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Table of Contents

1. CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ 3
1.1. Organization Profile.............................................................................................................4
1.1.1. Key milestones................................................................................................................5
1.1.2. Quality System ...............................................................................................................6
1.1.3. Meridian Industries Limited merges with Precot............................................................6
1.1.4. Corporate / Central office................................................................................................6
1.1.5. A-Unit..............................................................................................................................7
1.1.6. B-Unit..............................................................................................................................7
1.1.7. C-Unit..............................................................................................................................7
1.1.8. D-Unit..............................................................................................................................7
1.1.9. About Precot C................................................................................................................8
1.1.10. About Precot D..............................................................................................................8
1.1.11. General Information.......................................................................................................9
1.2. Product Profile ......................................................................................................................10
1.2.1. Slub Yarn.........................................................................................................................10
1.2.2. Organic Yarn...................................................................................................................10
1.2.3. Compact Yarn.................................................................................................................11
1.2.4. Elitwist / Compact Yarn..................................................................................................11
1.2.5. Polyster Cotton Blend.....................................................................................................11
1.3. Production Process ...............................................................................................................12
1.4. Research Problem statement ...............................................................................................13
1.5. Objective of the project.........................................................................................................13
1.6. Research methodology .........................................................................................................13
1.6.1. Definition........................................................................................................................13
1.6.2. Research design..............................................................................................................13
1.6.3. Population ......................................................................................................................14
1.6.4. Sample size ....................................................................................................................14
1.6.5. Questionnaire design......................................................................................................14
1.7. Method of data collection......................................................................................................14
1.7.1 Primary data.....................................................................................................................14
1.7.2 Secondary data.................................................................................................................14
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1.8 Limitations of the project.....................................................................................................15

2. CHAPTER 2 THE CONCEPT OF 5S.................................................................16


2.1. Literature overview...........................................................................................................16
2.2. 5S Systematization.............................................................................................................21
2.3. How You Can Use 5s to Increase Productivity? ............................................................22
2.4. 5s workplace organization................................................................................................23
2.5. Target Outcomes and Benefits.........................................................................................24
2.6. Visual workplace...............................................................................................................25
3. CHAPTER 3 - DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION........................................26
3.1 Data Collection.
3.1 Seiri-Sort Analysis.............................................................................................................34
3.2 Seiton-Set in Order Analysis............................................................................................35
3.3 Seiso-Shine analysis...........................................................................................................35
3.4 Seiketsu-Standardize analysis..........................................................................................36
3.5 Shitsuke-Sustain analysis.................................................................................................36
4. CHAPTER 4 - SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIO ........................................37
4.1 Summary................................................................................. ..........................................37
4.2 Findings.............................................................................. ...............................................38
5.3 Suggestions.........................................................................................................................39
BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................40
ANNEXURES..............................................................................................................................43

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

This research is on the topic A project on improving productivity through 5S system at Precot
Meridian LTD, Walayar In the present competitive market Precot Meridian is one of the pioneer
companies in the yarn manufacturing industry. It is one of the companies having implemented 5s which
reflects in their overall performance and quality of the product. This project is to find out the
effectiveness of 5s and its benefits in an organization like Precot Meridian ltd.
They have been practicing 5S in the organization for the last 5 years. And the production and
performance was in its peak when the 5S is in effect. This project is trying to find whether the 5S is
effective at present compared with the previous years.
The data collection of this project is done through observation and direct interview conducted in
production and operations department of the company. The other information available for this project
was the companys records and manuals. This project gives an insight to the companys present
situation of effective housekeeping through the implementation of 5S system.
The goal for this project is to let people realize about the importance of good housekeeping, especially
in manufacturing plan. Many people think that housekeeping should be done by housewives at home,
and cleaners at work. They do not realize that they, too, play an important part in keeping their
houses/workplaces clean. More importantly, they do not know how much they can gain for themselves
by just practicing good housekeeping. Whether work in an office, the factory, the warehouse, the
laboratory or any other place, housekeeping is relevant to every people.
Good housekeeping is important as it can create an environment in which even minor abnormalities
and mistakes will be obvious. Plus, it will produce an easily managed, safer and more pleasant
environment. In industry, a clean, well-ordered and attractive work environment will help to encourage
tidy work habits in employees. It helps reduce fatigue. It will promote good worker-management
relations. It also gives a lift to morale, which is reflected in the quality of production and overall
efficiency. It can stimulate efforts to improve productivity through better use of people, space,
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equipment, time and material.


Good housekeeping is also a good advertisement for every company. It is because customers and
clients will have more confidence in an organization when their works is being carried out efficiently in
clean, pleasant, well-ordered work surroundings. Good housekeeping portrays professionalism and
efficiency to others. It can be expected that the standards displayed in the environment will be reflected
in the product
The more important reason why good housekeeping matter is it makes the undertaking a safer place to
work in. Good housekeeping is a main factor in preventing accidents. Majority of all work accidents
are caused during the handling of goods or materials, and by people falling, being hit by falling objects,
or striking against objects in the workplace. All these causes can be reduced by good housekeeping
practices. In fact, good housekeeping is the only cure for hundreds of accidents that occur.
The 5-S framework was originally developed by just-in-time expert and international consultant
Hiroyuki Hirano. The 5S framework is an extension of Hirano's earlier works on just-in-time
production systems. The 5-Ss represent a simple "good housekeeping" approach to improving the work
environment.
In general, the 5S approach includes the controls the work floor conditions rather than the worker's
behavior. It makes the worker's job easier and safer. It promotes daily activity for continuous
improvement. It fosters efficiency and productivity while improving work flow. It encourages a
proactive approach that prevents problems and waste before they occur. It provides a practical method
for dealing with the real problems that workers face every day. And it fits with a facility's other efforts,
such as total preventive maintenance, just-in-time manufacturing, pollution prevention, safety
initiatives, and lean manufacturing efforts.

1.1. Organization Profile


Precot Meridian is one of the oldest groups which started its mill in 1958, promoted by N.Damodaran.
Precot Meridian limited (PML) was incorporated in 1962 in Palakkad, Kerala, to produce cotton yarns
with an initial capacity of 12096 spindles. Precot Meridian limited made its maiden issue in 1962.
Production of cotton yarns commenced during 1964.The Precot has symbolized Quality and Trust in
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the textile industry. With four decades of spinning experience and a diverse range of products that
include cotton yarns, knitting threads, fabrics and garments. Precot is one of the few total integrated
with a total turnover of 90 million US Dollars. The Group has state of the art infrastructure facilities
and skilled personnel to rise up to customer expectations. The group has been accorded the status of
Export House by The Cotton Textile Export Promotion Council of India (TEXPROCIL). Precot
exports its products to Belgium, China, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Portugal, South Korea, Turkey and U.K.
1.1.1. Key milestones:
- From an initial capacity of 12,096 Spindles at Kanjikode, Kerala (A-Unit) in 1964, now the capacity
of the unit is 57,600 spindles.
- In 1983, the second unit (B-Unit) was set up at Hindupur, Andhra Pradesh with an initial capacity of
28,800 Spindles and the current capacity is 69,120 spindles.
-In 1992, the third unit (C-Unit) was set up at Walayar, Kerala as a 100% Export Oriented Unit with a
capacity of 12,096 Spindles and the current capacity is 25,344 spindles.
In

1995, an OE Unit (D Unit) was set up at Walayar adjacent to its third Unit with a capacity of 1344

Rotors.
In

1998, a yarn dyeing Unit (K Unit) was set up at Kolar, Karnataka to manufacture polyester knitting

threads and its capacity is 7 tons per day.


In

January 2004, yarn dyeing operations were started at Perundurai, which caters to the needs of the

Sethumadai unit.
In

2006, Meridian Industries merged with Precot Mills and the name was changed to Precot Meridian

Ltd., and the current capacity is 66,154 spindles.


Precot

Meridian is looking towards green power generation and has invested in 17 Windmills. These

windmills cater 50% of the power requirements of units located in Tamil Nadu.

1.1.2. Quality System


Precot Meridian being an ISO 9001 certified company is focused on providing the finest quality yarns
and fabrics. In order to meet customer requirements and to ensure their satisfaction, Precot Meridian
implemented TQM in all the units for executing 5S methods of housekeeping and 3M methods to
control wastage of resources. Quality System is achieved through total employee involvement,
technical In Marat ion and continual improvement.
1.1.2. Meridian Industries Limited merges with Precot
Meridian Industries Limited has been merged with Precot Mills Limited with effect from 01st April,
2006. Meridian Industries Ltd (MIL) which was incorporated in the year 1993 was promoted by Precot
Mills Limited and around 70% of the shares of MIL were held by the shareholders of Precot. To have
larger capacity in a single company, instead of the capacities being spread over in two companies
having common shareholders, the merger was proposed. This has been approved by the High Court of
Madras vide its order dated 30th August and 1st Sept, 06. As per the scheme of Merger, the
shareholders of MIL are entitled for one share of Precot for every two shares of MIL. Accordingly the
share certificates of Precot were dispatched in Dec, 06 to those shareholders who have surrendered the
certificates of MIL. Shareholders of MIL, who are yet to claim the certificates of Precot can, do so by
sending the MIL certificates along with the following application duly filled in to the registrars.

1.1.3. Corporate / Central office


Corporate office is situated at Suprem P.B No: 7161737, Pulikulam Road, Coimbatore-641
045.Corporate office deals with raw material purchase, testing, approval and allotment to group
mills. In addition to that finalization of sales contract, approval of production-planning, policy
decisions etc. are also taken at corporate office.
1.1.4. A-Unit
Unit A is located at Kanjikode west, Palghat, Kerala and was established in the year 1964.the area used
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is 2 Hectors surrounded by 15 Hectors of its own land. Present Spendlage of the Factory is
57600,working 24 hours in a day and 7 days in a week and Spinning Hosiery yarns, warp and weft
yarns and doubled yarns counts ranging from 30s to 100s combed and cradle varieties. All are ring
spun yarns only.
1.1.5. B-Unit
B unit is at Kodigerahalli, H.S.Mandir, Hindupur (post), Andra Pradesh and won established in the year
1983.Mill is located in an area of around 5 Hectars. Present installed capacity of the mill is 72000
spindles engaged in manufacturing of ring spun yarn and working 24 hours a day and 7 days a week
continuously.
1.1.6. C-Unit
C-Unit is at Chandrapuram, Walayar Dam (post), Palghat (Dist), Kerala. Unit was established in the
year 1992.Factory is build up in an area of 9600 square meter. Present spindlage of the unit is 24720
company produces yarn ranging between 20s Ne to 40s Ne in both 100% Cotton Combed varieties to
suit different end uses. At present the yarn produced from the mil is being widely used for knitting
(Banyans and Knitwear).
1.1.7. D-Unit
D-Unit is situated at Chandrapuram, Walayar Dam (post), Palghat (Dist), Kerala and was established in
the year 1995. This is located in an area of around 5.3 Hectors. Present capacity of the factory is 1344
roller; manufacturing yarn ranging between 60s Ne in both 100% Cotton and Processed wastes in
carded and combed varieties to suit different end uses. At present the yarn produced from the mill is
being widely used for Industrial fabrics and bed sheets.

1.1.8. About Precot C


Founder of the Group: Sri.V.N Ramachandran (Late) Sri.N.Damodaran

Chairman &Managing Director: Sri.D.Aswin Chandran

Starting of the Mill: January 92

Total Spindles Installed: 24624 Spindles (9*1056) (1008*15)

Raw-material: Cotton and Polyster staple fiber

Count of yarn processed: 34s to 40s cotton combed knitting yarn

End use of products: Sportswear, Casual wears

Raw-material used: Raw cotton, Polysters staples

Exporting countries: U.K, Germany, Isreil ,Mauritius, Singapore, Malaysia and Portugal

Number of workers in the mill: 105 permanent workers

1.1.9. About Precot D

Mill started on: October 95

Total rolors installed: 960 (4*192) (96*2)

Count of yarn manufactured: 10s OE, 16s OE, 20s OE

End use of products: Weaving, knitting

Raw-material used: Raw cotton and Noils/Flat strips

Yarn sold in Local: 30% Export: 70%


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1.1.10. General Information

Shift Timings - Precot C:


Morning - 8.00 AM to 4.30 PM - I shift
Evening - 4.30 PM to 1.00 AM - II shift
Morning - 1.00 AM to 8.00 AM - III Shift
Other Facilities, Regulations:
-

Cycle shed provided for keeping vehicles

ERC functions all 24 hrs and provides food.

When an employee enters the mill we has to collect the card from the security main gate and
handover the same at gate while leaving.

Dormitory is provided for ladies inside the mill promises with mess facility.

A lady matron is appointed to core the needs of girls.

Smoking is strictly prohibited inside the mill premises.

Creche is provided to cater the needs of working womens children.

First aid boxes are provided with required medicines inside the department and HRD department to
meet any accidents on work.
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SICs / Supervisors are present in all shifts to manage workers.

Uniform is Supplied to all operatives and non Operatives.

1.2. Product Profile


Precot Meridian manufactures and markets high quality yarns like Slub Yarn, Organic Yarn, Compact
Yarn, Elitwist Yarn, etc to domestic and international clients.
1.2.1. Slub Yarn
Slub yarn is manufactured with the technical support of CAIPO, Italy and LAKSHMI, India. Precot
Meridian manufactures all types of slub yarn - short, medium long, extra-long and reverse slub yarn.
Slub yarn comes under the fancy yarn domain as it creates certain visual effects in the resulting fabric.
Slub yarn fabric is characterized by an uneven surface; simple colors seem appealing because of the
regular change in texture right through the fabric.
1.2.2. Organic Yarn
Producing yarn that is certified as being organic involves a long procedure committed to eco-friendly
practices at various levels. The cotton used to produce organic yarn is grown on farms that adhere to
farming practices wherein chemical herbicides, growth-stimulants and pesticides are not used.
Sustainable agricultural practices are put into use to ensure that the cotton used is 100% organic.
Precot Meridian sources this organic cotton at premium prices in order to ensure that the yarn
manufactured is also organic. This is certified by Control Union, Netherlands. This certificate is
renewed each year under the guidance of Control Union Netherlands after a strict audit process. Apart
from the measures taken to ensure the organic quality of the yarn, due care is taken to comply with
safety, labor and other mandatory issues, while producing organic yarn.
1.2.3. Compact Yarn
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Precot Meridian has introduced a Marel way of reducing the extra hairiness that characterizes
conventional yarn. Conventional yarn spinning techniques result in low strength and irregular
appearance. This is overcome by the world class SUESSAN COMPACT which uses the compact
spinning technique. This ensures that the yarn produced has quality characteristics such as evenness,
tensile strength and lowered hairiness.
1.2.4. Elitwist / Compact Yarn
Elitwist / Compact yarn is used in specialist applications. The technology used has the tendency to
reduce the twisting triangle in the spinning machine. Elitwist yarn can withstand heavy loads because
of its increased strength and elongation. It maintains a good luster as the hairiness is fairly low.
The enhanced strength of Elitwist yarn makes it a favored product with customers. Warping breaks are
reduced a great deal and sizes can be changed without too many cost implications. It also lends itself to
extensive dyeing possibilities. Precot Meridian as one of the most well known manufacturers of
polyester knitting thread, produces a wide range that suit the varied needs of end users. Both two ply
and three ply yarns that range from Ne 20 to Ne 60 are manufactured.
1.2.5. Polyester Cotton Blend
Precot Meridian manufactures a wide range of polyester cotton blends ranging from Ne 30 to 40. Two
different cotton blends manufactured include 40/60 and 50/50 poly cotton. These products are well
known for their quality and the ultimate fabric appearance is an important factor for PC blends.

1.3. Production Process

Cotton Go-down
Blow Room

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Carding
Pre-comber Drawing
Lap Former

PREPERATORY

Comber
Finisher Drawing
Simpler
SPINNING
AUTO CORNER
Yarn Conditioning Plant (YCP)
PACKING
Yarn Go-down
Dispatch

1.4. Research Problem statement


For any company it is easy to implement a new policy, procedure or a system, but the success those
systems are determined by the adoption and sustainable in effectiveness. Precot Meridian ltd. is
unaware about the effectiveness of 5S implementation on improving production efficiency. This project
is trying the effectiveness of 5s system in Precot Meridian ltd.

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1.5. Objective of the project


The objectives of this project are:
- To find out the method for improving productivity of the 5S system.
- To find out the influence of 5S implementation in production process.
- To find out and analysis various work environment changes made by 5S system.
- To find out the effectiveness of housekeeping system in a company.

1.6

Research methodology

1.6.1. Definition
The process used to collect information and data for the purpose of making business decisions.

The methodology may include publication research, interviews, surveys and other research
techniques, and could include both present and historical information.
1.6.2. Research design
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that
aims to combine relevance to the research purpose .It is a blue print of the project. Descriptive
research design was used in this project for analysis.
1.6.3. Population

The employees of PRECOT MERIDIAN LIMITED textiles in Walayar.

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1.6.4. Sample size

The size of the sample selected for the project is 40 respondents

1.6.5. Questionnaire design

The questionnaire was prepared by the researcher itself for direct interview. It was for collecting the
details from the researcher perspective
1.7. Method of data collection
Two types of data were collected: primary and secondary to facilitate this project. Primary data
refers to direct information from daily operations of production department while secondary data are
administrative records and prior research studies that support this project. Part of the primary data
comes from observations interviews and discussions with employees and supervisors.
1.7.1 Primary data
Primary data is collected through observation method right at the time when the activity is being
carried out. The flow time and flow speed is recorded and calculated to derive the primary data.

1.7.2 Secondary data


The secondary data is collected from the company production schedule and records.

1.8 Limitations of the project


- Only regular employees were taken into account for the project
- Incorrect opinion expressed by the respondents may affect the outcome of findings.
- The survey is purely based on the opinion of employees, which may be biased at times.
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CHAPTER 2
The Concept of 5S
2.1. Literature overview
There were four activities in the Japanese system. These activities, each beginning with the letter S,
were:
1. Seiri (sort)
2. Seiton (set in order)
3. Seiso (shine)
4. Seiketsu (standardize)
5. Shitsuke (sustain)
After that, a fifth activity was added which called Shitsuke (sustain), they are now known as 5S. Based
on five Japanese words that begin with 'S', the 5S focuses on effective work place organization and
standardized work procedures. 5S classifies the work environment, reduces waste and non-value activity
while improving quality, efficiency, and safety. These processes can increase morale, create positive
impressions on customers, and increase efficiency and organization. 5S makes employees feel better
about their work environment. This improvement leads to less waste, better quality and reduced lead
times. Any of these benefits will make a company more profitable and competitive in the market place.
Before a company implements the 5S, they should know what 5S are and why 5S. A lot of companies
feel that they should do 5S first in order to go lean. Some proven reasons for this: 5S is clear, easy and
gets people's attention. Yet, there is no rule to ask where to start. Begin 5S implementation when there is
a reasonable point within a company. Let employees understand what the purpose is and how to follow
it. Do not use 5S just because everyone else is doing it; 5S is not a trend towards fashion. When a
company wants to implement 5S, just like anything new for the company, a leader should describe what
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5S is and how it will be utilized1.


A '5S' driven workplace enhances productivity and competitiveness and fosters a productivity culture
through a continual process of identifying, reducing and eliminating MUDA (Japanese for Waste). '5S'
helps to:
(a) Identify, Reduce and Eliminate MUDA
(b) Organized & World Class Gemba (Workplace)
(c) Enhancement in Productivity & Competitiveness
(d) Better Living and improved work life

2.2. 5S Systematization
Upadhye2, in his book describes, Quality as fitness for use. He discusses that quality as conformance to
requirement and non-quality as nonconformance. Quality can take many forms. Quality can be
summarized as terms of an excellent product and service. There are three term in quality, Quality of
design, Quality of conformance, and Quality of nonconformance. Quality of design means the product
has been designed to successful fill a customer need, real or not perceived. The design should be an
excellent product or service that fulfills or exceeds customer expectation. Quality conformance means,
conformance to requirement. Refers to the manufacture of the product or the service that meet the
specified requirement set by the consumer. Quality performance, means, that the product or service
performs its intended function as identified by the consumer.
In the Websters New World Dictionary quality is defined as physical or nonphysical characteristic that
1

R. R. Fisher, and K. Kobayashi, Implementing 5S within a Japanese context: an integrated management system.

Management decision 2008. 46(4): p. 565-579.


2

Upadhye et al. Lean manufacturing system for medium size manufacturing enterprise: An Indian case

International journal of management science and engineering management. Vol.5 no.5 pp. 362-375, 2010.

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constitutes the basic nature of a thing or is one of its distinguishing features. Shewhart, said that there
are two common aspects of quality, one of these has to do with the consideration of the quality of a
thing as an objective reality independent of the existing of man. The other has to do with what we think,
feel or sense as a result of the objective reality. This subjective side of quality is closely linked to value.
It is convenient to think of all matters related to quality of manufactured product in terms of these three
functions of specification, production and inspection (Grant and Leavenworth, 1988). Quality is fitness
for use, (Juran, 1989). Quality is conformance to requirements (Crosby, 1979) and quality should be
aimed at the needs of the customer present and future (Deming 1986).
SEIRI (sorting and disposing unnecessary items) Deals with sorting all the tools, materials and other
equipment in the workplace. Important equipment is stored accordingly, which reduces the hazards at
the work place.
SEITON (everything is set in order, provide a place for everything).Identifies the need of the worker.
Tools, materials and other equipment should be arranged systematically for quick access and
movement.3
SEISO (shining, cleaning, removal of waste and dust) Points out the need and necessity of clean and
neat work place. Cleaning should become a daily activity. Work place should be cleaned at regular
intervals (generally at the end of the shift or once in 3hours). Every tool and equipment should be
restored at their own places after their use.
SEIKETSU (consistent and standardized work environment with unique rules of organization and
storage along with cleanliness).Everyone should know his or her responsibility. Cleaning should
become a part of regular work routines. This helps in having a good control over the production.
SHITSUKE (Sustain, realization of the above set of rules in order). Maintain these standards
continuously for years. Implementing 5S should begin from educating the workers about 5S and its
importance. It is mandatory that every worker should understand the need of 5S and its advantages.
Workers should be provided with an example for all the 5Ss, which makes it easy to understand. It is
very important to understand the fact that this methodology do not refer only for the production team
but also refers to stores (warehouse) and other office teams. It is better to supply a 5S pocket guide to
3

Ab Rahman, M.N., et al., Implementation of 5S Practices in the Manufacturing Companies: A Case Project.

American Journal of Applied Sciences, 2010. 7(8): p. 1182-1189.

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the workers such that they could clarify their doubts by reading it.
Dr. M Hudi4, well-known consultant and author on the subject of quality said:
Quality as non faulty system Dr. Deming stresses that quality efforts should be directed at the present
and future needs of the customer. In other words, customers do not necessary know what they want until
they have seen the product or received the service.

2.3.

How You Can Use 5s to Increase Productivity?

5s is a process using 5 different phases needs to be implemented into the workplace.


First things need to be as first. You dont want to improve something that is not needed into your
daily working routine. As a first you need to start with the Seiri, sort everything around you in
your workplace. Sorting means to find everything around you and eliminate everything that you
dont need in your work. Use following question to help you start with the sorting:
What I have around me in my working place?
Do I need it?
What items I need to eliminate?
When you eliminate everything that you dont need, and you know how important a specific item
that you need is, you can start making order (Seiton). Make a place for everything and everything
should be in its own place ensuring easy availability when you need specific items. Answer
following question because they will help you in this phase:
How much important is a specific item for my work?
How much times I use each of the items on a daily, weekly and monthly basis?
Is the item on the right place?
What I need to do when I need a specific item?
Is it the movement that I make when I need a specific item optimal?
Is the place where each item is placed is the right place for my working routine?
Where each item will be placed?
How the places will be labeled?

M. Hudli and K.H. Imandar, Areas of Lean manufacturing for productivity improvement in a manufacturing

unity, world academy of science, engineering and technology vol. 69, 2010

18

Now, when you eliminate everything that you dont need, everything has its own place, and
everything is in its own place you have much better workplace around you. Next thing that you
will need is cleaning routine (Seisi). Clean work environment is much more productive than
disorganized and dirty workplace. At the end of each workday you need to clean your workplace
in such a way that everything will be on its own place, prepared for your tomorrow use. When you
know what you need, where it needs to be placed and how to keep things organized and clean you
need to standardize that work practices (Seiketsu). This methodology is not one-time show that
you will implement and forget. You need to standardize practices from the first three S into your
working daily routine. In such a way, you can easily and quickly improve your workplace to be
more productive5.
Once, when the first four S is established and implemented as something normal in your daily
working routine, you will need to check and review the process to find the better ways to organize
stuff around you (Shitsuke). To find whats the best time to review your standard procedures to
maintain and to improve your workplace.

2.4.

5s workplace organization

5S is one of the most widely adopted techniques from the lean manufacturing toolbox. Along with
Standard Work and Total Productive Maintenance, 5S is considered a "foundational" lean concept,
as it establishes the operational stability required for making and sustaining continuous
improvements.
The primary objective of 5S is to create a clean, orderly environment- an environment where there
is a place for everything and everything is in its place. Beyond this, many companies begin their
lean transformation with 5S because it exposes some of the most visible examples of waste it also
helps establish the framework and discipline required to successfully pursue other continuous
improvement initiatives.

M. Hudli and K.H. Imandar, Areas of Lean manufacturing for productivity improvement in a manufacturing

unity, world academy of science, engineering and technology vol. 69, 2010

19

2.5.

Target Outcomes and Benefits:

Reduce non-value adding activity

Reduce mistakes from employees and suppliers

Reduce time for employee orientation and training

Reduce search time in navigating the facility and locating tools, parts and supplies

Reduce parts stored in inventory, and associated inventory carrying costs

Reduce unnecessary human motion and transportation of goods

Improve floor space utilization

Improve employee safety and morale

Improve product quality

Extend equipment life through more frequent cleaning and inspection


5S produces measurable benefits. One of the surest ways to identify these benefits is to establish
and track specific metrics. For example, measure the time required to locate items in the
workplace before 5S and then measure the time required after the workspace has been improved.
Longer term benefits can also be measured by monitoring the amount of workplace injuries
reported after 5S has been implemented. Not only May workplace injuries decrease, but training
costs may, too. It is easier and faster to train employees in a work area that is orderly and wellmarked.
Another way to measure 5S benefits in the workplace is to take pictures. Pictures are very
effective at visually highlighting the improved appearance and order in the workplace. Concrete
measurements are a complement to the pictures, fueling the momentum needed to sustain 5S.
2.6.

Visual workplace

Visual Workplace also known as Visual Factory or Visual Management is a concept that
emphasizes putting critical information at the point of need. Visual devices are critical to moving
from traditional manufacturing to lean manufacturing. In fact, Visual Workplace serves as the key
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sustaining force in these initiatives, because it ensures that lean improvements remain clearly
visible, readily understood, and consistently adhered to long after the 5s event is over.

Fig. 2.1.Visual Workplace6


Source: Kazuo Tsuchiya, Freddy Soon: The Practice of Good Housekeeping (5S & 5s),
Productivity and Standards Board, Singapore 2008, p. 128
The effective implementation of visual systems has been documented to generate the following
dramatic improvements:
-15% increase in throughput
- 70% cut in materials handling
- 60% decrease in floor space
- 80% decrease in flow distance
- 68% reduction in rack storage
- 45% decrease in number of forklifts
- 12% decrease in engineering cycle time
- 50% decrease in annual physical inventory time
- 96% decrease in defects

Kazuo Tsuchiya, Freddy Soon: The Practice of Good Housekeeping (5S & 5s), Productivity and
Standards Board, Singapore 2008, p. 128
6

21

CHAPTER 3
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

In this chapter we will analyze the data collected through the respondents before the company wasnt
aware of 5s methodology and after the implementation of 5s technique. Both the datas will be
analyzed in order to find out how implementing 5s improved productivity and efficiency of a Precot
Meridian Ltd.
In order to begin with analysis first we will check the state of Precot Meridian before implementing 5s
in their organization.
Table 3.1 5s score sheet before 5s implementation

22

3.1 Data Collection: Before 5s

(a)

(b)

Figure 3 (a, b): Manual Processes are carried out by manual operations; there is less automation in
processes which takes more time in production. It is also possible that while manually cleaning the oil
tank the workers may get harmed.

23

(c)

(d)

Figure (c, d): Improper visualization of machining process at end facing machine. Due to
sprinkling of oil over the glass it is not possible to examine the process.

(e)
(f)
Figure (e, f): Poor maintenance of wiring and chemical tank. As the chemical tank is not
properly maintained there is chance of tank to get bust up.

24

(g)

(h)

Figure (g, h): Algae/Fungus on floor due to water and oil leakage from machine makes the floor
slippery. There is no provision for using the leaked oil which leads in wastage.

(i)

(j)

Figure (i, j) Ergonomics problem, there was no ventilation facility due to which temperature affects
workers performances, which indirectly affects the productivity of the firm.

Table 3.2 showing analysis of utilization of machines before 5s

The above result came through the organizational records before 5s and shows the analysis of
utilization of machines in each type of product before the implementation of 5S. For the product
34s ck it is only 95.2% before 5S, for 30s ck it is 94.4%, for 40s cw 92.8% and for 40s ck 90.1%.

25

Table 3.2: showing GPSS (gram per spindle per shift) before implementation of 5S
Type of yarn

Before 5s

34s combed knitting

160gm

30s combed knitting

198gm

40s combed warping

115gm

40s combed knitting

132gm

The above data shows field of GPSS. Where it made the production 34s ck Yarn was 160 gm. In the
case of 30s ck yarn it is 198gm, for 40s cw yarn it was only 125gm and for 40s ck yarn it is 132gm.
Table 3.7 showing data on Quality (imperfection) before implementation of 5S

It is one of the important impacts of 5S; it could make a change in the quality of different type of yarn
with respect to the index of imperfection. In the case of 30s ck yarn imperfection was 110. similarly
they could reduce imperfection and improve the quality of all the other type of yarn as it is shown
above.

Table 3.8: Count Strength of product before implementation of 5S

The above table shows count strength of yarn before the implementation of 5S. The minimum
required count strength of yarn is 2400 and they maintained to achieve above 2400 before the
implementation itself.
26

Implementation of 5S:
3.11 Seiri-Sort Analysis
Seiri-Sort: Sorting items which are not necessary and segregating and disposing of goods that are not needed
at work systematically are considered. Separation process is helpful in determining the necessary materials at
the present or the future and should be stored in a designated storage area. Unnecessary items will be
disposed. The benefits are:

Figure 3: God-own after the 5s implementation


- Saving space
-Stock control and efficient products
-Searching time is fast
-Safer workplace
-More comfortable working environment
-Easily detect the place / equipment / material damage early

3.12 Seiton-Set in Order Analysis


Seiton: Set in Order: Neatness: This means preparing the necessary items neatly and systematically so that
they can easily be taken and returned in the original place after use. It includes preparing and storing neatly,
easily collected and stored back into place. Organizing and labeling was done after all the items that do not
have to be separated. The composition of goods should be carried by the same group. The main objective is
to develop economical use of space and the storage of goods is neat and orderly which facilitates the process
of locating and obtaining goods in the future. Some examples can be based on the application and give
27

benefit to worker:

Figure 3.1: Machine kept clean and color code after 5s


-The process works faster
-Errors and mistakes will be avoid
-Loss rate lower equipment
-The working environment will be more convenient
-Educating employees positive discipline
-Among employees to generate creative ideas
-Higher employee morale
3.13 Seiso-Shine analysis
Seiso: Shine Cleaning: Clean and inspect the work in details so that no dust or dirt is on the floor, equipment
and the working environment. The purpose of sweeping is to remove dust or dirt that sticks on the floor, the
machine at work or goods that have been sorted and arranged. A checklist should be placed to guide the
employees on what to do in the future in this activity. Fundamental points, equipment, areas should be swept
and cleaned at all times with an effective maintenance schedule. Some examples are based on application
which can benefit the worker includes:

28

Figure 3.2: Waste bin after implementing 5s


-Low- cost equipment failure
-Improved product quality
-The work environment is more comfortable and cheerful
-Workers continue to produce creative ideas
-Higher employee morale
-Safety at work
3.14 Seiketsu-Standardize analysis
Seiketsu: Standardize: Uniformity: To establish standards of the best practice in the workplace and to ensure
that the standards are compiled and to guarantee that the workplace is clean and tidy at all times (Ref. Anx:
Ref.4). Examples of storage of equipment and documents that is clear.

Figure 3.3: Standardized machinery after 5S implementation


29

-Low overhead costs


-Increased process efficiency
-Increased production quantities
-Educating employees positive discipline
-Workers continue to produce creative ideas
-Increasing workers skills
-Employee loyalty to the organization
-Enhancing the image of the organization
3.15 Shitsuke-Sustain analysis
Shitsuke: Sustain: Always Practice (Shitsuke): Train employees disciplined for practicing 5S system
continuously so that the habits and culture within the organization will include:

Figure 3.5: 5S implementation enables company to sustain


-Low production costs
-Increased labour productivity
-Quality products and services
-Get a certificate of increased 5S
-Zero accidents at work

30

Data Analysis: Before and after 5s Implementation


Efficiency is the comparison of what is actually produced or performed with what can be achieved. In
general terms efficiency is the percentage of output by input. In knitting floor the equation for
efficiency is given bellow:
Efficiency =

Total output per day per line SMV


Total manpower per line Total operating minute

100

Table 3. Day by day observed output of knitting machine


Hine
Day
23-Mar 24-Mar 25-Mar 26-Mar 27-Mar
Output 2400
2440
2435
2455
2600

The observed outputs of the knitting machine for that week are given to the Table 3.
Efficiency before implementing 5s:
Total output per machine / day = 22400 pcs, SMV = 37, Total manpower = 32, Total working minute = 10 hr
= 10 60 minutes, by using equation (1), Efficiency = 50%
Efficiency after implementing 5s:
Total output per line / day = 2600 pcs. SMV = 37, Total manpower = 31, Total working minute = 10 hr = 10
60 minutes, by using equation (1), Efficiency = 62%. Similarly the calculated efficiency of each day of the
week is given in Table 4.
Table 4 Day by day observed efficiency of knitting machine
Day
Efficiency
(%)

23Mar

24Mar

25Mar

26Mar

27Mar

50

56

54

59

62

DHU is the total no. of defects found in all the inspected garments in hundred units. DHU is considered as
the total no of defected points of all defect garments. DHU is an important quality indicator.
DHU = Total no. of defects of inspected products*100
31

No. of inspected products


On the first day, the total no. of inspected garments was 259 and the total no. of defect points was 347. By
using Equation (2), DHU can be found to be 134. After taking the corrective actions defects are reduced.
Here it is noticed that DHU is reduced by taking the corrective actions of defects. The DHU for that week is
given in table 5.
Table 5; DHU chart of the week
Day
DHU
No. of Defect points
No. of inspected
products

23-Mar 24-Mar 25-Mar 26-Mar 27-Mar


134
118
143
92
51
347
330
386
271
159
259

280

270

295

312

The existing 5S score of the knitting floor was 1.83. The details of 5S score after 5s implementation are
listed in Table 6. After taking corrective actions, 5S score has been increased from 1.83 to 3.17.
Sl.
No.

Factors

Note for the next level of


Score improvement
1. Unnecessary fabrics are present

01 Unnecessary Items

02 Safety

03 Material Storage

04 Tools & Gages


Cleaning Equipment &
05
Materials

4
4

06 Emergency Equipment

07 Aisles

08

Floor
Cleaning)

09

Equipment
(Cleanliness)

10

Equipment
(maintenance)

11

Visual
Management

2. Unnecessary yarns are present


1. Large items are stored incorrectly
1. Defective garments are stored in the
Tray
2. Unnecessary fabrics are stored
1. Tools are not standardized
1. No specific color code for brooms
Emergency equipment are not
1. colored
2. Not sufficient equipment
1. Unnecessary yarns are present in the
Aisles
2.Fabrics are present in the aisles
1.Fabrics are present in the floor
2.Unnecesarry yarns are found
1. Unnecessary oil is always in the
Equipment
2. Work surfaces are not clean

1. Not correctly specific


2. Is not updated Hourly
3. Congested area, tough to visualize
32

12

5S Control
(Posted)
Total
5S Score

1. Counter measures implemented


2. Results are not graphed

38
38/12 = 3.17

During implementing 5s, the observed Work-in-progress is given in table 7. The WIP has lessened gradually.
This happened because of total productive maintenance of operators and equipment. Mentoring, control and
improvement in processes have resulted in this reduction of WIP.
Day
WIP

23-Mar 24-Mar 25-Mar 26-Mar 27-Mar


152
145
133
121
106

Table 7: Observed WIP during implementing 5s

33

CHAPTER 4
SUMMARY, FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS
4.1 Summary
This project of effectiveness of 5S system in improving production efficiency at Precot Meridian Ltd
has revealed much information regarding the working of 5S system and how it can be made more
effective. Presently the company is using 5S system and it is found that 5S enables the operations of
the company more smooth and effective. With the changing techno-economic scenario around the entire world, the market has turned from seller to buyer type. The main objective of every organization is
to satisfy the stated and implied needs of the customers. To provide quality product within stipulated
time it is necessary to improve the working conditions. In order to improve the performance of
employee, organization has to create interesting working environment. A pleasant condition can help
improving performance and motivation on the workers. 5S is a system in which to reduce work and
optimize productivity and quality through maintaining an orderly workplace. The benefit of good
workplace include the prevention of defects; prevention of accidents; and the elimination of time
wasted for searching tools, documentation and other ingredients of manufacture. The 5S is the
methodology of creation and maintaining well organized, clean, high effective and high quality
workplace. Its result is the effective organization of the workplace, elimination of losses connected
with failures and breakdowns in machines, improvement of the quality and safety of work, Cleanliness
and neatness of the organization.
The data collection of this project is done through observation conducted in production and operations
department of the company. The other information available for this project was the companys records
and manuals. This project gives an insight to the companys present situation of effective housekeeping
through the implementation of 5S system.
The solution to the problem statement i.e. to train and convey the workers about the importance and
usefulness of 5S system in housekeeping and their by increase productivity
4.2 Findings
Before implementing 5s 5S score was 1.83. Here the 5S score was based on twelve important factors of
garment environment. A new approach named visualization system has been introduced there. The
34

present condition of output hour by hour is visualized. The number of defects and most defects are also
visualized. So the result is that the competition among worker increased. If there is also a system for
extra incentive for good performance, operator will also be motivated. Actually the performance of
output highly depends on the working environment. Improving the working environment by making it
clean and worker friendly, the operators have become self-motivated to concentrate to the work. So the
output of the operators has been increased automatically. In other word productivity depends on
operators psychological factors. Before implementing 5s the 5S score was 1.83 but after implementing,
monitoring, and controlling 5S approach the 5S score gets 3.17. Bangladeshi garments are usually
hundred percent exports oriented. Buyer requirement is to have the hundred percent quality products.
But defects are common in sewing floors and it cannot be fully eliminated. After analyzing cause and
effect diagram, it is found that few defects are common and occur maximum time. The root causes of
those defects have been identified and corrective actions have been taken then the DHU has reduced
rapidly. Before implementing 5s the DHU was 134 but after implementing 5s the DHU has turned to
51. Figure 6 exhibits the day by day reduction in DHU with the implementation of 5s.

Figure 5: Observed day by day efficiency

Figure 6. Reduction in DHU day by day

-Precot Meridian ltd is one of the pioneer companies in the yarn manufacturing industries, which using 5S
concepts in their work environment.
-Based on the observation and interview with employees it is found that after the implementation of the 5S
in the company it helped to improve the morale and enthusiasm of employees.
-Precot Meridian Ltd has been well executed the concept of the 5S almost all area of the company.
-From the comparative project on before and after 5S the company could improve utilizations of mill
capacity.
-They could also improve GPSS
- After the implementation of the 5S they could also reduce the defect in product.
-Another important finding of this project that there is an increase in the count strength of yarn from 2450 to
2700.
35

-Based on the observation it is found that there are some areas they couldnt use properly the concepts of
5S,they are using Red tag systems of sorting line and labeling on the storage device for setting order, proper
5S audit etc.
-Company had conducted many quality related training programs to make aware the employees about 5S
system and LEAN philosophy.
-From the observation and responds from employees it has found that there are some area which requires
little more attention the arrangement especially in preparatory section.
-Last but not least the important finding from the all project is that they could bring change in the work
environment by implementing the 5S concepts and they have been effectively utilizing the benefits of the 5S
over the last 5 years.
4.3 Suggestions
Any good concepts is useless unless and until it is been utilized properly. So here are some recommendations
from my side to the company is that.
-Company need to focus on the improvement of utilization of 5S concepts in all the minor area of the work
environment for attaining a good result in optimum level.
- One of the most important things for the success of the 5S is to have sustainability for following the
concepts properly so this area the company needs to put more care for attaining the goal.
- Frequent auditing of 5S will help to assure the benefits of 5S in an organization.
- Company lacks the sustainability of 5S in especially preparatory section, so as to maintain the 5S in an
effective and efficient manner they need to put little more concentration on those areas.
- The company can provide quality related training educational programs and events for sustaining the
motivation of employees in the aspect of quality.
- The company can act as role model and can motivate and assist other organizations in following quality
improvement projects and better housekeeping practices.

36

BIBLIOGRAPHY

M. N. Ab Rahman, et al., Implementation of 5S Practices in the Manufacturing Companies: A Case Project.


American Journal of Applied Sciences, 2010. 7(8): p. 1182-1189.
S. Ahmed and M. Hassan, Survey and case investigations on application of quality management tools and
techniques in SMIs. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 2003. 20(7): p. 795-826.
A Bayo-Moriones, A. Bello-Pintado, and J.M.D. de Cerio, 5S use in manufacturing plants: contextual factors
and impact on operating performance. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 2010.
27(2): p. 217-230.
J. E. Becker, Implementing 5S to promote safety & housekeeping. Professional Safety, 2001. 46(8): p. 29-31.
C.D. Chapman: Clean house with lean 5S. Quality progress, 2005. 38(6): p. 27-32.
B. Eckhardt, The 5S housekeeping program aids production. Concrete products, 2001. 104(11): p. 56.
Chauhan et al., Measuring the status of Lean manufacturing using AHP International journal of Emerging
technology vol.1 no.2, pp.115-120. 2010.
K.S. Chin, and K.F. Pun, A proposed framework for implementing TQM in Chinese organizations.
International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 2002. 19(3): p. 272-294.
R. R. Fisher, and K. Kobayashi, Implementing 5S within a Japanese context: an integrated management
system. Management Decision, 2008. 46(4): p. 565-579.
D. Gheorghe: The 5S strategy for continuous improvement of the manufacturing process in auto car exhausts,
Management and marketing vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 115-120, 2008.
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research Institute. .
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M. Hudli and K.H. Imandar, Areas of Lean manufacturing for productivity improvement in a manufacturing
unity, world academy of science, engineering and technology vol. 69, 2010
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Industrial Engineering Research Conference (2010)
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38

ANNEXURES
Questionnaire
Name:
Resignation:

1.

Which all quality related training program has been conducted?

LEAN manufacturing
5s system
Statistical process control
TQM
2.

Is 5s system regularly monitored?

Yes
3.

No
Is there a documented reporting system for 5s system?

Productivity?

Yes

No

Quality?

Yes

No

Efficiency?

Yes

No

4.
Yes

Do you issue internal 5s system reports?


No

5. Do you issue internal 5s reports


Yes

No
39

6.

Is there a current organizational chart of the company and the quality department?

Yes

No

7.

Does quality management have direct access to the highest level of management?

Yes

No

8.

Are there written procedure for the control of 5s system?

Yes

No

9.

Does an effective corrective action system exist identifies root cause and action taken to eliminate
recurrence?

Yes
10.

No
Where have you eliminated most unnecessary tools?

Production
Store
11. Which area more eliminated unnecessary tool?
Production
Store
Material Handling
12.

Do you believe that the arrangement of tool makes the workflow easier?
strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
strongly disagree
12. If yes, in which area arrangement is mostly needed?
40

Work
Workers
Equipment
Raw material
13. Are you aware of Zero defect philosophy system?
Yes

No
14. Zero defect system implemented here is?

More than 70% successful


50%-70% successful
25%-50% successful
Below 25% successful
15. Do you clean after each shift?
Yes
No
16. Do you have a system to ensure that the work station is restored and ready for next shifts?
Yes
No
17. Do you have written standard for the quality of each operation?
Yes
No
18. Do you have standardized production system?
Yes
No

41

42

43