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in

UNIT-I STRESS, STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS

1. A Member A B C D is subjected to loading as shown in fig determine the total

elongation. Take E= 2 x105 N/mm2

Given data

Youngs modulus E= 2 x105 N/mm2

Area1=900mm2

Area2=400mm2

Area3=625mm2

Length1=1500mm

Length2=1000mm

Length3=750mm

To find

Total elongation

Solution

Consider tensile force +ve [increasing length]

Compressive force ve [decreasing length]

Step1

Consider part AB:

To calculate the total load acts on suction AB (P1)

Left side load = right side load

Step2

Consider part BC:

To calculate the total load acts on suction BC (P2)

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Step3

Consider part CD:

To calculate the total load acts on suction CD (P3)

Step 4

To calculate the change in length

=

2. A reinforced concrete column 300 x 300 mm has 4 reinforcing steel bars of 25mm

diameter in each corner. Find the safe axial load on the column when concrete subjected

to a stress of 5N/mm2what is the corresponding stress in steel take Es/Es=18

Given data

Area of the column =300x300

Area of the steel bar=

Stress on concrete =5N/mm2

Es/Es=18

To find

Load (P)

Stress in steel

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate total load on steel

=

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Step: 2

To calculate total load on concrete

=

Step: 3

To calculate total load on the beam

=

+

Step: 4

Total Stress in steel

=

3. A rod of made brass, copper and aluminum, as shown in fig is held between two rigid

supports at A and D calculate the stresses developed in each material when the

temperature of the system is raised by 40oC. Take Es=2.1x105 N/mm2. Ec=1.1x105

N/mm2. Ea=0.7x105 N/mm2

= 12x10-6/0C;

= 17x10-6/0C.;

= 21x10-6/0C;

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Given data

Area of the steel As=100 mm2

Length of the steel Ls=75mm

Area of the copper Ac=200 mm2

Length of the copper Lc=150mm

Area of the Aluminium Aa=400 mm2

Length of the Aluminium La=200mm

Rise in temperature T=400C

Youngs modulus of steel Es=2.1x105 N/mm2

Youngs modulus of copper Ec=1.1x105 N/mm2

Youngs modulus of aluminium Ea=0.7x105 N/mm2

Co- Efficient of linear expansions of steel

= 12x10-6/0C

Co- Efficient of linear expansions of copper

= 17x10-6/0C.

Co- Efficient of linear expansions of Aluminium

= 21x10-6/0C

To Find

1. Stress in steel

2. Stress in copper

3. Stress in aluminium

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate elongation of steel =

Step: 2

To calculate elongation of copper

Step: 3

To calculate elongation of aluminum

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Step: 4

To calculate total elongation

Step: 5

=

Step: 6

To calculate total elongation

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4. Find the Youngs modulus and poisons ratio of a metallic bar of length 300mm breadth

40mm depth 40mm when the bar is subjected to an axial load of 40KN decrease in length

is 0.75 and increase in breadth in 0.03mm also find the modulus of rigidity of bar.

Given data

Length L=300mm

Breadth b =40mm

Depth t = 40mm

Axial load P= 40kN

Decrease in length L =0.75mm

Increase in breadth b=0.03mm

To find

Youngs modulus E

Poissons ratio 1/m

Modulus of rigidity G

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate the passion ratio

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Step: 2

To calculate the youngs modulus

Tensile stress = load /area

Step: 3

To calculate the modulus of rigidity

Youngs modulus (E) = 2

1+

5. A cantilever 1.5m long is loaded with uniformly distributed load of 2KN/m run over the

length of 1.25 m from the free end. It also carries a point load of 3kNat a distance of

0.25m from the free end. Draw the shear force and bending moment diagram for the

cantilever beam.

Given data

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To draw: SFD and BMD.

Solution

Step: 1

SF calculation

BMD.

draw:

Step: 2

BM calculations

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SFD

and

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6. A simply supported beam is loaded as shown in fig Q. 12 (b). Draw the shear force and

bending moment diagrams. (AU-APR-2005)

Given data

Refer figure Q. 12

Solution

Step: 1

SF calculation

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Step: 2

BM calculations

7. A beam 8 meters long rest on two supports one at the right end and the other two meters

from the left end. The beam carries uniformly distributed load of 15kN/m over its entire

length and point load of 80kN at a point 1.5m from the right end. Draw the SFD and

BMD and find magnitude and location of maximum bending moment. Locate also the

point of contra flexure

Given data

10

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Solution

Step: 1

SF calculation

Step: 2

BM calculations

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8. A timber beam of rectangular section is to support a load of 20 kN uniformly distributed

over a span of 3.6 m, when the beam is simply supported. If the depth is twice the width

of the section and the stress in timber is not to exceed 3.5 N/mm 2, find the dimensions of

the cross section?

Given data

UDL load=20kN/m

Length (L) =3.6m

Depth=twice the width

Stress= 3.5 N/mm2

To find

Dimensions of the cross section

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate the bending moment

M=

for SSB

Step: 2

To calculate section modulus of the beam (Z)

Bending equation

=

=

=

=

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Step: 3

To calculate the dimensions of the beam

9. A I section beam 350mm x 200mm has a web thickness of 12.5mm and a flange

thickness of 25mm. it carries a shearing force of 20 tonnes at a section. To calculate shear

stress a crosses the section

Given data

Breath b=350mm

Depth d=200mm

Flange thickness =25mm

Web thickness =12.5mm

Shear force (F) =20tonnes

To find

Shear stress of the beam

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate the center of gravity section from top face

13

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.

+

+

+

+

Step: 2

To cal calculate the total moment of inertia of the beam (I)

=

Step: 3

To calculate shear stress in upper flange with web (q)

=

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Step: 4

To calculate shear stress in web with upper flange (q)

=

Step:5

To calculate maximum shear stress of the beam (qmax)

15

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10. A shaft is subjected to a torque of 1.6kNm. Find the necessary diameter of the shaft, if

the allowable shear stress is 60Mpa, the allowable twist is 1ofor every 20 diameters

length of the shaft, take C=80Gpa.

Given data

Torque (T)=1.6 kNm

Allowable shear stress ( )=60Mpa

Angle of twist =1o

Length l= 20d

To find

Diameter of the shaft (d)

Solution

Step:1

To calculate the diameter considering shear stress

Torque (T) =

Step:2

To calculate the diameter considering angle of twist

Torsion equation =

16

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11. Calculate the power that can be transmitted at a300rpm by a hollow steel shaft of 75mm

external diameter and 50mm internal diameter when the permissible shear stress for the

steel is 70N/mm2 and the maximum torque is 1.3 times of the mean torque. Compare

the strength of this hollow shaft with that of an solid shaft. The same material, weight

and length of both the shafts are same.

Given data

Speed N=300rpm

External dia D=75mm

Internal dia d=50mm

Shear stress ( ) = 70N/mm2

Torque Tmax =1.3Tmean

To find

Power

Strength of hollow shaft

Strength of solid shaft

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate maximum torque (Tmax)

(Th) =(Tmax)=

Step :2

To calculate mean torque (Tmean)

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Tmax =1.3Tmean

Step: 3

To calculate power

Power (P) =

Step :4

Strength compression

Area of the hollow shaft = area of the solid shaft

=

4

4

To calculate solid shaft diameter

Step : 5

Torque transmitted to the solid shaft (Ts)

Torque (T) =

Step :6

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=

12. Hollow steel shaft of 75mm outside diameter is transmitting a power of 300kW at

2000rpm. Find the thickness of the shaft if the maximum shear stress should not exceed

40N/mm2

Given data

Speed N=2000rpm

External dia D=75mm

Power (P)= 300KW

Shear stress ( ) = 40N/mm2

To find

Thickness of the shaft

Solution

Step :1

To calculate maximum torque (T)

Power (P) =

Step :2

(T)=

Step :3

To calculate thickness

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t=

13. A closed coil helical spring of circular crass section wire 18mm diameter is loaded by a

force of 500N. the mean coil diameter of the spring is 125mm. the modulus of rigidity is

80 kN/mm2 determine the maximum shear in the material of the spring. What number of

coils must the spring have for its deflection to be 6mm and calculate the stiffness of the

spring

Given data

Wire diameter d=18mm

Mean diameter D= 125mm

Load P= 500N

Modulus of rigidity C= 80 kN/mm2

Deflection =6mm

To find

Shear stress ()

Number of coils (n)

Stiffness of the spring (K)

Solution

Step: 1

To calculate the Shear stress ()

Shear stress () =

Step: 2

20

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To calculate number of coils

=

Step: 3

To calculate the stiffness of the spring

64

Step: 4

To calculate strain energy (U) =

l=Dn

21

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14. An open coiled helical spring made of 5mm diameter wire 16 coils 100mm inner

diameter with the helix angle of 16o calculate the deflection, maximum direct and shear

stresses induced due to an axial load of 300N. take G= 90Gpa and E=200Gpa

Given data

Wire diameter d=5mm

Inner diameter Di= 125mm

Load P= 300N

Modulus of rigidity C= 90 Gpa

Youngs modulus E=200Gpa

Number of coils (n) =16

Helix angle = 16

To find

Maximum direct& Shear stress ()

Deflection

Stiffness of the spring (K)

Solution

Step: 1

Deflection

Step: 2

Calculate bending stress

=

32

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Step: 3

Calculate shear stress

=

16

Step: 4

Calculate maximum shear stress

16

=

Step: 4

Calculate maximum principal stress (direct stress)

16

=

+ 1

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UNIT IV BEAM DEFLECTION

15. A cantilever AB, 2m long is carrying a load of 20kN at free end and 30kN at a distance

of 1 m from the free end. Find the slop and deflection at the free end. Take E= 200Gpa

and I= 150 x 106 mm4

Given data

E= 200Gpa

I= 150 x 106 mm4

To find

Slop and deflection of the beam at the free end

Solution

Double integration method

Step: 1

To calculate Slope at the free end due W1

=

Step: 2

To calculate Slope at the free end due W2

=

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Step: 3

To calculate total slope at the free end

=

Step: 4

To calculate the deflection at the free end

To calculate deflection at the free end due W1

=

Step :5

To calculate deflection at the free end due W2

=

Step: 6

To calculate total deflection at the free end

=

+

25

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Macaulays method

26

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16. A beam is simply supported as its ends over a span of 10m and carries two concentrated

loads of 100kN and 60 kN at a distance of 2m and 5m respectively from the left support.

Calculate (i) slope at left support (ii) slope and deflection at under the100 kN load.

Assume EI=36x104 kN-m2

Given data

EI=36x104 kN-m2

To find

(i) slope at left support

(ii) slope and deflection at under the100 kN load

Solution

Step-1

Macaulays method

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Step-2

Slope at the left support

Step-3

Deflection at 100kN load

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Step-4

Slope at 100 kN load

17. An I section joist 400mmx 200mmx 20mm and 6m long is used as strut with both ends

fixed. What is Eulers crippling load for the column? Take E=200Gpa.

Given data

Depth (d) = 400mm

Breath (b) =200mm

Thickness (t) = 20mm

Length l= 6m

Youngs modulus (E) = 2x 105 N/mm2

To find

Critical load

Solution

Step-1

To calculate the moment of inertia about x-x axis

=

29

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Step-2

To calculate the moment of inertia about y-y axis

=

Step-3

To calculate the crippling load (P)

( )=

18. Find Eulers crippling load for a hollow cylindrical cast iron column of 20mm external

diameter, 25mm thick and 6m long hinged at both ends. Compare the load with

crushing load calculated from Rankins formula f c= 550N/mm2 Rankins constant

=1/1600, E=1.2x 105 N/mm2

Given data

Major dia D = 200mm

Minor dia d=(200-25-25)

Thickness (t) = 25mm

Length l= 6m

c =550N/mm2

Rankins constant

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Youngs modulus (E) = 1.2x 105 N/mm2

To find

Critical load

Solution

Step-1

To calculate the moment of inertia for circular section

=

1

64

Step-2

Radius of gyration K=

area (A) =

Step-3

To calculate the crippling load (P)

( )=

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Critical load by using Rankins formula

Step-4

P=

19. A steel cylinder shell 3m long which is closed at its ends, had an internal diameter of

1.5m and a wall thickness of 20mm calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stress

induced and also change in dimensions of the shell if it is subjected to an internal

pressure of 1.0 N/mm2 assume the modulus of elasticity and passion ratio for steel as 200

kN/mm2 and 0.3 respectively

Given data

Length of the shell L= 3m

Diameter of the shell = 1.5m

Pressure (P) = 1.0 N/mm2

Thickness of shell t= 20mm

Modulus of elasticity (E)=200 kN/mm2

Passion ratio (1/m) = 0.3

To find

Circumferential stress

Longitudinal stress

Change in dimensions

Solution

Step-1

To calculate circumferential stress

=

2

32

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Step-2

To calculate longitudinal stress

=

Step-3

To calculate maximum shear stress

=

2

Step-4

To calculate circumferential strain

Change in dia

33

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Step-5

To calculate longitudinal strain

Change in length

Step-6

To calculate volumetric strain

Change in length

20. A spherical shell of 2m diameter is made up of 10mm thick plates. Calculate the change

in diameter and volume of the cylinder, when its subjected to an internal pressure of

1.6 Mpa. Take E= 200Gpa and 1/m= 0.3

Given data

Diameter of the shell = 2m

Pressure (P) = 1.6 N/mm2

Thickness of shell t= 10mm

Modulus of elasticity (E) =200 Gpa

Passion ratio (1/m) = 0.3

To find

Change in dimensions

Solution

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Step-1

Change in dia

Step-2

Change in dia

21. The state of stress at a certain point in a strained material is shown in fig calculate the

principal stress inclination of the principal plane normal, shear and resultant stress on

the plane MN

Given data

Direct stress 1=200N/mm2

Direct stress 2= 150N/mm2 (compressive)

Shear stress q= 100 N/mm2

To find

1. Principal planes and principal stresses

2. Maximum shear stress and plane

Solution

Step-1

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To calculate principal plane

2

2 =

Step-2

Major Principal Stress

+ 4

+ 4

Step-3

MinorPrincipal Stress

Step-4

Maximum shear Stress

+ 4

A steel cylinder shell 3m long which is closed at its ends, had an internal diameter of and wall

thickness 20mm calculate the circumferential and longitudinal stress induced and also chane

36

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in dimensions of the shell if it is subjected to an internal pressure 1.0 N/mm2 assume the

modulus of elasticity and passion ratio for steel as 200kN/mm 2 and 0.3 respectively.

37

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