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One Way

Slab

Structural concrete slabs are constructed to provide flat

surfaces, usually horizontal, in building floors, roofs, bridges,

and other types of structures. The slab may be supported by

walls, by reinforced concrete beams usually cast monolithically

with the slab, by structural steel beams, by columns, or by the

ground. The depth of a slab is usually very small compared to

its span. See Figure 6.1.

Structural concrete slabs in buildings may be classified as

follows:

1. One-way slabs:

If a slab is supported on two opposite sides only, it will bend or

deflect in a direction perpendicular to the supported edges. The

structural action is one way, and the loads are carried by the

slab in the deflected short direction. This type of slab is called a

one-way slab (Figure 6.1a). If the slab is supported on four sides

and the ratio of the long side to the short side is equal to or

greater than 2, most of the load (about 95% or more) is carried

in the short direction, and one-way action is considered for all

practical purposes (Figure 6.1b). If the slab is made of

reinforced concrete with no voids, then it is called a one-way

solid slab. Figure 6.1c, d, and e show cross sections and bar

distribution.

2. One-way joist floor system:

This type of slab is also called a ribbed slab. It consists of a floor

slab, usually 50 to 100 mm thick, supported by reinforced

concrete ribs (or joists). The ribs are usually tapered and are

uniformly spaced at distances that do not exceed 750 mm. The

ribs are supported on girders that rest on columns. The spaces

between the ribs may be formed using removable steel or

fiberglass form fillers (pans), which may be used many times

(Figure 6.2). In some ribbed slabs, the spaces between ribs may

be filled with permanent fillers to provide a horizontal slab.

3. Two-way floor systems:

University of Kufa\Civil Eng.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

When the slab is supported on four sides and the ratio of the

long side to the short side is less than 2, the slab will deflect in

double curvature in both directions. The floor load is carried in

two directions to the four beams surrounding the slab

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

1000 mm

1000 mm

1000 mm

# 12

# 12

150

mm

b = 1000 mm

# 12

# 12

150

mm

150

mm

# 12

150

mm

# 12

150

mm

# 12

150

mm

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

300 mm

500 7500 mm

25 mm

FIGURE 6.2 Cross sections of one-way ribbed slab: (a) without fillers and (b) with fi

If the concrete slab is cast in one uniform thickness without any

type of voids, it can be referred to as a solid slab. In one-way

slabs, all the loading is transferred in the short direction, and

the slab may be treated as a beam. A unit strip of slab, usually

1m at right angles to the supporting girders, is considered a

rectangular beam. The beam has a unit width with a depth

equal to the thickness of the slab and a span length equal to

the distance between the supports. A one-way slab thus

consists of a series of rectangular beams placed side by side

(Figure 6.1).

Design Limitations According to ACI Code

The following limitations are specified by the ACI Code:

1. A typical imaginary strip 1m wide is assumed.

2. The minimum thickness of one-way slabs should be chosen

according Table 5.1.

3. Deflection is to be checked when the slab supports are

attached to construction likely to be damaged by large

University of Kufa\Civil Eng.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

9.5b.

4. It is preferable to choose slab depth to the nearest 10 mm.

5. Shear should be checked, although it does not usually

control.

6. Concrete cover in slabs shall not be less than 20 mm at

surfaces not exposed to weather or ground. In this case,

d = h 20 bd/2 where bd is bar diameter

amount of reinforcement in the direction of the span shall

not be less than that required for shrinkage and

temperature reinforcement (Equation 6.2) (ACI Code,

Section 7.12).

8. The principal reinforcement shall be spaced not farther

apart than, (ACI Code, Section 7.6.5).

S 3hs

450 mm

(6-1)

9. Straight-bar systems may be used in both tops and

bottoms of continuous slabs. An alternative bar system of

straight and bent (trussed) bars placed alternately may

also be used.

10.

In addition to main reinforcement, steel bars at right

angles to the main must be provided. This additional steel

is called secondary, distribution, shrinkage, or

temperature reinforcement.

Temperature and Shrinkage Reinforcement

Concrete shrinks as the cement paste hardens, and a certain

amount of shrinkage is usually anticipated. If a slab is left to

move freely on its supports, it can contract to accommodate the

shrinkage. However, slabs and other members are joined rigidly

to other parts of the structure, causing a certain degree of

restraint at the ends. This results in tension stresses known as

shrinkage stresses. A decrease in temperature and shrinkage

University of Kufa\Civil Eng.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

placed in the slab to counteract contraction and distribute the

cracks uniformly. As the concrete shrinks, the steel bars are

subjected to compression.

The ACI Code, Section 7.12.2, specifies the following

minimum gross steel ratios (g):

g 0.002

g 0.0018

0.0018 420

0.0014

fy

(6-2a)

(6-2b)

(6-2c)

than:

S 5hs

450 mm

(6-3)

Note: The spacings of the bars, S, can be determined as

follows:

S

where

1000 Ab

As

(6-4)

Ab

As

Reinforcement Details

In continuous one-way slabs, the steel area of the main

reinforcement is calculated for all critical sections, at mid-spans,

and at supports. The choice of bar diameter and detailing

depends mainly on the steel areas, spacing requirements, and

development length. Two bar systems may be adopted.

a) In the straight-bar system (Figure 6.3), straight bars

are used for top and bottom reinforcement in all spans.

University of Kufa\Civil Eng.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

The time and cost to produce straight bars is less than that

required to produce bent bars; thus, the straight-bar

system is widely used in construction.

b) In the bent-bar, or trussed, system, straight and bent

bars are placed alternately in the floor slab. The location of

bent points should be checked for flexural, shear, and

development length requirements. For normal loading in

buildings, the bar details at the end and interior spans of

one-way solid slabs may be adopted as shown in Figure

6.3.

FIGURE 6.3 Reinforcement details in continuous one-way slabs: (a) straight bars an

(b) bent bars.

Example 9.1

Calculate the design moment strength of a one-way solid slab

that has a total depth of h = 175 mm and is reinforced with no.

22 bars spaced at S = 175 mm. Use f`c = 21 MPa and fy = 420

MPa.

Example 6.2

Determine the allowable uniform live load that can be applied

on the slab of the previous example if the slab span is 5.0 m

University of Kufa\Civil Eng.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

(excluding self-weight) of 4.8 kN/m2.

Example 6.3

Design a 3.5 m simply supported slab to carry a uniform dead

load (excluding self-weight) of 5.75 kN/m2and a uniform live

load of 4.8 kN/m2. Use f`c = 21 MPa and fy = 420 MPa, = 1,

and the ACI Code limitations.

Example 6.4

The cross section of a continuous one-way solid slab in a

building is shown in Figure 6.4. The slabs are supported by

beams that span 3.5 m between simple supports. The dead load

on the slabs is that due to self-weight plus 3.7 kN/m 2; the live

load is 6.25 kN/m2. Design the continuous slab and draw a

detailed section. Given: f`c = 21 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

0.3 m

3.2 m

0.3 m

3.2 m

0.3 m

3.2 m

0.3 m

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

# 12@ 250 mm

0.64 m

# 16@ 200 mm

1.067 m

# 16@ 200 mm

1.067 m

# 16@ 300 mm

# 12@ 200 mm

# 12@ 200 mm

Example 6.5

Design the continuous slab of Figure 6.6 for moments calculated

with the ACI coefficients. The slab is to support a service live

load of 8 kN/m2 and a superimposed dead load of 0.25 kN/m 2 in

addition to its own dead weight. f`c = 21 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

The slab is to be constructed integrally with its spandrel girder

supports, and the spandrel supports are 300 mm wide.

4m

4m

4m

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

+19.91

0.8667

-27.87

-27.87

Mu = -11.61

1.4863

+17.42

2.0805

1.3004

0.002116 0.00376

0.005282 0.003218

Bar selected

-11.61

kN.m/m

+19.91

2.0805

1.4863

0.8667

0.005282 0.00376

0.002116

MPa

258 mm2

# 12

# 12

# 12

# 12

# 12

# 12

# 12

@300 mm @150 mm @150 mm @150 mm @150 mm @150 mm @300 mm

(430 mm2) (860 mm2) (860 mm2) (860 mm2) (860 mm2) (860 mm2) (430 mm2)

# 12 @ 150mm

# 12 @150 mm

A one-way joist floor system consists of hollow slabs with a total

depth greater than that of solid slabs. The system is most

economical for buildings where superimposed loads are small

and spans are relatively large, such as schools, hospitals, and

hotels. The concrete in the tension zone is ineffective;

therefore, this area is left open between ribs or filled with

lightweight material to reduce the self-weight of the slab.

The design procedure and requirements of ribbed slabs

follow the same steps as those for rectangular and T-sections.

The following points apply to design of one-way ribbed slabs:

1. Ribs are usually tapered and uniformly spaced at about

400 to 750 mm. Voids are usually formed by using pans

(molds) 500 mm wide and 150 to 500 mm deep,

depending on the design requirement. The standard

increment in depth is 50 mm.

University of Kufa\Civil Eng.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

2. The ribs shall not be less than 100 mm wide and must

have a depth of not more than 3.5 times the width. Clear

spacing between ribs shall not exceed 750 mm (ACI Code,

Section 8.13).

3. Shear strength, Vc, provided by concrete for the ribs may

be taken 10% greater than that for beams. This is mainly

due to the interaction between the slab and the closely

spaced ribs (ACI Code, Section 8.13.8).

4. The thickness of the slab on top of the ribs is usually 50 to

100 mm and contains minimum reinforcement (shrinkage

reinforcement). This thickness shall not be less than 1/12

of the clear span between ribs or 40 mm (ACI Code,

Section 8.13.5.2).

5. The ACI coefficients for calculating moments in continuous

slabs can be used for continuous ribbed slab design.

6. There are additional practice limitations, which can be

summarized as follows:

The minimum width of the rib is one-third of the total

depth or 100 mm, whichever is greater.

Secondary reinforcement in the slab in the transverse

directions of ribs should not be less than the shrinkage

reinforcement or one-fifth of the area of the main

reinforcement in the ribs.

Secondary reinforcement parallel to the ribs shall be

placed in the slab and spaced at distances not more

than half of the spacings between ribs.

If the live load on the ribbed slab is less than 3 kN/m 2

and the span of ribs exceeds 5m, a secondary

transverse rib should be provided at mid-span (its

direction is perpendicular to the direction of main ribs)

and reinforced with the same amount of steel as the

main ribs. Its top reinforcement shall not be less than

half of the main reinforcement in the tension zone.

These transverse ribs act as floor stiffeners.

If the live load exceeds 3 kN/m2 and the span of ribs

varies between 4 and 7 m, one traverse rib must be

provided, as indicated before. If the span exceeds 7 m,

at least two transverse ribs at one-third span must be

provided with reinforcement, as explained before.

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

Chapter Six

One Way

Slab

Example 6.6

Design an interior rib of a concrete joist floor system with the

following description: Span of rib = 6 m (simply supported),

dead load (excluding own weight) = 0.75 kN/m 2, live load = 4

kN/m2, f`c = 28 MPa and fy = 420 MPa.

600 mm

50 mm

2 # 16

500 mm

100

mm

300 mm

500 mm

109

stressstrain curve, with short-term loading.

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