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UNIT-I STRESS, STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS
1. A Member A B C D is subjected to loading as shown in fig determine the total
elongation. Take E= 2 x105 N/mm2

Given data
Youngs modulus E= 2 x105 N/mm2
Area1=900mm2
Area2=400mm2
Area3=625mm2
Length1=1500mm
Length2=1000mm
Length3=750mm
To find
Total elongation
Solution
Consider tensile force +ve [increasing length]
Compressive force ve [decreasing length]
Step1
Consider part AB:
To calculate the total load acts on suction AB (P1)
Left side load = right side load

Step2
Consider part BC:
To calculate the total load acts on suction BC (P2)

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Step3
Consider part CD:
To calculate the total load acts on suction CD (P3)

Step 4
To calculate the change in length
=

2. A reinforced concrete column 300 x 300 mm has 4 reinforcing steel bars of 25mm
diameter in each corner. Find the safe axial load on the column when concrete subjected
to a stress of 5N/mm2what is the corresponding stress in steel take Es/Es=18
Given data
Area of the column =300x300
Area of the steel bar=
Stress on concrete =5N/mm2
Es/Es=18
To find
Load (P)
Stress in steel
Solution
Step: 1
To calculate total load on steel
=

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Step: 2
To calculate total load on concrete
=

Step: 3
To calculate total load on the beam
=
+

Step: 4
Total Stress in steel
=

3. A rod of made brass, copper and aluminum, as shown in fig is held between two rigid
supports at A and D calculate the stresses developed in each material when the
temperature of the system is raised by 40oC. Take Es=2.1x105 N/mm2. Ec=1.1x105
N/mm2. Ea=0.7x105 N/mm2
= 12x10-6/0C;
= 17x10-6/0C.;
= 21x10-6/0C;

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Given data
Area of the steel As=100 mm2
Length of the steel Ls=75mm
Area of the copper Ac=200 mm2
Length of the copper Lc=150mm
Area of the Aluminium Aa=400 mm2
Length of the Aluminium La=200mm
Rise in temperature T=400C
Youngs modulus of steel Es=2.1x105 N/mm2
Youngs modulus of copper Ec=1.1x105 N/mm2
Youngs modulus of aluminium Ea=0.7x105 N/mm2
Co- Efficient of linear expansions of steel
= 12x10-6/0C
Co- Efficient of linear expansions of copper
= 17x10-6/0C.
Co- Efficient of linear expansions of Aluminium
= 21x10-6/0C
To Find
1. Stress in steel
2. Stress in copper
3. Stress in aluminium
Solution
Step: 1
To calculate elongation of steel =

Step: 2
To calculate elongation of copper

Step: 3
To calculate elongation of aluminum

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Step: 4
To calculate total elongation

Step: 5
=

## Total force exerted in the bar P=

Step: 6
To calculate total elongation

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4. Find the Youngs modulus and poisons ratio of a metallic bar of length 300mm breadth
40mm depth 40mm when the bar is subjected to an axial load of 40KN decrease in length
is 0.75 and increase in breadth in 0.03mm also find the modulus of rigidity of bar.
Given data
Length L=300mm
Breadth b =40mm
Depth t = 40mm
Axial load P= 40kN
Decrease in length L =0.75mm
Increase in breadth b=0.03mm
To find
Youngs modulus E
Poissons ratio 1/m
Modulus of rigidity G

Solution
Step: 1
To calculate the passion ratio

## Lateral strain (et) =

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Step: 2
To calculate the youngs modulus
Tensile stress = load /area

## E= tensile stress /tensile (or) longitudinal strain

Step: 3
To calculate the modulus of rigidity
Youngs modulus (E) = 2

1+

## UNIT II BEAMS LOADS AND STRESS

5. A cantilever 1.5m long is loaded with uniformly distributed load of 2KN/m run over the
length of 1.25 m from the free end. It also carries a point load of 3kNat a distance of
0.25m from the free end. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the
cantilever beam.
Given data

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To draw: SFD and BMD.
Solution
Step: 1
SF calculation
BMD.

draw:

Step: 2
BM calculations

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SFD

and

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6. A simply supported beam is loaded as shown in fig Q. 12 (b). Draw the shear force and
bending moment diagrams. (AU-APR-2005)

Given data
Refer figure Q. 12

## Draw: SFD and BMD.

Solution
Step: 1
SF calculation

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Step: 2
BM calculations

7. A beam 8 meters long rest on two supports one at the right end and the other two meters
from the left end. The beam carries uniformly distributed load of 15kN/m over its entire
length and point load of 80kN at a point 1.5m from the right end. Draw the SFD and
BMD and find magnitude and location of maximum bending moment. Locate also the
point of contra flexure
Given data

## To draw: SFD and BMD.

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Solution
Step: 1
SF calculation

## draw: SFD and BMD.

Step: 2
BM calculations

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8. A timber beam of rectangular section is to support a load of 20 kN uniformly distributed
over a span of 3.6 m, when the beam is simply supported. If the depth is twice the width
of the section and the stress in timber is not to exceed 3.5 N/mm 2, find the dimensions of
the cross section?
Given data
UDL load=20kN/m
Length (L) =3.6m
Depth=twice the width
Stress= 3.5 N/mm2
To find
Dimensions of the cross section
Solution
Step: 1
To calculate the bending moment
M=

for SSB

Step: 2
To calculate section modulus of the beam (Z)
Bending equation
=
=

=
=

## y=d/2 for rectangular crass section

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Step: 3
To calculate the dimensions of the beam

## for rectangular crass section

9. A I section beam 350mm x 200mm has a web thickness of 12.5mm and a flange
thickness of 25mm. it carries a shearing force of 20 tonnes at a section. To calculate shear
stress a crosses the section
Given data
Breath b=350mm
Depth d=200mm
Flange thickness =25mm
Web thickness =12.5mm
Shear force (F) =20tonnes
To find
Shear stress of the beam
Solution
Step: 1
To calculate the center of gravity section from top face
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.

+
+

+
+

Step: 2
To cal calculate the total moment of inertia of the beam (I)
=

Step: 3
To calculate shear stress in upper flange with web (q)
=

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Step: 4
To calculate shear stress in web with upper flange (q)
=

Step:5
To calculate maximum shear stress of the beam (qmax)

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## UNIT III TORSION

10. A shaft is subjected to a torque of 1.6kNm. Find the necessary diameter of the shaft, if
the allowable shear stress is 60Mpa, the allowable twist is 1ofor every 20 diameters
length of the shaft, take C=80Gpa.
Given data
Torque (T)=1.6 kNm
Allowable shear stress ( )=60Mpa
Angle of twist =1o
Length l= 20d
To find
Diameter of the shaft (d)
Solution
Step:1
To calculate the diameter considering shear stress
Torque (T) =

Step:2
To calculate the diameter considering angle of twist
Torsion equation =

16

## for solid shaft

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11. Calculate the power that can be transmitted at a300rpm by a hollow steel shaft of 75mm
external diameter and 50mm internal diameter when the permissible shear stress for the
steel is 70N/mm2 and the maximum torque is 1.3 times of the mean torque. Compare
the strength of this hollow shaft with that of an solid shaft. The same material, weight
and length of both the shafts are same.
Given data
Speed N=300rpm
External dia D=75mm
Internal dia d=50mm
Shear stress ( ) = 70N/mm2
Torque Tmax =1.3Tmean
To find
Power
Strength of hollow shaft
Strength of solid shaft
Solution
Step: 1
To calculate maximum torque (Tmax)
(Th) =(Tmax)=

Step :2
To calculate mean torque (Tmean)
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Tmax =1.3Tmean

Step: 3
To calculate power
Power (P) =

Step :4
Strength compression
Area of the hollow shaft = area of the solid shaft

=
4
4
To calculate solid shaft diameter

Step : 5
Torque transmitted to the solid shaft (Ts)
Torque (T) =

Step :6
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=

12. Hollow steel shaft of 75mm outside diameter is transmitting a power of 300kW at
2000rpm. Find the thickness of the shaft if the maximum shear stress should not exceed
40N/mm2
Given data
Speed N=2000rpm
External dia D=75mm
Power (P)= 300KW
Shear stress ( ) = 40N/mm2
To find
Thickness of the shaft
Solution
Step :1
To calculate maximum torque (T)
Power (P) =

Step :2
(T)=

Step :3
To calculate thickness

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t=

13. A closed coil helical spring of circular crass section wire 18mm diameter is loaded by a
force of 500N. the mean coil diameter of the spring is 125mm. the modulus of rigidity is
80 kN/mm2 determine the maximum shear in the material of the spring. What number of
coils must the spring have for its deflection to be 6mm and calculate the stiffness of the
spring
Given data
Wire diameter d=18mm
Mean diameter D= 125mm
Load P= 500N
Modulus of rigidity C= 80 kN/mm2
Deflection =6mm
To find
Shear stress ()
Number of coils (n)
Stiffness of the spring (K)
Solution
Step: 1
To calculate the Shear stress ()
Shear stress () =

Step: 2
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To calculate number of coils
=

Step: 3
To calculate the stiffness of the spring

64

Step: 4
To calculate strain energy (U) =

l=Dn

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14. An open coiled helical spring made of 5mm diameter wire 16 coils 100mm inner
diameter with the helix angle of 16o calculate the deflection, maximum direct and shear
stresses induced due to an axial load of 300N. take G= 90Gpa and E=200Gpa
Given data
Wire diameter d=5mm
Inner diameter Di= 125mm
Load P= 300N
Modulus of rigidity C= 90 Gpa
Youngs modulus E=200Gpa
Number of coils (n) =16
Helix angle = 16
To find
Maximum direct& Shear stress ()
Deflection
Stiffness of the spring (K)
Solution
Step: 1
Deflection

Step: 2
Calculate bending stress
=

32

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Step: 3
Calculate shear stress
=

16

Step: 4
Calculate maximum shear stress
16
=

Step: 4
Calculate maximum principal stress (direct stress)
16
=
+ 1

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UNIT IV BEAM DEFLECTION
15. A cantilever AB, 2m long is carrying a load of 20kN at free end and 30kN at a distance
of 1 m from the free end. Find the slop and deflection at the free end. Take E= 200Gpa
and I= 150 x 106 mm4
Given data

E= 200Gpa
I= 150 x 106 mm4

To find
Slop and deflection of the beam at the free end
Solution
Double integration method

Step: 1
To calculate Slope at the free end due W1
=

Step: 2
To calculate Slope at the free end due W2
=

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Step: 3
To calculate total slope at the free end
=

Step: 4
To calculate the deflection at the free end
To calculate deflection at the free end due W1
=

Step :5
To calculate deflection at the free end due W2
=

Step: 6
To calculate total deflection at the free end
=

+
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Macaulays method

## Conjugate beam method

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16. A beam is simply supported as its ends over a span of 10m and carries two concentrated
loads of 100kN and 60 kN at a distance of 2m and 5m respectively from the left support.
Calculate (i) slope at left support (ii) slope and deflection at under the100 kN load.
Assume EI=36x104 kN-m2

Given data

EI=36x104 kN-m2
To find
(i) slope at left support
(ii) slope and deflection at under the100 kN load
Solution
Step-1
Macaulays method

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Step-2
Slope at the left support

Step-3
Deflection at 100kN load

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Step-4
Slope at 100 kN load

17. An I section joist 400mmx 200mmx 20mm and 6m long is used as strut with both ends
fixed. What is Eulers crippling load for the column? Take E=200Gpa.
Given data
Depth (d) = 400mm
Breath (b) =200mm
Thickness (t) = 20mm
Length l= 6m
Youngs modulus (E) = 2x 105 N/mm2
To find
Critical load
Solution
Step-1
To calculate the moment of inertia about x-x axis
=

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Step-2
To calculate the moment of inertia about y-y axis
=

Step-3
To calculate the crippling load (P)
( )=

18. Find Eulers crippling load for a hollow cylindrical cast iron column of 20mm external
diameter, 25mm thick and 6m long hinged at both ends. Compare the load with
crushing load calculated from Rankins formula f c= 550N/mm2 Rankins constant
=1/1600, E=1.2x 105 N/mm2
Given data
Major dia D = 200mm
Minor dia d=(200-25-25)
Thickness (t) = 25mm
Length l= 6m
c =550N/mm2
Rankins constant

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Youngs modulus (E) = 1.2x 105 N/mm2
To find
Critical load
Solution
Step-1
To calculate the moment of inertia for circular section
=

1
64

Step-2
Radius of gyration K=

area (A) =

Step-3
To calculate the crippling load (P)
( )=

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Critical load by using Rankins formula
Step-4
P=

## UNIT-5 ANALYSIS OF STRESS IN TWO DIMENSIONS

19. A steel cylinder shell 3m long which is closed at its ends, had an internal diameter of
1.5m and a wall thickness of 20mm calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stress
induced and also change in dimensions of the shell if it is subjected to an internal
pressure of 1.0 N/mm2 assume the modulus of elasticity and passion ratio for steel as 200
kN/mm2 and 0.3 respectively
Given data
Length of the shell L= 3m
Diameter of the shell = 1.5m
Pressure (P) = 1.0 N/mm2
Thickness of shell t= 20mm
Modulus of elasticity (E)=200 kN/mm2
Passion ratio (1/m) = 0.3
To find
Circumferential stress
Longitudinal stress
Change in dimensions
Solution
Step-1
To calculate circumferential stress
=

2
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Step-2
To calculate longitudinal stress
=

Step-3
To calculate maximum shear stress

=
2

Step-4
To calculate circumferential strain

Change in dia

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Step-5
To calculate longitudinal strain

Change in length

Step-6
To calculate volumetric strain

Change in length

20. A spherical shell of 2m diameter is made up of 10mm thick plates. Calculate the change
in diameter and volume of the cylinder, when its subjected to an internal pressure of
1.6 Mpa. Take E= 200Gpa and 1/m= 0.3
Given data
Diameter of the shell = 2m
Pressure (P) = 1.6 N/mm2
Thickness of shell t= 10mm
Modulus of elasticity (E) =200 Gpa
Passion ratio (1/m) = 0.3
To find
Change in dimensions
Solution
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Step-1
Change in dia

Step-2
Change in dia

21. The state of stress at a certain point in a strained material is shown in fig calculate the
principal stress inclination of the principal plane normal, shear and resultant stress on
the plane MN
Given data
Direct stress 1=200N/mm2
Direct stress 2= 150N/mm2 (compressive)
Shear stress q= 100 N/mm2
To find
1. Principal planes and principal stresses
2. Maximum shear stress and plane
Solution
Step-1
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To calculate principal plane
2
2 =

Step-2
Major Principal Stress

+ 4

+ 4

Step-3
MinorPrincipal Stress

Step-4
Maximum shear Stress

+ 4

A steel cylinder shell 3m long which is closed at its ends, had an internal diameter of and wall
thickness 20mm calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stress induced and also chane
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in dimensions of the shell if it is subjected to an internal pressure 1.0 N/mm2 assume the
modulus of elasticity and passion ratio for steel as 200kN/mm 2 and 0.3 respectively.

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