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# Approvellssue

Module 1

## UNIT SERVICE POWER

OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:
Page2~

l.l

Pag.. 3-4~

1.2

## a) Its nonna! source of supply,

b) Reliability requirements,

1.3

## For a Class ill power, describe:

a) Its nonna! source of supply,
b) Its source of backup supply,
c) Reliability requirements,

1.4

## For a Class II power, describe:

a) Its nonna! source ofsupply,
b) Its source of backup supply,
c) Reliability requirements,

Page 6 ')

1.5

## For a Class I power, describe:

a) Its nonna! source of supply,
b) Its source of backup supply,
c) Reliability requirements,

PageS ')

1.6

## Explain the role of the standby generators (SOs) in a nuclear

generating station.

Page 6 ')

1.7

## Explain the role of the emergency power supply (BPS) in a nuclear

generating station.

1.8

* * *
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Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
The following section will deal with the Classes of power, nonnal and
backup supplies, reliability requirements and their applications within the

station.
The station's electrical system buses are classified in four levels of
reliability. Reliability refers to the probability that the power supply will be
able to energize its loads wben called upon to do so. The higher the numbel,
the lower the reliability of the power supply. Forexample, Class N power is
the least reliable power in the station, and Class I power is the most reliable
power in the station. Each of these classes ofpower will be explained below.
OddIEven power supplies, standby. generators and emergency power
supplies will also be discussed.

Obi.I.I

## ODD/EVEN POWER SUPPLIES

All electrical systems are divided into two systems, odd and even. For
example, pump I, inverter 3, compressor I are odd numbered components,
and would be supplied by an odd bus (Bus A or C for example). Evenly
numbered components, such as shutoffrod 2, rectifier 2, lransfonner 2 will
be fed from an even supply (Bus B or D for example). Supplies for an odd
bus will come from an odd winding (A winding) of a lransfonner. Similarly,
even bus supplies will come from an even winding (B winding) of a

transfonner.
By splitting the electrical system in this fashion, as the old saying goes, you
that balf of tbe process is connected to an even supply, and the otber balf
is connected to an odd supply (refertoFigure 1.1 onpago 3). In the event of
a fault on one oftbe buses, tbe otber bus is unaffected, and still can provide
power to the system. In this way. the system will still have components that
are able to run, and may even be lIble to maintain full capability (depending
on the redundancy and capacity of the remaining components). This
improves the reliability of the operation of our systems.

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tApprovsllssue

1, 11 11

j) = j)
Pump 1

1) 1) 1)

'--'

Pump 3

N.

rr r

o.

j) = j)
Pump 2

Pump 4

## Figure 1.1 - Odd/Even Designations

Obj.l.2

CLASS IV POWER
The aass IV power system is the least reliable source of power in the
station. The loads nonnlilly supplied by the Class IV power system are
systems which can .tolerate long term power outages without affecting
personnel or equipment safety. These loads are not essential 10 satisfy fuel
cooling requirements foUowing a reactor or turbine trip, but are
essential for operation of heat sinks above a couple of percent of reactor
full power. The loss of Class IV power means that high power operation
cannot be sustained, and reactor power must be quickly reduced to decay

power levels.
For example, some of the major typical loads on the Class IV power system
are main boiler feed pumps, main heat transport circulating pumps,

## condenser cooling water pumps, moderator circulating pumps, generator

excitation (in some stations), and some of the service water pumps. Most
heating and ventilation equipment. miscellaneous motors and nonna!
lighting systems are also other examples of systems that are supplied by the
Class IV power system.
Now, it does sound a little strange that systems like our main heat transport
circulation pumps or boiler feed pumps fall within this categOty, but it really
does make sense. You see, if we lose these systems, we still have the ability
to control the reactor, cool the fuel and contain radioactivity with other
this case, we have only lost the ability IOproduce power. Although producing

power is our business. it would not be wise to maintain operation when our
power supplies are in jeopardy (remember, safety first!).

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Approvallssutl

## NOTES & REFERENCES

The Class IV power can be supplied from two sources. During normal
operation', power is tapped from the isolated phase bus through the unit
service transformer (UST). This improves the reliability of the Class IV
power by preventing upsets in the bulk electrical system from causing a total
loss of Class IV power (ie. you will still supply power toyour own unit, even
if you lose your ability to transmit the power. The unit will be ready to
transmit power once the grid has stabilized).

## If generator produced power is unavailable, ie. during a turbine trip, or

during an outage, the power may be taken from the electricaI system grid
through the system service transformer (SST)'" (the transfer from the unit
service transformer to the system service transformer is performed
automatically, and will be discussed later in this module and during your
station specifIC training). In multi-unit stations, it is possible to obtain power
from another unit's system service transformer through transfer buses (this
will also be discussed during your station specific training). Figure 1.2 at the
end if this module can be unfolded and kept in sight for easy reference to see
the typical power distribution supplies.

Obj.1.3

## CLASS III POWER

The Class III power system is a more reliable source of power than the Class
IV power system. The loads normally supplied by the Class III power system
are systems which can tolerate only short term power outages before
personnel or equipment safety will be affected. These loads are essential to
maintain fuel cooling with the reactor in a low power state when Class IV

## power is not available+.

The duration that a Class III power outage would be expected to last is only
the time that is requited to stan-up a standby generator and re-load the Class
III power system. This would typically be less than 5 minutes.
During normal operation, Class m power is taken from Class IV power,
through the odd even designationc This improves the reliability of the Class
ill power by ensuring that partial losses in the Class IV power system will not
cause a total loss of Class III power. If all of Class III power is unavailable
(due to a complete loss of Class IV power), it is possible, in multi-unit
stations, to obtaln power from another unit through transfer buses (this
will be discussed during your station specific training).
'"

/" singk JUJit 8ttJtWn.r aIId SDml! nwlti-fuUl stations, half oftM /1.... ;: load is supp"t;(l by the
genutJl()f'. and 1M 01_ hDJfoftJw: JUJit load is nqJp,"d from lite grid.

## This is also referred to QS the sllllion stUVic~ lTtJM{o,.",I!t'.

The rtJdor is lUIlomtllically sluudownwhen C1D.Js IV f'O'I"r is lost, rJuu bringing the reactor to
d low powt!t' ntJU wMrt! 1M Class III loads arc Sfl/!'K;i4nJ to kecp tM!IU' cool.

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AfJIiII'ovallssull

## In any c _ the standby generators (SQs) will start. synchronize and

re-load the Class ill power system. This will restore power to critical loads to
the station.
Some of thelypicalloads on the Class ill power system are auxili&ry boiler
feed pumps, auxili&ry condensate exuaetion pumps, shutdown cooling
pumps, turbine turning gear, heat transport feed pump(s)*, Class I power
n:ctificrs, fire water pumps, emergency coolant injection pumps, instrument
air compressors, and some of the service water pumps. You will note that
these systems include tho.e required to bring the plant to a safe .tate. If we
lose these systems, our options to cool the reactor will be limited.

Obj.l.6 ~

Before we move on to the next class ofpower, I will mention how importanl
lhe SGs reaDy are to Ihe safe operation of Ibe unit. If all sources of Class
IV power are lost, and the SQs are not able to restore the Class ill power, all
power in Ibe station will be lost in under one bour (this will be described in
the section on Class I power). With this loss of power, we lose the ability to
monitor and control what is happening. Although the power can be
interrupted for shOlt periods, it is vital to the safety of the station that this
power be restored as soon as possible. The SQs start automatically on theloss
of Class N power, and, at some stations, will also start on a High Pressure
Emergency Coolant Injection System initiation signal (to ensure there is
reliable power to perform the functions of HPECI during a LOCA).

Obj.1.4~

CLASS II POWER
The Class IT power system is an even more reliable source of power than
the Class ill power system. The loads normally supplied by the Class II
power system are systems which cannot tolerate the power outages that may
occur in the CIa.s ill system. These loads are considered uninterruptable and
are critical for controlling the reactor**.
The duration that a Class II power outage would be expected to last is only
the time taken to tie in a back-up power supply (only a few power cycles).
The normal source of Class II power is from the Class I dc system, through
the inveners. If the inverter is Dot available to supply a given bus, then the
power can be supplied by a lie inlo Ibe Class m power system.
Some typical loads on the Class II power system are the digital control
computers, shutdown system loads, reactor regulation process instrumentation, boiler feed pump's auxili&ry oil pump and emergency lighting.

## Tlwe pwnp~ artt also rq.red 10 lU pruslU'izing PllmPs.

The rctJCtOt' is aIIIOmQticaIly shutdown when C/Qss Jl power is lost, \$ina high power operaJion
if NOt dui,tJbw wiJltoId pqwu to tM ,eaaor control SY\$kms.

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Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Obj.loS

CLASS I POWER
The Class I is a de power supply, and is the most reliable source of power in
the station. Each Class I bus is normally supplied by rwo rectifiers supplied
from the aass ill system. A set of batteries is connected directly to each
of the CI.... I buses, and provides uninterrupted backup power if the
rectifiers fail or lose their power (note that the batteries arc constantly being
charged). This back-up power is capable of supplying the load on the de
buses for approximately 40 minutes. After this time, all aass I and II power
will be lost if Class ill power cannot be restored.
The loads normally supplied by the Oass I power system arc systems which
cannot tolerate any power outage. Some typical loads on the Class I power
system arc the Class II inverters, de seal oil pumps for the generator, de lube
oil pumps for the turbine generator bearings, turbjne trip circuits, de stator
cooling pumps and the. protection schemes for the starion electrical

distribution system.
These systems arc uninterruptable, since the potential for damage if they fail.
is very high.

Obj.I.7~

## EMERGENCY POWER SUPPLY (EPS)

In most CANDU stations, we have an additional power source to the Class I,
II, ill and N, and it is called the "emergency powcr supply". This power
source will supply power to critical systems to allow for reactor
shutdown, monitoring and decay heat removal under conditiona where
all other power supplies may not he available (ie. aass ill power and/or
aass ill switchgear arc unavailable). Some examples of events that this
system is designed to provide power during arc earthquakes, harsh

## environments in the powerhouse (steam line break, turbine missiles) or a frre

in the control room *.
The equipment supplied by these emergency power supplies have their

## nonnal station electrical supplies, with an additional tie to the emergency

power supplies. Depending on your station, you may have to switch to the
emergency power supply manually or this may occur automatically, (this
will be outlined in your station specific tnlining). There will be interlocks in
place to prevent the emergency power supply from feeding the failed power

systems.
The emergency power generators, ju.tlike the SOs, start automatically on
the loss of Class N power, and will also start on a LOCA signal. Without
these power supplies, we may have no way of monitoring, CODtrolling and
cooling the reactor if all station power has failed.

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Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Obi.l.B

Under certain circumstances, it may be desirable to transfer the loads from
onc source to another. There are three transfer schemes that perform this:
parallel. fast and slow.
Figure 1.3 illustrates a typical distribution system of a generating unit with
four supply buses. The SST takes power from the switehyard and the UST
takes power from the generator. For simplicity, the loads on the four buses

## and system voltages are not shown.

Main
Transformer

SST /\/\'I\V\,'\I\.

UST

/\II>J\

./\1\1"1\1\,,,.

Generator

)3

6~

~
Figure 1.3:

bus A

## Simplified Unit Distribution System

Note that. depending on breaker states, the buses may be supplied by the grid
via the SST, by the generator via the UST, or both.
Assume that supply breakers 1,2,3 and4 are all closed and tie breakers 5 and 6
are open (this would be the normal operating state for this system. If. for

## some reason, it is necessary to remove the generator from service"''''. a

parallel transfer of the loads on buses B and A can be performed. A parallel
transfer is a make-before-break. transfer scheme.

Nol ail stations have power requirements s1uznd betwun UST and SST, but this examp~
this arrangemenl for ease of expIanmion of load transferring.

IISU

## .. This istypically as aresultofatlUbine genemor mechanical problem.A parallel tronJfer is 1IOl

initialed by an electril:aJfault.

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Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Tie breakers 5 and 6 are closed, momentarily paraIleling the two supplies.
Note that the two power sources must be synchronized (proved by a series of
interlocks) for the tie breakers to close. Supply breakers 2 and 4 then quickly
open. The supply breakers must open immediately after the tie breakers close
to" avoid the problems associated with parallel power sources. The unit
service load is now being fully carried by the SST.
Again assume the system is functioning normally with loads being shared
between the SST and the UST (supply breakers 1,2,3,4 are closed; tie
breakers 5 and 6 are open).
If an electrical fault develops causing the loss of the SST as a source of
supply, the loads on the affected buses must be transferred. This can be done
by a fast transfer. A fast transfer is a break-before-make transfer scheme
with a very short (about 2-3 cycles) interruption of supply. The actuate
signal is given simultaneously to the breakers of the lost source and the
back-up source of supply, but a differential in closing time versus tripping
time is responsible for the brief power interruption. This power iote1TUption
ensures that the electrical fault is not transferred to the healthy supply. Fast
transfer also requires that the sources be in synchronism immediately prior to
transfer.

In this example, the fault removes the SST from service and causes supply
breakers I and 3 to open. Two to four cycles after breakers I and 3 open, tie
breakers 5 and 6 close to restore power to the A and C buses.
Slow transfer schemes exist as a back-up to fast and parallel transfer. This
break-before-make method requires the residual voltage on the affected bus
to decay to a level considerably below rated before connecting the back-up
source. This typically results in a power interruption to the loads of a few
seconds duration. Breaker operation, for the above example of the loss of the
SST, would be similar to the fast transfer case. Breakers I and 3 would open
and, once the voltage on buses A and C had decreased to a specifIc value for a
certain period, breakers 5 and 6 would close.

ParaIUliIIg of two SOIU'CU can usll1l in twiu the faJUt ClIT1'etrl from one SOW'Ct: alo1U! j1bwing
tJiToMth a load breaUr ifafall1l tkwlopson the load side ofthe breaker. COIUse335.02-1 can
M nfernd to for mm da4ils.

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ApJ'ovSIISSUfI

## The station power distribution is separated into two sources of power.

odd and even. These power supplies are separated to. improve the
reliability of the station electrical supplies to station systems. Redundancy in equipment may allow continued operation at fu1l/partial
capacity if one of these supplies is lost.

The Class IV power supply is the least reliable, and the classes of power
increase in reliability all the way to Class I power.

The Class IV power supply is normally taken from the grid and/or the
unit service transfonner.

The Class ill power supply normally taken from the Class IV system.
Backup power can be supplied by the standby generators and by another

## unit's system service transfonner through transfer buses (in a multi-unit

station).

The standby generators will start on the loss of Class IV power and on a
HPECI initiation signal (at some stations). This ensures that power will
be available to control, and in the longer term, cool the reactor.

## The aass IT power supply is normally supplied by the aass I DC system

through inverters. If power cannot be supplied by the inverters, power
can be supplied by a tie to the Class ill system.

The aass I power supply is normally supplied by the Class ill system
through rectifiers. If the rectifiers fail or lose power, batteries connected
directly to the Class I buses will supply back-up power.

The emergency power system includes generators that will also start on
the loss of Cass IV power and on a HPECI initiation signal under
conditions where the standby generators and/or Class ill switchgear
may not be operational (ie. earthquake, steam line break). This ensures
that power will be available to controVcool the reactor.

to

another by a

## parallel, a fast or a slow transfer scheme. During parallel transfer,

momentary paralleling occurs. Fast transfer results in a brief interruption of supply to the loads. Slow transfer requites time for voltage decay
on the affected bus, a power interruption of a few seconds will occur.

Pages lo-12~

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ApprovallssUB

ASSIGNMENT
I.

2.

station.
3.

a)

b)

4.

a)

b)
c)

d)

5.

6.

a)
b)
c)

7.

## aass ill power normally comes from:

The backup supply for aass ill power comes from:

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Approv81lssue

8.

9.

a)

b)

c)

## 10. Class II power is supplied by:

If Ibis source of power is unavailable. Class II is supplied by:

a)

b)
c)

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Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

IS.
a)

During
occurs, but it is only

## transfer of loads, paralleling of sources

_
transfer of loads results in a temporary

b)

c)

## As a back-up load transferring method

requires time for

transfer
on the affected

bus to decrease.

Before you move on to the next module. review the objectives and make
sure that you can meet their requirements.
Ptepc'ed by:

Rovised by:
Revision date:

-12-

July, 1992

Rev I

ApprovSllSSUB

## Coune 23' Module 1- Unit Service Power

.To
.....
Electrical
System
j I'
Grid

Majn
Transformer "'NV

System Service
Transformer

Class IV
Note: No vollage transfonnations
have been shown for simplification
of this dillgIam. VoI"'8e levels and
tranformations will be covered in
Note: Nor. a111xeakers are shown. Multiple
breakers can be in place for added
protection if needed

## From other unit.

common writ or

standby generators

;) ;)

)
~

! ............ !

;)

;)

Class II

'nverte

1'\."+

Class III

I'\."-

Rectifiers

-.I
I

Class I

I
I

.
Ballenes
....l(tied directly to=ll=

Backup Supplies
- - - - - - Shown with
Dashed Lines

the buses)

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Approval Issue

Configuration

Module 2

## SWITCHVARD RING BUS

CONFIGURATION
OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:
Page 2 <=>

2.1

## Giveq a diagram with at least two output lines, two sources of

generation, system service and main transfonners, describe how a
typical 4 or 6 breaker ring bus timctions.

2.2

## Describe how a ring bus is designed to maximize: .

Page 2

<=>

a)

Page 1,2

<=>

b) Transmission reliability/stability.

## Reliability of station power,

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
This module will introduce the purpose and general layout of a simplified
ring bus for main power output.

## SIMPLIFIED RING BUS

Obj. 2.2 bi <=>

A ring bus provides multiple paths for the transmission of the power
produced by the generator. In Figures 2.1 and 2.2 (both are foldout drawings
at the end of the module), simplified ring bus configurations are shown.
These arrangements shows that the generation supply has multiple access
patba to any single output transmission (three shown in Figure 2.2). Multiple
transmission lines decrease the probability of a full load reject.<lft (ie. due to
the loss of a single line) and increase station and electrical system
reliability/security (ie. more paths in and out). Failure of a single line or a
single breaker will not disrupt power ftows.

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Approvsllssue

Confipation

## As an example, let's take a look at Figure 2.2, more specifically, generator

G I and the three output lines. Line 3 can be fed from G I through circuit
breakers A-G, through B-H, throughA-D-C-Hand throughB -C-DG. Line 2 could be fed through circuit breaker A, through B - C - D and
through B - H - G. Line I could be fed through circuit breaker B, through AD -C and through A -G-H. Simi1arconfigurations can be derived for G2 to
each output line.

Obj. 2.2 a) >

## Similarly, from a system service transformer viewpoint, power can be

received from any of tbe tbree lines in Figure 2.2 through various
pathways. This helps ensure that thele is a power supply availahle to supply
the unit.
Table 2.1 shows the pathways of power that can be used to supply power to
G I System Service Transformer (assuming t1lat generator G I, as a source of
generation, has been lost).

Gl SST

SOURCE

PATHWAY TO

Line 2
Line I

## Directlv Through SST Circuit Ble

C-D
B-A

Line 3

G2

isconnect

".n

G
H-C-D
H.R A
D
C-B-A
C H G

From Figures 2.1 and 2.2, we can extrapolate a larger "ring" with mOle
output lines and more ties across the ring diameter. This increases the
number of pathways for the power to flow to/from the station, which will
increase reliability of supplies. The <xact com'llu:ation of your ring bus
will be discussed in your station specific training.

## Obj. 2.2 b) >

Transmission slability is increased by using multiple paralleltransmission lines. This limits changes in the load angle ofthe lemaining lines when a
single line has been lost. This will be discussed in mOle detail in Module 8.

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Approval Issue

Configuration

Pag.s4-5~

## The reliability of station power and transmission is increased by the use

ofa ring bus. The ring bus provides multiple paths for power flow to and
from the station.

The loss of a single line will not, in itself, cause a full load rejection or
power outage for the unit/station (due to power transfer via the
remaining lines).

## Transmission stability is increased by the use of multiple parallel

transmission lines. This limits load angle changes on remaining lines
after the loss of a single line.

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Conti..,....,

Approvallssua

## NOTES & REFERENCES

ASSIGNMENT
1.

For the ring bus shown below. complete the power source pathway
table.

~ Genemw
~

G1- SySlelll
Service
TIlIIlSfonner

Main

Transformer

" G2 - System
Service
Transformer

\~

Line 1
Line 3

IV\A.Mai

w... Transf~er

Generator

SOURCE

Line I
Line 2
Line 3

Gl

PATHWAYTOG2SST

I)
I)
2)
3)
I)
2)
3)
I)
2)
3\

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JlpfHovallssufI

Configuration

2.

## transfer to or from the station.

3.

Describe how transmission stability is affected by the use of. ring bus.

Before you move on to the next module, review the objectives and make
sure that you can meet their requirements.
Prepared by:

Revised by:

Revision date:

-5-

July, 1992

Row I

Approve/Issue

## Course 235 Module 2 - Switchyard Ring BUI

Configuration
..

Cireuit Breakerf

Disconnect for
transformers not shown.

Generator
Main

"NY

' Wv

Transfonners

Ol-System

Circuit Breaker

Service

02-System

Transformer *

Service

II

Transfonner *

~~
Line I

Line 2

'Wv

Main
Transformer

~
Figure 2.1 - Simplified 4 Breaker
Ring Bus Configuration
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..,1

Ap(JI'ovallssue

## Course 235 Module 2 - Switchyard Ring Bus

Configuration

Circuit Breakerl
Disconnect for
transfonners not shown.

Oenerator

Main

"NY

'\Atv

Transformers

Ol-System
Service

02-System
Service
Transfonner *

Transfonner *

I;

~~

Line 3

'\Atv

Main

ATransformer

~
Figure 2.2 - Simplified 6 Breaker
Ring Bus Configuration
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Approvalissufl

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Module 3

ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
SCHEMES
OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:
Pag.2~

Pag.. 2-3~

3.1

3.2

## Describe the four essential qualities of an effective electrical

protection scheme.

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
Electrical circuits and machines are subject to faults. A fault is generally the
breakdown of insulation (between a conductor and ground or between
conductors) due to a variety of causes, that has a resulting flow of excess

## current through a relatively low resistance. There is potential for severe

damage due to the effects of these high currents.

The majority of systems and devices in our stations are three phase in nature.
The principal types of faults experienced by three phase equipment are:
a)

phase to ground,

b)

phase to phase,

c)

## In this module, we will discuss the purpose and essential qualities of

electrical protection schemes. Subsequent modules will deal with faults such
as those mentioned above and various means of protecting equipment

against them.

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Approval Issue

Obj.3.1

<=>

## PURPOSE OF ELECTRICAL PROTECTION

Every item of electtical equipment should have some fonn of electtical
protection which will ROmove electtical power from the equipment in the
event of it becoming faulty or overloaded. This is necessary to ensure that:
a)

## Damage Is minimized on the faulty equipment and any damage is not

allowed to spread to other equipment For example, if a fault occurs in a
motor, we want to isolate the motor before damage occurs to the hus
supplying the motor.

h)

## Healthy equipment not directly affected by the fault is left in service.

For example, if we have two huses tied together by a tie hteaker, and a
fault occurs on one bus, we want only the faulted hus to be isolated, hy
isolating all paths toIfrom it We will provide an alternate source of
power to the healthy hus to keep the unaffected equipment energized.

## Another example is when a fault occurs in a motor. In this case, we only

want the motor to ttip, while still providing power to the unaffected

c)

## Equipment is protected from damage due to continuing overload.

-For example, most motors are designed to run in an overload condition

## for at least a short duration without experiencing damage. We must

ROmove the electtical power when the overload gets too gteat,
pteventing damage to the equipment
d)

## Electtical system stability is maintained. For example, when systems

come on or off line, transients are intr<xluced into the electrical system.
If these systems are large enough to cause large transients, then
instability can occur (stability will be discussed in Module 8 of this
course).

## ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF ELECTRICAL

PROTECTION
Since there are numerous generators, transfonners. power lines and other
electtical equipment connected together to fonn the Ontario Hydro system, a
comptehensive electtical protection system must be used to ensure safety
and continuity of supply. To gusrantee this, electtical protection must have
the following four qualities:

'"

TJW is obIown tIS 1M Service Factoi' oftlw m%I" and is disclUSedflUtMr inModull! 5.

-2-

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Reliability
The protective system must function whenever it is called upon to operate.
since the consequences of non~peration can be very severe. It is
impossible to achieve lOO% reliability but a high degree of reliability can be
achieved by careful design, construction and maintenance.

Selectivity
The protection must be able to select and shut down thanection of the
system that caused the fault condition to exist. At the same time, the healthy
sections of the system should continue operating. For example, a short
circuit or fault on a domestic stove should be cleared by the stove fuses and
should not cause the main incoming fuses to blow, which would shut off the
supply to the entire house.

Sensitivity
The protection must be able to distinguish between healthy and fault
conditions. ie, to detect, operate and initiate tripping before a fault reaches a
dangerous condition. On the other hand, the protection must not be too
sensitive and operate unnecessarily (and affect electrical system stability).

Speed
When electrical faults or short circuits occur, the damage produced is
largely dependent upon the time the fault persists. Therefore, it is
desirable that electrical faults be interrupted as quickly as possihle.

Page 4

<=>

## An electrical protection scheme must ensure that damage is minimized

and localized, healthy equipment is not affected, equipment is protected
from overload and system stability is maintained.

## The qualities required by an electrical protection scheme are reliability,

selectivity, sensitivity and speed.

## You can now do assignment questions 1-16.

Some loads take large inrush (starting) currenu which nwst be accommodaJed to prevent
lWIeCessary tripping (while still tripping for fault conditions). This is discussed ltJler in tM
course.

-3-

... ,

Approval Issue

ASSIGNMENT
1.

a)

b)
c)

d)

2.

## Discuss the four essential qualities of an electrical protection scheme:

a)

b)

c)

d)

Before you move on to the next module, review tbe objectives and make

Prepared by:

Revised by:
Revision date:

-4-

July. 1992

IWvl

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applications of Electrical

Protection Schemes

ApprovallnUB
NOTES & REFERENCES

Module 4

APPLICATIONS OF
ELECTRICAL PROTECTION
SCHEMES IN THE POWER
STATION
OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:
Pagesl-2~

4.1

Pages2-S~

4.2

Pages2-4~

4.3

## Explain how differential protection is utilized in our stations for the

protection of buses and windings.

Pages4-S~

4.4

PageS~

4.5

Page6~

4.6

## Explain the concept of breaker fallure protection.

* * *

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
This module will discuss protection zones, differential protection of buses
and windings and the concept of A and B protection.

PROTECTION ZONES
Obj. 4.1

## The section of a circuit protected by a given device is referred to as a

protection zone. For example. Figure 4.1 shows a simple motor circuit,
which is protected by a fuse. The dotted line represents the area that is
protected by the fuse. If a fault occurs within the zone of protection, which
includes the motor and motor circuit, the fuse will open and electrically

-1-

"'1

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applications of Electrical <

Protection Schemes

Approval Issue
NOTES & REFERENCES

disconnect the motor. This will minimize any damage and prevent the

Supply Bus

Fuse

Protection Zone

:M;rt;; ....r

.. : . /

'Circuit

..,

Motor

## Figure 4.1: Protection Zone For A Motor Circuit

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
It is to some extent possible to protect buses and windings of generators and
transfonners with overcurrent relays and fuses. However, this is not usually
done because:
a)

Fuses take too long to blow, unless the fault current is very high;

## b) Overcurrent relays have to be time delayed to take care of starting

surges, and in any case, only operate when greater than full load current
flows;
c)

## Fault currents flowing for a long time produce excessive damage.

As an alternate means of electrical protection, we can use the basic idea that
the energy that comes in must equal the energy that leaves. This detection in
differences between inflow and outflow currents and isolation of the
circuit if the currents are different, is called Differential Protection. The
only reason that these currents should be different is if a fault occurs on the
busbar, and will be explained l>-l<lw.
Figure 4.2 a) shows a healthy breakerlbusbar arrangement, with equal
currents I, and h flowing in and out of the busbar. In Figure 4.2 b), a faulted
busbar is shown; when: the current through the ''proper'' path I, is no longer
equal to h'. H current measuring instrumentation is installed to detect this,
and open the breakers, we have achieved differential protection.

-2-

... ,

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applications of Electrical

PrOtection Schemes

ApprOVBllssUB
NOTES & REFERENCES

Breaker

I,

R
-+RI-----=-'-+'7--~
~
Busbar

I, = '"
e)

I,

## Current Into busbar equals current out of busbar.

-+RI-_~z~::....- __R

~
b)

FA~

1.=1,-1.

## Faulted busbar I" ~ I,

Figure 4.2:

Differential Protection

If current ttansfnnners (CTs) are installed nn the nuter sides of the breakers
as shown in Figure 4.3, the current signals can be compared, and if different,
can be made to open the circuit breakers via a differential relay.

.....~r~~~e:t~~n. ~~~~ ~

I'~:I/""'
v

-+
Busbar

- :12A~

I'---' v

:.

:.~r~~~r

~2

Differential
Protection
Relav

-+
1.2

Figure 4.3:

Differential Protection

"4

## By using current traDsfonners of equal ratio. connected as shown in Figure

4.3. the relay will "compare" the currents in the two secondary circuits. The
protection zone in this case is the circuit between the current transfonners.
When current into the busbar equals curreot out, the flow of CT secondary
curreQt through the differential relay will be zero (when balanced, the

-3-

"'1

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applicarions of Electtical

Protection Schemes

Approvellssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

currents in the relay flow in opposite directions and cancel each other out ie.
ram..v = 0). When the currents are unbalanced, as in a fault condition, the cr
secondary current flowing through the relay will also be unbalanced (ie. Is> In = ram..v" 0). This unbalanced current flow through the relay will cause the
relay to operate and open both of the breakers.
A home ground fault circuit interrupter installed for outdoor circuits and in
bathrooms. works much in the same manner, in which the hot and neutral
currents of the circuit are compared. If these two currents are not equal. there
is leakage to ground and the circuit is opened to prevent electrocution.
Differential currents between phases can be easily detected, hence large
fault currents need not he present for the protection system to operale.
This, in combination with high speed magnetic relays, can prevent damage
that can occur with large fault currents. For this reason, differential
protection is used for generator and transfonner winding protection, and will
be discussed in later sections of this course.

## OVERLAPPING ZONES OF PROTECTION

Let's say we have a number ofloads to be supplied at the same VOltage. We
decide to use two buses for distribution of the loads and arrange them as part
of a ring bus (this configuration was discussed in Module 2). What would be
the best way to apply differential protection to our buses?
Figure 4.4 represents a possible protection scheme. Both buses BI and B2 are
protected by a single differential arrangement. A fault occurring anywhere
on either bus will cause relay R2 to operate and trip breakers A and C. But. is
there a problem with this set-up?
Protection Zone
R2

Ir-------------------------~ I
I A
Busbar B,
B
Busbar B2
Cr
~-------------------------~

R2

## Figure 4.4: One Zone of Protection

Both Busba.s Protected
A fault on busbar B1 will cause the protection circuit to operate and
disconnect power to it and to busbar Bz. the unaffected bus. We may not want
to lose power to all our loads due to a fault occurring on a single bus. It would
be better if busbar B2 could remain energized when B, is disconnected.

-4-

... ,

## Course 23S Module 4 - Applications of Electrical

Protection SchemeJ

Approval/sSUB
NOTES & REFERENCES

## A modification as described below can be made to provide this sort of

protection for the pair of busbars.

## Obj. 4.4 '>

Using a second sel of cunenl transformers. wired as shown in Figure 4.5, the
B1 bus can be protected by differential protection relay R,. A fault on this bus
wiD cause both circuit breakers feeding it (breakers A and B) 10 open.
Busbar B, will be unaffected, since il has a source of power other than
directly from B, (from the ring bus arrangemenl). Similarly, a faull on busbar
B, will cause R, to operate and open breakers B and C to isolate the bus. The
two protection zones overlap on breaker B (it operates in the case of afault on
either bus). This arrangemenl provides optimum protection of both busbars.

..

Protection Zone

6L

Protection Zone

R2

~------------------,

I
A

Busbar B1

"

._-----_ .. _--_._--

,"

BusbarB,

Or

## Figure 4.5: Overlapping Protection

Both Busbars Protected
Note that a current transformer on the right side of breaker A (not shown)
would be connected in a differential protection circuit enclosing the bus that
extends from the lefl of the figure (and the breaker al its other end) 10 provide
faull protection for this bus. This cascading of CTs enclosing busbars and
their breakers would continue for aU busbars in this circuil.
A differential protection scheme for "'I''' circuits (where a single feed is split

into two supply lines) can be created in a manner similar to the overlapped
zones just described Module 6 considers this type of circuit for the
protection of a main and unit service tt'ansfonner.

A AND B PROTECTION
Obj. 4.5 <=}

## The concept of A and B protection is simply providing multiple

independent signals to trip breakers in the event of a fault. The breaker
will be ttipped if it receives either an A ttip signal or a B ttip signal. It is not
necessary that both signals be received by the breaker to cause it to ttip.

-5-

..."

## Course 23S Module 4 - Applications of Elcetric~

Protection Schemes

Approval Issue
NOTES & REFERENCES

## another tripping signal. For example, separate current transfonners and

relays could be used to provide two trip signals for differential protection. In
other cases, different methods are used to provide back-up protection. For
example, using differential protection as the first trip signal, the back-up
signals are provided by overcurrent and/or ground protection schemes.
The use and types of A and B protection schemes will be discussed in detail

## BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION

01Jj. 4.6 ~

Depending on the site, part or all of the switchyard equipment will be within
the control of the station. Due to the high current Rows within the
switchyard components, and potential for damage if faults are not
cleared, breaker failure protection is provided.

## Breaker failure protection is a protection scheme that will trip surrounding

breakers in the event .that a circuit breaker fails to clear a fault. If, for
example, a breaker fails to clear a fault, all of the hreakers supplying this
breaker and tbose fed from tbls breaker will be given a trip signal via the
breaker failure protection scheme.
A breaker will be considered to have failed if, after the trip signal has been
generated, the breaker has:

a)

## not started opening within a preset time frame (detennined by switches

intemalto the breaker),

b)

the breaker has not fully opened within a preset time frame (determined
by switches intemalto the breaker), or

c)

if the current has not been broken by the breaker within a preset time
(determined by current measurement devices).

-6-

.."

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applications of Electrical

Protection Schemes

Ap/*ovallssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

protection zone.

## isolating the circuit if the currents are sufficiently different, is called

Differential Protection.

## Overlapping zones ofprotection can provide differential protection for a

series of buses connected by breakers. The overlap ensures that both
breakers feeding a particular bus will trip when a fault is detected on that
bus. Unaffected buses in the same system can remain energized.

## A and B protection'provide additional signals for electrical protection.

These may be duplicated protection schemes, or they may be different
schemes to provide backup protection.

Pages 8-10

## Breakerfailure protection will cause surrounding breakers to open in the

event that a breaker fails to clear a fault This will ensure that a fault is
cleared with a minimum of damage to equipment.

-7-

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applications of Electrical

Protection Schemes

Approvellssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

ASSIGNMENT
1.

2.

## zones for each of the circuits/proteetive devices.

Supply Fuse

Bus

Motor Fuse

Show the Protection Zone For The Motor Circuit & Supply

.A. A

'-"

Buabar

1,---....
I'---'

A A
V

Breaker

Differential
Protection
Relay

,.1
"T

## Show the Protection Zone for this

Differential Protection Scheme

-8-

R."

## Course 235 Module 4 - Applications of EllCCaical

Protection Schemes

Approvellssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

Generator Terminal

Differential

Relay

## Show the Protection Zone for this Generator

Winding Differential Protection Scheme (Split
Phase Protection)

3.

4.

-9-

... 1

## COurBe 235 Module 4 - Applications of Electtic:al.

Protection Schemes

ApprovallssUB
NOTES & REFERENCES

s.

6.

## Explain the concept of breaker failure protection.

Before you move on to the next module, review the objectives and make
sure that you can meet their requirements.
PrcpBred by:
Revised by:

Rcvisiondalc:

-w-

July, 1992

~l

Approvalissull

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Module 5

ELECTRIC MOTOR
PROTECTION
OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:
5.1

## Explain how each of the following proteciion schemes could be used

to provide protection of an electric motor:
a)

Page.~>

. b)

Page 9 >
Page 9 >
Pagel2 >
Pagel3 >
Page 14 >

c)

## Open circuit or single phasing,

d)

Phase unbalance,

e)

Instantaneous overcurrent,

f)

Ground fault,

g)

Undcrvoltagc.

5.2

## For each of the schemes listed in 5.1, give an example of a fault

requiring the protection scheme to operate and the consequence to
the electric motor if the protection scheme failed to operate.

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
This module concentrates on the protection schemes used for the protection
of electrical motors and consequences of failure to operate. A brief
discussion will also be given on the operation of the various types of
protective relays, but you will not be required to memorize this

information.
One note to mskc here is that the protection schemes that will be discussed,
have some similarities and overlap. This is advantageous. since not all
motors have the all of the protection schemes listed in this module. In fact,
there are many protection schemes available, and only the more common

-1-

"""

ApprovallssU8

## Coune 23j Module .5 - Electric Motor Protection

NOTES a REFERENCES

Obi. 5.2.,.

## Continuous operation of an electric motor at cUITents marginally above its

rated value ClUl result in tbermal damage to tbe motor. The insulation ClUl
be degraded, resulting in reduced motor life througb eventual internal motor
faults. Typically. lUl elecnic motor bas a service factor rating listed on its
nameplate. This number represents the continuous allowable load limit
that can be maintained without sustaining damage to the motor'. To
protect against motor damage, we must ensure that this condition is Dot
reached, bence we must nip the motor before the overload limit (service
factor) is reacbed.

## A common type of zelay used for timed overload protection is a thennal

overload relay. In this type of relay, the motor cum:nl, or a fraction of the
CuneDt through a CUl'IeDt transformer, is connectod to an in-line heater.
Fignre 5.1 shows a simplified thermal overload relay.

## Obi. 5.2 .,.

The heater (beated b)' PR action) is used to heat a bimetallic snip", which
causes the displacement of a relay contact. Normal operating currentSy or
short duration overload conditions, will not cause the bimetallic element
to bend enough to change tbe relay contact positions. Excessive cunents
will cause increased heating of the bimetallic snip, which will cause relay
contacts to open lUldlor close, nipping the motor. This type of relay has an
inherent reaction time **. since the heater and bimetallic element take time
to heat up. Protection against causes of excessive motor currents such as:
short circuits, mechanical problems causing overload, high resistance
ground faults, will be provided by this scheme.
Another type of relay that ClUl be used is lUl electromagnetic relay. This type
of relay uses a cunent in a coil to operate a plunger or annatore. This relay
type is almost instantaneous, since an increase in current will change the
magnetic force on the plunger or annature. Tunc delay for overload
protectioo ClUl be achieved by the use of timers or dashpots (oil or air). Figure
5.2 shows a simplified electromagnetic relay with lUl oil dashpot
As cuneot iocreases in the relay shown in figure 5.2, the plunger will
immediately want to move to operate the contact due to the magnetic forces
produced.

FOT emmpk, a typictJl elb:tric motOT Lr duigMd to witJutand a contimuJlu ove.rIood ofabollJ
15% widwIIJ \$lUtaiNng damage, Dnd Ivu a SD"iiafiJclO1' = 1.15. ContituMJus operatitm abow

## thU valu wiU rUlUt irs tJutnn41 damage.

A bimdallic strip cotUists a/two differentlll/llerials boNkd to~JtIw. tulCh having different
t1tDm4l D:pQ1I8ion properties. As the materioJ.s are Iwaud. OM silk will kngthm more than the
alMr, CQlUing 1Mnding,

If 1M reaction time i.r not III/IlcMd to cwnnl-htuJling cJuvacwistics of a motor. the motor
cOfdd 1M dIJmtJgd during start condJtiotu, whePt large
di.Jcus.xd ;,. tlw nut uction.

-2-

ClU7'eNS

ApprOVBllsSUB

## Normally Closed Contael

Supply

......\1-'

d\

Trip Contael

:I==:::JV

Heat r

v'VVVV

I
I

Heat In

./VVVV

Common Contael

I
I

Figure 5.1:

Bimetallic Element

Motor

## Normally Closed Contael

Normally Open Contael

ammon Contael
Plunger Attracted Upwards With
Increasing Current
riflce

16'\,ij-

Supply

-3-

'""

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

But. movement is slowed by the viscosity of the oil, and the size of the orifice
in the dashpot. Hence the time delay is controlled by the size of the orifice
and the viscosity ofthe oil. This time delay will allow for short increases in
current demand, but will trip the motor for sustained overloa(J. During
heavy overload conditions, this type ofrelay will trip somewhat faster due to
the large magnetic forces produced.
The time delays of both relays considered thus far are governed by inverse
current/time characteristics. Recall that fuses also have inverse current/time
relationships'. For currents that are several times the normal rating of the
fuse, it has a fast operating time, but for currents close to its normal rating the
operating time is slow. Figure 5.3 (a fold-<lut drawing at the end of the
module) is a simplified inverse current/time graph showing the characteristics of a fuse, an electromagnetic relay with oil dashpot and a thermal relay.
Using the example of an induction motor with a nonnal running current of 8
amps and a starting time of 5 seconds at 48 amps, these characteristics show
the range of overcurrent protection offered by each device. The figure also
shows the motor thennal damage curve allowing you to assess the merits of
each protective device.
Notice from Figure 5.3 that the l6A fuse will only protect against the stall
condition (or problems during starting that lead to the motor drawing starting
current for longer than about 2S seconds). It will blow before the motor
suffers thermal damage at 48 amps (about 45 seconds). The thermal relay
protects against long duration operation at overload just below the service
factor (at about 8.8 amps. in this case) but will not alleviate a stall situation
before serious damage occurs. The electromagnetic relay with oil dashpot
combines the advantages of both other devices and gives complete
protection for start, stall and continuous overload conditions.
Another type of electromagnetic relay with a time delay is the inductiontype relay. Induction-type relays are the most widely used protective
relaying where ac quantities are involved. One such relay is the induction
disc relay. A simplified sketch of an induction disc relay is shown in Figure
SA. In this relay. two coils producing opposing magnetic fluxes create a
torque on a disc (a current proportional to the load current flows in the
operating coil. Its magnetic circuit induces a current and hence. an out of
phase flux. in the opposing coil The two fluxes together produce a torque on
the disc). A spring provides reverse torque on the disc to counteract the
magnetically produced torque. A thin! smaller magnet is used to produce a
damping effect to control ri. ,,",':SC speed, and also to preveh' the disc from
overshooting when the current returns to nonnal.

Fuse rDlings and CMrtU:ti!1'istics were discussed in yow 426.0-12 Electricity COllTS/!.

-4-

... ,

Appl'ovallssue

## Coune 23' Module 5 - Electric Motor PIOtIlction

NOTES &'REFERENCES

Tapped
Operating Coil

~ops ""'shown) ~

Rotation
as Flux
Changes

~:.~tr-.,

Not shown in
skelCh below.

,,'

.
I

~L..I~

s.....

Stationary
Contact

::~ fi1

""==;!.\fampin g Magnet
~

"MOVing Contact
Coil Producing
Opposing Flux

Tapped
Operating Coil

To Current Transformer

r~~~~~~~!~~!_!,,~~3
~

c u jTapping

U
I:
~~;loF1r~""*'~'"

Siock
Providing
Settings
i:_...~.I-- Damping Magnet
"

Stationary Contact

: I

Moving Contact
Coil Producing
Opposing Flux

## Figure 5.4 : Induction Disc Relay

As the current in the operating coil increases, so does the torque on the disc.
When the torque overcomes the spring torque, the disc begins to rotate.
When the moving contact meets the stationary contact on the disc, the trip
will operate.
Tap settings and time characteristic adjusnnenlS can be made to alter the time
delay of the relay (the current/time characteristic is not shown in Figure 5.3
hut can be shaped to match those devices shown).

-5-

"" 1

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Note that the time delay in all of the above relays is beneficial when system
operation of the motor without a trip. Short term overloading will not cause
damage to the motor's insulation.
Our stations also employ small de motors for special applications such as the
drives for the emergency stator cooling pump. emergency generator seal oil
pump and emergency turbine generator lubricating oil pump. Overload
protection methods for these motors are similar to the thermal and
electromagnetic plunger devices described above for ac motors (see Figures
5.1 and 5.2).
Thermal overload relays, typically using iJHine heaters that act on
bimetallic strips, are used to provide an alann in the case of continuous
overload nus is an alarm and not a trip because th~se emergency pumps are
the last resort for the safe shutdown of affected plant equipment.
Unannounc.cd shutdown could have disasterous consequences.

## Magnetic overload protection is provided to trip the de motor in the event of a

short circuit. Again, time delay may be provided by using dashpots or
thermal elements.

## STALLING (LOCKED ROTOR) PROTECTION

Obi. 5.2

>

Stalling, or locking the rotor. is a situation in which the circuits of amotor are
energized but the rotor is not turning. It can occur during motor starting or
operation. For example, mechanical faults such as a seized bearing,
heavy loading, or some type offoreign object caught in a pump could be
possible causes of motor stalling. The loss of a single phase while the
motoris not rotating, or under high load, is another situation in which amotor
may stall
The typical starting time of a motor is less than ten seconds. As long as this
start time is not exceeded, no damage to a motor will occur due to
overheating from the high currents. During operation, a motor could
typically stall for twenty seconds without resulting in excessive
insulation deterioration. Since these two stall conditions have different
characteristics, either two types of stalling protection are needed, or start
protection can be used to cover both cases.
Motors are especially susceptible to overheating during starts, due to high
currents cc",,;;ned with low cooling air flc YS (due to the low speed of the
hlOtor, cooling fans are delivering only small amounts of air). This is also
why some larger motors have a limit on the number ofattempted motor starts
before a cooling off period is required.

-6-

"'1

Approvallssus

Obj.5.1 b) ...

## We use a "stalling relay" to protect motors during starts, since a standard

thennal relay has too much time delay. A stalling relay will allow the motor
to draw normal starting currents (which arc several times normal load
current*) tor a short time, but will trip tbe motor for excessive time at
high currents. A stal1ing relay uses the operating principle of a thennal
overload relay. but operates faster than a standani thennal relay.
Figures 5.5 a & b) show a typical stal1ing relay. By passing the motor current
directly through the bimetallic elements in this relay. the heating is
immediate. just as would be experienced within the windings of the motor.
ROTATION AS
ELEMENTS ' "
HEATICOOL
....

.. \

CONDUCTIVE
MATERIAL

--.
",
CURRENT
IN

/'

CU~~~NjT

-'.

".

AMBIENT
TEMPERATURE
COMPENSATOR

ACTUATING
BIMETAL
ELEMENTS

## Figure 5.5 a): Stalling Relay

This type ofrelay is usually operational only when the motor current is above
3 times the nonnal operating CIJIl"eDt, and is switched out when the current-is
below 2 times the normal operating current This switching in/out is
achieved by the use of an additional contact These high currents are only
typical ofstall and fault conditions (faults will usually be detected by other
relays. which will operate faster than stal1ing relays).

When the motor is or~ting nonnally, the current in this protection scheme
passes through the resistor and bypasses the bimetallic elements. going
through the closed contact (as per the configuration in Figure 5.5 b,

## TIW WQ8 discll.Ue4 ill 1116426.0-14 Eltricily CotU'.

**

A smoll amolUll ofC/U7mlwiU also flow through 1M remaining ptUQ,&l cvcuit. Bur since the
ru~ of the cloud COIIIQct i8 much Ius tluln tlw rD1laUUng circKit, 1M C""~nl flow in the
eve,," psrtllUl to 1M cOlllQct wi/11M insig1lijit:tJnl.

-7-

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

The resistor will limit the current in this circuit (which controls the contaetor
operation). When the cummt reaches 3 times nonnal current, the relay
contacts shown ",verse their positions by the action ofthe control CODtaetor.
The current then bypasses the resistor through the closed contact, and passes
directly through the bimetallic elements. When the current reduces to 2 times
the nonnal operating current, the circuit will return to the nonnal position.
Another popular method of providing this protection is by using a speed
detection probe. This probe detects the speed of the shaft, and sends a signal
to the protection cin:uit, If the speed signal is below a certain value for a
specified time duration (or after a specified amount of time during a start),
the stall protection will trip the motor.

## Electromagnetic relays, such as those described in the previous section can

also be usedfor stalling protection at startup. The time delay of the dashpot or

induction disc may be set to accommodate the startup surge of current in the
motor without causing an unnecessary trip.
If protection for stalling encountered during operation is required, a standard
thermal overload relay can usually be matched to the motor stalling
current-time-heating curve to provide protection.

Resistor For
(not shown in

Fig. 5.5 a)

.~-

Changeover
Contacts

To
Tripping
Circuit

(Shown in non-

startup position)

'Bimetallic
ElementS ........
L_~

ransformer and
Ul)O.><'>v'Control Contaetor

Current From
,
Current Transformer

(Contaclor Clreu"

not shown)

-8-

... ,

App1'ovallssue

## OPEN CIRCUIT/SINGLE PHASING PROTECTION AND

PHASE UNBALANCE PROTECTION
If a supply line to a three phase motor opens, it resulls in the motor
operating asa single pbase motor. This type offault can be caused hyafuse
failure in a single phase (possibly due to the inrush current during a stanup),
or a damaged motor tmninal, etc..
Db}. 5.2 .,.

If the motor continues to operale with an open supply line, it will result in
currenls in lbe winding between tbe remaining two bealtby leads to
exceed two times tbe current normally seen for a given load (caused by
induced circulating cum:nts)*. This will result in rapid, uneven beating
within tbe motor. Tbis will result in damage to insulation, windings,
reduced macbine life, and tbermal distortion.
Ilis also possible that the load torque exceeds the amount of torque produced,
causing the motor to stall. The motor will draw locked rotor current ratings,
which are, on average. 3--6 times full loadcurrent. This will lead to excessive
beating of the windings, and will cause the insulation to be damaged. If the
open ciIcuit is present before the motor stan is attempled, it is unlikely that
the motor will be able to stan rotating.

in the above case of the operating motor, the unbalanced magnetic forces
witbin tbe motor will also cause excessive vibration, resulting in bearing
wear/damage and reduced macbine life.
For imbalances in phase currents/voltages, the above effects will still be

## present, but less severe. Causes of phase imbalance include voltage

regulation or transformer tap changer problems, and faults causing
individual windings to draw excessive currents.
Db}. 5.1 c) ell d) .,.

## Figures 5.6 a) & b) show sketches of a relay arrangement that is used to

protect against a phase imbalance. If anyone of the phases in the motor loses
power, the healer will cool down. The bimetallic strip will turn, causing the
unbalance contacts to close, and the motor to be tripped. This relay will also
protect against thennal overload, as the heaters cause the bimetallic strips to
close the overload trip contact.. You will also see a compensating bimetal
element, which will compensate for ambient temperature changes. thus
preventing unnecessary trips.

How these cwrents an/armed is beyond thtt.sccpe oftltiscows. Yau need only blow tJrat these
clI1'rents circultJting in tM. motor wiU calUfl additional Mali"IJ thle to PR loues.

-9-

"'1

i5 1>0
Cl ~
.. 0

m iii"
:II
..
!J1 c:
rn CD

Phase
Heat Shield

Heal
_~r

\t

ng
li lale

.'

.'

.'

To Trip
, Ciltun

Fixed Point

~~

r'I

r'I

."
V

--=
--=
--=

,.v

::

t:::.-

r'I

.........

-~

~
E-

lV

.'

Scale -

contacts\

Bimetallic
Eleme~t

Indi

"

--=
--=
--=

,
"

n
UL

/..

n
UL

n
UL

Ambient T
Compensat;
Eler

Motor

r
til

.ature
;etallic

i!::

t
~

~
~.

f
is

~ ~

:: "9

...m~

CIl

~
iii
illz ..
c:

rn

.

_ ~ ,

"

HEATER

(olec:lrical
connections

.::..;-J~

~- .....

:.

-"""--i-'""""-

SETTING
__ " POINTER

).?I-..

i
~

!
~

--.

SHAFT

HEAT SHIELD

r.

f
I
s"

Approvellssue

## Timed overload protection protects electric motors from sustained

higher than normal operating currents by tripping the motor before the
mechanical problems causing overload, high resistance ground faults,
and winding shan circuits) cause heating, which results in insulation
damage. Insulation damage will reduce the life of the motor.

Stall (locked rotor) of an electric motor can occur during startup and
operation. During stalls, excessive currents are drawn by the motor,
resulting in excessive heating and insulation damage. Special protective
relays are used to trip the motor if operation at high currents occurs for

excessive time .

Pages 16-17.,.

Single phasing due to the loss of a single supply line will result in the
motor operating as a single phase motor. The winding between the
healthy phases will have currents in excess of two times that ~xpected
for a given load. Protective relays detect the loss of power in any phase
and trip the motor.

Phase unbalance will cause unbalanced currents, with the effects similar
to those seen in single phasing, but less severe. Protection is similar to
that for single phasing.

Obj. 5.2 .,.

## Instantaneous Qvercurrent is usually the result of fault conditions (phase to

phase, phase to ground), in which current now will greatly exceed normal.
Damage due to winding overheating and hurning damage associated with
large fault currents can occur without this type of protection.

## These types of faults can be rapidly detected by differential protection

schemes, as were discussed in Module 3, and cleared before major damage
results. In these simations. fast acting electromagnetic relays will be used to
trip the affected motor*.

## GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

In the detection of ground faults, as with the detection of i""", ,timeous
overcurrents, it is exttemely important that the fault be detected and cleared
quickly to prevent equipment damage. Insulation damaged by heat (from
extended overload operation), brittleness of insulation (due to aging), wet
insulation or mechanically damaged insulation can cause ground faults.

-12-

"'1

ApprOVBllssUB

## Ground fault protection schemes also use differential protection schemes

to detect and clear the faulted equipment (these protection schemes were
discussed in an earlier module). Figure 5.7 shows a protection scheme that
will detect an imbalance ofcurrent between the three phases. If no ground
fault is present, no comnt imbalance is present, hence no current will flow in
the protection circuit.

Obj.5.2 .,.

If a ground fault develops, a current imbalance will be present, and & current
will flow in the protection circuit, causing it to operate. Figure 5.8 shows a
similar protection scheme, with each of the windings of the motor protected
individually (this scheme is not normally installed in small motors. but may
appear in the protection of very large motors).

R--U'--~~------'----_

B---\ \---+.1--------.......,

Motor

-13-

,",I

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

UNDERVOLTAGE PROTECTION
Obj. 5.2.,.

As the voltage supply to a motor drops, the motor Will attempt to deliverthe
same amount of torque for a given load, and will draw higher currents to do
this. This wiD result in excessive heating of the motor windings, resulting
in insulation damage and reduced machine life. To prevent this type of
damage, undervoltage protection is utilized. Undervoltage protection wiD
trip the supply/loads from a bus, if the voltage on that bus reduces to levels
that could cause problems.
Another benefit of this type of protection is to prevent all loads from
automatieaIly restarting at the same time, when voltage to a system is
restored Loads are usually introduced slowly to allow the generator to
stabilize its power prodoction before more loads are placed on the generator
anyway, which help in this situation). If the loads are all automatically
reconnected at oneeto .re-<:nergized bus, the voltage on that bus will likely
drop, and the loads will likely trip again on undervollage. Another danger
of automatic re-loading if the voltage is quickly restored is that the supply
and load currents will be out of phase, resulting in current surges and

Obj. 5.1 g) .,.

## Undervoltage protection can be achieved by an electromagnetic relay (an

example is shown in Figure 5.9). This relay holds the annatore to the coil as

long as the voltage remains above the desired amount, keeping the normally
open contacts of the relay closed. If voltage drops, the coil can no longer hold
the annature, and the relay contacts will open. In this type of protection, there
will also be a time delay built in (usually by a timer) to prevent operation
during voltage transients (ie. if the voltage is quickly restored, the trip will
not occur). The voltage drop and time delay are chosen such that
re-energizing the load will not result in excessive demands on the system.

~.

t r[

non~nergized

(trip) position
!

Normally
I@)
0
I

## n fl..(.l.(l n. t:).. - - - - - - - - rl:J tJl:J U-l:J tJl- - -- .

- - - - j:).

I I I II I I I I I I I I I

To Potential
Transformer

-14-

Open

Contacts

Approvellssue

## Instantaneous overcurrent protection is achieved via differential

schemes employing fast-acting electromagnetic relays. This will
prevent damage to winding insulation due to overheating and the
burning damage associated with large electrical faults. Ground and
winding faults could be causes of instantaneous overcorrents.

## Ground faults are detected and cleared quickly by differential protection

schemes to prevent damage to winding insulation due to overheating.

## Deteriorated insulation, wet insulation or mechanically damaged.

insulation can cause ground faults.

Pages 17-19 ~

## Undervoltage protection. via electromagnetic relays. is used to prevent

motors from drawing excessive currents to maintain torque output with
reduced supply voltages. These excessive currents cause greater than
normal heating, which will result in insulation damage, and reduce the
life of the motor.

the same time if bus voltage drops too low. Re-synchronizing with
currents out of phase will cause current surges and mechanical stresses
on the machine.

-15-

""I

Approval Issue

ASSIGNMENT
I.

motor:

2.

## If timed overload protection did not work. the consequence to an electric

motor is as follows:

3.

electric motor:

4.

is as follows:

-16-

.."

Approvellssue

5.

## Explain how single phasing or phase imbalance protection is used to

protect an electric motor:

6.

a)

b)

7.

electric motor:

a)

b)

-17 -

""',

Approvellssue

8.

to

a)

b)

9.

a)

b)

motor:

- t8-

Apptovallssue

## 11. If undervoltage protection did Dot work. the consequences to an electric

motor are as follows:
a)

b)

c)

Before you move on to the next mooule. review the objectives and make
sure that you can meet their requirements.
Prepared by:
Revised by:
Revision date:

-19-

Paul Bird, WNTD
July,l992

~1

Approvellssue

## Coune 23S Module 5 - Electric Motor Proteenon.

10 k

.....

. .

,I,

il

Motor Runnin

1eA Fuse

:J;\~

...

.'

::

::

,,,~
,
,,
,
, '~~-:--:--\~'-~
~.
~ - - - ~ .. :~

TIME IN
SEC.

100

50

,,:

..

......... '

......" , - _

.:.

Thermal Relay

:-

Motor Thermal

,,
.
,I
:'\~ ~--.....! - - ?amage CUlVe

I
';,'":-~~~~~"-~-':~~"~,;;~"'(

.-

-,

30

,, ,
-, -,

10

5
Motor Starting
Time 58

I
I
,
I
I

I
I
I
,
1

.,.,
I
I

0.01

,,
,

,:\

1k

0.1

,,

Current SA

1.0

--

:r~

,
- -'-

I
I

I
I
I
I

,"

Current Taken by
Stalled Motor

I '

I
I

,._,-

' "

,
I

## Motor Starting '--1:~~

Current 48A
I
I

_ 1_

Electromagnetic
Relay With Oil

,''OcBihpot

'I
I I
I I

_ ,_,

.....

: -: ~
,
I
I

,
., ,,,
,

Fuse Blows

I
I
I

:,'
I
I

,_
I

..

--

- -

,
-,, ,
,
,

-. .

-.

0.001.J-------~..;..~--~-~~-L~-;.....--~200
1
8 9 10
20
30
50
100

CURRENT IN AMPERES

## Figure 5.3: CurrentlTime Characteristics for

a Fuse and Protective Relays

-20-

.."

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Module 6

POWER TRANSFORMER
PROTECTION
OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:
6.1

## Explain how each of the following protection schemes can be used to

provide protection of a power transfonner:

a)

b)

## Transfonner winding temperature,

Page. 54 .,.

c)

Differential protection,

d)

Ground fault.

6.2

## For each of the schemes listed in 6.1, give an example of a fault

requiring the protection scheme to operate and the consequence to
the transfonner if the protection scheme failed to operate.

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
This module will discuss various protection schemes used for the protection
of power transfonners.

Obj. 6.1(a) .,.

## The transfonner gas relay is a protective device installed on the top of

oil-filled transfonners. It perfonns two functions. It detects the slow
accumulation of gases, providing an alarm after a given amount of gas has
been collected. Also, it responda to a sudden presaure change that
accompanies a high rate of gas production (from a major internal fault),
promptly initiating disconnection of the transformer.

-1-

... ,

Approvellssue

## An incipient fault, or developing fault, usually causes slow fonnation ofgas

(the process of gas fonnation is discussed later in this section). Examples of
incipient faults are:
a)

c)

## minor tap changer troubles;

d) core faults.
A major fault is one that results in a fast fannadan of a large volume of

a)

## Failure to disconnect the transfonner under fault conditions can result in

severe equipment damage from high gas and oil pressures and the
effects of the electrical fault.

## Generation of Gas Due to Transformer Faults

Internal ttaDsfonner electrical fauits result in the production of ionized

## gases. A significant volume of gas is frequently genemted in the early stages

of a fault by mpid oil breakdown. The genemted gases rise through the oil to
the top of the equipment and collect in the gas relay. Once a sufficient
volume of gas has accumulated., an alann is generated by contacts within the
gas relay.
In the event ofa gas alann, it is necessary to sample and analyze the gas being

genemted. This analysis. together with knowledge of the rate at which gas is
accumulating. will determine the proper course ofaction. If a fault is thought
to be developing. the device must be removed from service. Ignoring this
early warning sign can lead to severe equipment damage as the fault
progresses.
Several types of transfonner gas relays are in use within Ontario Hydro. The
next section describes the operation of a typical device.

## Operation of a Transformer Gas Relay

A typical transformer gas relay consisIS of two chambers. each perfonning a
distinct function. A simplified cross-section ofa gas relay is shown in Fig'JI'e

6.1.
The relay assembly consists of a gas accumulation chamber mounted
directly over a pressure chamber. The accumulation chamber collects slowly
produced gases. A float located in this parrially oil-filled chamber moves as
the gas volume increases. It operates an alann switch when the amount ofgas

-2-

... ,

Apptovellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

....--Relay Body

MicroswiICh
AIann

F100l

TlBIIsformer Oil
Connection

""',,------ .( r---I
I

Top of Transformer

T~l
------'

:"

I
I
I
IL

Pre""!,,L

ChlUDber

..J-_-=
Pressure Equalizing

Orifice

Diaphragm

## Figure 6.1: Cross Section of a Typical

Transformer Gas Relay
collected reaches a specified level. An indicator coupled to the float also
provides a means to monitor the rate at which gas is being generated.
The second chamber, a pressure chamber, connects directly to the
tt8nsfonner oil circuit. It connects vertically to the accumulation chamber,
providing a path for the rising gas. An air-filled bellows within the pressure
chamber acts as the pressure change detector. A sudden pressure surge in the
oil compresses the belows and forces the air within to move a diaphragm.
The moving diaphragm actuates a switch that initiates tripping of the
transformer.

## The relay must be configured in such a way as to act on pressure changes

caused by internal faults, but compensate for pressure changes occurring
under normal operating conditions.
"Steady state" pressure changes occur at a mU<.h slower rate than those
resulting from internal faults, and a pressure equalizing orifice is provided on
the relay to make it insensitive to theserelatively slow pressure changes. This
orifice is a very small opening in the diaphragm suppan. Should the bellows
be compressed slowly, the pressure will not build up in the air chamber and
the microswiteh is not operated. If. however, a sudden pressure is applied,

-3-

... ,

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

tho pressure equalizing orifice is too small to relieve the pressure and the
microswilCh will operate.
Sudden pressures, such as oil circulating pump surges, are normal operating
events and the relay must be set to ride through them. In practice, it is
necessary to make sure the relay is set to operate at about? kPa (1 psi) above
the maximum oil circulating pump surge pressure.
Dangerously high pressure increases from major faults are relieved by an
explosion vent on the top of the transformer tank. This is basically a
diaphragm sea1ed pipe with its open end directed away from the transformer.
A significant increase in pressure bursts the diaphragm and discharges gases
and hot oil with a possibility of resulting fire.

## TRANSFORMER WINDING TEMPERATURE

Heat is generated in a power transformer by current flow in the primary and

## the secondary windings as well as internal connections due to PR losses. At

low loads, the quantity of heat produced will be small. But, as the load
increases, the amount of heat becomes significant At full load. the windings
will be operating at or near their design temperature. The nameplate on a

transfonner will provide infonnation on the maximum allowable "inservice" temperature rise for its windings and connections and will indicate
what method of cooling is employed to remove the heat generated under
load. A temperature of about 105 C is considered to be the normal maximum
working value for large power transfonners. based on an assumed maximum
ambient temperature of 40 C.

## The winding temperature is sensed and indicated hy a winding

temperature gauge/alarm assembly. Figure 6.2 shows a typical arrangement. The purpose of this gauge is to provide a thermal image of the hottest
point within the transformer. The sensing bulb of the assembly is placed in a
well located near the top of the transformer tank. The well is immersed in the
hot transformer oil. A heating coil, supplied from a load sensing current
transformer, is installed around' the sensing bulb to provide a local

temperature rise above the general oil temperature. The effect of the heating
coil, coupled with the heat of the oil on the bulb, allows the gauge to simulate
the winding temperature "hot spots".

## Obj. 6.2 <=>

Operation of tho transformer above its rated voltage by even 10 % can cause a
significant temperature rise, initiating an over--ternperature alann. Over
voltage operation may be a result 0f tap ch..'f:..r or voltage regulation
problems. Such over-tettlperature operation can lead to physical insulation
damage reducing the useful life of the insulation and thus the life of lhe

unit.

-4-

,,",I

Approval Issue

## A temperature rise of 8 - 10 'C beyond the nonnal maximum working value,

ifsustained, will halve the life ofthe unit. Unchecked overloading of a power

-Bushing

Sensing
Bulb
"IJ1A'.fV\_ :

/J-+~
Winding Temp.
IndicalDr and
AIann Unit

Oil Filled

,.A./VI..,J

-----"

Transformer

Shield

~_-+- Windings

## Figure 6.2: Transformer Winding

Temperature Sensor

DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION
Obi. 6.1(c) .,.

Transfonner windings can be protected by differential protection methods. The concept of differential protection was introduced in Module 4. A

Single Phase
Transfonner

CT,

it

## Figure 6.3: Simple Differential Protection

for a Transformer

-5-

R""

Approvallssua

## Inter-winding faults (shon circuits) and ground faults within power

transfonners can be detected by this protection scheme. Failure to detect
these faults and quickly isolate the transfonner may cause serious damage to
the device.
The transfonner shown in Figure 6.3 is a single phase step-up transfonner.
Note that cr. and CT. will have ratios such that, under nonnal full load
conditions on the power transfonner, the currents II and iz will be equal.

Thus, the relay has no current flow and will not operate.
A more complicated protection circuit is shown in Figure 6.4 (a fold out
drawing at the end of the module). Here a generator and its transformers are
protected by two separate differential schemes. For simplicity, both the main
power circuit and the relay circuits have been drawn as single line diagrams
(remember that there would be 'a CT and a relay for each phase).

## An examination should be made of the zones of protection, noting the

overlap of the zones on the unit service transfonner connection.
Note again that when transfOrmers are included in the primary circuit, the
ratios of the crs may not be the same but their secondary outputs will be the
same for the same value of supply/load power.
Consider the case of a fault in line Ll at point A. The secondary currents
through the Main Transfonner Differential Relay will no longer be baianced
and it will operate.

A similar situation arises for a fault at point B. In this case, only the Unit
Service Transformer Differential Relay will operate.

For a fault at point C. which is in the overlap area of both protection zones,
both differential protection circuits will have unbalanced current flows and
thus, both relays will operate.

In any of the three cases discussed above. failure of the protective relays to
operate would result in severe damage to the equipment.
Should a fault occur on the 4 kY bu. bar at point D, neither relay will operate.
The fault will be cleared by other protection on the 4 kY bus bar.
Because the differential relay will not operate with load current or faults
outside the protected zones ("through faults"), it can be set to operate at a
low value of current thereby giving rapid operation when a fault occurs.
There is no need 10 time delay the operation of the relay and therefore a fast
acring type of relay can be us~ 1.

-6-

""',

ApprovSllSSUB

## COUIle 235 Module 6 - Power Transfonner Protection

NOTES' REFERENCES

## GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

Obj. 6.1(4) ...

Large power transformers are protected from ground faults by the use of
current transformers on the grounded neutral of their star or wye

connections. The cr connects to arelay that detects any current flow (since
this is the return path for fault current) and trips the power transformer. For

## example, a single CT is located on the grounded neutral of the high voltage

side of the Main Transformer as the primary ground fault protection. Other

## power transformers, such as the Unit Service Transformer, employ a cr on

the low voltage grounded neutral as a means of back-up ground protection.
(The back-up relay will operate for ground faults outside of the differential
protection zone for the transformer, if employed.)
Figure 6.5 shows a typical ground fault protection circuit for a power

t::.y

Relay

## Figure 6.5: Ground Fault Protection

for a Star Winding
More complete protection involves both differential and ground fault circuits
on a given transformer. See Figure 6.6 (a foid out drawing at the end of the
module). In this case, there is both ground fault protection on the
secondary and differential protection for the entire transformer. The
phase correcting transformer for both these protection circuits (delta-litar
creates a -30 0 phase angle shift) has been omitted from the figure for clarity.

## A description of circuit operation follows below and considers the cases of

two fal11 t locations.

## Obj. 6.2 ...

First, consider the case of a ground fault at point A. Since this fault occurs
within the zone protected by the ground fault relay, this relay will sense the

current flow in the secondary winding common (the return path for the fauh
current) and act to trip the circuit breaker. Note that the differential

protection zone for the transformer as a whole will also sense an imbalance
on its two CTs and tend to act. The operation of this relay will typically be

-7-

"'1

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

slower than the ground fault relay since the operating current flowing
through it is less than that through the ground fault relay. A ground fault that
persists unchecked can result in severe damage to the device from high fault

currents.
For a ground fault at point B, outside the differential protection zone, the
situation is very different. No cunent imbalance is detected by the
differential protection relay, therefore it doesn't act to clear the fault. The
ground fault relay will detect the return flow of the fault current through the
star winding common and begin to act The protective relaying for the load
bus should act to clear the fault but, should it fail, the ground fault relay
would fully opctate and uip the breaker.
Further experience with back-up ground fault protection has led to the
design of the HIROP (Illgh Resistance ground and Qpen Phase) protection
scheme. This scheme is being installed throughout the Bulk Elecuicity
System (BES) to detect either an open phase or a high resistance ground fault
and selectively isolate the faulted zone.

Pages 9-11

## A transformer gas relay can provide protection for a power transfonner

by detecting the build up of gases within the transformer and/or by
reacting to sudden pressure surges due to major faults.

## The winding temperature of a power transformer can be monitored by a

sensor to protect from prolonged over-temperature operation which can

## Differential protection techniques can be used to protect transformers

and associated equipment from faults within defined zones.

## A single cunent transformer and relay can be placed on the grounded

neutral of a star winding to protect the transformer from ground faults.

-8-

,",I

Approval Issue

ASSIGNMENT
1.

transfonner ?

2.

3.

-9-

... ,

ApprovallssUB

4.

## For the differential protection circuit shown below.

Main

Ll.

HV Circuit

Transformer

Breaker

230kV

Main Transfonner
Differential Relay

US~~"4

LV Circuit

Transformer
~;::;;;;;;;;;;;;;"-.-I.\IT-

~4 kV Bus
~

DU:fmntial Relay

Explain:
a)

b)

c)

d)

-10-

""' I

ApprOVBllssue

5.

## Explain the operation of lrallsformer ground fault protection.

Before you move on to the next module, review the objectives and make
sure that you can meet th~ir requirements.
Prepared by:

Revision dale:

-11-

July,lm

R.ovl

Approval Issue

L.

## Protection Zone for

Main Transfonner

r----------.-- ~or:~ReIaY
I
I

I. I'

t:.

Unit Service,~..j.--'l
Transfonner

Connection

Main
Transfonner

I
..JI

-..:-

HV Circuit
Breaker

Ll~
230kY
Main Transfonner

Differential Relay

.. _-_ .. __ . __ ......

Usnit.

eI'VlCe

,
I

LV Circuit
Breaker

j'D

~T:::ransfi=orm:::er::....;.'-p.1\-66>-,..,.,~

,,

4kYBus

!'orecti~~L-~-'='--~-..:.-~--~-.=.--~-.=.-~--..:.-~--~-.=.--~-":"-l[=:k.
for Unit Service Transfonner

## Unit Service Transfonner

Differential Relay

Diffuential Relay

Figure 6.4:
Typical Protection Diagram Showing Differential Protection
Schemes for Main and Unit Service Transformers

-12-

... ,

Apptovallssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

_lien

Transformer Differential
Relay

LV
Circuit

Breaker

Ground Fault
Protective Relay

Figure 6.6:
Distribution Transformer Protection
Loop With Ground Fault Protection

-13-

,",I

Apptovsllssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Module 7

GENERATOR PROTECTION
OBJECTIVES:
After completing this module you will be able to:

Pag.2

7.1

7.2

## Explain how each of the following protection schemes could be used

to provide protection of a generatOr:

Pag.s2-4~

a)

Pag.sU ~

b)

Pag.7~

c)

## Generator phase unbalance,

Pag.7~

d)

Generatorlossoffiel~

Pag.9~

e)

Overexcitation.

Pag.9~

f)

Generator underfrequency,

Pag.10~

Pag.s 10-11

## g) Generator out of step,

h) Excitation rectifier overcurrent.

Pag.. I1-12~
Pag.. 4-11~

i)

7.3

Motoring.

## For each of the schemes listed in 7.2, give an example of a fault

requiring the protection scheme to operate and the consequence to
the generator if the protection scheme failed to operate.

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
This module concentrates on the protection schemes used for the protection
of generators and the consequences of their failure to operate. A brief
discussion will also be given on the operation of the various types of
protective relays, but you will not be required to memorize this

information.

-1-

Approvellssue

## As with electrical motor protection, the protection schemes that will be

discussed have some similarities and overlap. This is advantageous. since not
all generators have all of the protection schemes listed in this module. In fact,
there are many protection schemes available. only the more common ones are
discussed. here.

## CLASSES OF TURBINE GENERATOR TRIPS

Obi. 7.1

There are different classes of protecove nips for generators. -each with
different actions, depending on the cause and potential for damage. Each of
the four Classes of nip (A, B, C, &D) are discussed below.
Class A trips will completely separate the generator from tbe grid, and
sbut down tbe turbine generator (ie. it will nip the turbine and the field
breaker). Typical causes could be generator electrical protection, main
transformer electrical protection, ground faults or,any other cause which may
directly affect the unit's safe electrical output.

Class B trips will disconnect the generator from the grid, but will leave
tbe turbine generator supplying the unit load. Typical initiation of this
event is a grid problem, thus resulting in this loss of load.
Class C trips are generator overexcitation trips, and are activated only if
the generat9I' is not connected to the grid (it may still be supplying the unit
loads). Typical causes of this overexcitation are manually applying too much
excitation, or applying excitation current below synchronous speed (this will
be discussed later in this module).

Class D trips the turbine and then trips the generator after motoring
(motoring is discussedin the 234Turbine and-Auxiliaries course). The causes
of this type of nip are associated with mechanical problems with the turbine
generator set
Each of these trips, along with their causes and exact effects, will be
discussed further in your station specific training.

Obi. 7.2 a)~

## Differential protection, as described in Module 3, can be used to detect

internal faults in the windings of generators, including ground faults,
sbort circuits and open circuits. Possible causes of faults are damaged

## insulat;9n due to aging, overheating, over-voltage, wet insulation and

mecbanical damage.
Examples of the application ofdifferential protection are shown in Figure 7.1
which considers a generator winding arrangement with multiple windings,
two per phase (this type of differential protection is also called split phase
protection for this reason).

-2-

... ,

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Generator Tel111lnals

.o
o
o

------

-.

o
o

Protection :
Zones ,

o
o
o
o

o
o
o
o

,o
,,"
,,
,,
,

Neutral
Connection
To Ground
aj Heahhy
Phase

bl

Fau~ed

c) Open Circuit in

Phase

the Phase

## Figure 7.1: Differential Protection for Generator

Windings (Split Phase Protection)
In Figure 7.1 aJ, the currents in the two windings will be balanced, causing
the ClllTents in the protection circuit to be balanced. Hence in this case, the
differential relay will not operate.

In Figure 7.1 bJ, a ground fault is shown on one of the windings. In this case
the faultcutTent direction is shown, and it will be unbalanced. This will result
in unbalanced secondary currents in the protection circuit, causing the
differential relay to operate. Similarly, a"short circuit" within a winding will
cause the two winding currents to be unmatched, causing the differential
relay to operate.
In Figure 7.1 c), an optn circuit is shown, resulting in no current in the one
winding. Again, the unbalanced currents will cause the differential relay to
operate.
'd~

## In generators with single windings per phase, differential protection could be

used across each end of the windings.

-3-

""I

Approvsllssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

This latter type of differential protection scheme could be used to protect the
windings of the generator and the main transfonner, by optimum placement
of the current transformers. Figure 7.2 shows the differential scheme with the

current transformers located at the output side of the main transformer, the
connection for the unit service transfonner and on the generator winding at
the center of the star connection. This puts the generator winding and main
transformer windings within the zone of protection for this differential
scheme. Note that the current transformers will require a different ratio, since

## theane current nansformeris on the output side of the main tl'ansfonnef"l'.

Main

Transformer

,..........,.\A-(G}--""'---<:

>--.+Ir..-{
Differential

Relay

~>---

Unit Service
Transformer

Connection

Unit Service
Transformer

Figure 7.2:

## Differential Protection Scheme For The

Generator (and Main Transformer)

If the faults listed earlier are not cleared, then the risk ofinsulation damage
will occur due to overheating. as well as damage from arcing if the

## GENERATOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

Obj. 7.2 bi =:>

In the pre0.olls section, we have seen how differential protection can be used
to protect against a ground fault in the windings of the generator itself.

## Another method of detecting faults is to monitor the neutral connection for

corront flows. In Figure 7.3, the grounding of the generator neutral
connection is dune through a neutral grounding transfonner. A ground fault
in the generator windings (similar to the case shown in Figure 7.1), tenninals
orequipment on-line will cause unbalanced current flows in the phases. This
unbalanced corrent Dow will cause a corrent Dow to the neutral

## This clU7'wwill alsorequiTephase co"ectioll. since the transformaJiotIwill have calUdphase

shifts. How this p1uJse shift is corrected is beyond the scope ofthis course.

-4-

"'1

ApprovalisSUB

## (ground) connection. The current flowing in the neutral to ground will

cause a current to be induced on the secondary side of the transfonner as
well. Once the voltage in the secondary side of this transfonner reaches a
preset level, the voltage relay will operate. The resistor seen in the diagram is
sized to limit the ground fault current and thus minimize the damage to the
generator stator core and winding insulation when a ground fault develops.

Generator Terminals

Neutral

Connection

Transformer

GrInding
Resistor

Windings
Obj. 7.3

=!>

## Possible causes of ground faults are insulation damage due to aging,

overheating, over-voltage. wet insulation and mechanical damage. If the
. faults are not cleared, then the risk of insulation damage will occur due to
overheating (as a result of high currents), or damage from arcing if the

## ROTOR GROUND FAULT PROTECTION

Obj. 7.3

=!>

The windings on the rotor of an ac generator produce the magnetic field at the
poles. In four pole generators (typical of 60 Hz, 1800 rpm units). the

## occurrence of a single ground fault within the rotor generally has no

detrimental effects. A second ground fault, however, can have disastrous
results. It can cause pan of the rotor winding to be bypassed which alters the
shape of the otherwise balanced flux pattern. Excessive vibration and even
rotor/stator contact may result.

-5-

.."

Approvellssue

## Obj. 7.2 bi """

A means of detecting the first ground fault provides protection against the

effects of a second fault to ground on the rotor. Figure 7.4 shows a simplified
excitation system with a ground fault detection (GFD) circuit'. The GFD is
connected to the positive side of the exciter source.

r---------;:::l.,Reid
Winding

L----r----=:r+
Current Umitlng Resistor

Auxmary

IIC

A.C. Supply

## Figure 7.4: Ground Fault Detection

on Excitation System
A ground fault occurring anywhere within the excitation system and rotor
winding will cause current to flow' through the limiting resistor (the voltage
at the fault point will add to the bias voltage and cause a current flow through
the GFD circuit), the GFD relay, the bias supply to ground and then back to
the fault location. Current flow through the GFD relay brings in an alarm.

Rotor grolllfdfau1l protection was tkaltwith in your 335.05-1 Electrit:D1 Systems COUTS#!.

-6-

Approve/issue

Obi. 7.3 :>

Obi. 7.2 c)

:>

## If the generator continues to operate with a phase imbalance, CUIrents in the

windings will increase due to additional Induced circulating currents"
(these cum:nis will also cause heating of other internal components of the
generator). This will result in rapid and uneven heating within the
generator. Possible damage to Insulation and windings (hence, reduced
machine life), and tbermal distortion could occur.
A specialized relay to detect these circulating cum:nts, called a Negative
Sequence Current Relay (since the "induced" cum:nts are called negative
sequence currents"), is used to detect the phase imbalance within the
generator during unbalanced fault conditions. A differential scheme could be
used between the three phases to detect excessive variations in current
The unbalanced magnetic forces within the generator due to these cum:nts
will also cause excessive vibration. This may result in bearing wear/damage and reduced macbine life, and may result in a bigb vibration trip"".
Causes of phase imbalance include unequal load distribution, grid faults
and windings faults.

Obi. 7.3

:>

## When a generator develops insufficient excitation for a given load, the

terminal voltage will decrease. and the generator will operate at a more
lesding power factor with a larger load angle. If the load angle becomes too
large, loss ofstability and pole slipping will occur. More infurmation about
pole slipping will be presented later in this module, and more about stability
will be presented in Module 8.

## A loss offield could be caused by an exciter or rectifier failure, automatic

voltage regulator failure, accidental tripping of tbe field breaker, short
circuits in the field currents, poor brush contact on the sliprings, or ac
power loss to tbe exciters (either from the station power supply or from the
shaft generated excitation current).
Obi. 7.2 d):>

Relays that sense conditions resulting from a loss of field, such as reactive
power flow to the machine, internal impedance changes as a result of field
changes or voltage decreases, may be used fur the detection of the loss of
field. A field breaker limit switch indicating that the breaker is open also
gives an indication that there is no field to the generator.

## HowtM#cwrenuanfortMd isbeyoNithescopcoftlUscOIIFH. y~ nadonJy.blow that thue

CIln'DW circld4ting in 1M genuQ/Of' will causft tJddilioMl hbUing due to PR losses.

.. Trips of the whine-generator initiated by high vibration signals an discussed in the 234

-7-

... ,

Approvallssua

## SUMMARY OF THE KEY CONCEPTS

Cl&Ss A trips will completely separate the Unit from the grid, and shut

## down the turbine generator.

Class B trips will disconnect the generator from the grid, but will leave
the turbine generator supplying the unit loads.

## Class C trips are generator overexcitation trips.

Cl&Ss D trips will trip the turbine and then trip the generator after
motoring.

## Generator differential protection can be used for protection against

winding ground faults, shorts and open circuits.

The flow of fault currents can arise from insulation damaged due to
aging, overheating, moisture or mechanical damage.

## Ground faults can also be detected by current through the neutral

grounding transformer.

## Ground faults on the rotor are detected by a ground fault detection

system connected. to the positive bus of the exciter circuit. The first
ground fault is alarmed, allowing action to be taken to prevent the
consequences of a second ground fault

## Ph&Se imbalance can be caused by unequal load distribution, grid faults

and windings faults. Phase imbalance will induce circulating currents.
which will result in rapid. uneven heating within the generator. This will

## result in damage to insulation and windings (hence. reduced machine

lifel, and thermal distortion. Unbalanced magnetic forces within the
generator will also cause excessive vibration, resulting in a possible
high vibration trip.

## A negative sequence current relay can be used to detect phase imbalance

conditions and initiate protective action. A differential scheme could
also be used.

Loss of field protection will prevent the generator from pole slipping.
which can result in mechanical shocks to the turbine generator. This can
be caused by an exciter failure, automatic voltage regulator failure,
accidental tripping of the field breaker, shorl circuits in the field
currents, poor brush contact on the sliprings, or ac power loss to the
exciters.

Loss of field can be detected by special relays that sense reactive power
flow to the machine or internal impedance changes.

-8-

,,",I

Approvellssue

Obi. 7.3 ~

## If the generator is required to produce greater than rated voltage at rated

speed (or rated voltage below rated speed), the field current must be
increased above normal (generated voltage is proportional to frequency and
flux*). The excess current in the rotor and generated voltage will result in
overfluxlng of the generator stator iron, and the iron cores of the main and
unit service transformers. Damage due to overheating may result in these
components. Ovcrvoltage may also cause breakdown ofinsulation, resulting
in faults/arcing.

This problem may occur on generators that are connected to the grid if they
experience generator voltage regulation problems. It may also occur for
units during start-up or ,.....ynchroniZing following a trip (the field breaker
should open when the turbine is tripped. At low frequencies, the field
discharge resistor should prevent tenninal voltage from reaching dangerous
levels**). Overexcitation in these instances may be a result of equipment
problems or operator error in applying excessive excitation prematurely
(excitation should not be applied to the generator until it reaches ncar
synchronous speed).

## A specializcd voltslhcrtz relay is used to detecrthis condition, and will trip

the generator if excessive volts/hertz conditions are detected.

## GENERATOR UNDERFREQUENCY PROTECTION

While connected to a stable grid, the grid frequency and voltage are usually
constant If the system frequency drops excessively. it indicates that there
has been a significant increase in load*. This could lead to a serious
problem in tbe grid, and it is of little use to supply a grid tbat may be
about to collapse. In this case, the generator would be separated from tbe
grid. The grid (or at least portions ofit) may well collapse. The system can
slowly rebuild (with system generators ready to restore power) to proper,
pre-<:ollapse operating conditions;
~

## As mentioned above, if a generator connected to the grid has sufficient

excitation applied below syncbronous speed (since grid frequency has
dropped) for it to produce rated voltage, the excitation level is acrually higher
than that required at synchronous speed. Overexcitation, and the problems
described above, may result.

7.2f)~

## A specialized volts/hcrtx1'lOlay compares voltage level and frequency and

will trip the generator if preset voltslhcrtz levels are exceeded

Obi. 7.3

Obi.

oil.

oil. .

-9-

"'1

Approvellssue

## GENERATOR OUT OF STEP PROTECTION

Obj.

7.3~

This protects the generator from continuing operation when the generator is
pole slipping. Pole slipping will result in mechanical rotational impacts to
the turbine, as the generator slips in and out of synchronism. This can be
the result of running in an under excited condition (see the section on loss
of field), or a grid fault that has not cleared.

## Relays thatdeteetchanges in impedance ofthe generatorcan be used to detect

the impedance changes that will occur when the unit slips poles. Another
method to provide this protection is to detect the loss of excitation, using the
loss of field protection, and trip the unit if excitation is too low (ie. trip the
generator when pole slipping is imminent). This has been discussed in the
loss of field section of t1iis module.

Obj. 7.2 g)

## GENERATOR RECTIFIER OVERCURRENT

PROTECTION
Individual rectifiers (part of the exciters) are used to provide the DC current,
whicb produce tbe field for the generator rotor. The power supply for the
rectifiers can be either from a sm:ul ac generator on the shaft of the main
generator, or from a station power supply *.
7.3~

As the amount of current through the rectifiers increases. the generator field
increases. This current must be limited to prevent damage due to
overheating. Complete loss ofthe rectifier can occur if the protective device
for the circuit operates, if the rectifier has a component fault, or if the unit has
tripped on overload or high temperature (these units require cooling to
dissipate heat produced). Causes ofrectifier overcurrent could be overexcitation due to some voltage regulation fault, or a grid fault requiring higher
than nonnal excitation.

## Protection against high rectifier current varies between stations. In some

stations, high rectifiers currents will initiate trips of exciters, and in others,
only alarms are generated (an indication that some action will be required).
Overcurrent protection can be provided by fuses **, and by current relays
(whose details were mentioned in a previous module).

Obj.

## Excitation systems, as with many systems in our stations, have redundant

components. For example, an exciter may have 6 rectifier sections, with only
five of them required to operate the generator at full power. In this example.
the loss or ~.vre than one rectifier will result in the overall capacity of the
exciter being reduced. If the exciter was forced to produce the current

*.

-10-

Approvsllssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

and these rectifiers will also be lost Some stations will allow continued
operation with minced number of rectifiers in service, but generator
excitation (hence load) will be limited by remaining field current
capacity. By not having the field. CUITent available to "stiffen" the
generator's connection to the grid. the system stability is at risk.
The rectifiers have an overload capacity, but the duration that they can
sustain this overload is limited. This overload capacity is requiml when grid
faults result in mluced voltage, power or frequency changes. A power
stabilizing system, upon "seeing a grid problem", will call foran increase in
excitation to maintain grid stability. This is known as field forcing. If the
number of rectifiers is limited, and field forcing is required, it can/will
overload the remaining rectifiers. resulting in a total loss ofexcitation (hence
production). To prevent this, the ability to rreld force is reduced to a value
dependent upon the number ofrectifier sections in service. This will result in
a less secure electrical supply.

MOTORING
Obj. 7.3 =>

## Motoring refers to the process of an ac generator becoming a synchronous

motor, that is, the device changing from'a producer of electrical power to a
consumer of it. Following a reactor trip or setbacklstepback to a very low
power level. it is beneficial to enter the motoring mode of turbine generator
operatinn. However, this is not a desirable mode of operation for standby
or emergency generators. They are not designed to operate in this manner.
and can be seriously damaged if power is allowed to flow in the wrong
direction.

## A means ofindicaling when the ttansition from exporter to importer ofpower

occurs is pro\1id.e4 by a device known as a reverse power relay. As its name
suggests, it is triggered by power flowing in a direction opposite to that
which is normally desired. This can be used for generator protection, as is the
case with standby generators, or as a permissive alarm{mterlock for romine
generator motoring (see Class D trips on page 2). Figure 7.5 shows a typical

## arrangement of a reverse power protection circuit employing both a cr and a

voltage transformer (VT) to power the relay, and hence, protect the
generator. The relay will operate when any negative power flow is detected.

TM stabilizing \$JIfDn will detect vollage. spud tJNi powt!T c1IlJ1ages llwt CtDI btt indicalwe ofQ,
grid ftuJI. TIw. ~i:ilIg S'J#I!III willlM disc~ in JOfU station spifU: training.

.. FIITtIwr infonNJlion on turbiM genuator motoring can lMfound in 1M TlU'bine & Auxiliaries
cOline 234.0-13.

-11-

'""

ApprovsllSSUB

r--

AA

.,.

.J:.
AA

'--

/'

'-

"

./

-.b
-

V.T.
Reverse

Power
Relay

Figure 7.5:

## Generator Protection Scheme

CI.... ofTrip

Differential Protection

Phase Unbalance

Loss of Field

Overexcitation

A,B,C

Underfrequency

Out nfStep

## Excitation Rectifier Overcurrent

A*

Motoring

This does not lead to a trip directly, though once excitation collapses, a loss
of excitation trip will result.

## Table 7.1: Summary of Generator Protection

Schemes and Trip Classes

-12-

""'I

Apptovallssue

## Overexcitation. caused by generator voltage regulation problems or

operator error, will result in overfluxing of the generator stator iron and
the transformers. This may result in overheating to these components.
Exceeding insulation voltage can lead to breakdown/arcing.

## Underftequency protection prevents damage to the generator stator and

transformers from overfluxing due to the application of excessive
excitation when the grid frequency falls.

## Generator out of step protection prevents continued operation while

pole slipping and prevents mechanical damage due to the impacts of
slipping Wout of synchronism.

## Rectifier overcurrents could result from a voltage regulation problem or

a grid fault requiring higher than nonna! excitation (excessive field
forcing).

Pages 13-18

<=}

## Rectifier overcurrent protection prevents damage to the rectifiers due to

overheating. Without protection or annunciation, the remaining rectifiers will be overloaded and trip. Loss of field will occur, causing total
loss of production. Power production andlor field forcing limitations
may be required (which may affect stabllity).

A-reverse power relay detects the flow of power into a generator. It can
provide an alann. as occurs before turbine generator motoring. or
initiate a protective trip. as is the case with standby generators.

-13-

... ,

Approvsllssue

ASSIGNMENT
1.

Class A:

Class B:

Class C:

Class D:

2.

## Explain how differential protection is used for the protection of a

generator (in your explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection fails to operate):

3.

a)

b)
c)

-14-

... ,

Approval Issue

4.

## Explain how ground fault protection is used for the windings of a

generator (in your explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection fails to operate):

5.

## Possible causes of ground faults are:

a)
b)

c)

6.

Explain how ground fault protection is provided for a generator rotor (in
your explanation include consequences to station equipment if this
protection fails to operate):

7.

Explain how phase unbalance protection is used. for a generator (in your
explanation include conseque,nces to station equipment if this protection
fails to operate):

-15-

Rod

Approvellssue

8.

## Two po,sible cause' of phase unbalance are:

a)

b)

9.

Explain how loss of field protection is used for a generator (in your
explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection
fail' to operate):

## 10. Four possible causes of generator loss of field are:

a)

b)
c)

d)

11. Explain how overexcitation protection is used for a genemtor (in your
explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection
fail' to operate):

-16-

... ,

Approvsllssue

## Coumc 235 Module 7 - Generaror Protection

NOTES' REFERENCES

13. Explain how underfrequency protection is used for a generator (in your
explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection
fails to operate):

## 14. Two possible causes of excitation being applied during underfrequency

conditions are:
a)

b)

15. Explain how out of step protection is used for a generator (in your
explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection
fails to operate):

16. Three possible reasons that of out of step operation could occur are:
a)

b)
c)

-17-

... ,

ApprovallssUB

(in your

## explanation include consequences to station equipment if this protection

f&il' to operate):

a)

b)

## 19. The flow of power into a generator can De detected by a

Before you move on to the next module. review the objectives and make
sure that you can meet their requirements.
Prepared by:
Revised by:
Revision date:

-18-

July, 1992

MYl

Approvsllssus

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Module 8

GENERATOR AND
TRANSMISSION LINE
STABILITY
OBJECTIVES:
Mter completing this module you will be able to:
8.1

Explain, with the aid ofequivalent circuits and vector diagrams, hnw

Pag 2-4.,.

a)

A generator,

Pag.S.,.

b)

A transmission line,

Page 6.,.

c)

8.2

a)

Pag.9.,.

8.3

Pag.9.,.

a)

Page 9.,.

b)

## The problem caused by steady state instability,

Pag.10 .,.

c)

One precaution and two actions that are taken to minimize the
risk of steady state instability occurring.

a)

## Explain the difference between steady state stability and

transient stability.

## Pag 1'J-,22 .,.

b)

List and explain the three factors which can cause transient
instability in the generator and the four factors which can cause
transient instability in the transmission lines.

Pag 10,11,12.,.

8.4

## risk of transient instability occurring for each of the factors in

objective 8.4 b).

Pag.12.,.

8.5

8.6

-1-

"'1

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

INSTRUCTIONAL TEXT
INTRODUCTION
operation were considered, and diagrams were drawn showing the effects of
armature reaction. In the first part of this module, the following conditions

are examined:
a)

## b) how the load angle in a tnlIlsmission line varies with load.

c)

how the composite load "Pgle for the generator and line varies with load,

d)

## the relationship between load angle and active power tnlIlsfer.

e)

The later part of this module deals with transient stability, where the behavior
of the generator and lines are considered under fault condition.s.

Obj. 8.1 a) >

## Lesson 230.25-1 showed that as a generator is loatied. the load angle

increased. The magnitude of the load angie depends upon the generator
load current, the generator reactance and the power factor. Since the
internal reactance of the generatorremains unchanged, it will be neglected as
a variable.

-2-

... ,

AP{1rovallssufI

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Figure 8.1 a) shows the equivalent circuit for a generator directly connected
to a resistive (pf=l) load. The product of the load current L and the generator
internal reactance Xl produces the internal voltage drop L Xl. For a given
load current, L and terminal voltage, VT, a load angle of is produced in the
generator. Figure 8.1 b) shows the resulting vector diagram.

as

a)
omfEg
~DEg
GENWrolI

b)

## Figures 8.1a) & b): EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR A

GENERATOR OPERATING AT
PF=1 WITH VECTOR DIAGRAM
From this diagram we can see the relationship between Lx.. and the load
angle. For example, if the load current L is increased (all else constant), the
Lx.. product increases, causing the load angle to increase. (Recall the effect

## of armature reaction - ie. the increase in stator current causes an increase in

magnetic flux around these windings. Since this increase in flux opposes
rotor flux, the terminal voltage will drop, requiring an increase in field
current to maintain terminal voltage - ie. Ea must also increase to
compensate for an increase in internal <'oltage drOp LXd.)
.

-3-

.."

Approvsllssu/I

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Figures 8.2 .) and b) show the conditions when the same generator is
connected to 0.9 pf lag load while delivering the same value of active
cumnt (MW load) as in the previous example. Thus, the active power and
the terminal voltage VT are the same as those in Figures 8.1 a) and b). But as
the power factor i. now 0.9 lag, the load current has increased (it now has
both active and reactive components). By increasing the load current. the
product Lx. has increased (Lx. is still at 900 to I.. since it is purely
reactive*). with the results shown in Figure 8.2 (b)). From this diagram, we
can clearly see thst the load angle has decreased. (As in the previous
example. an increase in load current causes more armature reaction, which
requires AVR action to restore the terminal voltage VT)

a.

a)

I--'O''tJt
Eg

b)

...........

/ .
Pf=1.0 Superimposed
for Comparison

'.,
"'

## Figures 8.2a) & b): EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR A

GENERATOR OPERATING AT
0.9 PF LAG WITH VECTOR
DIAGRAM

-4-

Approvellssue
~OTES

## CQ1IIBe 235 Module 8 - Gmerator and Transmission Line Stability

& REFERENCES

Further diagrams can be drawn to show that, when operating with a leading
power factor and delivering the same active current, the I&Xi component
will also increase (current again has active and reactive components), but the
load angle will increase. (In this case, rotor current may require a decrease
to maintain terminal voltage. This is because the magnetic field produced
around the stator winding will provide less weakening to the field flux -less
armature reaction.)

a.

Obj. 8.1 b).,.

When a transmission line is loaded. a load angle &.. is produced across the
line. Figure 8.3 a) shows the equivaient circuit for a line having a reactance of
x.. ohms and load is operating with a pf of cos 9 lag. The resistance of the
line is very small compared with its reactance. and will be neglected in this
lesson. When the line is operating at 0.9 pf lag, the supply voltage has to be
considerably larger than the load voltage (which is kept constant). This is
illustrated in the vector diagram, Figure 8.3 b). Note that a large load
current L on a line having a large value of XL will give a large load angle
&..

llO'l)

X,

cose "'pC
-0.9

(e)

(b)

## Figures 8.3a) & b): EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR A

TRANSMISSION LINE
OPERATING AT 0.9 PF LAG
WITH VECTOR DIAGRAM
From the diagram. we can also see the result of changes in load angle
caused by changes in load power factor (changes in 9). As 9 becomes more
lagging (increases clockwise), &. decreases. And conversely, as 9 becomes
more leading, &.gets larger. Remember that this is only true in this example if

-5-

""

Approvellssue

## Course 235 Module 8 - Oc:ncrator III1d Transmission Line Stability

NOTES a REFERENCES

Obj. 8.1 c) .,.

## Figure 8.4 a) shows an equivalent diagram of a generator feeding a load via a

transmission line. The generator operates with a load angle of and the line
operates with a load angle of &. The load is operating with a pf of cos 9,

a.

a)

Xd

XL

a=IIOlD

Er

VLQ<D

pf=cos9

GEN. INTERNAl.

b)

10 Xd}

Eg

\<OlI DROP

}TRANS UNE

v,
I-!-'V"""
I
I

Ia
,,-- 91"'"

## Figures 8.4a) & b): EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR A

WITH VECTOR DIAGRAM
Note that:
a)

## the generator operates at a power factor angle of 9... which is greater

thane.....
b)

~-. generator and line operate t~gether at an angle oflh, which is the sum

ofo,and&.
Any change in the load angie ofthe line or the generalor, will resull in a
change in the lotal load angie for Ihe generalnr/line. Factors that affect

summarized below.

-6-

Row 1

ApprovallssuB

cum:nt L.

## Conversely, the load angle decreases with a decrease in load and/or

operation at a more lagging pf, if the MW load remains constant

The load angle for a given transmission line increases as the load on the
line increases. As the load powerfactor for a transmission line becomes

The total load angle for a generatorlline is the sum uf the individual load
angles. Changes in load angle for the individual component will directly
affect the load angle of the grouped components.

## The Relationship between load angle and active power

transfer.
Obi. 8.2 a) .,.

In the system shown in Figure 8.4 a), the resistance of the generator and
tbe lines is neglected, and consequently the system can be taken to be loss
ti;ee, ie. there will be no active power loss between the generator terminals
As losses are neglected:
p.... =P..

If the line has reactance XL. we can develop what is known as the "power

transfer equation".
p =

Vry....in&
XL

(1)

## Where &. is the line load angle.

And, for the generator:
p = VrE,sio8,

(2)

Xo
Where 6, is the generator load angle and Xo Is the
reactance of the generator.
The power transfer equation for the generator and line together is:
p = y..,E.sin(6, + lltJ

(3)

Xo+XL

-7-

... ,

Approvellssue

a)

## x.. and X. should be kept as low as possible. A generator has a value of

Xl which cannot be altered However, X. can be kept low by having
short transmission lines or many lines in parallel.

b)

## Eaand V.or V... sbould be kept at sconslant value.lfE, is allowed

to fall, or if V. or V...dalls due to fault conditions, then less power will
be transferred.

c)

not exceed 90".

## Transmission Line Steady State Stability Characteristics

In the case ofa lossfree power line, the power at both ends of the line will be
the same, ie,
From equation I,

XI.

## a= 1.0, a= 90 which is the condition for

maximum power transfer. ie.

When sin

PiA=Po,.=P_

For conditions other than maximum power transfer the power transmitted or
P~=P... =P...sina

Therefure the power transminedor transferred from one end of the line to the

other is a function of sin aand a power transfer curve can be drawn, which
has a sine wave shape.

Figure 8.5 shows curves of power, P, transmitted between two ends of a line

having reaetance XL. and voltages VT at one end and VL (=VIooti) at the other.
Generator characteristics are not included in this curve.
When 100% power is being transmitted and the line is operating on curve I
the line will have a load angle of If, fOr instance, the sending end voltage
V. is increased, then the power transfer capability for the line will be
increased. When this happens, we shift to curve number 2 and the line will
aperate at an angle 1), which is less than If the line voltage is decreased, the
power transfer capability of the line will shift to curve 3 and angle /\" and if
the voltage is reduced further the line will operate on curve 4 and angle &.

a,.

a,.

-8-

... ,

Approvallssua

## Course 23:5 Module 8 - GcmeraIor llIld Trlll1Jmislion Line Stability

NOTES. REFERENCES

TRANSFER
POWER,P

## CURVE OF P =YiYxsin& WHEN VT OR VL

XL
IS INCREASED OR X, IS REDUCED
CURVE OF P =YrYtn8

WHEN VT. VL

## CURVESOF p=V1vtn WHENVT, VL

IS REDUCED OR XL IS INCREASED

Figure 8.5:

## Db}. 8.3 aJ .,.

Db}. 8.2 b) .,.

POWER TRANSFER CURVES FOR
TRANSMISSION LINES

When &. is reached, the line is operating at a 90 load angle. Any further
reduction of lbe height of the curve or any further increase in power to
be tranaferred will result in the power input exceeding the power that
can be tranaferred. Assuming the mechanical power output from the

turbine is constant,and line voltage decreases further. the generator will not
be able to convert the mechanical power into electrical power. There will
now be an excess of mechanical power produced over the electrical power
being transferred. This excess power will cause the whole turbine genemtor
shaft to accelerate.
Db}. 8.3 b) .,.

The net result is that the two ends of the line will no longer remain in
synchronism and instability will result.
Applying these curves to a generator, as soon as the load angle exceeds 90
the power input to the generator will be greater than the power it can convert
or transfer into electrical active power. Therefore. the generator will start to
spced up and, unless corrective actions ore immediately taken, the generator
will pole slip.
The pole slip is the result of excessive mechanical input power causing the
magnetic link between the generator and the electrical system to stretch

## excessively, causing synchronism to be broken. The stronger the magnetic

link between the generator and the electrical system, the more difficult pole
slipping will be .

-9-

... ,

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Let's use a simplified comparison here. Try to visualize the magnetic link
between the generator shaft and the electrical system as an elastic band. As
the torque on the generator shaft increases, the elastic band connecting the
generator shaft and the electrical system stretches, and the "load angle"
between the shaft connection and the grid increases. When the torque
exceeds the strength of the elastic band (exceeds magnetic field strength), the
band breaks, and the load angle continues to increase (pole slip). The
stronger the elastic band, the harder it will be to break it (pole slip).
Db}. 8.4 a)<=>

Steady state stability deals with slow changes in system conditions. This
means that the movement between operating curves is a "slow" process. and
load angle changes are small and slow. Thus, the "worst case" steady state
condition will occur wben the operating point moves to the peak of an
operating curve, with Ii = 90 (eg. curve 4 shown in Figure 8.5). Instability. as
described above, will result if conditions change. The corrective actions
that can be taken to avoid steady state instability in this situation are:

a)

## ReductiOll in mechanical power input.

b)

An increase in field current which will boost the flux and E, (ie. cause
the operating point to move to a "higher" curve) (this was described in
Module 51.

## Instability can be prevented by operating witb total load angles well

below stability limits. Maintaining a reasonable "operating margin" ofload
angle will ensure unstable conditions are not reached. even if transmission
lines are removed from service. This will be shown in the examples below.

Examples
Practically. we can apply the above infonnation to examples of transmission
lineIgenerator systems.
Example 1:

## A generator is operating at a load angle of 30 and

transmitting power over two parallel lines. The load angle
across the lines is lO.1f all of the load is slowiy shifted to
one power line. will the line and generator remain stable?

## Answer: Using the power transfer equation for the line

p = VTVt sin 8r
Xc

Transposing gives:

sin&=..f1>.IVLVT

-10-

... ,

Apptovallssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

When ads 10, sin lit. = 0.173 with reactance XL. When Xdncreases to 2XL,
sin lit. will increase to 2(0 .173) =0.347. This gives anew value
for the line
= arc sin 0.347 = 20.3, ie. the line load angle is
approximately doubled.

au

au

The combined load angle for the generator and line"'" 30 + 20.3 or 50.3
which is considerably less than 90 and so the generator and line will remain
stable.
Example: 2.

## A generator is operating al a load angle of 30 and

transmitting power over two parallel lines. The load angle
across the lines is 25. If all of the load is slowly shifted to
me power line. will the line and load remain stable?

An,wer;
Using the 'ame power transfer equations as before. and
assuming P, YL and YT all remain constant, then sin lit. is proportional 10 XL
When lit. is 25, sin lit. = 0.423 with line reactance of XL. When XL increases
to 2XL, sin lit. will increase to 2(0.423) = 0.845.

au

au

This gives a new value of for the line load angle where
= arc sin 0.845
= 57.6, this gives a combined load angle for the generator and line of (30 +
57.6) = 87.6.

Under this condition the generator and line are operating at just less than 90
and will therefore remain stable. II should be appreciated that any slight
change in generator output or other conditions will cause the system to
become unstable. It would be most undesirable to operate under these
conditions.

## Obj. 8.4 a) ""

Again ,leI" emphasize thaI steady state stability deals with slow changes
in the system only. Rapid changes in the system will cause "large" swing, in
load angles. This is discussed in the following portion of the module.

-11-

... 1

Approvellssue

## SUMMARY OF THE KEY CONCEPTS

Active powertransfer across power lines varies with the Sine function of

a.

Steady state stability is affected by total load angle. which is the sum of

If the load angle exceeds 90, stability will be lost, resulting in pole
slipping.

## To prevent steady state instability, the mechanical power (input) must

be reduced to match the electrical power (output) that can be produced,
. or the ficldflux increased, which increases terminal voltage and causes a
shift to a higher power transfer curve.

Operating without excessive load angles will ensure that stability limits

Pages 30-35 ~

## You can now do assignment questions 1 - 8.

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Obi. 8.4 a) .,.

## The following section of the module will relate to transient stability.

Transient stability examines the behavior of the generator and lines when
faults or rapid changes occur. Remember that steady state stability

Obi. 8.5.,.

Transient stability can result in large swings of load angles, and possible
instability (pole slipping).

GENERATORS
Obi. 8.6 .,.

Figure 8.6 shows two power transfer curves. Curve I is the power transfer
curve used when the generator feeds the load with normal excitation. When
the excitation is reduced, the power transfer capability is reduced to curve 2.
The shape and height (amplitude) of the curves were discussed in a previous
section of this module. There arc two ways of modelling the generator

reponse to atransient, the two curve and the one curve method. Each of these
arc discussed below.

-12-

Approvellssue

-mANSFER
POWER. P
~

## _ _ POWER TRANSFER CURVE

WITH FUU EXCITATION

## POWER -mANSFER CURVE

WITH REDUCED EXCITATION

P,
POWER
INPUT

+-*""~-~~--90 0

a, a..,.

. . . .---~

GENERATOR

## Generator Behaviour During A Transient: Two Curve

Method
Figure 8.6 above shows the power transfer curves for a generator before and
after a transient. At the instant before the transient. ie. the instant before the
excitation is reduced, the generator is operating at point "e" on curve 1 with a
load angle of Ill. Power input (mechanical) equals the power output orpower
transferred (electrical).
At the instant after the transient, the generator cannot operate at point "e" on
curve 1 because curve 1 has been reduced in height to curve 2 (lower
excitation). The generator is still operating with the same load angle, Ill, as
before, but the operating point has shifted to point "D". Examining the
conditions at point ''D'' on curve 2, we see that the power transfer capability
is only Po. Because PI is considerably more than Po. there is more mechanical
power input to the generator than there can be power output from iL This
difference in power, ie, Pl-P., will cause the generator to accelerate.

As the generator accelerates, the magnitude of its load angle will grow first
from lit to ll.... at point X, see Figure 8.6, where the mechanical input power
to the generator equals the electrical power sent ouL But as the speed of the

-13-

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

generator is now greater than synchronous, the magnitude of its load angle
will continue to increase until the rotor is slowed down by the output power
being greater than the mechanical input power. This occurs at point "Y".
At point uy", as the generator output power is greater than the input power,
the generator's speed will decrease, the rotor angle will reduce to 0...... At
this point, the rotor speed is less than synchronous, causing the rotor angle to
reduce to near &. The rotor will start to accelerate once more, resulting in
oscillation of the rotor angie. The rotor will then continue to oscillate back
until the oscillation is damped out (due to the inertia of
the system), see Figure 8.7.

a.-

TRANSFER
POWER.P

P,
POWER
INPUT

P.

-+i__ DAMPED OSCILLATION OF
GENERATOR ROTOR ANGLE

## Figure 8.7: HOW ROTOR AND ROTOR ANGLE IN A

GENERATC.-'JSCILLATE FOLLO'liING
A TRANSIENT FAULT

-14-

"'1

ApprovallssU8

## NOTES & REFERENCES

The location of point Y is critical and depends on the equal area criteria
where (refer to Figure 8.8 ) :
a)

## The area "A"represents the excess in energy produced by the turbine

over the energy sent out by the generator. This area is often known as
the accelerating area and represents kinetic energy gain for the rotor.

b) Area "B" represents the excess in energy sent out over the energy
produced. This area is often known as the braking area and represents
kinetic energy dissip&ted, ie. sent out into the load.

When area "A" = area "B", the equal area criteria is satisfied, ie, the
energy gained during acceleration is balanced by tbe energy sent out
during braking.
TRANSFER

POWER,P

POWER
INPUT

## Figure 8.8: EQUAL AREA CRITERIA WHERE AREA

"A" EQUALS AREA "8"

-15-

'"'"

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Fig= 8.9 shows the condition where curve 2 has heen reduced, by lowered
excitation, to the level where the whole of the area between curve 2 and the P1
line is used up for braking. Point "Z:' shows the critical stability position or
angie for the rotor. If this load angle is exceeded, the generator will become
unstable.

TRANSfER

## EQUAL AREA CRITERIA Dl:C'Z'ATE'S:

PONBl,P

WHEN A

B : STAB!LfTY
B ; INSTABlLITY
A - B ; CRITICAL STABILIT

<
>

AREA

8'

ACCl!:L AREA
BRA~ING

AREA

r++-:1::::-::'------'----.s
lCW)ANGl.E
a., a.;.. 90
a;..
1800
I'

## bMEAN=MEAN ANGlE Of SWING

POR CRlllCAL STABILITY

f
1
I
I

I
I

,
I

ROTOR ANGLE IF
STABILITY LOST

ROTOR ANGLE AT
CRITICAL STABILITY

## Figure 8.9: CRITICAL STABILITY UNDER

.
TRANSIENT CONDITIONS

-16-

... ,

'ApFovsllssuS

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Figure 8.10(a) shows the condition whete a generator remains stable and
Figure 8.10(b) shows the condition where a generator will become unstable.
There is insufficient braking energy in this second case.
p

ANGLE

d'

90

AN LE

d,

'800

1800

(b)

(a)

## Flgure-S.10: TRANSIENT CONDITIONS SHOWING

GENERATOR STABILITY AND
INSTABILITY

## Generator behaviour during a transient: One curve method.

If only the normal operating curve and the maximum angle of swing are
known, then an examination of the curve and the conditions occurring at the
maximum swing angle can determine whether the generator will remain
stahle. Figure 8.11 shows the condition where a system transient caused the
generator
angle' to
swing
from
01
to
a
maximum angle "A".

-17-

"""

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

_-r--_A

I
I
POWER ~

INPUT

:----}
:

------/--1--- I
I
I
I
I

EXCESS OF POWER
TRANSFERRED
OVER POWER PRODUCED CAUSES
BRAKING

I
I

,,
,,, .
,I
I

MEAN:SWlNG
ANGLE
,

## Figure 8.11: GENERATOR REMAINS STABLE

For the load angle to swing.from l)t to A, a transient increase in input power
and/or a transient decrease in power transfer capability must have occurred
This could have been due to a transmission line fault or some other cause.
However, at point "A", the generator has reached its maximum angle of
swing and it is once more operating on the curve shown. At point "A", there
is an excess of power being transferred over the power being produced
by tbe turbine. Consequently the load angle will decrease. A mmimum
angle will be reached before the angle mereases again producing an angular
oscillation which will damp out after a short time. The generator will remain
stable. see Figure 8.11.

-18-

... ,

ApprovalisSUB

## If the maximum swing angle shown at uB n is now considered, see Figure

8.12, at the end of the transient swing. then: is an excess of power produced
over tbe power being transferred. Consequently tbere is a resultant
accelerating force and tbe load angle Ii will continue to grow. The
generator will pole slip and become unstable.
p

1
POWER
INPUT,. -

I
-- - - --1- -----.

,,

:
:

I
I

B
-+_+:-_.....l.;.;"Ae-_:;-....".__
co
Iii
fOO
ud
0

-t-__

: INITIAl ROfOR
ANGl~"'.".'. - -_ _

IS UNSTA8lf

## Factors Affecting Generator Transient Stability

Db}. 8.4 b&A:) .,.

## An adequate stability margin must be allowed This is to ensure stability

under transient conditions. To achieve this the following should be noted:

a)

to exceed a specifled low value (about 30"). This is achieved by not
exceeding the generator MW rating, and by kuping sufficient
excitation on the machine. (The reactance
angle, will by design, be kept to a minimum. This will keep the internal
voltage drop
and hence the load angle. to a minimum. This is a
design eonstant, over which you have no control. We will ignore this
factor's contribution from a stability viewpoint)

x..,

r.x.,

## TM opG'tJlor CQII db MIlling tolM%imiu tlv,UfHJIIH to tronsi.vll ~u:ts.lt is all handled by

tJMtomolic tlCtioru.

-19-

"'1

Approval Issue

b)

## A fast acting AVR is required to ensure that, under fault conditions, E,

and V. are not allowed to fall excessively. It should be noled that for
steady state stability a slow acting AVR is satisfactory; this is cenainly
not true where transient stability is concerned.

c)

Faults on' transmission lines and on other parts of the system must be
cleared qnickly by protective relaying and breakers. This will prevent
the system from operating on "low" transfer curves for an appreciable
time. It follows that protection schemes and breakers mnst have fast
operating times (2 cycles). Figure 8.13 a) shows how the load angle
increases during fault conditions.

TRANSFER

POWER, P

Curve #1
3 parallel lines

no faults

Curve #3
2 parallel lines

Fautt
cleared and
line restored

## Figure 8.13 a): HOW LOAD ANGLE INCREASES

DURING A FAULT
The upper curve in Figure 8.13 a) represents power transfer under
healthy conditions. For this example, let's assuine iliat this represents
power transfer through three parallel transmission lines. If a line is
temporarily lost, say trips due to a lighming strike, power transfer is
sltifted to the capacity of the two remaining lines. This shifts the
operating point to "B" on the lower curve. Since the power produced is
still at Po. which is greater than the power that can be transferred, the
turbine generator will accelerate, and the load angle increases. When the
fault clears and the line is res!Oted, the power transfer will slu.'toI..,k up
to the upper curve. The maximum swing of the load angle after the fault
clears will again be determined by the equal area criteria (ie. area
A-B-C-D = ateaD-E-F-G). It follows that the longer the fault persists
the longer the generator is operating on the lower curve and the greater
the load angle becomes (with a greater risk of instability).

-20-

"'1

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Let'. look at another fault example, where the fault doe. not clear and
the line i. not re.tored, as seen in Figure 8.13 b). The Curve #1
represents power tran.fer under healthy condition. For this example,
let'. as.ume that this represents power tran.fer through two parallel
transmis.ion line., and we are currently al operating point A. If a fault
develop. on one line, powertran.fer is .hiftedto the capacity of theline.
under faulted condition., which .hifts the operating point to Curve #3 at
point B. Since power produced is .tiII at Po, which is greater than power
that can be tran.ferred, the turbine generator will accelerate, and the
load angle incre..... When the breakers open to clear the faulted line (at
point C), the power tran.fer will shift back up to Curve #2 for the
remaining line, at operating pointD. Again, power produced i. still alP"
which i. greater than power that can be tran.ferred, the turbine generator
will continue to accelerate. The maximum swing of the load angle after
the fault clears will again be determined by the equal area criteria (ie.
area A-B-C-D-E = area E-F-G). Again, the longer the fault per.i.ts,
the greater the load angle become. with an increased ri.k of in.tability.

Curve #1

paraJlelline.

TRANSFER
POWER.P

no faults

Curve #2
1 line
no faults

P.

Curve #3
2 parallel lines
with one line
fautted

Bt

Fautt
cleared

## Figure 8.13 b): HOW LOAD ANGLE INCREASES

DURING A FAULT
d). Another factor to be con.idered i. that generators .hould have large
inertias, which will .low the rate of increase in load angle under

## transient conditions. Again, this is a design constant, over which you

have no control. We will ignore this factor's contribution from a
.tability viewpoinL

-21-

... 1

Approval ISSue

## Transient Stability: Transmission Lines

Obj. 8.4 b&c) <=>

## The power transfer capability of a transmission line is proportional to the

product of the supply and load end voltages. To keep the power transfer
capability to its maximum. and for the line to remain stable under transient
conditions, the following features are employed:
a)

Fast acting AVRs are used on the generators at the supply end This
keeps the supply voltage constant. Manna! operation cannot provide
the response required during a transienL

b)

## Synchronous condensers are used to keep the load end voltage

almost constant. It has been shown earlier in this module that you will
operate on a "higher" power transfer curve by keeping VL higher.
Having an interconnected system will also aid in keeping the load
voltage constanL

c)

## The reactance XL in ohms per kilometer for a line is essentially constant

and the only way of reducing XL is to operatewith short transmission
lines, using more lines in parallel. Although we cannot change the
distance to the loads, we can control the number of lines (up to the
number available). Hence, operation should be with as many parallel
transmission lines as possible (use of few lines should be avoided).

d)

## As with generators, rast acting protection schemes and breakers are

required to minimize the time that transient conditions exist. Manual
action may be required it faults are not cleared rapidly and generator

## protective trips have failed. Also, preventive maintenance and testing of

protection schemes, to ensure correct operation, is imponant for the

above reasons.

A sync1li'0MIU COIIde1uer is a ,moattw' cONWCted to the grid. wilJll'ID motiveforce driving it.
B, varying acitatiml OIl IIw macJcitw, it eM prodw:dcOIVIUM reat:tiw power. By locaJiIIg it
MGT lite load, it will COIUIltr the effect of lodd ptJ'WeT factor. allowing fR losseg in 1M liM 10
dTlWe (ndMud rQCtm C"eIIl flow), tJuu increJUing voltage Ql tJag !oDd.

-22-

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Examples
Let's have a look at a few more examples of the previous concepts.
Ouestion:

## A generator and transmission system are operating at point Pion curve 1 on

the diagram shown in Figure 8.14. Between the senerator and the load are
two transmission lines. Due to a lightning strike, one line trips and the
senerator and IetIlaining line operate on curve 2. Explain whether the
generator and line will IetIlain stable. If the senerator remains stable, show
maximum and mean angies of swing and sketch in any oscillations in load
angle.
1llANSfBl

PpNBi.P
11 Generator and
two lines
(2) Generator and

one line

Figure 8.14:

-=:--.

__

6 lOAO

ANGLE

## POWER TRANSFER CURVES FOR A

GENERATOR AND TRANSMISSION
LINES

## The equal area criteria must be satisfied for stability to exist.

Figure 8.1S shows the power transfer curves for a generator and two lines
(Curve I), and a senerator and one line (Curve 2). Area "A" represents the
condition where the powedftJ'Ut from the turbine is greater than the power
being transferred and the senerator accelerates. The generator's speed and
hence load angle &increases. Area "B" represents the condition where the
output power is greater than the turbine power and the generator brakes or
slows down, this causes to decrease. The equal area criteria is satisfied and
stability is maintained.

-23-

... ,

ApprovsliSSUB

## NOTES & REFERENCES

(2)

PONER.
N'UT

'

""o,-.",,~!=~E-----;lil'""- &~

Ii

ANGLEa-

!
,,
,,

GENfRAlOR I
AND LN! I

,,
Figure 8.15: TRANSIENT STABILITY
When the line trips, the generator speed and line load angle will increase to
lim.. becanse the input power is greater than the power being transferred. But,
at the lim.. point, because the power output is greater than the power input. the
will oscillate and finally stabilize at a steady value of 0.... (see diagtarn).
As the generator and line are stable after the one line has tripped. the system
will remain stable.

-24-

R."

Ap/kOvallssUII

## NOTES & REFERENCES

Oucstion:
The power transfer curve for a generator is shown in Figure 8.16. Due to a
transient system disturbance, the load angle, 0, increases. A, B and C on the
diagram, are maximum angles of swing for the three different system
disturbances. For each disturbance explain clearly whether the generator
would remain stable or unstable. If the generator remains stable, show on
your diagram the angle at which the generator will stabilize; if it is unstable

Figure 8.16:

## POWER TRANSFER CURVE FOR A

GENERATOR

Only one power transfer curve is given together with the maximum load
angles for each condition. Therefore it is assumed that, apart from each of the
initial transient conditions. the generator only operates on this curve.

The input power to the generator, PI is constant. When the power being
transferred by the generator is greater thanP" the generator brakes or
decelerates. When the power being transferred by the generator is less than P,
the generator accelerates. It is this acceleration/deceleration which produces
the cbange in load angle O.

-25-

... ,

Approvalissufl

## Course 23S Module 8 - Genenuor and TrlUl.SlDission Line Stability

NOTES' REFERENCES

Figure 8.17 shows that when P, is less than the power being transferred (point
"A" on the power transfer curve), the excess power transferred over that
produced creates braking force. The generator will decelerate from the
condition which caused its angle to increase to the maximum value ll=A.
Therefore S decreases and after oscillating, will return to its original angle of
St. The generator will remain stahle.
p

,'.
,

, INIl1AI.

8 C

wi'

OSCIlLA1IONSCf
"""" ANGlE

,,
,,,
,
,
,

,,

MEANlSWlNG
ANGLE
,

Figure 8.17:

## CONDITION "AU SHOWING

GENERATOR REMAINS STABLE

-26-

Approval Issue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

For condition B, Figure 8.18 shows that when the maximum swing angie
becomes II = B, the braking force is still grea1er than the power produced so
the rotorwill, after oscillating, return toilS original angie of Ill. The generator
will remain stahle.
p

I
PONER

INPUT

_.-

t
___ ._:-

I

1_

TRANSFERRED OIER
lPONER

I
I
I

1
I
ABC

MAX. ANGlE

Cf SWING

Figure 8.18:

## CONDITION "B" SHOWING

GENERATOR REMAINS STABLE

-27-

R.d

Approvsllssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

For condition C, Figure 8.19 shows thaI when the maximum swing angle
becomes 6 = C, the braking force is less than the power produced (PI is
greater than the power being transferred) so the rotor will nol return to its
original angle of 61. The rotor angle will continue to increase and the
generator will pole slip and become unstable.

---------.1.-------J.
1
I

II

C - -

I
I

:
:

exmsOf POW8l
~D~~

r-

POW8lTRANSfER
""

ABC

'I<f

I INITIAl. ROlClR

I['ANG<E==..C-_ _.....;_JROlORANGl'
E CONTlNL6
TO INCllEASE & GEl'SWOR
IS UNSTABlE
Figure 8.19:

## CONDITION "C" SHOWING

GENERATOR BECOMES UNSTABLE

-28-

Approvalissufl

## Transient instsbility can result in pole slipping.

For lbe generator:

## Control of generator load angle will help ensure transient stability.

Exceeding generator MW rating should be avoided.

## AYRs are used to keep generatorterminal volts VT constant and improve

transient stability. Manual operation cannot compensate for fast
changes required during transient conditions.

## Protection schemes and breakers must rapidly clear faults to prevent

large swings in load angles during transient conditions. Preventive

## maintenance and testing are important to ensure that protection schemes

are operational.
For tbe transmission line:

Page. 35-41

<=}

Multiple power lines are used in paral1el (ie. keep XL low). Operation
with many parallel lines in service is recommended.

## Automatic voltage regulation is used to keep supply end voltage

constant (as discussed above).

## Synchronous condensers and interconnections are used to keep load end

volts constant. This minimizes voltage drops, reducing chances of
transient instability.

-29-

... ,

## Course DS Module 8 - Generator and Transmission Line Stability,

ApprovaJlssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

ASSIGNMENT
I.

Explain, with the aid of vector diagrams, how a load angle is produced

a)

## nerator with the followin

led

-30-

uivalenl circuit;

pf.0.9

... 1

## Course 235 Module 8 - Generaror and Transmiuion Line Stability

Approval Issue
NOTES & REFERENCES

v.......

-3t -

,",I

## Course 23S Module 8 - Generator md Trmsmission Line Stlbility

Approval Issue
NOTES & REFERENCES

c)

## A generator and transmission lihc combination with the following

uivalent circuit:

Er

-32-

Vtiw>
<

pf=eos9

... ,

Approvellssue

2.

## A generator is operating at IuJIf load with a load angle of 2O'and

transmitting power over a line whose load angle at full load is 50'.
Explain why additional parallel transmission lines are required to

3.

## A generator is operating at lull! load with a load angle of 10' and

transmitting power over a line whose load angle at full load is 25'.
Explain why the generator can produce full load without risk of steady
state instability.

-33-

"""

## Course 23S Module 8 - Generator and Transmission Line Stability

ApprovsliSSUB
NOTES & REFERENCES

4.

## Explain, using a power ttansfer curve, the relationship between load

anfde and active DOwer ttansfer.

5.

-34-

....

ApprovallssuB
NOTES

a REFERENCES
8.

7.

a)

b)

8.

9.

stability:

-35-

&wl

## Course 23S Module 8 _ Generator md Transmission Line Stability

Approval Issue
NOTES & REFERENCES

10. Under steady state stability conditions. the load angie cannot exceed 90'
but, under transient conditions, the load angle can exceed 90 with
stability still maintained. Explain why dtis is so.

II. Explain the three factors that affect ttansient stability for the generator:
a)

can:

b)

can:

-36-

## Course 235 Module 8 - Generator md Transmission Line Stability

Approvellssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

c)

## To minimize the risk of transient instability due to this factor, we

can:

12. Explain the four factors that affect transient stability for transmission
lines:
a)

can:

b)

-37-

... 1

## Comse 235 Module 8 - Gclneratcr and Transmission Line Stability-

ApproVBllssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

c)

can:

d)

can:

## 13. The result of transient instability will be:

14. A generator must feed its load via long transmission lines. To minimize
the risk of instability during lightning stonns, the output from the
generator is reduced. Explain why this is done.

-38-

## COUIH 235 Module 8 - Oencraror and Transmission Line Stability

ApprovallssUII
NOTES & REFERENCES

IS. A generator and transmission system are operating at point Pton curve 1
in the figure below. Between the generator and the load are three

transmission lines. Due to a lightning strike, one line trips and the
generator and remaining lines operate on curve 2. Explain whether the
generator and line will remain stable.

Input

P,

Power

-39-

... ,

ApprovallssUB

## NOTES & REFERENCES

16. The power transfer curve for a generator is shown in the figure below.
Due to a transient system disturbance, !he load angle S increases. A, B
and C on the diagram, are maximum angles of swing for the three
different system disturbances. For each disturbance explain clearl
whether the generator would Iemain stable or unstable. If the generator
remains stable, show on your diagram the angle at which the generator
will stabilize; if it is unstable show how the angle continues to increase.

-40-

## COUI'IC 235 Module 8 - GeneraIor and Transmiuion Line Stability

Appl'Ovsllssue
NOTES & REFERENCES

0)

b)

c)

Before you move on to the course checkout, review all of the coune

objective. and make sure that you can meet their requirements.

_by,

N>ekRi_. WNTD

Revised by:

Revision date:

-41-

July, 1992

&nl

Approve/Issutl

## NOTES & REFERENCES

APPENDIX-A
THE POWER TRANSFER EQUATION
The following is a proof of the power ttaIlsfer equation for your reference
ooly. You are not expected 10 be able 10 prove or remember tbis
derivation.
Figure 8.20 sbows the vector disgram from Figure 8.4(b) in greater detail. It
will be osed to show bow the power ttaIlsfer equation can be derived.
Remember that the resistance of the generator and the line are neglected in
this example, thus, there is no active power loss between the generator

LXi.

&.

--

VL Q
I
I
f

## Figure 8.20: Vector Diagram40r Derivation

of Powllr Transfer Equation

-1-

Approvellssue

## NOTES & REFERENCES

The active power P'III at the generator tenninals, on aperphase basis, will be:
(1)

Similarly, the ""tive power P... at the load tenninals will be (note that
L...=L):

(2)

P-..t= VLLcos6L
As losses are neglected,
P,.. =PIDtM

(3)

Thus, it can be stated that the active power at both ends of the circuit is the
same. Let this power be calledP, which gives,
P = VTLcose, = VLLcos6L

(4)

Equations (1) and (2) can be used to develop power transfer equations fOT the
line and the generator. This development follows.

## In Figure 8.20, the dashed line labelled as 1 (number in a circle) can be

expressed in two equivalent trigonometric forms (using sine and cosine
rules):

Lcos6L = Vrsirnh

(5)

XL

## substituting equation 5 into equation 2 gives,

P = Y&sin&

(6)

XL

where &. is the line load angle and XL is the reactance of the line.
This is the power transfer equation for the line.

Also in Figure 8.20, \De dashed line labelled as 2 can be expressed in two
equivalent trigonometric fonns:
LX..cose, = E,sinS,
which can be re-arranged as,

-2-

... ,

JqlprovsJ Issue

LcOs6. = E,sig&.

x..

(7) .

## substituting equation (I) into equstion (1) gives,

p = E,y,.sin&.

x..

where

(8)

a. is the generator load angle and x.. is the reactance of the generator.

## This is the power transfer equation for lbe generator.

Finally, in Figure 8.20, the dashed line labelled as 3 can also be expressed in
two equivalent trigonometric fonns:

## which can be re-arranged as,

Lcos6L = E,.in<S,OJ)

(9)

(x..+XI.)

## suhstituting equation 9 into equation 2 gives,

p = E,yISjOIl5,t&)

(lOa)

(X.,+XI.)

or,

p = E,y,sjolir

(lOb)

(x..+XL)

## where Sr is the total load angle.

Equations (lOa) and (lOb) are the power transfer equations for tbe
generator and tbe line togetber.

...,