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- Abstract AlDahhan

You are on page 1of 34

LAMINAR, TRANSITIONAL

AND TURBULENT FLOWS

By :

Bhaskar Kumar

IIT Roorkee

Tutor: Dr.F.Durst

OUTLINE

Introduction and classification of fluid flow

Examples distinguishing three types of flows

Laminar to turbulent transition

1. Stable and Unstable Laminar Flow

2. Orr- Sommerfeld Equation

3. Transitional flows

4. Rayleigh Equation

Turbulent state and its analysis using Reynolds's

equation

A note on numerical methods available for solving fluid

mechanics problems .

INTRODUCTION

Re

disruption between the layers. No cross currents or eddies perpendicular to

direction of flow.

Turbulent motion : characterized by rapid mixing. Cross currents flow

perpendicular to direction of motion.

Above flow types can be further sub grouped as:

Stable Laminar Flow :These type of laminar flow prove stable towards

imposed disturbances acting from outside.

Unstable Laminar flow :A laminar flow is considered unstable when

disturbances introduced into it are amplified, but a certain regularity "in the

excited disturbance is maintained, i.e. due to the disturbance the investigated

3

flow merges into a new laminar flow state.

irregular fluctuations. Intermittent laminar and turbulent flow occur,

i.e. phases occur in the flow in which the flow is laminar and phases in

which the flow shows turbulent characteristics.

Turbulent Flow : 1.characterized by high three-dimensionality

2.Fluids motion is highly random and unpredictable.

Fig 2.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Above figures illustrate how on increasing the Reynolds number , we move

from stable laminar region to unstable region. At low Re, the flow around

cylinder possess symmetry but at higher Reynolds number ,this symmetry

4

doesnt exist and two separate regions of different shape and length occur

maintaining some sort of regularity.

Transitional flow

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

Fig 3. Subsonic open jet with areas of laminar ,transitional and

turbulent flow

U1

t

U1

x2

(a)

of amplitude uA ,so total velocity at any time is

U1 U 0 u A Sin(2

Substituting above equation into (a),

)

6

duA

dt

4

2

uA

u A (t )

(u A )o exp(

4

2

t)

1. This solution makes it clear that the viscosity terms in the

momentum equations can be considered to lead to attenuations of

imposed disturbances, i.e. disturbances which are introduced into

a laminar flow field will be damped due to the viscosity of the

fluid.

2. The resistance towards short-wave disturbances, i.e. disturbances

with small values, turns out to be stronger, so that these receive

stronger damping in the course of time. It is this attenuation effect,

caused by the viscosity of a fluid, which ensures that many laminar

flows possess high stability. This means that they show strong

resistance against external disturbances.

causes of amplification of disturbances. When they act on introduced

disturbances such that an exponential excitation takes place-

u A (t )

(u A )o exp( t )

net result that is obtained.

uA (t ) (uA )o exp[(

)t ]

If,

> - unstable laminar flow

Orr-Sommerfeld Equation

This equation precisely determines the conditions for hydrodynamic

stability. It is an eigenvalue equation describing a linear 2 dimensional

mode of disturbance to a viscous parallel flow.

Consider a 1-D stationary velocity field Ux(y). Now we introduce a twodimensional time-dependent disturbance , such that we get the following

total velocity fields

u1 U x ( y) ux ( x, y, t )

u2

u y ( x, y, t )

u3

(1)

(2)

P ( x ) p ( x, y , t )

For all the fluctuations that we have introduced ,we assume that

ux

Ux

uy

Ux

p

P

(3)

.

Substituting

the expressions from (1), (2) and(3) in (4) and continuity equation

(4)

ux

x

uy

ux

)

y

1 dP

(

dx

ux

u

U

(U x u x ) x u y ( x

t

x

y

uy

t

(U x u x )

uy

x

uy

uy

x

(5)

0

2

p

)

x

u

( 2x

x

1 p

y

uy

ux

y2

Ux

)

2

y

uy

(6)

(7)

Disregarding all squared terms in the disturbance and for a special case

,assuming that

2

0

we obtain

1 dP

dx

d Ux

dy2

10

uy

ux

x

ux

u

Ux x

t

x

uy

Ux

Ux

y

uy

uy

u

( 2x

x

1 p

x

1 p

y

( 8)

ux

)

2

y

uy

x2

y2

uy

(9)

(10)

ux

uy

and

(11)

obtain following two equations

2

y t

Ux

dU x

x dy

x y

2

x t

Ux

1 p

y

1 p

x

(

3

x y

x y

(12)

(13)

3

3

11

By differentiating (12) w.r.t y and (13) w.r.t x, the pressure disturbance term

can be eliminated, and we obtain a fourth order differential equation in terms

of

.

U x )( 2

t

x x

d 2U x

)

2

y

dy2 x

4

4

x y

4

2

(14)

It is assumed that the following value of stream function satisfies equ. (14)

f ( y ) exp[ i(kx

t )]

(15)

in the direction of the x coordinate, while, can adopt complex values:

= R + iI

(16)

For I < 0, decreases with time and the fluid flow Ux(y) can be

regarded as stable.

For I > 0, the disturbance is excited with time, i.e. the flow Ux(y),

proves to be unstable with respect to the imposed disturbances.

12

boundary conditions

They can be stated for plane channel flows and flat plate boundarylayer flows as follows:

For Plane channel flows at y = 0 and y=2H we have ux = uy = 0,i.e.

f(0) = f ( 0) = f(2H) = f (2H) = 0

(17)

For Flat plate boundary layer flows, because of no slip condition at

the wall, we obtain

f(0) = f(0) = 0

And then for the outer flow ,we can state that due to lack of viscosity

forces

d2Ux/dy2 = 0,

13

differential equation

(kUx

)( f

k 2 f ) kU x f

ik

(f

2k 2 f

k4 f )

(18)

stability of a certain flow, using the undisturbed velocity distribution

Ux(y) and the assumed wavelength k in the equation and employing

the boundary conditions.

values of the imaginary part of c are considered as stable, i.e. the

investigated flow is stable with respect to the applied disturbances.

Thus, it is determined by successive computations, for which

wavelength the imaginary part of c is positive. This then leads to an

insight into whether for a solution Ux(y), that we have for a flow, the

flow field Ux(y) changes abruptly into a flow state differing from its

undisturbed state.

14

Transitional Flows

.

velocity . In a flow defined as being turbulent, there exists, however, a time variation

of the local velocity which shows velocity fluctuations around a mean value.

Velocity at

any

location

15

time

with time as clear from previous slide. Transitional flow analysis is basically

subdomain of stability analysis carried out earlier, that its theory is based on

OrrSommerfeld equation.

(kU x

)( f

k f ) kU x f

ik

(f

2k f

k f)

(19)

(kUx

)( f

k f ) kUx' ' f

(20)

conditions which are as follows

y = 0 f(0) = 0 and y f() = 0

(21)

16

All laminar velocity profiles which show an inflection point, i.e.

for which at one location of the velocity profile d2U1/dy2 = 0 holds, are

unstable.

strong influence on the stability of the flow.

17

viscosity

wavelengths and frequencies of disturbances have to be classified as

dangerous for the stability of the boundary layer.

When carrying out numerical computations, it results for C = /k that

CR/U= 0.39, k1= 0.36 and R1/U= 0.15

18

unstable way on boundary layers is given asmin =(2/0.36)*1 = 17.51 = 6

For smaller wavelengths of disturbances, boundary layers prove to be

stable.

As the critical Reynolds number for the laminar-to-turbulent transition,

numerical computations yield

Recrit = 520

Corresponding experimentally obtained value:

(Recrit)exp 950.

which is greater than the numerically obtained value.

This difference is because numerical Recrit =520, represents the point

of neutral instability, whereas the experimentally determined value

probably represents the point of the laminar-to-turbulent transition

that occurs abruptly and these two points are not to be necessarily

equal.

19

TURBULENT STATE

At very high Reynolds numbers, a flow state exists which stands out for

its strong irregularity.

(a)

(b)

(b) Turbulent flow

20

The analysis of turbulence state is quite different from that of laminar state as

in turbulence state local instantaneous velocity is changing with time.

T

1 ^

Uj ( xi )

Uj ( xi , t )dt

lim

T0

T

This was first given by Reynolds to treat turbulent flows.

(1)

21

in the following manner

'

u j ( xi , t ) U j ( xi , t ) U j ( xi )

1 '

u j ( xi , t ) lim

u j ( xi , t )dt

T0

T

T

(3)

1 '

1 ^

1

u j ( xi , t )dt lim

U j ( xi , t )dt lim

U j ( xi )dt 0

lim

T0

T0

T0

T

T

T

(4)

The time average of the turbulent velocity fluctuations is equal to zero per

definition. Hence, there is a way to present turbulence in local, time

varying quantities, in a form such that the turbulent fluctuations of all flow

quantities, that are introduced into the considerations, show a time mean

22

value that is zero.

and density in terms of their mean values and fluctuations

'

U j ( xi , t ) u j ( xi , t ) U j ( xi )

Velocity

P ( xi , t )

Pressure

( xi , t )

Density

p ' ( xi , t ) P ( xi )

'

( xi , t )

( xi )

Temperature

T ( xi , t ) t ' ( xi , t ) T ( xi )

Similarly ,we can show that time average of these quantities is zero. That is

u j ( xi , t )

p( xi , t )

( xi , t ) t ( xi , t ) 0

(5)

23

REYNOLDSS EQUATIONS

and, by time averaging the equations, a new set of equations results for the

mean values of the flow properties, the so-called Reynolds equations.

Starting with continuity equation

( Ui )

t

xi

By replacing the instantaneous values of and U with mean values and the

corresponding turbulent fluctuations

(

')

' Ui

ui '

' ui ')

t

xi

By time averaging the above equation ,we obtain

(1)

xi

( Ui

(2)

(3)

instantaneous density.

24

'

t

xi

(4)

( ui ' Ui ') 0

For the fluids with constant density ,we further simplify more ,that is, =0

Ui

xi

and

ui '

xi

(5)

does not result in additional turbulent transport terms.

Now beginning with Navier-Stokes equation

[

Uj

t

Ui

Uj

xi

P

xj

gj

xi

[ (

Uj

xi

Ui

)]

xj

(6)

So,

2

Ui

xi x j

Ui

(

) 0

x j xi

(7)

25

Uj

Uj

Ui

xi

P

xj

Uj

gj

xi

(8)

[

Uj

(U jU i )

xi

P

xj

Uj

gj

xi

(9)

and the corresponding turbulent fluctuations ,we will obtain the following equation

(U j

u j ')

[(U

u j ' )(U i

t

(P

p' )

xj

ui ' )]

xi

2

gj

(U

(10)

u j ')

xi

26

Uj

(U j U i

ui ' u j ')

xi

P

xj

gj

Uj

xi

(11)

xi

P

xj

(U i U j )

gj

xi

Uj

xi

ui ' u j ')

(12)

We see that additional terms are introduced into the Reynolds equations,

which can be interpreted as additional momentum transport terms, so that

for a turbulent fluid flow the following holds:

(

ij

) tot

Uj

xi

ui ' u j '

(13)

27

into a mean component and a turbulent fluctuation leads to a division of the

total momentum transport in a mean part and in a turbulent part. The total

momentum transport develops on the one hand due to the mean flow field,

UiUj , and on the other due to correlations of the turbulent velocity

fluctuations, uiuj .

mechanics lead to a non-closed system of equations and this requires

additional information in order to obtain solutions from (5)and (12)

Reynolds momentum transport terms and mean velocity terms.

analyze turbulence :hot wire and hot film anemometry, measuring flow

velocities indirectly. Then ,there is laser Doppler Technique that measures

28

velocity directly .

MECHANICS PROBLEM

Fluid motion is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, a set of coupled

and nonlinear partial differential equations derived from the basic laws of

conservation of mass, momentum and energy. The unknowns are usually

the velocity, the pressure and the density. The analytical paper and pencil

solution of these equations is practically impossible save for the simplest

of flows. Sometimes ,solution is possible theoretically using Boundary

Layer Theory.

Scientists had to resort to laboratory experiments when theoretical

analyses was impossible.

The answers delivered are, however, usually qualitatively different since

dynamical and geometric similitudes are difficult to enforce

simultaneously between the lab experiment and the prototype. A prime

example is the Reynolds number similarity which if violated can turn a

turbulent flow laminar. Furthermore, the design and construction of these

experiments can be difficult (and costly), particularly for stratified rotating

29

flows.

effective one. In its early days CFD was often controversial, as it

involved additional approximation to the governing equations and raised

additional (legitimate) issues.

Nowadays CFD is an established discipline alongside theoretical and

experimental methods. This position is in large part due to the

exponential growth of computer power which has allowed us to tackle

ever larger and more complex problems.

30

The central process in CFD is the process of discretization, i.e. the process

of taking differential equations with an infinite number of degrees of

freedom, and reducing it to a system of finite degrees of freedom.

Hence, instead of determining the solution everywhere and for all times, we

will be satisfied with its calculation at a finite number of locations and at

specified time intervals. The partial differential equations are then reduced to

a system of algebraic equations that can be solved on a computer.

31

characteristics of the errors must be controlled in order to ensure that

1) we are solving the correct equations (consistency property), and

2) that the error can be decreased as we increase the number of degrees

of freedom (stability and convergence).

Once these two criteria are established, the power of computing

machines can be leveraged to solve the problem in a numerically reliable

fashion.

Various discretization schemes have been developed to cope with a

variety of issues. The most notable for our purposes are: finite difference

methods, finite volume methods, finite element methods, and spectral

methods.

32

CONCLUSIONS

There is no single method such that we can solve all fluid

mechanics problem using that particular method.

The governing equations of flow also change as we from

Laminar flow to turbulence state with addition of

turbulent fluctuations which increases the complexities in

the flow.

Numerical methods seem to be most suitable ways of

analyzing the fluid mechanics problem which give

important insights to model turbulent flow.

However, Numerical methods also become ineffective at

very high Reynolds Number.

33

THANK

YOU

34

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