chapter 1 overview

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chapter 1 overview

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Chapter 1

Overview

What is control engineering?

Education control system

Earthquake control system

Why study feedback control systems?

Major topics and outlines

Overview

12

We have selected examples of basic control systems widely seen in daily applications.1

toast popping up at just the right time

furnaces turning off & on just the right temperatures

cruise controls keeping your cars at a desired speed up and down hills in rain, snow,

and sleet.

elevator doors opening and closing and the elevator stopping at the right floor

toilets flushing and the tanks filling to the right level

R. DeCarlo, What is control engineering?, IEEE Control Systems Magazine, October 2002, p. 112.

Overview

13

Education is a sampled-data and adaptive feedback system.2

Registrar

Knowledge

Professor

Students

Grades

1 day

Questions

7 days

Homeworks

4 weeks

Exams

5-6 weeks

Comments

H. H. Skilling, Do You Teach? Views on College Teaching. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969, pp. 51-57.

Parents

Overview

14

signal perspective

Reference signal represents knowledge in the form of book or syllabus which

defines the content of the course.

The output signal is the grade evaluation of the academic performance. The

output is quantized as A, B, C, D, and F, or perhaps 0 100%. At the end of the

semester, the grade results are transmitted to the registrar.

system perspective

The reference signal is fed to the professor teaching the class and directly to the

students in the class.

The feedback paths from the class to the professor appear as questions in the class,

assigned homeworks, examinations, and comments.

These serve as the sensors telling the behavior and academic performance of

students.

The circle with a + sign denotes a summing device which compares the

reference signal with the feedback signals.

Overview

The feedback is discrete in time. The professor can get questions in the class in

every time there is a class, but written homework may come only once a week, and

regular examinations are given in the intervals of several weeks.

15

Overview

16

u

xm, xm

xa3

xa2

xa1

xg

building 3

3

B. F. Spencer Jr., S. J. Dyke, and H. S. Deoskar, Benchmark Problems in Structural Control: Part I Active Mass Driver System, Earthquake Engineering and

Structural Dynamics, 27(11), 1998, pp. 1127 1139.

Overview

17

Actuator: An active mass driver (AMD) was placed on the third floor of the structure.

The AMD consists of a single hydraulic actuator with steel masses attached to the

ends of the piston rod.

Sensors: Acceleration measurements can readily be acquired.

Accelerometers were positioned on the ground, on each floor of the structure, and on

the AMD.

The position of the actuator was obtained using an LVDT (linear variable differential

transformer), rigidly mounted between the end of the piston rod and the third floor.

Objectives:

to evaluate the relative effectiveness and implementability of control algorithms

to provide a testbed for evaluation of control design issues such as model order

reduction, spill-over, control-structure interaction, limited control authority, sensor

noise, available measurements, computational delay.

Overview

18

system: describing process, plant, input-output relationship, and cause-effect

relationship.

control: being an essential part of engineering, that is, to understand and control the

materials and forces of nature for the benefit of human kind.

feedback: utilizing some measurements of actual outputs to compare with desired

response. the comparison is accomplished by means of Sum

Reference

Sum

Controller

Sensor

Disturbance

Plant

Overview

19

Feedback control system is an interconnection of components forming a system

configuration that will provide a desired system response. also referred to as system

with automatic control or closed-loop control.

Process of control system design

1. set up desired physical requirements and lay out a plan for a physical system

2. determine functional block diagram and schematic block diagram

3. determine mathematical model and reduce block digram

4. analyze the system behavior and design controllers/compensators

Functional block diagram describes the system including

system components in terms of function and hardware

interconnection of system components

Overview

1 10

The objective of control system is to position a radio telescope antenna. Thus, it is

desired to have azimuth angle output follow the reference input angle

The antenna azimuth position control system consists of the following components

potentiometers: input & output

differential amplifier

motor & load (antenna)

Transducer

Controller

vr

e

Amplifiers

Potentiometer

Sensor

vy

Potentiometer

Plant

o

Motor & Load

Overview

1 11

1765 Polzunovs water-level float regulator.

1769 James Watts steam engine and governor developed. Speed control.

1868 Maxwells stability analysis of flyball governor.

1927 Bodes analysis of feedback amplifier.

1932 Nyquists stability analysis.

1960 Modern control. digital, nonlinear, optimal, adaptive

1970 Multivariable control. computer, DSP

1980 Robust control. uncertainty, parameter variation

1990 Hybrid control. sampled-data, human-interface, complex networks

2000 Embedded control. nanotechnology, biomedical, bioengineering

Overview

1 12

applications arise in many areas, e.g.

circuit analysis, simulation, design

communications, internet congestion

estimation and control design in power systems

aeronautics, navigation, guidance

mechanical systems: automobile,

chemical process

building control under earthquake

economics, finance

social science, population

education

usefulness depends on availability of computing power (for analysis, design,

implementation . . . )

well see many more applications in future

Overview

1 13

Impacts of feedback

The idea of feedback transcends technology.5

feedback loops regulate the metabolism of body and the operation of global

economy.

feedback impacts social interaction and human behavior.

the impact is evident from phrases, proverbs, and aphorisms that embody feedback

principles. there are common phrases related to feedback.

do unto others as your would have them do unto you

you shall reap what you sow

you learn from mistakes

for one good deed leads to another good deed, and one transgression leads to

another transgression

Overview

1 14

1. Overview to feedback control systems

Control engineering

Examples of feedback control systems

2. Elements of feedback control systems

Signals and systems

Laplace transform and its properties

Linear time-invariant systems

Impulse and step responses

3. Models of systems

Dynamic models

Linearized models of nonlinear physical systems

Block diagram models

Signal-flow graph models

Overview

Time-domain performance and specifications

Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion

Benefits of feedback control systems

5. Basic control actions: PID

Proportional control

Proportional plus Integral control

Proportional Integral and Derivative control

Techniques for tuning PID controllers

6. Root-locus analysis & synthesis

Construction of root loci

Complimentary root locus

Design of lead, lag, lead-lag compensators

7. Frequency response analysis

Bode diagram

1 15

Overview

Stability margins

Nyquist stability analysis

8. Frequency response compensator design

Closed-loop frequency response

Nichols chart

Frequency response specifications

Design of lead, lag, lead-lag compensators

1 16

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