area = πD 2 Volume π 2 D h = 4 g) Segment of a Sphere Surface area: = πDh (without end surface) = πD (0. 2002 .5D + h) (with end surface) h c) Pyramid c r s h 2 2 Volume  c + 4h h = π h2  −  area of base h 3 perimeter of base s Lateral area = 2 Sphere surface = d) Cone h) Sector of a Sphere Volume = Volume = h π 3 h Surface area = π r r π (r 2 +h 2 ) ( ) ∗ r + rR + R ∗ h 3 Surface area = πs ( R + r ) = r ( 4h + c ) D h R Volume 2 d h π π Torus r s 2 π r 2h 3 Total surface = r i) e) Frustum of a Cone Volume = c r h 3  8h ( c2 + 4h2 ) 4 π 2 = (c + 8 rh ) 4 Total surf 2   2 2 π2 D d2 Volume (compl ring) = Surface ( = π2 Dd " ) 4 1.5 Rev.