You are on page 1of 142

DIGITAL EL CID

(including ELAN Software V3.0)


ELECTROMAGNETIC
CORE IMPERFECTION DETECTOR

OPERATING HANDBOOK

ADWEL INTERNATIONAL LIMITED


UK OFFICE:

HEAD OFFICE:

Park House,
Greenhill Crescent,
Watford,
Herts. WD18 8PH UK

60 Ironside Crescent, Unit 9


Toronto
Ontario,
Canada M1X 1G4

Telephone : +44 (0)1923 254433


Facsimile : +44 (0)1923 218278
Email: info@adwel.co.uk
www.adwel.com

+1 416 321 1988


+1 416 321 1991
info@adwel.com

Version : V4.04
Date:
13th May 2002
Filename:

ELCID_ELAN-V4.04.doc

DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTIES AND


LIMITATION OF LIABILITIES

This handbook is written to give guidance as to the use and application of the
Digital EL CID System for use by a professional electrical engineer in normal
circumstances. The user is expected to study the enclosed theoretical
teachings, explanations and advice, and consider the best application of the
test system in their circumstances.
However as the use of the equipment is beyond the control of ADWEL,
neither ADWEL International Ltd., any member of ADWEL International
Ltd., nor any person or organisation acting on behalf of them can assume
responsibility for any damages or other liability whatsoever including any
consequential damages (even if ADWEL International Ltd., or any ADWEL
International Ltd. representative has been advised of the possibility of such
damages) resulting from your selection or use of this equipment or any
information, apparatus, method, or process, or similar item disclosed in this
handbook, or for any error or omission in this handbook.

2002 ADWEL INTERNATIONAL LTD.

Copyright in this document is owned by Adwel International Ltd


No reproduction of the whole or any part of this document is to be
made without the written permission of ADWEL International Ltd.
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows Millennium, Windows 2000, Windows
XP, Excel and Internet Explorer are all registered trademarks of Microsoft Inc.
WinZip is the registered trademark of WinZip Computing Inc.

Page 2

V4.04

CONTENTS

Page

IMPORTANT SAFETY WARNINGS ................................................................................. 8


1.
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 9
1.1
Core Faults in Rotating Electrical Machines ......................................................... 9
1.2
EL CID Background .............................................................................................. 9
2.
BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EL CID TESTING ......................................................... 11
2.1
Core Faults........................................................................................................... 11
2.2
EL CID Detection ................................................................................................ 12
2.3
Signal Processing................................................................................................. 14
3.
DIGITAL EL CID TEST KIT.................................................................................. 16
3.1
Description of Test Kit Contents ......................................................................... 16
3.2
Digital EL CID Signal Processor Unit 6/100/1/001 .......................................... 16
3.2.1 Inputs ................................................................................................................ 16
3.2.2 Outputs.............................................................................................................. 17
3.2.3 Signal Calibration ............................................................................................. 17
3.2.4 Y Axis (signal).................................................................................................. 17
3.2.5 X Axis (distance) .............................................................................................. 17
3.2.6 Display.............................................................................................................. 18
3.2.7 QUAD/Distance................................................................................................ 18
3.2.8 QUAD/PHASE................................................................................................. 18
3.2.9 CAL Value........................................................................................................ 18
3.2.10 MAX Value ...................................................................................................... 18
3.2.11 Warning Messages............................................................................................ 18
3.2.12 Power Supply.................................................................................................... 18
3.3
Phase Reference Transducer Coil 6/108/1/017 and........................................... 19
Reference Termination Box 6/108/1/018 .......................................................... 19
3.4
Calibration Unit 6/200/1/001, Power Input Lead 6/203/1/010 and .................. 19
Reference Signal Output Loop 6/201/1/002 ....................................................... 19
3.5
Chattock Coils 20068, 20069, 20070 and 6/302/1/003 ..................................... 19
3.6
Sense Head Trolley 6/300/1/001 ....................................................................... 20
3.7
Excitation Winding.............................................................................................. 20
3.8
System Computer Software ................................................................................. 20
3.9
Test Kit Interconnections..................................................................................... 21
4.
TEST PREPARATIONS FOR EL CID TESTING ................................................. 22
4.1
General Preparations............................................................................................ 22
4.1.1 Additional Equipment....................................................................................... 22
4.1.2 Inspecting and Testing the EL CID Equipment. ............................................... 22
4.1.3 Inspecting the Core and Numbering the Slots. ................................................. 23
4.2
The Excitation Winding ...................................................................................... 23
4.3
Excitation Voltage Calculation for Generators.................................................... 24
4.4
Excitation Voltage Calculation for Motors ......................................................... 25
4.4.1 Calculation of Excitation Ampre-turns........................................................... 26
4.4.2 Calculation of Number of Winding Turns, Current and Voltage ..................... 26
4.4.3 Installing and Testing the Excitation Winding ................................................. 27
4.5
Adjusting the Sense Head Trolley ....................................................................... 28
4.6
Setting Up and Connecting the Test Equipment ................................................. 30
4.6.1 The X Axis Transducer and Distance Encoders ............................................... 30
Page 3

V4.04

4.6.2 The Phase Reference Transducer Coil.............................................................. 30


4.6.3 The SPU............................................................................................................ 31
4.6.4 The Plotter ........................................................................................................ 31
4.7
Calibrating the Equipment................................................................................... 31
4.7.1 Calibrating the X Axis...................................................................................... 31
4.7.2 Calibrating the Y Axis...................................................................................... 31
4.7.3 Phase RESET.................................................................................................... 32
5.
TEST PROCEDURES............................................................................................. 33
5.1
Initial Check of Overall Test Set-up.................................................................... 33
5.2
Global Core Tests ................................................................................................ 34
5.2.1 Trial Recordings ............................................................................................... 34
5.2.2 Manual Scanning .............................................................................................. 34
5.2.3 Checking the Suitability of the Y-Axis Sensitivity .......................................... 34
5.2.4 Final Recording ................................................................................................ 35
5.3
Local EL CID Core Test...................................................................................... 36
5.3.1 Step Iron and other Core End Areas ................................................................. 36
5.3.2 Pin-pointing Damage ........................................................................................ 36
5.3.3 Measuring the In-Phase Component of Fault Currents .................................... 37
5.3.4 Damage Below Teeth Tips ............................................................................... 37
6.
INSTALLATION OF ELAN SOFTWARE ON A PC............................................ 38
6.1
Distribution Media............................................................................................... 38
6.2
Suitable PC .......................................................................................................... 38
6.3
If You Dont Have a CD Drive............................................................................ 38
6.4
To Install on a PC ................................................................................................ 38
6.5
Locations for Programs and Data ........................................................................ 39
6.6
Installation on non-English Windows. ................................................................ 39
6.7
Demonstration Test Files..................................................................................... 40
7.
ELAN STATOR ANALYSIS ................................................................................. 41
7.1
Introduction ......................................................................................................... 41
7.2
Overview of Main Features (Analysis and Test) ................................................. 41
7.3
Starting the Analysis Program ............................................................................. 42
7.4
Quick Guide to Analysing a Test......................................................................... 42
7.5
Main Menu .......................................................................................................... 43
7.6
File Menu............................................................................................................. 44
7.6.1 File Open ....................................................................................................... 44
7.6.1.1 Security............................................................................................................. 45
7.6.2 File Close....................................................................................................... 46
7.6.3 File Print Setup .............................................................................................. 46
7.6.4 File Print ........................................................................................................ 46
7.6.4.1 Printing a Header Page ..................................................................................... 49
7.6.4.2 The Print Footer................................................................................................ 49
7.6.4.3 Printout Colours................................................................................................ 49
7.6.5 File Print Screen ............................................................................................ 50
7.6.6 File Exit ......................................................................................................... 50
7.7
Main Display ....................................................................................................... 50
7.8
Display Menu....................................................................................................... 51
7.8.1 Display Select Traces..................................................................................... 51
7.8.2 Display Select Slots ....................................................................................... 53
7.8.3 Display Next Higher Slots ............................................................................. 54
Page 4

V4.04

7.8.4 Display Next Lower Slots.............................................................................. 54


7.9
View Menu .......................................................................................................... 55
7.9.1 View Peaks .................................................................................................... 55
7.9.2 View Notes .................................................................................................... 57
7.9.3 View Machine Parameters............................................................................. 58
7.9.4 View Test Parameters .................................................................................... 59
7.10 Options ................................................................................................................ 59
7.11 EL CID Test......................................................................................................... 61
7.12 Help ..................................................................................................................... 61
7.13 Analysis Keyboard and Mouse Shortcuts............................................................ 61
7.14 Exporting Data to Excel ...................................................................................... 62
7.15 Single Trace Interaction....................................................................................... 63
7.16 Older Test Data.................................................................................................... 65
8.
ELAN EL CID STATOR TEST.............................................................................. 66
8.1
EL CID Stator Overview ..................................................................................... 66
8.2
EL CID Stator Test Main Window Functions ..................................................... 66
8.2.1 Menu functions ................................................................................................. 66
8.2.2 Toolbar.............................................................................................................. 66
8.3
Test Keyboard and Mouse Shortcuts................................................................... 67
8.4
Quick Guide to Testing a Stator .......................................................................... 68
8.5
Test Operation ..................................................................................................... 69
8.5.1 Connection to EL CID ...................................................................................... 69
8.5.2 Test Sequencing................................................................................................ 69
8.5.3 Timebase Use.................................................................................................... 70
8.5.4 Step-Iron Testing .............................................................................................. 70
8.5.5 Remote Trolley Operation ................................................................................ 71
8.5.6 Audio Signals ................................................................................................... 72
8.5.7 Trace Recording and Display............................................................................ 72
8.5.8 Error Reports .................................................................................................... 73
8.6
File Menu............................................................................................................. 74
8.6.1 File Save ........................................................................................................ 74
8.6.2 File Save as .................................................................................................... 74
8.6.3 File Exit Test ................................................................................................. 75
8.7
Display Menu....................................................................................................... 76
8.8
View Menu .......................................................................................................... 76
8.8.1 View Slots...................................................................................................... 77
8.8.2 View Progress................................................................................................ 78
8.8.3 View Afar ...................................................................................................... 79
8.9
Unit Menu............................................................................................................ 80
8.9.1 New Unit........................................................................................................... 83
8.9.2 Copy Unit.......................................................................................................... 83
8.9.3 Edit Unit ........................................................................................................... 83
8.10 Test Menu ............................................................................................................ 83
8.10.1 Test Start........................................................................................................ 84
8.10.2 Test Finish ..................................................................................................... 85
8.10.3 Test Redo....................................................................................................... 85
8.10.4 Test Goto ....................................................................................................... 85
8.10.5 Test Discard ................................................................................................... 86
8.10.6 Test Begin Slot .............................................................................................. 86
Page 5

V4.04

8.10.7 Test End Slot ................................................................................................. 87


8.11 File Handling ....................................................................................................... 88
8.11.1 File Formats ...................................................................................................... 88
8.11.2 File Conversion................................................................................................. 89
8.11.3 File Compression.............................................................................................. 90
8.11.4 Crash Recovery................................................................................................. 90
9.
INTERPRETING TEST TRACES.......................................................................... 92
9.1
Consideration of Maximum Acceptable Fault Current ....................................... 92
9.2
Influence of the Chattock on Fault Detection...................................................... 92
9.3
Typical Fault Signatures ...................................................................................... 93
APPENDICES ..................................................................................................................... 95
APPENDIX 1 PRINCIPLES AND THEORY OF EL CID TESTING ......................... 96
APPENDIX 2 EL CID TEST DATA RECORD ......................................................... 100
APPENDIX 3 EXCITATION OF STATOR CORE FOR EL CID TESTING ........... 101
APPENDIX 4 CONTENTS LIST STANDARD DIGITAL EL CID KIT................ 104
APPENDIX 5 CALIBRATION UNIT AND SYSTEM CALIBRATION .................. 105
APPENDIX 6 EL CID RELATED PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS....................... 108
APPENDIX 7 ROTOR BAR TESTING USING EL CID .......................................... 110
APPENDIX 8 OPERATION OF EARLIER ACQUIRE TEST SOFTWARE. .......... 111
APPENDIX 9 TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES........................................... 123
APPENDIX 10 SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................ 126
APPENDIX 11 SYSTEM CONNECTION DETAILS ............................................... 130
APPENDIX 12 CONSIDERATIONS WHEN TESTING HYDROGENERATORS. 133
APPENDIX 13 CE DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY........................................ 142
FIGURES
Fig. 1 Stator Core Construction ..................................................................................... 11
Fig. 2 Core Excitation Winding and Flux Path.............................................................. 12
Fig. 3 Fault Currents in Core Cross-section................................................................... 13
Fig. 4 Chattock Potentiometer Position on Stator Teeth ............................................... 13
Fig. 5 Relative Excitation Ampere Turns and Fault MPD with respect to Excitation
Field. ................................................................................................................. 14
Fig. 6 Digital EL CID front panel. ................................................................................. 16
Fig. 7 Digital EL CID Kit Interconnections................................................................... 21
Fig. 8 Excitation Winding Supply. ................................................................................ 23
Fig. 9 Core Measurement points for excitation calculations. ........................................ 25
Fig. 10 Assembly and Adjustments of Sense Head Manual Trolley ............................. 28
Fig. 11 Changing slot when testing in Alternate single scan mode, using Manual
Trolley............................................................................................................... 35
Fig. 12 Software Installation Folder .............................................................................. 39
Fig. 13 Main Menu ........................................................................................................ 44
Fig. 14 File Menu........................................................................................................... 44
Fig. 15 File Open Dialogue......................................................................................... 45
Fig. 16 Print Setup Dialogue.......................................................................................... 46
Fig. 17 Print Dialogue.................................................................................................... 47
Fig. 18 Trace Colour Selection ...................................................................................... 50
Fig. 19 Display Menu..................................................................................................... 51
Fig. 20 Display Select Traces Dialogue...................................................................... 51
Page 6

V4.04

Fig. 21
Fig. 22
Fig. 23
Fig. 24
Fig. 25
Fig. 26
Fig. 27
Fig. 28
Fig. 29
Fig. 30
Fig. 31
Fig. 32
Fig. 33
Fig. 34
Fig. 35
Fig. 36
Fig. 37
Fig. 38
Fig. 39
Fig. 40
Fig. 41
Fig. 42
Fig. 43
Fig. 44
Fig. 45
Fig. 46
Fig. 47
Fig. 48

Colour Selection ................................................................................................ 53


Select Slots Dialogue......................................................................................... 54
View Menu ........................................................................................................ 55
Peaks Selection Dialogue .................................................................................. 55
Peaks Analysis Display...................................................................................... 56
Notes Display and Dialogue .............................................................................. 57
Machine Parameters Display ............................................................................. 58
Test Parameters Display .................................................................................... 59
Options Menu .................................................................................................... 60
ELAN Help menu .............................................................................................. 61
Trace Right-click Menu..................................................................................... 62
Single Trace Interaction..................................................................................... 63
Test Toolbar....................................................................................................... 66
File Save-as Dialogue ........................................................................................ 75
Stator Test - Display Select Traces.................................................................... 76
Test Slots Display.............................................................................................. 77
View - Progress ................................................................................................. 78
Progress right click menu ............................................................................... 79
View Afar Screen .............................................................................................. 79
New Unit Machine Parameters.......................................................................... 81
Calculate Single Turn Voltage........................................................................... 82
New Unit Test Parameters................................................................................. 82
Redo Dialogue ................................................................................................... 85
Goto Dialogue.................................................................................................... 86
Typical Fault response characteristics. .............................................................. 93
Magnetic Potential across Chattock Coil due to Current on Core surface. ....... 96
Fault Vector Phase Diagram.............................................................................. 98
Calibration Connections .................................................................................. 105

Page 7

V4.04

IMPORTANT SAFETY WARNINGS


1. Read Instructions.
All the safety and operating instructions should be read before the product is used.
2. Retain instructions.
These Operating Instructions should be retained for future reference.
3. Pay attention to all warnings.
All warnings on the product and in this Manual should be complied with.
4. Follow Instructions.
All operating and use instructions should be followed.
5. The lightning flash with arrowhead symbol within an equilateral triangle (below) is

intended to alert the user to dangerous voltages or operating conditions that may be
of sufficient magnitude to constitute a risk of electric shock or other hazard if the
related instructions are not followed.

Page 8

V4.04

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1

Core Faults in Rotating Electrical Machines


The stator core of a typical generator is built from thousands of thin steel sheets
(laminations) and the winding is formed from electrically insulated copper conductor
bars which are embedded in slots between teeth around the bore. The core is held
together by steel building bars, usually on its outside.
The laminations are coated with a thin layer of electrical insulation to prevent eddy
currents being induced between them by rotating magnetic flux produced by the
spinning rotor.
Defects in the inter-laminar insulation cause fault currents to flow locally in the core.
These currents can produce dangerous local overheating or hot spots in the damaged
areas and the damage to the core may become progressively worse. In extreme cases
sufficient heat is generated to melt small parts of the core and even modest rises in core
temperature adjacent to the winding can result in the premature failure of the winding
insulation. Clearly hot spots should be detected and repaired during routine machine
overhauls. Early test methods known as full ring flux testing required the core to be
excited to near its normal working level for a period of time. The temperature rise of
hot spots due to the core fault were then measured.

1.2

EL CID Background
An alternative method of detection of faults in core interlamination insulation by
electromagnetic means was developed by the Central Electrical Research Laboratory of
the UK C.E.G.B. (now Innogy plc). Instead of the previous full flux working level the
newer method uses only a small fraction of rated excitation to generate fault currents
within the core body which are sensed by a pick-up coil. This avoids the testing
problems usually found with high excitation, yet still gives an accurate indication of
damaged areas along tooth tips and walls, as well as possible sub-surface damage.
The technique is called ELectromagnetic Core Imperfection Detection (EL CID). The
rights to the technology were acquired by Adwel International Ltd who have continued
extensive development of the product, and a range of EL CID equipment is now
manufactured and supplied by Adwel.
The versatility of the EL CID also provides other benefits such as:
?? automatic permanent test records.
?? means of performing simple local tests for pin pointing and monitoring repairs.
?? speed in setting up and testing large or small machines.
?? less subjective interpretation of results.
?? means of estimating likely power dissipation of fault circuit under operating
conditions.
?? no additional expensive equipment.
?? avoidance of additional damage caused by full ring flux testing while the core is
not cooled.
?? high sensitivity to detect even minor faults.

Page 9

V4.04

Over recent years the electromagnetic technique for core scanning has won
international acceptance by industry and public utilities as a standard testing practice.
Experience however does indicate that success in using the EL CID depends on skilled
engineers understanding the principle of operation and how it is best used on their own
motors or generators. Thus they are recommended to read this Operating Handbook
carefully before commencing any test.
The technology of EL CID stator core testing requires that electromagnetic fields are
generated and radiated, although these will of course be very much less than with
conventional full ring flux testing. Frequencies generated are normally those
associated with power generation installations and signal amplitudes will tend to be
lower than those of the general environment. This background level is normally lower
in repair workshops, but can still be predominant.
Acquisition of fault signals necessitates the deliberate detection of low levels of
electromagnetic fields, and this could include signals produced by other equipment and
installations (eg overhead cranes etc). These spurious signals do not normally present
any problems with EL CID testing but it may in extreme circumstances be
advantageous to time the acquisition of test traces with inactivity of other signal
generating sources. The user should ensure that the test system installation is
compatible with other equipment in use during the EL CID test.

Page 10

V4.04

2. BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EL CID TESTING


2.1

Core Faults
The stacked core of any ac generator or motor is made up of multiple laminations
typically 0.5mm thick insulated from each other but frequently shorted together at the
back edges by support bars. A simplified diagram of a typical stator core is shown in
Fig. 1.
This standard design method reduces eddy currents in a stator, thus avoiding
unnecessary power loss. However, the integrity of this approach depends very much on
the effectiveness of interlamination insulating materials. In order to keep core length
as short as possible (as well as magnetic density high) these insulation layers or
coatings must be very thin.
Stator Core
Alternating
Magnetic Flux
Conductor Bars

Stator Teeth

Building Bars

Fig. 1 Stator Core Construction


With the large number of laminations there is always a high probability of insulation
breakdown. For a single short between two laminations this may not be too serious but
with several shorts along adjacent layers the fault currents induced can be large enough
to cause excessive local heating. Sometimes this heat cannot be dissipated adequately
by local cooling - so causing more inter-laminar failures. If not detected and repaired
at an early stage these faults could in extreme cases burn insulation and melt steel,
requiring the replacement of sections of the core structure. Even at lesser temperatures
they could mean a partial stator rewind. Periodic core inspection is therefore a crucial
part of any maintenance or fabrication programme to avoid excessive breakdown costs.
In many machines a common cause of fault currents is mechanical damage to the bore
surface or top slot walls. These are generally known as surface faults. Damage can
also bring about sub-surface (deep-seated) breakdowns below the teeth which are not
easily found without the use of the EL CID, particularly if the conductor windings are
in place.

Page 11

V4.04

2.2

EL CID Detection
The EL CID equipment tests a core for faults by exciting the core using a toroidal
winding to produce a ring flux similar to the conventional method (see Fig. 2 below),
but only to 4% of its normal working level of excitation. A sensing head is then passed
over the surface of the core to detect magnetically the presence of fault currents
themselves rather than the heating effect they produce. The power required is low
enough to be within the capacity of standard workshop outlets for quite large
machines. Only 2 to 3 kVA is required for an alternator of several 100MWs.

Fig. 2 Core Excitation Winding and Flux Path


In the core of the machine is therefore the circumferential magnetic field due to the
excitation, plus that due to any fault currents present. A cross section of a core with a
typical fault current path is shown in Fig. 3.
The effect of the magnetic fields is to produce a magnetic potential gradient on the core
surface. Measurement of magnetic potential difference is conveniently detected by
means of a specially wound coil known as a Chattock potentiometer which provides an
output proportional to the difference in magnetic potential between its two ends. The
sense head uses a Chattock coil to pick up the magnetic fields.

Page 12

V4.04

Fig. 3 Fault Currents in Core Cross-section


It is convenient to scan the core surface longitudinally along the core conductor
winding slots, checking one slot and adjacent teeth at a time, in order to cover the
complete core inner surface. The Chattock potentiometer in the sense head is
positioned on the outer edges of two adjacent slots (see Fig. 4) and the output signal
will contain parts due to both the excitation field and any induced fault current.

Fig. 4 Chattock Potentiometer Position on Stator Teeth


The part of the signal in phase with the reference signal (PHASE signal) is
predominantly due to the magnetic flux resulting from the core excitation. This
Page 13

V4.04

PHASE element is relatively large and is present throughout the core whether or not a
fault exists. Current induced in a fault circuit flows predominantly at a phase angle of
90 from the excitation field and is detected as a QUADRATURE current.
2.3

Signal Processing
The Signal Processor separates the two parts of the signal by using a reference input
from the excitation (obtained by either placing a coil within the field or from the
excitation current) and a phase discriminator. The two parts of the signal can then be
used for display and test record purposes and for subsequent analysis. The Signal
Processor is calibrated to give a direct reading of the value of the fault current.
The processed signal from the sensing head for each adjacent pair of teeth is recorded
to give a series of traces. These show approximate position along the bore and
amplitude of any fault currents. Further measurement and location of the damage
across the tooth face and (if the conductor is not present) down the slot walls may be
carried out using a hand held flexible Chattock.
EL CID is a sensitive test technique that can detect minor damage which may never
affect the reliability of the generator. Sensitivity of this order means that judgements
will have to be made regarding repair. To aid judgement a practical m.p.d. threshold
corresponding to 100mA (using 4% of rated excitation) has been established from
working experience as a level at which faults should be investigated further. A
proportionally lower or higher threshold level should be used if the test is carried out at
a different excitation level.

Fig. 5 Relative Excitation Ampere Turns and Fault MPD with


respect to Excitation Field.
Fig. 5 shows the relationship between indicated fault level and the excitation electric
field to be almost linear at normal test conditions.
Page 14

V4.04

All remedial decisions largely depend on interpretation of the final results and the
practicable options available. Test engineers are recommended to study the more
detailed information on theory given in the appendices.

Page 15

V4.04

3. DIGITAL EL CID TEST KIT


3.1

Description of Test Kit Contents


The standard test kit contains the items listed in APPENDIX 4 although any individual
test kit may contain variations to suit individual requirements. A brief description of
the main items is given below.

3.2

Digital EL CID Signal Processor Unit 6/100/1/001

Fig. 6 Digital EL CID front panel.


The Signal Processor Unit (SPU) is housed in a plastic case to enable it to be used
where accidental electrical contact between the EL CID equipment system and the
machine under test in the presence of induced voltage fields should be avoided.
Fig. 6 shows the SPU front panel with the following connections and controls.
3.2.1

Inputs
The SPU accepts inputs from the Sense Head Chattock (SIGNAL) and also the
Reference Signal Transducer (REFERENCE) via front panel connectors. The
SPU uses these two signals (Y inputs) to determine the PHASE and QUAD
values of the detected current. The range select switch adjusts the SPU
sensitivity for the Y SIGNAL input and automatic gain control circuitry accepts
the full range of Y REFERENCE input levels.
The SPU also accepts signals from distance encoders providing the X Axis
distance information.
Input 1 should be used for the un-decoded 2-phase signals obtained directly
from a rotary encoder (eg. from the Sense Head Manual Trolley).
Input 2 should be used when the distance pulse information has been decoded
into a single pulse train plus polarity information (eg. - from the Robot Tractor
Control Unit).

Page 16

V4.04

3.2.2

Outputs
Connection to a standard IBM compatible computer is made via the standard
RS232 9 way 'D' type connector. This connector provides both the test data
and the two way system control signals between the SPU internal
microprocessor and the external PC.
Analogue outputs may be obtained from 4 mm sockets for the PHASE and
QUAD Y values and also the X Axis (distance).
An X Axis pulsed output compatible with standard EL CID chart recorder
systems is also available from a front panel DIN connector.

3.2.3

Signal Calibration
Four momentary action push buttons provide means of enabling the SPU to
compensate for different Chattock Coil sensitivities and distance encoder
scaling. The buttons are recessed (the Y signal buttons more so) to prevent
accidental operation.

3.2.4

Y Axis (signal)
Y Axis calibration is normally carried out in conjunction with the EL CID
calibration unit (described in APPENDIX 5) which provides an accurate test
m.p.d. corresponding to a 1 ampere in-phase current. Depressing the CAL Y
button will cause the SPU to measure the prevailing input signal with respect to
the phase of the prevailing REFERENCE input and to scale this to indicate 1
Ampere at zero phase angle.
Depressing the RESET Y PHASE button will not affect the signal amplitude
calibration but will re-adjust the phase angle to indicate zero phase with respect
to the now current REFERENCE signal. This feature may be used where it is
advantageous to adjust the phase angle of the reference signal in the presence
of variations in excitation phase in parts of the stator core.
Note that both these operations take a number of seconds. After pushing the
button, there is an initial 5 sec delay to allow the (possibly single-handed)
operator to move from the EL CID to the Calibration unit to manually position
and secure the Chattock. There is then about a 7 second period whilst the
PHASE angle is adjusted (less for CAL Y) and fine tuned to match the
incoming reference, and finally a 5 sec period during which any error messages
are displayed on the EL CID LCD.

3.2.5

X Axis (distance)
The RESET ZERO button will cause the distance indication to be reset to zero.
This function may also be operated remotely from some Sense Head
transducers fitted with a Reset button by means of a RESET line connected via
the Sense Head socket Input 1.

Page 17

V4.04

The CAL-X button causes the count recorded since the last reset to be
recalibrated to indicate 1 metre. If the CAL-X button is held depressed (or
alternatively re-depressed without resetting to zero) the distance calibration
will progressively be increased to a maximum of 9 metres in increments of one
metre, dependent upon the length or number of time(s) the CAL-X button is
depressed. This facility allows the X input of the SPU to be calibrated to the
characteristics of the particular distance transducer used.
This is achieved by initially operating the RESET ZERO button. Then the
operator subsequently traverses a known number of complete metres between 1
and 9 and stops. The correct calibration is then achieved by depressing the
CAL-X button until the above calibration distance used is indicated on the
front panel display.
3.2.6

Display
The DISPLAY MODE Selector switch provides options for the information on
the dot matrix display. Values displayed are up to four digits plus polarity with
the maximum value determined by display mode. The display modes are as
follows:

3.2.7

QUAD/Distance.
The QUAD value of the Y input SIGNAL level is displayed together with
distance travelled by the sense head. Maximum distance display is 9.999m.

3.2.8

QUAD/PHASE
Both QUAD and PHASE values of the Y input SIGNAL level are displayed.

3.2.9

CAL Value
The last calibrated value of the sensing head Chattock sensitivity now stored in
the SPU. This value is used to normalise current input signals before display
and transmission to outputs.

3.2.10 MAX Value


The full scale Y-Axis display reading of measured currents before calibration
would be 3999. After calibration the maximum displayed value may be higher
or lower dependent upon calibration factor and the effective maximum
displayed value is indicated in this display mode.
3.2.11 Warning Messages
The SPU display will also indicate a number of status and warning messages.
An audible tone will draw to the attention of the equipment operator the
necessity to read displayed messages.
3.2.12 Power Supply
The SPU may be operated from either 50 or 60Hz at any voltage between 85265V without change (systems up to serial no 6111 had a 115/230V switch
Page 18

V4.04

incorporated in the inlet socket), or from the internal rechargeable batteries. A


front panel aux power socket provides a low current dc output (approx 7-11v)
to provide power for auxiliary system units, for example the Calibration Unit.
The SPU dc power-on switch is incorporated in the rotary range selector
switch. Battery charging is independent of this switch.
3.3

Phase Reference Transducer Coil 6/108/1/017 and


Reference Termination Box 6/108/1/018
A phase reference split pick-up coil is provided for clamping around the stator
excitation current supply line. The standard coil is of the voltage pick-up (Rogowski)
type. The lead should always be plugged into the SPU Reference input via the coil
signal conditioning Reference Termination Box 6/108/1/018 (for calibration or test).
The system will operate without the termination box or with the earlier magnetic-based
EL CID Reference Coil but may be more susceptible to certain types of noise
interference.
Alternative current transformer-type reference signal pickups may also be used on the
excitation current supply line but care must be taken to use an appropriate low
impedance termination.
An extension lead (3 Pin DIN connectors) is provided for operation when the reference
pick-up coil is not adjacent to the SPU.

3.4

Calibration Unit 6/200/1/001, Power Input Lead 6/203/1/010 and


Reference Signal Output Loop 6/201/1/002
The Calibration Unit provides an accurate simulated signal of one ampere and also a
phase reference current for Chattock coil amplitude and phase calibration. The
Chattock sensing head coil is positioned in the built-in calibration channel with the coil
ends in contact with the base of the channel either side of the central magnetic source.
An in-phase Reference signal is obtained by clamping the Reference Transducer Coil
around the multi-turn Signal Output Loop plugged into the Calibration Unit Reference
signal output.
The calibration signal is internally programmable for 50 or 60Hz. DC power for the
unit is obtained from the SPU auxiliary power socket using the short Power Input
Lead.

3.5

Chattock Coils 20068, 20069, 20070 and 6/302/1/003


A range of sizes of Chattock Coils is provided. These may be hand held or fitted to
various sense-head or core traversing vehicles and are connected to the SPU Y
SIGNAL input either directly or via an extension cable.
The cable is screened and utilises 5 pin DIN connectors with the connector body
isolated.
Page 19

V4.04

3.6

Sense Head Trolley 6/300/1/001


The Trolley provides a convenient vehicle to traverse the bore with a Chattock Coil. It
is attached magnetically to the bore surface and is manually propelled via its handle on
its multiple rollers with lightly sprung Chattock Coil holders maintaining the coil ends
in contact with the bore surface.
The Trolley is adjustable for width by releasing four 3mm allen key retaining screws
and moving each side of the trolley along the separator bars. Curvature adjustment is
made by adjusting two 3mm allen key screws on the front blocks on each side of the
trolley. Simple side mounted guides may be lowered for additional guidance where
slot and wedge shape permits.
Distance information is provided by an integral trailing encoder wheel, which is
connected via the removable lead directly to the SPU X Input. The lead also carries a
signal from a distance Reset Zero button. The handle contains a clamp for the cables.

3.7

Excitation Winding
The system contains as standard an excitation system which is often more convenient
to use than separately obtained cabling, provided that the current rating and length are
adequate for the application. The current system is the Switched Excitation System,
which has its own handbook giving detailed instruction.

The standard excitation cable length is 10m and additional lengths may be added in
series. The cable contains six parallel conductors (rated approximately 20A per
conductor dependent upon ambient and cooling conditions) together with a further
trace winding for monitoring induced voltage. If the excitation voltage is low, then
windings may be switched in parallel to achieve 32A per turn for 2 or 3 turns.
The cable may be wound around the stator more than once giving multiples of six
parallel conductors if sufficient length is available. Allowance must be made for
multiple turns of the trace winding when monitoring induced voltage if using more
than one turn of the standard cable. An excitation connection Switch Control Box
terminates the ends of the cable to connect the parallel conductors in series and
provides a means of connection to the excitation source and trace voltage meter.
Earlier systems used thinner excitation cables of 7 conductors plus trace winding, rated
at ~8A. These were fixed at 7 turns per cable/turn, and were 6m long.
3.8

System Computer Software


The software provided for the kit is supplied in two parts:
(i)

Programs to run the microprocessor within the Digital EL CID Signal


Page 20

V4.04

(ii)

Processor Unit. (SPU)


Programs to operate an IBM compatible PC in conjunction with the Digital EL
CID SPU microprocessor for the test sequences to acquire and store test data,
and for post test display and analysis

Part (i) is supplied in PROM form within the SPU.


Part (ii) is included on a CD.
The Digital EL CID software includes a licence to use the software with the supplied
kit and to analyse the test results obtained as a result of using the supplied kit.
3.9

Test Kit Interconnections


Fig. 7 shows the normal interconnections of the test kit components.

Fig. 7 Digital EL CID Kit Interconnections.


Other test configurations are possible, dependent upon accessories used, eg. Robot
Inspection Vehicle for traversing the bore and/or the switched Excitation System.
However the system configuration will be essentially unchanged.
The connection to the PC is via one of the PCs RS232 ports, normally using the
Remote Trolley Control Interface. Even if remote operation is not desired, the Interface
can still be used just as an RS232 connection. Alternately a direct RS232 lead may be
made as per the connection details in APPENDIX 11.

Page 21

V4.04

4. TEST PREPARATIONS FOR EL CID TESTING


This section provides guidance on the various practical aspects to be considered when
making preparations to carry out EL CID tests.
Generally it takes two engineers only eight hours to complete an EL CID test on a large
machine, although it is possible for one engineer to carry out the test if extra time is
allowed.
It is important that this manual is read carefully in order to become fully acquainted
with the practice of EL CID testing and understand properly its principles of operation,
and with the specific items of the EL CID kit described in Section 3.
Before setting up the test equipment (Section 4.6) it is necessary to make some general
preparations (Section 4.1) decide on the excitation requirements and install the
winding (Section 4.4.3)
4.1

General Preparations
4.1.1

Additional Equipment.

The requirements for the excitation winding, mains supply and optional variable
transformer are discussed in Section 4.2.
Ensure the availability of other equipment not supplied with the EL CID kit:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

A bench for EL CID equipment, papers etc.


Local lighting to illuminate the interior of the core.
Wooden derricks either side of the core or some other means to provide
optimum positioning and tensioning of the excitation winding.
A rubber torch for close-up inspection of the stator bore.
White adhesive tape and a marker pen or similar for numbering the stator slots.

4.1.2

Inspecting and Testing the EL CID Equipment.

The following inspections and tests of the EL CID equipment are best made before
going to site, so that any problems can be remedied more easily.

(a)

Check all the EL CID connectors, cables, etc. for any signs of faulty insulation
or exposed wires or connectors. This is important because up to 50V can be
induced along the bore by the current through the excitation winding and if the
insulation is damaged and electrical contact is made to the core, large currents
may flow which could damage the core or cause injury.
Page 22

V4.04

4.2

(b)

Check that the SPU and the Chattock are functioning correctly by using the
Calibration Unit.

(c)

Leave the SPU on charge for at least 12 hours so that the batteries are fully
charged for the test if the operation from line voltage is not convenient.

4.1.3

Inspecting the Core and Numbering the Slots.

(a)

Ensure that the stator windings have been properly disconnected and earthed in
accordance with all applicable safety procedures.

(b)

Ensure that safe physical working conditions exist in the area of work.

(c)

Ensure that no metal objects have been left inside the bore since these could
cause arcing damage to the core when the excitation current is switched on.

(d)

Visually inspect the core and mark any damaged areas.

(e)

Fix white adhesive tape around the bore at the working end, just before the
start of the laminations. If the manufacturer's slot numbering system is not
known, the slot at 12 o'clock is usually marked as number one. The other slots
are then numbered in a clockwise direction. (The method of numbering is of
course optional).

The Excitation Winding

Fig. 8 Excitation Winding Supply.


The excitation winding consists of several turns of medium current cable, wound
around the stator casing and through the bore, (see Fig. 8). The standard EL CID
Switched Excitation winding may be used if the dimensions and rating are suitable for
Page 23

V4.04

the test machine. For optimum and consistent results it is important that the winding is
supported close to the centre of the bore along the full length of the stator, including
the end-winding. A separate trace winding is strapped along-side the excitation
winding for accurate measurement of the induced voltage. In situations where central
positioning of the winding is not practicable (eg. where a rotor is not fully removed)
the effects of the positioning of the excitation winding will need to be taken into
account when evaluating test results.
The alternating current flowing through the excitation winding induces a voltage along
the length of the core and it is this voltage which causes currents to flow through
damaged regions of the core. The standard excitation voltage for EL CID tests
(measured with the trace winding) is 4% of the rated volts.
It is found that fault currents flowing within a stator core are almost proportional to the
excitation voltage (see Fig. 5). Hence, if it is not possible or convenient to obtain 4%
of the rated voltage, values of between 2 and 10% can be used provided that the fault
currents measured by EL CID are scaled accordingly.
4.3

Excitation Voltage Calculation for Generators


For correct level of excitation it is necessary to know the value of the rated rms voltage
along a single length of the core, Vr for the generator. This is given by:Vr = Vp-p
2v3 K tp
where

Vp-p
tp

and

... (1)

is the rated phase-to-phase voltage.


is the number of turns in series per phase. ie. the number of
conductors in series in each phase is 2 tp.
represents the combined spread and short pitch factor. A value
of 0.92 is used for all generators.

Hence the standard 4% excitation, measured with the trace winding, is given by:
VT = 0.04Vr.
Further information on the calculation of the excitation parameters is given in
APPENDIX 3.
Example Calculation.
Consider a 23kV, three phase, 660MW generator with 42 slots, ie. 14 slots per phase.
Each slot contains two conductor bars but these are connected in parallel.
Hence tp = 7 series turns per phase. Since Vpp = 23kV, Vr = 1031V and the standard
4% excitation is VT = 41.2V.

NB
The calculated value for VT for 50Hz two-pole generators of 200MW or greater at 4%
Page 24

V4.04

of rated voltage usually corresponds to around 5V/m length of core. The actual value
of 41.2V is therefore consistent because the stator core of the 660MW generator is
7.5m long. However V/m values for machines where the radial dimensions are not
similarly proportioned may be substantially different.
4.4

Excitation Voltage Calculation for Motors


Equation (1) is also valid for motors and should, if possible, be used to calculate the
excitation voltage. This is often difficult, however because the test engineers do not
know the number of series turns per phase and values for K may be more variable.
The alternative is to use the equation:
Vr = 2? f l d B
where f
l
d
B

is the frequency.
is the length of the core in metres.
is the depth distance in metres from the base of the slots to the
back of the core.
is the mean rms flux density (Tesla).

The core measurement points l and d are indicated in Fig. 9.

Fig. 9 Core Measurement points for excitation calculations.


Most machines have a mean rms flux density of B ? 0.9T, although there can be
typical variations of 10% because of differing volume fractions of steel in the core,
etc.

Page 25

V4.04

Hence for measurements in metres the rated rms voltage per turn is given by:
Vr 5.65 f l d

... (2)

and the 4% test voltage:


VT 0.226 f l d

... (3)

If l and d are measured in inches then equation 3 becomes


VT 0.000146 f l d
4.4.1

... (3a)

Calculation of Excitation Ampre-turns

The Ampre-turns (A-turns) required for the test depends on the initial magnetic
permeability of the stator iron. This is not a well-defined property since the small
signal incremental permeability is of little importance during normal machine
operation but it can vary significantly dependent upon the manner of the last deenergisation. Experience has shown however that to achieve 4% of rated voltage
requires of the order 2 to 15A-turns per metre circumference of core, measured at the
mean diameter of the main core.
Example Calculation
The 660MW generator has an outer diameter of 3m and a diameter at the base of the
slots of 2.2m, giving a mean diameter of 2.6m. Hence the mean circumference is 8.2m
and the A-turn requirement will probably be in the range 25 - 80 A/turns.
4.4.2

Calculation of Number of Winding Turns, Current and Voltage

For a winding with NW turns the excitation current in an individual turn IWt is of course
given by:
IWt = A-Turns / NW
and the total excitation winding voltage, Vw by:VW = VT * NW
(The formula slightly underestimates the voltage requirement because the extra,
resistive, voltage drop in the cable is neglected).
The approximate total excitation VA requirement is simply:
VA = VW * IWt

(or VT * A-turns)

Example Calculation
For the 660MW generator mentioned above, VT = 41.2V and IW < 80A. Hence the
total power requirement is < 3.3kVA.
Page 26

V4.04

The very low excitation power requirement is a major advantage of the EL CID test.
It is now straightforward to decide on the number of turns, Nw for the excitation
winding so as to match its current and voltage requirements to the mains supply.
Example Calculation
In our example generator, requiring VT = 41.2V, powered from a 240V supply, a six
turn winding would give almost the recommended 4% value. The current would be
<80/6. ie. < 13.3A. A 120V mains supply would require a three turn winding but the
current would be increased to a maximum of 27A.
To obtain exactly 4% of the rated voltage it is necessary to use a variable transformer.
However a sufficiently close value can often be obtained by matching the number of
winding turns to the voltage of the mains supply.
4.4.3

Installing and Testing the Excitation Winding

The long excitation cables supplied with the EL CID are usually long enough for large
motors and most generators. Before using these cables, check that the number of turns
and current rating are compatible with the requirements, as calculated in Section 4.4.2.

If the supplied excitation cables are insufficient or unsuitable, the test engineers will
need either to procure additional standard excitation cables or to make up their own
windings. This should only be done by an experienced electrical engineer, able to
design a safe installation, and to monitor and maintain that safety in use.
Excitation cable should be insulated (double or re-inforced) to the maximum supply
voltage, rated for at least the expected winding current (IWt), and long enough to wind
the required number (NW) of turns loosely around the stator casing and through the
centre of the bore. In addition, on large generators or in case of fault, the trace winding
could be energised with voltages exceeding 50V, and must therefore also be adequately
insulated.
The following instructions assume a single core cable; the use of standard multi-turn
cable will obviously reduce the number of cable turns required.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

Wind NW turns of excitation cable loosely around the stator and through the
bore.
Wind a single turn trace winding (which could have a lower current rating but
must be fully voltage rated) alongside the excitation winding
Tape all the turns together, including the trace winding.
Tension the winding at both ends using tie points so that it runs close to the
central axis of the machine for approximately one metre beyond each end of the
full length of the stator, including the end-windings
Page 27

V4.04

DO NOT APPLY ANY TENSION TO THE


CONNECTORS. ENSURE THAT ALL
CONNECTORS ARE NOT AT RISK OF BEING
PULLED APART.
(e)

Connect a voltmeter to the trace winding and use a clip-on or other ammeter
to measure the current through the winding.
BEFORE ENERGISING THE WINDING, ENSURE
THAT THERE IS NO RISK OF INJURY DUE TO
EXPOSED LIVE PARTS, POOR OR DAMAGED
INSULATION ON WIRE OR CONNECTIONS, OR
RISK OF INSULATION DAMAGE DURING USE ON
SHARP EDGES ETC.
ALSO ENSURE THE CORE IRON IS EARTHED AT ONE POINT
(ONLY) FOR SAFETY.

(f)

4.5

Connect the excitation winding to the mains supply either directly or via a
suitably rated variable transformer. Before switching on the current, double
check that there are no foreign metallic objects in the bore. Switch on the
mains supply and check and adjust the current through the excitation winding
and voltage across the trace winding until both are satisfactory and record their
values. Switch off the supply until the EL CID test equipment has been set up.

Adjusting the Sense Head Trolley


Chattock

Adjustments for width (4)

Clamp screws for Chattock (2)

Adjustments for bore radius (2)

Clamp nuts for side guidance rails (4)

Screws for cable clamp plate (2)


Fig. 10 Assembly and Adjustments of Sense Head Manual Trolley
Page 28

V4.04

Although it is theoretically possible to carry out limited scans on small machines using
a hand-held (unmounted) Chattock coil, in practice it is necessary to use a sensing head
which clamps the Chattock at the required span distance and provides a means of
guiding the assembly along the core.
This is normally accomplished by the use of the adjustable, magnetically attached
Sense Head Trolley. Other various sized Sensing Heads fitted with adjustable
mechanical guides have been supplied in the past. Alternatively tests may be carried
out using the self-steering Robotic Inspection Vehicle (RIV). The use of this vehicle is
covered separately with its own handbook.
Connect the Manual Sense Head Trolley to the Digital EL CID by the required cable,
which signals the distance run and any operation of the button. Note that the connector
is a tight fit between the trolley halves, and they have to be slightly separated to allow
the connector to pass between them.
The Manual Sense Head Trolley should be fitted with the smallest span Chattock,
having regard to the pitch of the stator teeth to be tested, that does not put any strain on
the Chattock. The assembled Trolley is shown in Fig. 10, with the various adjustments
marked.
The Chattock ends should be slid into the nylon sprung mounts at the front of the
Trolley, and the small nylon clamp screws at the side done up just tight enough to
retain the Chattock (note the Chattock cable is clamped inside the handle, so these
screws do not need to secure the chattock against cable pulls). Take care to not
unscrew them fully in case they get lost (a few spares are included in current Digital
EL CID Kits).

DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN THE NYLON SCREW


SECURING THE CHATTOCK AS THIS MAY DAMAGE
THE CHATTOCK OR SCREW.
Then make the following adjustments to ensure the correct location of the Chattock
when scanning the teeth:
(a) Adjust the span of the Chattock by releasing and sliding the side carriages apart as
appropriate, until the two ends lie just within the farthest corners of adjacent teeth
(see Fig. 4). When correctly set up the Chattock Coil ends on the Sensing Head
should just cover the teeth tips.
(b) Adjust the angle of the two side carriages equally so that the two Chattock ends lie
squarely on the teeth.
(c) If it seems useful to use the side carriage rails to assist guidance, slide and these
down that they slide snugly but freely in the top of conductor slots.
(d) Release the screws on the handle top, which releases the top plate, and route the
Chattock and Trolley signal cables underneath, as a cable clamp.
(e) Retighten all screws or nuts released during adjustment. Do not overtighten or the
threads may strip!

Page 29

V4.04

Certain early large sensing heads incorporate a compensation coil which picks up a
signal in anti-phase to the excitation PHASE signal from the Chattock in order to
minimise the in-Phase signal produced by the excitation current. A potentiometer
control allows the indicated signal to be "nulled" in the PHASE mode. This
requirement is superseded in the standard analogue EL CID by a front panel mounted
potentiometer, and in the Digital EL CID by the Phase Reset.
4.6

Setting Up and Connecting the Test Equipment


The general lay-out of the equipment for a complete EL CID test with graphical
records is shown in Fig. 7. If EL CID is being used to measure just a few known faults
there may be no need to scan the whole stator nor to record the results. For such Local
tests only the sections marked by * are applicable.
The test is often carried out from the exciter end of the stator because there is usually
more space and better access than at the turbine end. Whichever end is chosen, it is
referred to in these instructions as the Measurement End, while the other is called the
Far End.
Set up the bench at the Measurement End, close to the stator, for the EL CID
equipment, plotter, note books, chart papers, etc. Then proceed to position and
connect the EL CID equipment as follows.
Ensure that there is no strong source of radio frequency fields nearby (eg mobile
phones or other mobile radio apparatus), as this can give rise to erroneous readings due
to the necessarily high sensitivity of the Signal Input
4.6.1

The X Axis Transducer and Distance Encoders

X Axis information for a Global EL CID test is normally obtained either from a
distance measuring wheel driving an encoder on the Sense Head (eg Magnetic Trolley,
Robot Tractor) which interfaces electrically directly with the EL CID equipment via a
signal cable or from an X Axis Unit fitted with a distance measuring pull-cord.
Relevant connections and operation are covered in other sections.
4.6.2

The Phase Reference Transducer Coil

This pick-up coil is used to provide the EL CID phase reference signal. This clamp
type coil should be attached around to the feed to the excitation winding, as shown in
Fig. 7. The coil uses voltage pick-up (Rogowski) methods to monitor the excitation
current.
The Switched Excitation System Excitation Control Box has a short external cable
loop that carries one core of the supply current. This enables the excitation current to
be directly monitored. If this is not used, then the Reference Coil should be fastened
around the excitation winding. This must be around conductors with just one direction
of current flow, like a clip-on ammeter. It should not be around the excitation supply
where opposing the currents in line and neutral cancel each other out.

Page 30

V4.04

4.6.3

The SPU

For Local tests it may be advantageous to position the SPU in the stator bore and to
operate on its internal batteries. The case of the SPU is non-conductive to prevent
shorts to the laminations and consequent flow of potentially damaging currents when
the core excitation is energised.
4.6.4

The Plotter

A plotter or chart recorder may be used for test record purposes either to augment
digital data recording on a PC or stand-alone where PC equipment is not available.
X-Y plotters are normally driven from the EL CID system analogue signal outputs for
both axes whereas a chart recorder may be driven in the X axis by system digital pulses
connected to the recorder external timebase input. The plotter/recorder is most
conveniently situated adjacent to the SPU.
Scaling will be dependent upon the range used on both the EL CID equipment and the
plotter. A trial test trace is usually needed to verify the scaling and calibration.
4.7

Calibrating the Equipment


The El CID equipment should be calibrated prior to each test, both to ensure the
accurate recording of results, and to accommodate the particular characteristics of the
core and the measurement of distance within it.
4.7.1

Calibrating the X Axis

The X Axis calibration of the Digital EL CID should be done at each test, in order that
any irregularities in measuring the core (due to surface roughness and ventilation slots
etc) are take account of. It should be done either if the Sense Head Trolley is used, or
if the Remote Inspection Vehicle (RIV) is used, and repeated if the user changes
between the two during the test.
The procedure is given in Section 3.2.5.
4.7.2

Calibrating the Y Axis

Both the Chattock and EL CID should be calibrated together. This is normally done
routinely at base, and uses the Calibration Unit and procedure described in APPENDIX
5, but may be performed on site.
Since the EL CID can only carry one calibration value for the one Chattock, if the
Chattock is changed in use then the calibration should be repeated if the new one has
substantially different recorded calibration than the previous one.
The PHASE should be calibrated in the core at one position only, ONCE per test
before the test. The only exception to this is on Hydro-generators with core splits or
substantial magnetic interference due to rotor still present etc. where resetting the
Phase may be needed as a secondary operation on later tests on the splits. This is
explained
in
more
detail
in
APPENDIX
12
CONSIDERATIONS WHEN TESTING HYDROGENERATORS.
Page 31

V4.04

The best method to calibrate PHASE is to pick an area of core that is felt to be defect
free, then Reset the Phase of the EL CID there. This establishes the Quad signal near
zero for the good areas, rather than having a permanent high value that you then have
to look for a change on. Use the following method.
4.7.3

Phase RESET

Having initially calibrated Phase in the Calibration Unit (or the EL CID is known to be
roughly set correct already, eg from a recent previous test), perform a scan along a
good looking slot. Choose one that has no visual damage, and when scanned shows no
significant change in level, thus identifying a good section of core. Hold/leave the
chattock firmly in place, well into the core, and press RESET PHASE. After
completion (17 secs approx), the quad signal should be seen as about zero. Then
perform the full EL CID test as normal.
The reason for the perceived extended time taken, is that the first 5 secs are a wait to
allow a single operator a short time to return to the Chattock to hold it back in position.
The unit after adjustment also displays the result for 5 secs to allow a user to see the
results, regardless of the display selected.
Despite this, global variations in the iron will often still lead to some areas of the core
having a different phase, and thus a significant standing positive or negative quad
signal. The ELAN Remove Quad DC Component facility allows this to be
eliminated, so that the 100mA investigative criteria is evident. It is unwise however to
rely on this to remove large DC components (esp >100mA) that should have been
annulled before the test by the above procedure.

Page 32

V4.04

5. TEST PROCEDURES
A Global test is used to inspect the whole stator whereas a Local test is confined to a
few known damaged areas. A Global test should be followed by a Local test if core
damage is found.
For both tests it is good practice to record details of the generator and test conditions
on a proforma record sheet such as in APPENDIX 2. This form of test record usually
also forms part of the test records when electronically stored using a PC, but the test
sheet is still of use to prepare the machine input data required.
(a)
(b)

(c)

(d)

Double check that no foreign metallic object has been left in the bore.
Switch on the excitation winding and use a clip-on or other type of ammeter to
measure the current. Check that the current does not exceed the rating of the
mains supply, any variable transformer or the cable.
If a variable transformer is being used, adjust its output to produce the required
voltage on the trace winding. If the winding is connected directly to the supply
check that the trace winding voltage is sufficiently close to the required value.
Record the Number of Winding Turns, Excitation Current and Single Turn
Trace Voltage.

Before starting either a Global or Local test (Sections 5.2 and 5.3) it is important to
follow the procedures of Section 5.1. These ensure that the whole system has been set
up correctly and is working properly.
5.1

Initial Check of Overall Test Set-up


Switch on the SPU. Ensure all the items of ancillary equipment to be used (eg. plotter)
are all switched on and functioning.
Centre the sensing head over a convenient slot and note the phase current indicated on
the SPU meter.
The measured current should be approximately equal to IW/N
where IW = Total Ampere Turns through the winding.
and
N = Number of stator teeth.
(The equation is approximate because the m.p.d. indicated by the current is measured
between the edges of the teeth, rather than between centres, and because there can be
variations in magnetic permeability around the core).
Example
If a six turn winding carries 8A, then IW = 48A-turns
If there are 48 stator teeth, then the measured m.p.d. should be 1A.
The measured m.p.d. should normally lie between 80% and 120% of IW/N; if not check
the winding current, the number of turns and the SPU settings and meter readings. If
there is still lack of agreement use another sensing head, etc. until the problem has

Page 33

V4.04

been identified and remedial action taken where possible.


Where possible carry out a calibration trace on the plotter or PC etc. and check that the
indicated current agrees with that shown on the SPU meter. If they disagree check the
connections and settings.
Place the Sensing Head several centimetres above the slot. Any QUAD meter reading
should fall almost to zero showing that the phase detector in the SPU is rejecting the
in-Phase signal as required.
5.2

Global Core Tests


Before starting to measure and record the whole stator it is good practice to make
rough recordings on a plotter or PC of a couple of slots to gain operator experience.
5.2.1

Trial Recordings

Trial recordings are made to check that all is working properly, that the traces are
repeatable and the chart sensitivities are suitable.
Choose a convenient slot (eg. at 9 o'clock) and scan the sensing head forward and
backward along the same slot.
Since the forward and backward trial recordings are on the same slot, the two traces
should merge. Separation of the two trial recordings along the X axis can be caused by
accidental movement of the X Axis encoder.
Check that the length of the trace corresponds to the length scanned and that suitable
scaling has been chosen.
Y-axis separation may be caused by Sensing Head misalignment or by scanning too
rapidly.
5.2.2

Manual Scanning

Manual scanning of the Sensing head is prone to human error because it is tedious and
tiring. It is important to ensure that:
a) The Sensing Head is traversed smoothly and slowly along the slots, taking at least
10 seconds for each 1m scan.
b) The Chattock coil ends remain in contact with the tips of the teeth throughout the
scan.
c) The axial and circumferential alignment of the sensing head is maintained
throughout the scans.
5.2.3

Checking the Suitability of the Y-Axis Sensitivity

An overall sensitivity of 100mA full scale is well suited to most tests made at 4% of
rated voltage since traces are generally flat to within 50mA. It is also appropriate
because 100mA is the threshold above which further investigation should be
considered. If a signal above 100mA is recorded in ELAN V3, then that trace autoPage 34

V4.04

ranges to an appropriate range anyway.


If the trial traces are unusually noisy or the excitation is appreciably greater than 4% of
rated voltage, then it may be appropriate to reduce the Y-Axis sensitivity.
Some modern cores have very low interlaminar currents giving virtually straight line
responses when recorded on 100mA/cm. It may then be appropriate to use a higher YAxis sensitivity.
5.2.4

Final Recording

Once the trial traces are satisfactory the final recordings may be started on the first slot
at the Measurement End.
a) Scan and record the first slot beginning at the Measurement End to the end of the
slot, (or to the end of the first core section to be scanned if it is intended to divide
the core length into two or more sections).
b) Scan and record the second slot from the end of the slot (or first core section) back
to beginning of the Measurement End.
c) If the test is being made with each slot alternately forwards and backwards
(Alternate Single Scan mode), then do not reverse the Sense Head or Trolley
between each scan. As shown in Fig. 11, just finish at the end of the core from one
slot, then reverse back into the core on the next slot, with the Sense Head still
oriented the same.
d) Continue scanning and recording the slots sequentially around the stator until all
the slots have been measured. Repeat for all scan sections if appropriate.

End of slot N

Start of Slot

Fig. 11 Changing slot when testing in Alternate single scan mode,


using Manual Trolley

Page 35

V4.04

Normally the whole of the bore should be tested before detailed examination of any
suspect areas, otherwise too much attention can be given to what may prove to be
relatively insignificant damage. Where damage is found, the sites should be marked
with adhesive tape or crayon, for closer examination with the Local EL CID Core Test.
5.3

Local EL CID Core Test


Local core tests are made to confirm, pinpoint and measure the severity of any core
damage found visually, by the global EL CID or thermal ring-flux tests. Local core
tests are also very useful in monitoring the progress of the grinding and etching
operations used to repair core damage.
Section 9 explains how Global test traces are interpreted to ascertain whether or not a
fault lies on the tip of a tooth. If the conductor bars are in the slots then the local test
may not provide any more information, apart from confirming the tooth tip is
undamaged. Section 5.3.4 gives the local test procedure if the conductor slots are
empty.
For a Local test, suspect areas of the core are scanned with the miniature Chattock
Potentiometer instead of a larger Sensing Head. X Axis distance recording is not
required. The test is straight-forward and can be carried out easily by a single engineer.
5.3.1

Step Iron and other Core End Areas

The Step Iron at the end of the core, due to its inevitable stepped surface, is not easy to
test by wheeled vehicles such as the Sense Head Trolley or RIV. However is vital that
this and any other such difficult areas are tested as thoroughly as the main body of the
core.
The simplest method is to just manually scan them with a hand-held Chattock, whilst
an assistant monitors the EL CID readings to note if any untoward QUAD readings
occur. Manual records should be taken of the peak readings found.
Alternately the Timebase mode of the ELAN V3 software may be used to make
recordings of these manually scanned areas. The distance accuracy is of course only as
good as the ability of the operator to move at the specified speed. However this still
allows a permanent recording to be made and reasonably approximate comparisons
between slots. If the steps are sufficiently shallow, then the Trolley may still be used
over them, which would allow more precise computer records to be made.
Note that the Chattock reading is not greatly reduced if the Chattock ends lift slightly
off the core as the steps are traversed.
5.3.2

Pin-pointing Damage

If a Local test is made directly after a Global test, all the preparations will have been
made already. Otherwise, follow the instructions given in Section 4 and its subsections and in Sections 5 and 5.1
a) Only the SPU and the Chattock need to be taken inside the bore. The SPU will not
be affected by the electric field and can be powered from the INTERNAL supply.
Page 36

V4.04

b) Switch the SPU to indicate QUAD values.


c) Assuming that the suspect damage is on a tooth tip, hold the Mini Chattock
Potentiometer flush against the tooth tip, spanning its full width. Move the
Chattock Potentiometer along the tooth and the meter reading will remain small
until it bridges the core damage. The meter reading will rise until the centre of the
fault is reached. Note its axial extent by moving the Chattock Potentiometer further
along the tooth until the meter reading drops back to a low value.
Having identified the axial position of the fault, the exact circumferential position can
also be found, as follows:
d) Reposition the Mini Chattock Potentiometer at the axial position of the peak
reading. Next press the two ends together, without rotating the Chattock
Potentiometer. Then move it sideways across the tooth until the meter reading
reaches peak value. The fault is then centred beneath the centre of the Chattock
Potentiometer.
e) Mark the precise location of the damage on the tooth tip and note the peak value of
the Quadrature current.
5.3.3

Measuring the In-Phase Component of Fault Currents

It is also possible to measure the component of fault current in-phase with the
excitation current with a Mini Chattock. This extra information may provide better
estimation of severity of faults than is possible from the Quadrature component alone.
Measurement of the In-Phase component is more difficult than the quadrature
component because of the In-Phase m.p.d. due to the excitation current.
However, the m.p.d. across the limbs of the Chattock is small and fairly constant over
fault-free tooth surfaces. Proceed as follows:
a) Switch the SPU to indicate PHASE readings.
b) Press the two limbs of the Mini Chattock Potentiometer together and measure the
In-Phase m.p.d. between the limbs in the vicinity of the fault.
c) Move the compressed Chattock Potentiometer so that it is centred over the damage
and measures the peak m.p.d.
d) Subtract the readings obtained from (b) from (c) to obtain the in-Phase component
of the fault current.
5.3.4

Damage Below Teeth Tips

If the procedures in sections 5.3.2 and 5.3.4 fail to detect a fault in a region which gave
a response with the standard sensing head, then the fault may be on a side of one of the
teeth, or on the base of the slot or deeper still into the core. If the conductor bars have
been removed it may be possible on a large stator to probe down the sides of the teeth
with the Mini Chattock Potentiometer to detect and measure faults. If the conductor
bars are in position, however, the severity of the fault must be judged from the
response of a standard sensing head alone.

Page 37

V4.04

6. INSTALLATION OF ELAN SOFTWARE ON A PC


6.1

Distribution Media
The software is distributed on a CD ROM. It consists of the operating software and
demo test files that may be read by the user to help with familiarisation of the Stator
Test and Analysis operation.

6.2

Suitable PC
The software is intended for use on IBM compatible PCs operating Windows 98 or
ME, or Windows 2000 or XP. It is not suitable for Macintosh computers. On Windows
95 it may not be reliable in Stator Test mode.
The minimum and recommended specification PC is given in the Specifications in
APPENDIX -part 6.
On systems with enhanced user security (eg Windows 2000 and XP) installation may
not be possible, or the software may not be accessible to all users unless the user is
logged in with Administrator privileges. Note also that data may be stored in user areas
that are only accessible to the logged in user. In this case consult your IT administrator
for advice.

6.3

If You Dont Have a CD Drive


If the target computer does not have a CD drive, and cannot be connected over a
network to one that does, then it is possible to use a compression utility such as
WinZip to record a spanned set of about 9 floppy discs on another PC that does have
a CD, to transfer the whole software. These may then be copied on the target PC into a
temp directory n the C: drive, and installed from there.
The process should copy all the files in the CD root directory and the ELAN folder and
its contents. The Test files can be copied later if required.
If you dont have access to a copy of a suitable compression utility, then a copy of
Winzip V8 is included in the folder called WinZip. The self-extracting file called
Winzip80.exe should be run to install this program. Note that WinZip is not free, but is
available for evaluation, and subsequent purchase if found useful after 21 days. Please
read the on-line WinZip manual for information on its operation.

6.4

To Install on a PC
If you have a version of ELAN V3.x (beta version or final) already installed, this
MUST first be uninstalled by use of the Windows software (Start >Settings >Control
Panel >Add/Remove Programs and select ELAN to remove). Previous versions V2.x
do not need to be uninstalled.
Insert the CD in the drive. Using Windows Explorer run (double click) setup.exe on the
CD drive or other place that you have copied the installation software to. Alternately
on the Windows screen, select Start >Run and type in D:\setup , changing D if this is
not the name of your CD drive.
Page 38

V4.04

The software will install automatically. You are invited to accept or reject the License
Agreement. If you are not able to accept this, installation will cease without changing
anything on your PC. You will next be asked where the software is to install the
program files as per Fig. 12:

Fig. 12 Software Installation Folder


If this location is not suitable, then select an appropriate alternate location. On clicking
Next, the software is automatically loaded.
6.5

Locations for Programs and Data


The normal locations for Program files is the default location defined by Windows,
which can be change on installation.
Windows 98/ME
C:\Programs\Elan\
Windows 2000/XP C:\Program Files\Elan\
The location for Data files is the default location defined by Windows. It should be
checked after installation (a blank entry could cause data loss), and can be changed by
the user in the Options menu in the ELAN software.
Windows 98/ME
C:\My Documents\Elan\
Windows 2000/XP C:\Documents and Settings\username\My Documents\Elan\
Data is recorded in an open format XML structure, which allows independent
inspection of the data, and potential for transfer to other compatible systems.

6.6

Installation on non-English Windows.


The software is designed to be installed on an English version of Windows. It is
normally possible to install on a non-English version without any problems, however
in certain circumstances there may need to be operator intervention. In particular, the
ELAN program shortcut location is always installed in the Windows Start >Programs
location. In case that the non-English Windows does not use the English spelling for
these locations (eg French uses Programmes) then it is impossible for the install
software to find the default location, and the shortcut is not installed.
To install the Start shortcut, use the Start >Settings >Taskbar menu to add the new
ELAN software to your Start menu, browsing to find the program Elan.exe and
selecting an appropriate Start location.
Page 39

V4.04

6.7

Demonstration Test Files.


Two demo files derived from real tests are saved on the CD, located in the Test Files
folder, and are called Demo1.dec and Demo2.dec. They should be copied to the users
data directory if it is desired to use them for training or demonstration.
Demo1 is typical of a larger hydro-generator, whilst Demo2 is typical of a smaller
turbo-generator.

Page 40

V4.04

7. ELAN STATOR ANALYSIS


7.1

Introduction

The ELAN (ELCID Analysis) software program for EL CID provides a comprehensive
tool to capture during test, display, analyse and print slot information acquired by the
Digital EL CID test equipment. It has also been designed to provide full support for
recording the test results from the Digital EL CID test equipment, aiding and
automating various functions, plus comprehensive facilities for identifying potential
faults in tested stators and for easing the process of producing reports about those
faults.
In operates one of in two modes: ELAN Stator Test and ELAN Stator Analysis, with
the Test mode entered after starting in the Analysis mode. As a result, even though it
would be logical to cover Testing first, the Analysis is described initially, and the test
results are displayed during test using the methods of the Analysis mode.
Data is recorded in an open format XML structure, which allows independent
inspection of the data, and potential for transfer to other compatible systems.
7.2

Overview of Main Features (Analysis and Test)

A wide range of features, including many updated over ELAN V2 are available.
?? WINDOWS 98/ME/2000/XP operating environment.
?? Integrated test and analysis functions within ELAN.
?? Display of test information for both the machine and test method for recorded tests
before opening file and during analysis and test.
?? Display of Quad or Phase values, with optional dc (separate for quad and phase)
and zero removal.
?? Integrated test results open XML format for test data, with import conversion for
old formats, allows visibility and export capability.
?? Primary multiple trace display mode with ancillary selection of display options,
print, notes, export, and help functions
?? Single slot Display Mode for detailed inspection with zoom and cursor, plus
simultaneous Quad/Phase display.
?? Dual slot comparison display mode.
?? Addition of notes to slot data allows annotation of analysis
?? Normalisation to 4% or any other excitation level.
?? Selection of data taken from Exciter or Turbine end.
?? Ability to select or deselect slots for display, allows choice of best alternate slot
results (a,b,c etc).
?? User selection of display and printout trace colours.
?? Machine and test parameters can be reviewed at any time.
?? Ability to re-use any previous test set-up for new test, and to continue any previous
test left unfinished.
?? Improved excitation calculation user interaction
?? Remote operation allowing one-man operation, upgradable in the field
?? BIG slot test display panel for distant viewing of key parameters (esp Qaud value
and slot no)
Page 41

V4.04

??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??
??

7.3

Previous tests on same slot kept may be kept for comparison (up to 26 off)
Key commands available via icons on screen and hot keys
Timebase mode to allow simple manual scans to be recorded
Support for offset double chattocks on tractor to ensure alternate slot scans align,
and ability to set to scan any sub-part of the core
Data Export to industry standard spreadsheets via Microsoft Excel Workbook
Options panel to allow setup of Comm port and key user variables
Audible warnings of actions (capable of being amplified etc)
User choice of trace and printout colours
Windows type HELP facility for the individual functions which may be accessed
during operation.

Starting the Analysis Program


The program is started via the Windows Start menu, and unless the user has installed it
other than the default, is accessed by Start >Programs >ELAN. On startup, the ELAN
program presents the user with the Main Menu, which is used to access the system
functions.

7.4

Quick Guide to Analysing a Test.


After starting ELAN, open Options and set the Data Directory to the place where the
data files are normally placed. It may be convenient to also set the COM port, preferred
Frequency and Units at this time as well.
Then select File >Open and select via the normal Windows user interface the Test file
to analyse. It may be either a previous *.hdr format or new *.dec format. If it is the
*.hdr format, then when opening, you will be prompted to allow the software to
convert it to the new *.dec format automatically. The new file will not replace or alter
the old, and will be loaded into the same directory as the previous, but the file being
converted must not be already open by any other program. The conversion process is
seen in the window. After either route, the user is presented with the Machine and Test
Parameter panes to review, and check that this is the correct machine and test desired.
If it is, click on OK and the test file is loaded. The loading time is dependant on the
size of file, number of slots, speed of PC etc.
The display defaults to showing the Quad values for the first 20 slots (15 on smaller
displays), for the whole length of the machine. The keyboard buttons Page Up and
Page Down allow quick movement up and down the slots. Traces may be displayed for
lesser numbers of slots, or shorter lengths of core by selecting Display >Traces, and
adjusting the relevant controls. In addition, slots may be displayed for only those
recorded Forward or Reverse. To see again the input data, View >Machine/Test
Parameters allows inspection of all the recorded parameters for that test.
In order to analyse the results, the traces are displayed colour coded for direction and if
there is any over-range for each slot (regardless of direction). Display >Traces gives
access to controls to check/alter those colours, and to either set the scale factor to
anywhere from 1 to 40,000mA full scale, or to just auto-range those traces that exceed
the scale threshold. The latter is convenient for a quick overview, but for more detailed
analysis, then the same scale for all adjacent traces being analysed is preferred. It is
Page 42

V4.04

possible to similarly display and analyse the Phase values, by selecting Phase in
Display >Traces. In this case all the functions that were available for Quad can be used
for Phase.
In many cases, the data was recorded with not all 2mm position values recorded. In this
case the default setting of Suppress Zeros is recommended as it fills in the zeros with
the previous recorded value (avoiding sparodic spikes to zero). The Quad (or Phase)
values may also be normalised to either a normal 4% excitation as default, or to any
other user defined excitation desired.
It is often the case that the EL CID was not absolutely Phase Reset reset at the test
start. This can be compensated by using the Remove Quad/Phase DC Component,
which defaults on for Quad and off for Phase. This offsets all values in the display so
that the mean value (ignoring the zeros) is zero, on the assumption that any fault signal
will be small by comparison with the main bulk of the core.
In order to inspect a slot trace in great detail, a double click on a trace will open up
another window for the Single Trace Interaction. This allows a cursor to investigate
detail values, and the user able to set local scales to use the auto-scale. A zoom facility
(click and drag from top-left to bottom-right of desired zoom area) allows local
inspection, and the reverse expands to full slot display again.
Display >Select Slots allows the user to select or deselect slots from the display list, if
it desired to only show for comparison purposes particular slots (esp to remove
unwanted alternate a-z slots). This display also gives a convenient review of the
maximum values of the Quad or Phase (dependant on value selected for display), the
length of slot recorded and any user note.
To provide a quick overview of the maximum Quad (or Phase) values, the View
>Peaks display allows selection of a limited choice of variables, then displays in
tabular format all the selected slots. The value is compared with a threshold value and
only those values that exceed it have a value shown. It is possible to select the whole
machine, in which case a scroll bar appears to accommodate any extra slots. View
>Notes provides access to the notes for any trace, which may be clicked on to select a
trace, then the note typed in, and saved. Note that if the file is shown as WRITE
PROTECTED then no changes can be made.
Many aspects of the traces can be printed. The main printout function allows (after
selection of the correct parameters in Print >Setup), printing of the traces as shown on
the screen on a succession of pages via File >Print, with optional printing of the
machine and test parameters in a Header Page. In addition, the Notes may be printed
from the Notes display, and the current Screen traces may also be printed via File
>Print Screen.
7.5

Main Menu
Main Menu, which is used to access the system functions via five sub menus, is shown
in Fig. 13. These are: File, Options, EL CID Test and HELP. Display and View
are greyed out initially, as they are not available until a test file is loaded for analysis.

Page 43

V4.04

Fig. 13 Main Menu


All commands can also be selected from the keyboard using the Alt key. The
underlined characters indicate the keys needed with the Alt key (eg pressing Alt with f
gives the File command).
For new tests or acquisition of further test data using the EL CID instrument the EL
CID Test function is selected. Instructions on the use of the Test mode are provided in
Section 8. The remaining menu functions are described in this section.
The ELAN program may be used to display test data acquired using the earlier EL CID
DEC test program software.
7.6

File Menu
In order to analyse any test results, the file recording of those results must first be
opened. The File command opens up a sub menu as shown in Fig. 14.

Fig. 14 File Menu


7.6.1

File Open

To begin an analysis session the user must first open a data file. ELAN version 3.0 uses
data files in XML format, in which all data for one machine test is stored as a single
file. Opening a file is accomplished by selecting File > Open from the main application
menu. On selection the user will be presented with the following dialog box in Fig. 15
from which he must navigate to the directory in which the data file is located.
If the file structure is not correct, in particular if the XML records have been directly
edited by a user and not by recording them with ELAN, and the format is not correct,
then ELAN may report an error reading the file and abort the load command.

Page 44

V4.04

Fig. 15 File Open Dialogue


The dialogue box will only show files with the extension *.dec (new format XML
files) and *.hdr (old format files). Once an appropriate *.dec data file has been selected
the user should click on the OPEN button. If the user selects a *.hdr file to be opened
ELAN will convert that file, and all associated slot data files into a single new format
*.dec file. Ensure that the header file and/or any related slot file to be opened is not
already open in another application, else it might not be fully converted.
If the file has a filename extension other than *.dec, then it can still be accessed by
typing in the full filename and pressing Open, and will be opened if the file format is
readable.
When the user presses Open, ELAN will then display the machine and test data for that
data file (see below), which the user inspects to confirm that the correct file. By
selecting CANCEL the user aborts the load sequence, selecting LOAD results in the
display of the first 20 slots from the Exciter end for the selected machine.
7.6.1.1

Security

When the file is opened, even for Analysis only, then it may still be written to by the
software, since the user may change the Notes, and select or de-select traces for
display. This data is stored within the file, and it is thus possible that a malfunction or
crash could change other data items.
If it is important that the records are not corrupted, then the user should ensure that a
backup is kept of the file. He/she should also either make a copy of the file for ad-hoc
viewing, or set its properties on the Windows system as read-only which will prevent
any user changes. This is indicated on the display when the file is opened by a label of
WRITE PROTECTED after the filename on the lower pane.
This label is not shown, however, if the file is protected by a remote facility such as the
Write-Protect tab on a floppy disc or write protection on a remote file server. In this
case the fact that the file is protected is only seen when any write is attempted.

Page 45

V4.04

In case that the file is set as read only, and the user tries to make a change, then the
software will offer to save the changed data to a new file via the Save As function (see
section 8.6.2).
7.6.2

File Close

On selecting Close the application will remove from memory the information related to
the currently selected series of slots and clear the slot display. Any changes to analysis
values such as notes will be saved. If the file properties are read only, the user will be
prompted to save the file to another location. If this is ignored, any changes will be
lost.
7.6.3

File Print Setup

This option in Fig. 16 allows the user to select and set-up the system printer for all
subsequent printing within the application.

Fig. 16 Print Setup Dialogue


The user may adjust the size and source of paper, the paper orientation and any printer
specific properties.
It is strongly recommended that a colour printer is used, so that the colour distinctions
of the various traces may be best seen. The various Trace colours may be adjusted in
the File - Print screen below.
7.6.4

File Print

The File Print option allows the user to select the options that are required for a
specific graphical printout of slot traces as shown in Fig. 17. It shares most functions
with the Display Select Traces menu. A printout consists of one or more pages of
graphical traces each with a footer describing the settings that were selected for the
print. A maximum of 30 slot traces can be printed on a page, however it is
recommended that less are printed to improve the ability to see detail.
Page 46

V4.04

Fig. 17 Print Dialogue


The options that can be selected from this dialogue have the following meanings:
Start Slot - This is the first slot to be printed. The slot number must not be more than
the maximum number of slots for the machine and a minimum of 1. The default value
for this slot will always be the first slot that was last printed or Displayed or analysed
through the View Slot Peaks and Notes option. The up/down arrows next to the slot
allow the user to quickly alter the slot number, or the number may be directly entered.
Slot Count - This is the number of slots to be printed. The slot count must not be more
than the maximum number of slots for the machine and a minimum of slot 1. The
default value for this slot will always be the slot count that was last Displayed, Printed
or analysed through the View Slot Peaks and Notes option. If the total number of slots
to be printed is greater than the number of slots per page, the application will cause
multiple sheets to be printed. The up/down arrows next to the slot number allow the
user to quickly alter the number, or the number may be directly entered.
Machine End - This is the end from which a slot was scanned. ELCID files identify
slots referenced from either the Exciter or Turbine end of the machine.
Data - The user may select either the phase or the quad values of the ELCID captured
data.

Page 47

V4.04

Units - ELCID records information in a metric format with data being stored every
2mm for a slot. The user may select to have the information displayed in either metric
(metres) or imperial (inches) units.
Direction - Slot traces may either have been recorded by traversal in the forward or
reverse direction from the machine end that was being analysed. The user may choose
to select traces in either direction or in both directions.
If the Forward (+ Reverse) option is selected, then both traces can be printed
simultaneously.
Slots Per Page to Print - This is the number of slots that are to be printed on each
page. If it is set to zero then no slot pages are printed, but the header page is still
printed if selected.
Start Distance From Machine End - This is the distance from the selected machine
end from which printing of slot data will start.
Finish Distance From Machine End - This is the distance from the selected machine
end at which printing of slot data will stop.
Scale Traces to xxx Volts - If this option is selected the data in the slot traces will be
scaled to the level entered by the user. If the edit box is empty, or contains an invalid
value ELAN will prompt the user to enter a valid value. See also Scale Traces to 4%
Excitation.
Scale Traces to 4% Excitation - If this option is selected the data in the slot traces
will be scaled to a level that would be consistent with a 4% excitation level.
This uses the Machine Parameter recorded for Measured Single Turn Voltage
(MSTV) and scales the traces proportionately down if MSTV is higher or
proportionately up if MSTV is lower than that desired by the calculation shown on the
pane and shown in the grey box alongside. This scaling will affect the Phase if
displayed, as well as Quad values, so in case of Phase display, this is usually best
deselected.
Remove Quad DC Component - If this option is selected the Quad data in the slot
traces will be filtered such that the DC value of the slot data is removed.
Remove Phase DC Component - If this option is selected the Phase data in the slot
traces will be filtered such that the DC value of the slot data is removed.
Suppress Zeros from Trace - ELCID places zero values into slot trace data under a
number of error conditions. The ELAN software is able to compensate for these
erroneous values by suppressing them from traces. The selection of this option causes
the data to be corrected through the removal of all zero values.
Max Scale - This is the maximum value that will routinely be used for the display of
data on a trace graph. The maximum value can be overridden by an automatically
Page 48

V4.04

generated maximum value for each trace if the AUTOSCALE trace option is selected.
Off scale traces will be shown at the maximum display value.
7.6.4.1

Printing a Header Page

If Print Header Page is selected, it causes a single page of header data to be printed
before printing all required traces. This gives all the data shown in the View
Machine Parameters and Test Parameters boxes. If it desired to only print this
header data, then tick this option and select 0 traces to print in the Print Dialogue
box.
7.6.4.2

The Print Footer

The footer on each page consists of a simple textual representation of the settings
and source of data. The footer has the following format:
C:\ELCID\DATA\TESTNAME Date DC Removed 4% Normalised Quad
Turbine Zeros Suppressed Metres
C:\ELCID\DATA\TESTNAME - This is the path and file-name of the header file
for the test results being printed.
Date - The date on which the tests were carried out.
DC Removed - The slot traces printed have had their DC component removed
before being plotted.
4% Normalised - The slot traces have been normalised to a 4% excitation level.
Quad - The slot traces are displaying the quad values recorded by ELCID.
Turbine - The slot traces displayed are those measured from the turbine end of the
machine being tested.
Zeros Suppressed - Where ELCID has inserted zeros into the trace data (usually
due to too fast operation) these have been masked in the printed slot traces.
Metres - The unit of measurement against which the slot traces are printed is
metres.
7.6.4.3

Printout Colours

Pressing one of the "Change colour" button allows the user to select a new colour
for the printing of those traces or define a custom colour. These may be different to
those used for display.

Page 49

V4.04

Forward

Forward Over-range

Reverse Over-range

Reverse

Fig. 18 Trace Colour Selection


In case the colours are changed and it is desired to revert to the originally defined
colours, they are shown above in the standard colour matrix.
7.6.5

File Print Screen

This function prints the currently displayed traces to the default printer.
7.6.6

File Exit

This function closes the file and the ELAN program. The user is prompted to save to
another file any changes made to the file if it was opened when read-only.
7.7

Main Display
The main onscreen display consists of a maximum of 20 trace slots displayed across
the screen. This allows comparison of adjacent traces to allow analysis as described in
Section 9. The traces are coloured providing meaning about the displayed trace. The
colours given below are the default as installed, the user may change them. See below
for changing the colours.
Red - the trace slot corresponds to a series of measurements that were captured
originally in a Forward direction.
Green - the trace slot corresponds to a series of measurements that were captured
originally in a Reverse direction.
Yellow - the trace slot corresponds to a series of measurements that were originally
captured in the Forward direction but at least one of the measurements was greater than
maximum scale set for the display (over-range).
Blue - the trace slot corresponds to a series of measurements that were originally
captured in the reverse direction but at least one of the measurements was greater than
maximum scale set for the display (over-range).

Page 50

V4.04

Note that if either of the Forward or Reverse Traces is over-range, then both traces
change to the over-range colour for that slot. Also, even if the Display Select Traces
is set to Autoscale Over-range Traces, the colours still change to indicate if the trace
exceeds the value set in the Max Scale box.
Display >Traces gives access to controls to either set the scale factor to anywhere from
1 to 40,000mA full scale, or to just auto-range those traces that exceed the scale
threshold. The latter is convenient for a quick overview, but for more detailed analysis,
then the same scale for all adjacent traces being analysed is preferred.
7.8

Display Menu
The Display menu shown in Fig. 19 below, allows the selection of two dialogue boxes
that control which traces are displayed, and their options.

Fig. 19 Display Menu


7.8.1

Display Select Traces

The Display Select Traces function in Fig. 20 allows the user to select the options for
the onscreen display of slot traces. It shares most functions with the File Print Menu.

Fig. 20 Display Select Traces Dialogue

Page 51

V4.04

The options that can be selected from this dialogue have the following meanings:
Start Slot - This is the first slot to be displayed. The slot number must not be more
than the maximum number of slots for the machine and a minimum of slot 1. The
default value for this slot will always be the first slot that is currently displayed. The
up/down arrows next to the slot allow the user to quickly increment/decrement the slot
number, or the number may be directly entered.
Slot Count - This is the number of slots to be displayed. The slot count must not be
more than the maximum number of slots for the machine and a minimum of 1. The
default value for this slot will always be the slot count that was last printed or analysed
through the View Slot Peaks and Notes option. The up/down arrows next to the slot
number allow the user to quickly increment/decrement the number, or the number may
be directly entered.
Slot Count defaults at startup to 20 slots unless the PCs display adaptor is SVGA
(800*600), in which case it defaults to 15.
Machine End - This is the end from which a slot was scanned. ELCID files represent
slots referenced from either the Exciter or Turbine end of the machine. Slot data may
be only displayed from one end or the other, so if there is data recorded from both, then
they must be displayed seperately.
Note that the display defaults at start at the end that the test file states was the end from
which the traces were recorded. However if this was not in fact the end used, then no
traces will be displayed. This is simply corrected by selection of the other
Exciter/Turbine End.
Data - The user may select either the phase or the quad of the ELCID captured data.
Units - ELCID records information in a metric format with data being stored every
2mm for a slot. The user may select to have the information represented in either
metric (metres) or imperial (inches) units of length measurement.
Direction - Slot traces may have been recorded by traversal in the forward or reverse
direction from the machine end that was being analysed. The user may choose to
display traces tested in either direction or in both directions.
Start Distance From Machine End - This is the distance from the selected machine
end from which display of slots will commence.
Finish Distance From Machine End - This is the distance from the selected machine
end at which display of slots will complete. Note that for both Start and Finish ends, an
overrun band of 200mm (8inchs) is allowed for traces that didnt quite end correctly,
and which may be displayed.
Scale Traces to xxx Volts - If this option is selected the data in the slot traces will be
scaled to the level entered by the user. If the edit box is empty, or contains an invalid
value the application shall prompt the user to enter a valid value.
Scale Traces to 4% Excitation - If this option is selected the data in the slot traces
will be scaled to a level that would be consistent with a 4% excitation level, as per the
calculation and result displayed.
Remove Quad DC Component - If this option is selected the Quad data in the slot
Page 52

V4.04

traces will be offset such that the DC value of the whole slot Quad data is set to zero.
Remove Phase DC Component - If this option is selected the Phase data in the slot
traces will be offset such that the DC value of the whole slot Phase data is set to zero.
Suppress Zeros from Trace - ELCID places zero values into slot trace data under a
number of error conditions. The ELAN software is able to compensate for these
erroneous values by suppressing them from traces. The selection of this option causes
these zero data values to be masked by copying the previous values.
Max Scale - This is the maximum value that will routinely be used for the display of
data on a trace graph. The maximum value can be overridden by an automatically
generated maximum value for each trace if the AUTOSCALE trace option is selected.
Off-scale traces will be shown at the maximum display value.
Colours - Pressing one of the "Change colour" button allows the user to select a new
colour for the display of the traces, using the dialogue box in Fig. 21 below. This
allows selection of a new basic colour, or a custom colour.

Forward

Forward Over-range

Reverse Over-range

Reverse

Fig. 21 Colour Selection


In case the colours are changed and it is desired to revert to the originally defined
colours, they are shown above from the standard colour matrix.
7.8.2

Display Select Slots

The Display - Select Traces option allows the user to select the set of traces to be
displayed. The Display - Select Slots dialog box in Fig. 22 then selects which traces
from this subset of traces is to be displayed.

Page 53

V4.04

Fig. 22 Select Slots Dialogue


For example, the diagram above shows that the user has deselected slots 3,9,10,11 and
12. This means that if the user subsequently uses the Display-Select Traces dialog to
display 6 traces starting from slot 1 then ELAN shall display traces 1,1A,3,4A,5 and 6.
Buttons allow selection and deselection of all traces, to aid rapid setting of larger
machines. A Print button allows printout of a listing of all the slots and their selection,
to aid reporting.
The user can remove traces from display without going via this dialog by right-clicking
on a trace in the main window. This also provides the user with the chance to select an
alternative trace for that slot.
7.8.3

Display Next Higher Slots

This option will move the display to the next sequence of slot traces from the current
display. The currently displayed end slot will become the new start slot and the new
end slot will be set to X slots further on where X is the current number of displayed
slots less one.
A keyboard shortcut to this option is available through the Page Down key.
7.8.4

Display Next Lower Slots

This option will move the display to the previous sequence of slot traces from the
current display. The currently displayed start slot will become the new end slot and the
new start slot will be set to X slots earlier where X is the current number of displayed
slots less one.
A keyboard shortcut to this option is available through the Page Up key.

Page 54

V4.04

7.9

View Menu
The View menu of ELAN is used to display an analysis of slot peaks, the recorded
notes and also the Machine Parameters and Test Parameters:
The main menu consists of 4 sub-menus shown in Fig. 23:

Fig. 23 View Menu


7.9.1

View Peaks

This option will display a selection screen that allows the user to select slots, and
options to be applied to slots, to enable identification of peaks in the quad or phase
values for the machine.
The initial selection dialogue screen in Fig. 24 allows the analysis to be selectively
applied to all or a sub set of all machine slots. Once the selection has been made, the
user is presented with an interactive display through which he can identify slots for
further investigation. The user is also able to select the relevant slot to make and record
observations (notes) against the analysed slots.

Fig. 24 Peaks Selection Dialogue

Page 55

V4.04

The selection parameters are similar to that in Section 7.8.1 for Display Traces. The
variations are given below.
Slot Count - This is the number of slots to be selected, and may be any value up to the
whole machine.
Machine End - This is the end from which a slot was scanned. ELCID files represent
slots referenced from either the Exciter or Turbine end of the machine.
Data - The user may select either the phase or the quad of the ELCID captured data for
peaks display.
Scale Traces to xxx Volts This is locked to the same as that selected in Display
Traces.
Scale Traces to 4% Excitation - This is locked to the same as that selected in Display
Traces.
Suppress Zeros from Trace This is locked to the same as that selected in Display
Traces.
Max Scale This is set in the Peaks display box, and disabled here.
Autoscale Over-Range This has no effect, the peak value is displayed regardless
Peak Analysis Display
The resultant Peak Analysis display is shown in Fig. 25 below. The display identifies
slot traces whose values anywhere exceed a peak threshold (positive or negative). The
top number in each box is the slot number, the lower one is the max Quad or Phase
value. Note that the numbering may not be contiguous, as the slots shown are only
those selected in Display >Select Slots, including any alternate traces selected. The
right-hand scroll bar allows viewing slots that are off-screen.

Fig. 25 Peaks Analysis Display

Page 56

V4.04

Where a slot trace exists but its peak value is below the set threshold, an asterisk is
displayed. Where the slot trace does not exist a * is displayed. If a slot trace exists and
its peak value is greater than the set threshold then the value of the maximum is
displayed.
Peak Value Threshold Allows the user to set a new threshold (the default is
100mA), and then click the Recalculate button to perform the analysis again.
Cancel - Closes the dialogue and return to the main display.
Notes - Enters the Notes Display in which the notes for any slot can be viewed and
modified as required. Also a double click on any of the displayed Slot Cells enters the
notes display in which the notes for that slot can be viewed and modified as required.
A status bar along the bottom of the display displays the values chosen when originally
selecting the slot range for analysis.
7.9.2

View Notes

This option will display the Notes dialog (can also be entered via the Peak Analysis
dialog), allowing a user to read the notes stored for the whole machine and to add or
change the note for any slot. All the slots recorded are shown, regardless of their
(de)selection in Select slots as seen in Fig. 26 below.

Fig. 26 Notes Display and Dialogue

Page 57

V4.04

Each slot for the machine can have an 80 character comment that is stored with the
data for the machine. The user is able to view all slot comments at the same time
through the main display. To add or amend a note click on the slot, which will select
the slot note for editing in the top line and display the Slot Test Ref Phase Angle. The
entered note must be recorded by selecting Add Note or Return after entry, else the
change is not retained.
If the file is set as read-only, then changes to notes are NOT saved to the original file,
but the user is offered the option of saving the whole test file to a new filename before
closing.
7.9.3

View Machine Parameters

On first opening a data file, the Machine Parameters information in Fig. 27 is presented
for confirmation that this is the correct data. The user may also inspect the Machine
Parameters information by selecting View >Machine Parameters. The full Machine
Parameters display is then presented. To remove the Machine Parameters display from
the screen click the Cancel or OK buttons.

Fig. 27 Machine Parameters Display


This data cannot be changed. If it is desired to amend any records, then the file should
Page 58

V4.04

be opened in ELAN Stator Test, or left open in Stator Analysis and EL CID Test
started. The values may then be edited and saved. Note that changing test records
should be done with great circumspection!
7.9.4

View Test Parameters

The user may inspect the Test Parameters information in Fig. 28 by selecting View
>Test Parameters. The full Test Parameters display is then presented. To remove the
Test Parameters display from the screen click the Cancel or OK buttons. The Machine
Parameters display can also be selected from the Test Parameters display by clicking
on the "Machine Parameters" tab at the top of the display.

Fig. 28 Test Parameters Display

This data cannot be changed. If it is desired to amend any records, then the file should
be opened in ELAN Stator Test, or left open in Stator Analysis and EL CID Test
started. The values may then be edited and saved. Note that changing test records
should be done with great circumspection!
7.10

Options
This function allows the user to set up the ELAN software to use standard defaults for
their normal use. Clicking on the Options Button give the display in Fig. 29. The user
Page 59

V4.04

should select the parameters appropriate to their need.

Fig. 29 Options Menu


Data directory is the default storage location of test results, and is where the results
are sought when a file Open command is first actioned. If blank after installation, then
a default path MUST be set. If the operator cannot remember the full path or syntax for
the entry, the Browse button gives a full listing of the PC file system, complete with
any network drives. This allows any directory/folder to be selected. Note that if any
network resources are registered but not connected when Browse is selected, it may
take 5-10 secs to complete the search and time-out on any non-existent resources.
Units allows the use of Imperial (inches) or Metric (metres) units as default. These can
be changed in use during analysis, but not during testing.
Frequency is the default frequency entered into Machine Parameters when testing. It
may be user overridden. It would normally be 50 or 60Hz, but may be any other
rational value. Note that it is purely informational, the EL CID Test and subsequent
analysis do not use it for computation or presentation.
COM1-COM4 are the RS232 COM ports on the PC used to communicate with the
Digital EL CID, and the user should select the one intended to be used with the EL
CID. If it is not possible to determine this in advance, it can be changed at any time
before the test. For a PC used solely for analysis, the selection is unimportant. It is
useful to test the communications link beforehand.
Comms test button provides a means of testing if the EL CID is correctly connected to
the selected COM port. If this is clicked with a working EL CID is connected to the
selected COM port, ELAN will show a box saying "OK", otherwise it will say "No
response".
On some PCs the COM port may be achieved via a USB adaptor.
Suppress error reports tick box allows the suppression of error reports when testing
if ticked. This is useful to eliminate distracting repetitive messages, such as Missing
Values when speed is more important than 100% test coverage.
If Suppression of error reports is selected, then no error reports will be shown on the
Page 60

V4.04

main screen or the Afar screen. On the main screen a ? character will be shown in the
top icon row, which will turn red if any error occurs. Clicking on it or pressing the ?
key will then display a pane showing the current active error(s).
7.11

EL CID Test
This command starts the EL CID test dialogue. When this item is selected the main
screen will change from the ELAN "Stator Analysis" screen to the "EL CID Stator
Test" screen. This mode allows a user to connect the PC to the Digital EL CID
equipment to capture slot data during stator testing. Operation is covered in Section 8.

7.12

Help
This command gives access to About and Help. About is a panel that gives
information about the issue of the software, Adwel and its contact information. Help
Topics gives access to a full Help system about the software, as shown in Fig. 30.
Individual topics and information about operation may be searched and printed out.

Fig. 30 ELAN Help menu


HELP for any specific function may also be entered by means of the F1 key when the
function is selected or highlighted.
7.13

Analysis Keyboard and Mouse Shortcuts


The following Keyboard and Mouse shortcuts are supported by ELAN Stator Analysis:
Page Up - Scrolls the sets of traces backwards.
Page Down - Scrolls the sets of traces forwards.
Page 61

V4.04

Mouse Left Double Click - Enters the Single Trace interaction for the slot over which
the click occurs.
CTRL + O - Displays the "File Open" dialog. This is the same as selecting File >Open
ALT - activates the main menu - the user can then use the arrow keys to navigate the
menu items. Pressing ALT + any of the underlined letters on the main menu drops that
menu down (e.g. ALT+F drops down the file menu).
ALT+F4 - exits the program. This is the same as clicking on the top right hand button
of the main window.
F1 - Displays this help file at the appropriate place.
Mouse Right Click over a Trace gives a menu as shown in Fig. 31.

Fig. 31 Trace Right-click Menu


This allows the user to either
Export Data to Excel transfers all visible traces (up to 20) to an Excel spreadsheet
as described in Section 7.14. This allows users to make alternate presentations of the
data, or further numeric analysis.
Add or Read Note switches to the Notes screen described in Section 7.9.2 for that
slot, in order to add/edit or read the Note,
Remove trace from display will remove that trace from the display.
Select alternate traces allows selecting any alternate traces for display, ie those
numbered the same but with another alpha (A,B etc) suffix for that slot to add to the
display. (If however there is no trace displayed at all for a slot, then adding a trace
back in has to be done by use of Display >Select Slots as described in Section 7.8.2).
7.14

Exporting Data to Excel


Whilst in the main display, the user may at any time right click over the main display
area and select Export Data to Excel. It offers the user the opportunity to export data
into Microsoft Excel, and thus record/convert it into any of the data formats supported
by Excel: xls, Text, CSV, Lotus 123, Dbase.
If Excel is installed on the computer, the software will open a new Excel Spreadsheet
and copy all of the data from every displayed trace on the currently selected Display
Screen to the spreadsheet. All data points for each 2mm value of the selected QUAD or
PHASE parameter are stored on a separate Excel column for each slot, with a label at
the top of each column identifying the slot number and direction. The distance is in the
display units (metres/inches) selected.
Once it has been written into Excel, the format in which the data is to be saved is

Page 62

V4.04

determined through the Save As type drop down menu on the Excel Save As panel.
After selecting Save, the Excel application is closed.
It is assumed that most users will only wish to transfer a few slots for analysis. In case
that it is desired to transfer a whole machine, then this must be done 20 slots at a time,
and the data cut-and-pasted together in Excel afterwards, from the several spreadsheets
recorded.
7.15

Single Trace Interaction


Double Clicking with the left mouse button over a single displayed trace will display
the Single Trace display of Fig. 32 and interaction dialogue. This facility allows
detailed analysis of a single slot trace together with its complementary PHASE or
QUAD trace. A further trace pair for another slot may be loaded to the display for
comparative purposes.

Fig. 32 Single Trace Interaction


The display reflects the options selected by the user in the main trace display. These
options are shown in the panel at the bottom of the single trace display. The initial
display will show the complete trace length with auto-ranged scale limits for both
QUAD and PHASE traces.
If there are both Forward and Reverse traces recorded, and if on the Display Traces
screen Direction both Forward (and Reverse) are selected, then only the Forward
Trace is shown on the Single Trace Interaction. To study the Reverse Trace, initially
select just Reverse Direction.

Page 63

V4.04

The user can control the single trace display in the following ways.
Cursor On/Cursor Off - The user can turn on a cursor by clicking the Cursor On
button. The cursor can be moved across all displayed traces allowing the data
underlying the displayed information to be read in the Values box. The cursor
follows the position of the mouse. To turn the cursor off, click Cursor Off.
Redraw - This button redraws the trace when any scale parameter is changed. It is
triggered automatically if the Remove Quad/Phase DC boxes are changed.
Auto/Man Scaling - The user can turn off the default automatic scale settings and
choose two vertical scales that are controlled by the Quad Min/Max and Phase
Min/Max settings. After changing any manual scales the user must click the Redraw
button for the display to be updated.
Load - This button allows a dual slot display, where test traces from a second slot on
the same machine or other test may be loaded onto the same display. Clicking the Load
button and specifying the data source loads the extra slot. Alternate second traces may
be loaded by just selecting them, the new data replaces the old. To delete the second
trace, Cancel the whole Single Trace Interaction, and select the same slot again.
The second set of traces may be from the same test or different test file. If they are
from a different test file, take careful note of the source, as the source is not displayed.
In addition the second file must be compatible with the first in terms of having the
same length core and excitation, as both results are normalised the same.
Cancel - This button cancels the Single Trace Interaction, and returns to normal trace
display.
Print - The user may print the contents of the current graph display (either zoomed or
normal scale) by selecting the print button, choosing a printer and page orientation
(landscape is recommended) and then selecting OK to continue with the print.
Zoom - With the cursor off the user can zoom into the displayed data by holding the
left mouse button over a region of interest and dragging a rectangle on screen down
and to the right. On completing the rectangle the screen will zoom to the dragged
region. By clicking Redraw the screen may then be re-scaled to the maximum and
minimum signal current values held in the box at the left hand of the screen. To return
the display and data to the original settings hold the left mouse button and drag to the
left and up.
Panning - By holding the right mouse button and dragging when the cursor is off, the
graphs displayed are panned across the display in the direction of the mouse
movement.
DC Removal - Two check boxes are provided for the removal of the DC component
from the QUAD and PHASE traces independently. Clicking on either of these controls
automatically updates the display. Note that where Normalisation to 4% excitation or
user defined normalisation has been selected for the initial display, secondary slots
loaded from a different test will be scaled by the same normalisation factor.
Page 64

V4.04

Change Colour - The colour of the displayed (and printed) traces can be selected by
pressing one of the Change Colour buttons at the bottom of the display. The same
colours are used for both display and printing, and are described in Section 7.6.4.3.
A toolbar at the bottom of the display contains details of the data that is displayed in
the single trace interaction display. These display details are the same as the details for
the main trace display.
7.16

Older Test Data


Test results acquired in the course of previous ELCID testing are stored to a standard
binary format. The test result analysis software will carry out certain checks on the
validity of the data before importing in order to avoid erroneous display or risk of
system corruption.
Incorrectly acquired data or data which has become
invalid/corrupted may result in termination of the program or warning to the user
before continuing.
In some instances it may be possible to inspect test data rejected by ELAN by means of
the DOS based ELPLOT program, which has different validity criteria. A copy is
included on the CD for those concerned to be able to access old data.

Page 65

V4.04

8. ELAN EL CID STATOR TEST


8.1

EL CID Stator Overview


EL CID Stator Test is part of the overall ELAN program which provides a mechanism
for interfacing to the Digital EL CID equipment for the purpose of recording stator slot
test data in a graphical form. The Program interfaces to the EL CID via a serial COM
port on the PC, selectable together with other global values, via the Options dialog box.

8.2

EL CID Stator Test Main Window Functions


8.2.1

Menu functions

The Main Window of EL CID Stator Test is used to access all the other EL CID Stator
Test functions. The main menu consists of 7 sub-menus:
?? File
?? Display
?? View
?? Unit
?? Options
?? Test
?? Help
?? Toolbar
8.2.2

Toolbar

A Toolbar of icons in Fig. 33 below the main menu provides the user with singleclick access to the main functions:

Fig. 33 Test Toolbar


The toolbar symbols have the following meanings:
Enter new unit data (same as selecting Unit >New).
Open a data file for input and output (same as selecting File >Open).
Save the currently open data file (same as selecting File >Save).
Start testing (same as selecting Test >Start).
Finish testing (same as selecting Test >Finish).
View the "Progress" display (same as selecting View >Progress).
Begin testing the next slot (same as selecting Test >Begin Slot).
End testing the current slot (same as selecting Test >End Slot).
Discard the slot data currently last recorded (same as selecting Test >Discard).
Retest a slot (same as selecting Test >Redo).
Page 66

V4.04

Jump to an out-of-sequence test slot (same as selecting Test >Goto).


Acknowledge and clear the current error message.
Display the current error message (if error messages are suppressed).
Exit EL CID Stator Test mode and return to ELAN Stator Analysis mode (same as
selecting File >Exit Test).
8.3

Test Keyboard and Mouse Shortcuts


The system operations are also capable of being controlled by the keyboard via various
direct acting keys. These keys only function if the action is valid at that stage in the
test.
PgUp -

Scrolls the sets of traces backwards. This is the same as selecting


Display >Next Lower Slots

PgDn -

Scrolls the sets of traces forwards. This is the same as selecting


Display >Next Higher Slots

CTRL + O -

Displays the "File Open" dialog. This is the same as selecting File
>Open

CTRL + S -

Displays the "File Save" dialog. This is the same as selecting File
>Save

ALT -

activates the main menu - the user can then use the arrow keys to
navigate the menu items. Pressing ALT + any of the underlined letters
on the main menu drops that menu down (e.g. ALT+F drops down the
file menu).

ALT+F4 -

exits the program. This is the same as clicking on the top right hand
button of the main window.

F1 -

Displays this help file at the appropriate place.

b or B -

Begin testing the current slot. See Test >Begin Slot

d or D -

Discard the current test data. See Test >Discard

e or E -

End the current slot test. See Test >End Slot

r or R -

Redo a slot. See Test >Redo

s or S -

Goto a slot. See Test >Goto

x or X -

Accept and clear the current error message.

?-

Display the current error message.

Page 67

V4.04

8.4

Quick Guide to Testing a Stator


The connection to the Digital EL CID should be made with the RS232 cable supplied,
the EL CID turned on and connected to the sensors. To allow one-person operation of
the ELAN/EL CID system the Trolley must be connected to the Digital EL CID via the
Trolley Remote Control Interface, which includes the RS232 connection.
Before attempting to begin a test, the user must first set up the Machine and Test
parameters. This may be by opening an existing test file containing suitable values, but
is usually by entering new parameters via the Unit >New Unit menu. Once these
parameters have been entered the program will allow the user to start testing.
To test a machine (only once the above parameters have been correctly specified) the
user selects Test >Start (or hot-key s). This starts communication to the EL CID
equipment and displays the values being transmitted by the unit in the panes below the
toolbar. The top right four boxes display (from left to right) Position, Phase, Quad and
any error message. The first slot to be tested is shown in Next Slot.
The slot data is recorded by selecting Test >Begin (hot-key b). This continuously
samples data from the EL CID and displays the real time capture of that data in the
selected trace in the main window, indicated by a white background. The user then
pushed the Trolley up the slot, capturing the phase and quad values for the whole
length (not too fast or some values will be missed).
Once the user is satisfied with the test data they select Test >End (hot-key e). This
action saves the test data and selects the next slot in the sequence to be tested (which
may be the same slot, but the opposite direction). If the user is unhappy with the data as
it is being recorded they can select Test >Discard. This deletes the last recorded slot
data, recovers any previous data and moves the testing onto the next slot in the
sequence. The Goto function allows selection of a previous or any other slot to retest.
The user stops the testing by selecting Test >Finish (hot-key f). This ceases
communication with EL CID in preparation for exiting the application. Finish
automatically occurs once the last slot as specified in the test data has been tested. Note
that the unit data can still be edited at this point and testing can be restarted. The data
can then be saved to file by File >Save or File >Save-as.
To allow one-person operation of the ELAN/EL CID system, the application can be
controlled using the button located on the sensor head trolley. This is enabled in the
"Remote Operation" box on the Test Parameters pane of the unit data. Used with the
Trolley Remote Control Interface, it enables remote commanding of Begin and End for
each slot in sequence from the trolley.
All data is saved on the PCs Hard Disc, to the user defined folder and file. It is
recommended that the operator backs up the saved file after testing to another medium
before leaving site. This is preferably a floppy disc, and compression utilities like
WinZip are normally able to compress the test file small enough to fit one floppy disc,
or can span across more than one disc for a very large file or set of files.
During testing, data is also automatically saved to a temporary disaster recovery file
Page 68

V4.04

(named recovery.dec) after every slot. This may be reloaded in case of any computer
failure during test to allow testing to continue without loss of data.
8.5

Test Operation
8.5.1

Connection to EL CID

The connection to the Digital EL CID should be made with the RS232 cable supplied.
This may be the earlier part no 6/110/1/021, however to allow one-person operation of
the ELAN/EL CID system the Trolley must be connected to the Digital EL CID via the
Trolley Remote Control Interface (part no 6/110/1/022) which also connects to the EL
CID RS232 output to the PC.
The EL CID signals at 19200baud, 1 stop bit with no parity. It must have RTS
connected to CTS at the EL CID to operate. These parameters are automatically set by
ELAN and the supplied cables.
8.5.2

Test Sequencing

When testing a stator, the sequence that the slots are tested in must be in the sequence
defined in the Test Parameters window. The choice will depend on the access to the
machine and test results desired.
The slots numbers to be scanned are set in the First Test Slot and Last Test Slot in
Test Parameters. The sequence will always count from the first to the last. If the Slot
Number Direction is set to be Increasing the slot number will increase from the first
until the last is reached. If the Slot Number Direction is set to be Decreasing the slot
number will decrease from the first until the last is reached. Note that this allows slots
to be tested in an increasing direction from say 36 to 4 on a 42 slot machine (ie through
42 to 1 and onwards). Once the last slot is reached and fully tested, the test is
automatically Finished. If the Slot Number Direction is set to be Random the slot
number will not change after each slot, but the operator will be automatically presented
with the Goto dialogue box to select the nest slot desired.
The originating end of the machine from which measurements are taken is
conventionally set as either Exciter End or Turbine End (or the slip-ring and shaft
ends for a motor). The results are categorised by this parameter, and separate test
results for each direction may be stored in the same test file. However they cannot be
viewed together.
The choices for scanning are
Single Scan -The slot is scanned from the originating end (exciter/turbine) forward (F)
for each slot. The operator is expected to return the Trolley to the machine start end of
each slot after the scan.
Alternate Single Scan -The slot is scanned from the originating end (exciter/turbine)
forward (F) for the first slot, then in reverse (B) for the next slot and so on in a zig-zag
pattern around the core. The operator is expected to transfer the Trolley to the adjacent
slot after the scan.
Double Scan - The slot is scanned from the originating end (exciter/turbine) forward
(F) for each slot, then in reverse (B) for the same slot. The operator is expected to
transfer the Trolley to the adjacent slot after each second scan.

Page 69

V4.04

The Trolley, and other remote mechanisms that measure the distance travelled, may be
used in a conventional or reverse mode for the test. To allow the correction of distance
counting that is found to be reversed, the Position Counting may be set to Forward or
Reverse.
Note that if Forward is set, with the Trolley Encoder at the front and moved forward,
the counting is forward, however the distance recorded on the EL CID display is
negative. This is normal.
Start Position sets the position in the bore that the scan is expected to start, and is the
position where the results will be recorded from in the data file. The end position will
be wherever the operator Ended the scan.
Return Position sets the position in the bore that a reverse (B) scan is expected to start
for both Alternate and Double scans, and is the position where the results will be
recorded from in the data file. If the value is left blank, the Reverse (B) traces will be
recorded from the same position as the previous Forward Start scan ended.
For a system where Double Scans are being taken using double chattocks, such as on a
Remote Inspection Vehicle (RIV), then the forward chattock usually issued for the
forward scan, and the rear one for the reverse scan. However since the RIV is not
allowed to leave the bore, the Start and Return positions may be set such that the
relevant chattock scans the appropriate part of the core.
To test a machine once all the above parameters have been correctly specified, the user
selects Test >Start (or hot-key s), and the slot data is recorded by selecting Test >Begin
and stopped by selecting Test >End (or hot-key e).
8.5.3

Timebase Use

When testing a stator, in case that there is no ability to use any mechanised form of
distance encoding, it is still possible to capture EL CID data in a form that can be
graphed by the use of the Timebase mode
Position Counting may be set to Forward Timebase or Reverse Timebase. This then is
used with the Timebase value to set an automatic distance counter that increments (in
Forward) or decrements (in Reverse) the position down the bore at the set rate in mm
or inches per second. By this means it is possible to record the results of a simple
manual scan with a chattock if the chattock is moved at about the same speed as the
Timebase is set. The result is a (normally) short trace for the duration between Begin
Slot and End Slot actions, starting from the start position set in the Start Position
parameter.
8.5.4

Step-Iron Testing

One important application for Timebase mode is to scan the set-iron ends of a large
machine, where the steps preclude the use of the Trolley encoder.
Various options exist to record the data in a suitable format to study later. It is not
possible to just add the traces onto the slot traces for the body of the machine, and
Page 70

V4.04

thus need to be a separate set for separate analysis. They can either be recorded in a
separate test file, or recorded as originating from the other end (eg turbine instead of
exciter).
In either case, to record the near end slots (ie step irons at the end of the machine
identified at the test end, eg Exciter), the preferred way is to set to Single scan, Reverse
Timebase and Start Position = length of step iron. Then select Start and immediately
select Goto, and select again first slot number and B for reverse scans (this will cause
all subsequent scans to be done in Reverse). Then when each Begin Slot is actioned,
the timebase will start counting out of the bore (from Start Position back to zero),
whilst the operator can now scan the step-iron with a hand-held chattock. Once each
scan is complete, immediately select End Slot to finish the scan. The speed of scan is a
user choice, but a value around 10mm/sec is usually best.
To scan the step irons at the other end, set to Single scan, Forward Timebase and Start
Position = bore length less length of step iron. Then select Start (but do not select Goto
etc as before, as you wish all subsequent scans to be done in normal Forward). Then
when each Begin Slot is started, the timebase will start counting out of the bore (from
Start Position out to end of bore the other end), whilst the operator can now scan the
step-iron with a hand-held chattock. Once each scan is complete, immediately select
End Slot to finish the scan.
If an assistant is not available to select Begin/End, a lone operator can position the
Trolley conveniently even without a chattock, and use the one-man operation feature of
the Remote Trolley button (see below) to command Begin/End remotely.
The resultant traces will be seen as a set of short forward and reverse traces for each
end of the machine. Whilst the distance alignment may not be very accurate due to the
mismatch of operator speed to computer speed, the existence of faults will still be
apparent by excessive Quad values.
8.5.5

Remote Trolley Operation

To allow one-person operation of the ELAN/EL CID system the application can be
controlled using the button located on the sensor head trolley. This is enabled via the
Remote Operation checkbox on the Test Parameters pane of the unit data. In addition
the Trolley must be connected to the Digital EL CID via the Trolley Remote Control
Interface (part no 6/110/1/022 which also connects to the PC to the EL CID).
To use the remote interface, the user sets up the machine and test parameters as
normal, enabling Remote Operation in Test Parameters, then selects Test >Start. The
trolley button now has the following functionality:
?? Pressing for at least 0.5 seconds (a firm push, not a quick tap) and less than 3
seconds selects Test >Begin if a test recording is not underway, or Test >End if a
test recording is underway.
?? Pressing the button for more than 3 seconds causes a Discard of the current slot (or
last slot if a slot test was not in progress) and then selects a Redo test of that slot.
The operator should then reposition the Trolley on the slot to be redone, and
initiate the test with the remote button again

Page 71

V4.04

The LED on the Trolley Remote Control Interface is lit while ELAN is recording data,
and extinguishes when not. (Note that pushing the button temporarily extinguishes the
LED at all times). It is recommended that the Afar screen is displayed and the PC
angled so that a single operator may see and check progress from a distance.
Do not operate this remote control whilst an operator is also changing the test progress
(Goto, Redo or Discard) from the PC, as undesirable interactions can occur.
8.5.6

Audio Signals

The PC audio output is capable of indicating certain activities by audio signals, to


assist the correct operation when operated remotely. With the aid of external
amplifying speakers the sounds may be made audible even in noisy environments.
The signal given are and related *.wav file are:
? Each time it passes the destination end+200mm in the normal direction (ie goes
outside normal range) = overrun.wav
? Begin Slot when actioned by the Trolley remote = begin.wav
? End Slot when actioned by the Trolley remote = end.wav
? Redo when actioned by the Trolley remote = redo.wav
? Discard when actioned by the Trolley remote = discard.wav
The *.wav files may be substituted by the user. The directory where the sound files are
saved is:
? Windows98/ME = Windows\Application Data\Adwel\ELAN
? Windows2000/XP = Documents and Settings\username\ApplicationData\
Adwel\ELAN
Note that these files will be overwritten on any new installation, so it is advisable to
save a copy elsewhere to replace them after any update.
8.5.7

Trace Recording and Display

After starting the test via Test >Start (hot-key s), the slot data recording is initiated by
selecting Test >Begin (hot-key b). This continuously samples data from the EL CID
and displays the real time capture of that data in the selected trace in the main window,
indicated by a white background. Once the user has completed each scan and is
satisfied with the test data they select Test >End (hot-key e). The user can stop the
testing by selecting Test >Finish (hot-key f). This ceases communication with EL CID
in preparation for exiting the application. Note that the unit data can still be edited at
this point and testing can be restarted.
The values of Phase and Quad are recorded for each 2mm of core. If the user moves the
Trolley slowly enough so that more than one value is received from the EL CID, or
repeatedly moves the trolley back and forth over the same part of the stator, the
software averages the last 16 valid values received.
On starting recoding a slot, all values for that slot are preset to zero. If the trolley is
moved too fast so that no value is received for that 2mm position, it remains recorded
Page 72

V4.04

as zero. When in Stator Test mode, ELAN sets the display parameters so that all zero
values are shown (Stator Analysis allows them to be suppressed, achieved by copying
adjacent values). As a result they will be seen as zero on the PC screen. As long as the
Trolley is not being scanned so fast that several successive values are being missed,
then the occasional missed value will not imply dangerous absence of data, as the
chattock core diameter is >5mm and thus any even a very local core fault will show on
several successive 2mm positions. For optimum results the Trolley or RIV should be
driven slow enough to ensure all values are captured.
The Display is normally set for 4 traces to be displayed at the same time, one (usually
blank one) ahead of the current one, the current one, and 2 after the current one. DC
removal and Zeros suppression are preset off so that the trace display shows the raw
data, though it is still scaled to 4% excitation by default. This means that the trace may
have a different value than the read data if the excitation is substantially different to
4%. If this is a problem, the scaling may be turned off or set to some other value.
The Display is set to Autoscale for each trace, starting at the scale set in the Display
>Select Traces pane. This means that if a value is received over the set scale, the trace
automatically shrinks to the new scale to ensure that the full trace is displayed within
the slot on the screen. This can cause surprise to the user if this is not expected, but is
normal. It will not rescale up afterwards, unless the trace is started again.
The Traces are plotted such that the plot only starts at the first non-zero value from
either end, thus showing only the area of the core actually scanned.
Alternate (ie multiple) traces can be made of each slot and direction, to enable the user
to record multiple scans of the same slot, perhaps due to difficulty in scanning, or to
record different methods/operators used, or even to record the change after local
rectification. If there already exists a slot trace in the same direction, then selecting
Redo will cause another slot to start to be recorded with the same slot number and
direction, but with the suffix A, B etc. Alternately if a slot is to be re-recorded and
the previous data overwritten, selecting Goto and the appropriate slot causes the
previous data to be erased (but recoverable via Discard) and the new scan substituted.
If the user is unhappy with the data as it is being recorded they can select Test >End
Slot, then Test >Discard. This deletes the last recorded slot data, recovers any previous
data if it was being over-recorded, and moves the testing onto the next slot in the
sequence.
8.5.8

Error Reports

Errors are reported as they occur unless the Option is set to Suppress Error Reports.
They are normally reported on the main trace View Slots display and the Afar display.
If the error is not expected to Clear on recovery (ie autoclear if the error condition is
removed) then the user must acknowledge the error (even if it is now corrected) by
pressing X or clicking on the ! button. This is to ensure that these serious errors are
actually noticed and corrections made before the test continues.
They have the following meanings:

Page 73

V4.04

Error Report
Comms Failure

Ref too small

Ref too large

Signal too large

Signal too small

Position overrun

Missed values

8.6

Meaning
EL CID has stopped responding.
ELAN will continue to retry until recovered.
Clears on recovery.
Signal from Reference coil is too small.
Clears on recovery unless Recording data, in which case the
user must clear the error.
Signal from Reference coil is too large (over-range).
Clears on recovery unless Recording data, in which case the
user must clear the error.
Signal from Chattock coil is too large (over-range).
Clears on recovery unless Recording data, in which case the
user must clear the error.
Signal from Chattock coil is too small.
Clears on recovery unless Recording data, in which case the
user must clear the error.
The incoming position has gone beyond either end of the range
of position values allowed, plus the 200mm extensions.
Clears on recovery.
Value not received for each 2mm position (usually due to too
fast operation).
Clears on next valid value.

File Menu
The menu items below are those extra items not otherwise described in the Stator
Analysis Section 7.6
8.6.1

File Save

If the user has a data file currently open, this function will save the data in memory into
that file without prompting for a filename. If the user does not have a file open this
function will act as if the user had selected File >Save As.
8.6.2

File Save as

This function displays the Windows "Save As" dialog.

Page 74

V4.04

Fig. 34 File Save-as Dialogue


The user can enter their choice of filename, browse the file system to select an output
file, or can accept the default filename provided by the application. This default
filename, which is generated by the Test Parameters window, consist of the first eight
characters of the station name followed by the first four character of the unit ID (any
invalid characters being replaced by the ~ character).
If the filename selected by the user already exists the application will give an "Are you
sure?" prompt before overwriting. If the file is read-only it cannot be overwritten, and
an error message saying that the file cannot be opened will be given. A new filename
will have to be selected to save.
8.6.3

File Exit Test

This selection returns the user to the ELAN Stator Analysis mode of the application. If
any data is currently in memory and hasn't been saved the application will prompt the
user to save the data.

Page 75

V4.04

8.7

Display Menu
The menu items below are those extra items not otherwise described in the Stator
Analysis Section 7.8.
Display Select Traces is very similar to that described in Section 7.8.1, but with the
following changes as shown in Fig. 35

Fig. 35 Stator Test - Display Select Traces


Number of Slots is 4, though the user may still set this to be up to 20. This is not
recommended, as it greatly reduces detail on the trace being recorded.
Remove Phase and Quad DC components are set off, as it is important that the raw
data is seen as it is recorded.
Autoscale is set on, so that whatever value is received, it is displayed. This means that
if a value is received over the set scale, the trace automatically shrinks to the new scale
to ensure that the full trace is displayed within the slot on the screen.

8.8

View Menu
This menu allows the user to select the particular test view to display. Slots is the
normal display, and allows the user to display the currently selected test slot and the
specified adjacent slots. Progress allows the user to view the progress of the testing,
Page 76

V4.04

which slots have data, which have alternate traces available etc. Afar allows the user to
view the current test key data at a distance.
8.8.1

View Slots

This selection forces ELAN to put the currently selected test slot on the screen,
indicated by a white background. The screen defaults to displaying four slots
(changeable via the Display >Select Traces menu), with the selected slot being the
second trace from bottom when using Increasing or Random slot numbering, or second
from top when using Decreasing slot numbering.
The standard Test Slots screen looks as shown in Fig. 36 below.

Fig. 36 Test Slots Display


Under the command buttons described in section 8.2.2, is a row of 6 boxes. These
display from the left:
?? Last or current slot number and direction (F/B) under test, which changes to
green background if slot recording is in progress.
?? Next slot in test sequence.
?? Position in Core of test Trolley (position where test values are being recorded).
?? Current Phase value in Amps
?? Current Quad value in milli-amps
?? Any error reports as described in section 8.5.8

Page 77

V4.04

8.8.2

View Progress

This selection displays the progress dialog in to the user. The display in Fig. 37 shows
the user a grid of all possible traces for the current machine. There is one row for each
slot on the machine and one column for each of the possible 27 traces (1 primary trace
and up to 26 alternative traces).

Fig. 37 View - Progress


The cell for each trace shows the maximum Quad reading for each of the
Forward/Reverse Turbine/Exciter readings (subject to 4% scaling or User specified
scaling and DC removal) if one exists, otherwise the trace is listed as empty. If a
particular alternate trace does not exist it is listed as "not tested".
The user can specify a Peak Value Threshold to which the Quad maxima are compared.
If the maxima are below the threshold, they are replaced by an asterisk. After changing
the threshold the user must press the Recalculate button to update the grid.
Page 78

V4.04

Notes button presents the user with the notes display, allowing them to edit or add a
note for any recorded trace.
Right Mouse button clicking on a cell pops up the menu in Fig. 38, allowing the user
to add or edit the note for that slot/alternate trace, delete an alternate trace (a-z) or
change an alternate trace to be the primary trace for display. The Make Prime Slot
function swaps all the trace data for that slot between the Prime (non a-z) slot and the
selected alternate (a-z) slot.

Fig. 38 Progress right click menu


Note that if a left mouse click has just been made on any cell, it may take 2 right
mouse clicks to actually select the menu, and may need a left mouse click to first select
the trace.
8.8.3

View Afar

This selection in Fig. 39is intended to be used to allow a user to see the real-time data
values whilst being remote from the computer, especially during one-man operation.

Fig. 39 View Afar Screen


This display shows the following
?? The position in the slot is shown as a value (in metres or inches, dependent on the
current selection) and as a progress bar.
?? The last slot tested (white background) or the current slot being recorded (green
background), plus direction. This is blank after Test >Start has been selected but
before the first Test >Begin Slot has been selected.
Page 79

V4.04

?? The next slot to be tested, plus direction (blank if the current slot is the last slot in
sequence to be tested).
?? The current error message (if enabled).
?? The Quad reading in Milliamps from EL CID. If this value goes outside the range
currently selected in Display-Select Traces, the Quad value will have an amber
background, otherwise it will have a white background.
?? The Phase reading in Amps from EL CID.
While this display is being shown the user can still use the keyboard shortcuts and the
menu on the main EL CID Stator Test window. This display is dismissed by pressing
ESC or the X in the top right corner.
8.9

Unit Menu
This display allows the user to enter the Machine (Fig. 40) and Test Parameters (Fig.
42). The user has the choice to either create completely new machine and test
parameters by selecting New Unit, to Copy the parameters from a saved test file, or to
Edit parameters already entered.
Once the parameters are entered they are saved to the output file if one has been
selected, and to the recovery.dec file.

Page 80

V4.04

Fig. 40 New Unit Machine Parameters


The Machine Parameters panel allow the user to enter the following data:
The values in () are the allowed ranges, the values in [] are the defaults.
(Do not use the characters & ; < > " to allow the data to be universally read)
Date
(dd-mmm-yyyy) [PC date]
Station Name
(1 to 52 characters) []
Unit Name
(0 to 52 characters)
Machine type
(blank, Motor, Hydro, Turbo) []
Year of Installation (1880 to 2100) []
Manufacturer
(0 to 52 characters) []
Phasing
(6 phase, 3 phase, 2 phase or single phase) [3 phase]
Rated Power and Units (Power = 0.00 - 9999999.99, Units = MW, W, MVA, VA,
HP) [MW]
Conductors in series per slot (0 - 99)
Rated Voltage and Units (Voltage = 0.00 - 9999999.99, Units = kV, V) [kV]
Turns per phase in series (0 - 9999) []
Excitation Turns
(0-999) []
Frequency
(0.0 - 999.9) [as set in Options]
Excitation Turns
(0 - 999) []
Rotation Speed
(0.0 - 9999.9) []
Excitation Current (0.0 - 999.9) []
Number of Slots
(0 - 999) []
Measured Single Turn Voltage (0.01 - 999.99) []
Length of Core
(0.0-99999.999) []
Recommended Single Turn Voltage (0.01 - 999.99) []
Comments
(0 to 255 characters) []
Core split locations (0 to 255 characters) []
The user can use the application to calculate the Recommended Single Turn Voltage
value by clicking on the Calculate Single Turn Voltage button. This opens the dialog
box in Fig. 41, which allows the user to accept or change the core factor and excitation
level to calculate the required single turn voltage. Pressing "OK" or hitting Return
copies the calculated voltage on to the machine parameters pane. Hitting Esc or
pressing "Cancel" exits the dialog without storing the voltage.

Page 81

V4.04

Fig. 41 Calculate Single Turn Voltage

Fig. 42 New Unit Test Parameters


The Test Parameters panel allow the user to enter the following data:
The values in () are the allowed ranges, the values in [] are the defaults.
First Test Slot
(1 - number of slots) [1]
Timebase
(blank for encoder position counting, 1.0 - 999.9 for timebase
Page 82

V4.04

position counting) [blank]


Last Test Slot
(1 - number of slots)
[number of slots from Machine
Parameters]
Start Position
(0.0 - Length of core) [0]
Slot Number Direction (Increasing, Decreasing or Random)
Return Position
(0.0 - Length of core)
[length of core from Machine
Parameters]
Scanning
(Single, Alternate Single Scan or Double Scan) [Alternate
Single Scan]
Remote Trolley Operation (on/off) [off]
Position Counting (Encoder forward, Encoder reverse, Timebase forward or
Timebase reverse) [Encoder forward]
Start At End
(Exciter End or Turbine End) [Exciter End]
Test Filename
(*.dec) [Station Name(1-8)+Unit Name(1-4)_day+hour+min]

8.9.1

New Unit

This selection displays the Unit Data dialog with the Machine Parameters pane empty,
apart from the date (taken from the PC clock), and the frequency (taken from the
Options dialog). The Test parameters pane has default values presented which can be
changed by the user.
8.9.2

Copy Unit

This selection opens the File Open dialog and allows the user to select a file from
which to copy the Unit data. Once selected, the Unit data is displayed and can be edited
to suit the new test. Note even the Test date is copied, so if it is desired to have the date
set to the current (or any other date) this must be manually edited.
This allows rapid entry of set-up data for a retest of a previous test, but does not copy
any of the slot file data. If it is desired to copy a previous test file to just retest some
slots, then the file should be Opened and Saved as a new file before editing the Unit
data and retesting.
Note that the originating file is not kept open and the filename in the Test Parameters is
blanked. The first attempt to save the file after opening prompts the user to provide a
new filename to prevent the user overwriting the original file.
8.9.3

Edit Unit

This selection displays the Unit Data dialog with the Machine and Test Parameters
panes filled with the current parameters information. If no data has been previously
entered this display will be the same as the New Unit display.
8.10

Test Menu
This menu allows the user to select the required testing function.
The availability of the Test Menu items depends on the current test phase. When the
Page 83

V4.04

Test menu is pulled down for the first time after starting EL CID test, only Start, Goto
and Redo are enabled. At this time, the user is still able to edit the Unit data, change
the slot view and open the Progress display.
The functions are summarised below.
Start - allows the user to start a machine test using the current Machine and Test
Parameters.
Finish - allows the user to finish the previously started machine test.
Redo - allows the user to retest a previously tested slot without overwriting any
existing data.
Goto - allows the user to jump to any particular slot to test it. This overwrites any
existing data for that slot.
Discard - allows the user to delete the last slot data recorded from EL CID and revert
to the previously stored data if it exists, else it is deleted. Testing continues at the next
slot in the test sequence.
Begin Slot - allows the user to record slot data into a trace as it is received from EL
CID. This data appears in real time on the slot display in the selected trace (indicated
by a white background).
End Slot - allows the user to finish recording slot data, and saves the slot data recorded
after Begin.
The test process goes through a number of different states, in which certain functions
are allowed/disallowed, as per the following table:

State
Initial

Test_Ready

Test_Started

Recording_data

Functions allowed
All except:
Start/ Finish/ Begin/ End/
Redo/ Goto/ Discard
Slot graphs blanked
As Initial plus display of
slot graphs as per data in
test file,
and Test Start
Begin Slot/ Discard/ Goto/
Finish/ Save/ Save as/
Close/ Exit/ Display~/
View~
End Slot

How it is entered
From ELAN via EL CID Test,
and Close.

After Initial plus any successful write of


the Header data into test file, and Test
Finish.
After successful completion of Start
dialogue, and Recording_data and End.

After Test_Started and Begin.

8.10.1 Test Start


Once Test Start has been selected, the Test >Start option is disabled, Test >Finish and
Begin are enabled, and the currently selected slot is given a white background. If Test
>Start is selected with any invalid Test Parameters, the test is not started and the Edit
Unit dialogue occurs to allow the user to correct them before the test can proceed.
Once Start is selected, ELAN attempts to communicate with the EL CID equipment on
Page 84

V4.04

the serial port selected in the Options dialog. The real-time Quad and Phase values are
displayed on the main window, and also in the Afar view window, access to which is
only enabled after Start. If any error conditions occur, these will be reported on the
main window and Afar view, unless Suppress Error Reports has been checked in the
Options dialog.
8.10.2 Test Finish
Selecting this menu item stops the test i.e. communication with EL CID ceases and
Test >Start is required to restart testing. This selection disables Test >Begin, Goto and
Redo, and enables Start, and the Unit, File and Display menus.
It also resets the test sequencing, so that if a test is started again, the slot counting
restarts from the Start Slot selected.
8.10.3 Test Redo
Selecting this item causes the dialogue window in Fig. 43 to pop up, allowing the user
to select a slot for re-testing. If slot data already exists for that slot then an alternate slot
trace is created, with a suffix of A to Z i.e. each slot can have up to 26 alternate traces
(provided the total number of traces for a machine does not exceed 1000). If all 26
alternates exist, then alternate Z is overwritten.

Fig. 43 Redo Dialogue


By this means a slot may be tested multiple times and all the versions/attempts saved
for later analysis. (Select Slots allows which one(s) to choose for display).
If a Redo slot test is discarded with Discard, then it is deleted. In addition, after a test is
ended with Start >Finish, then in the Progress window, right clicking on an alternate
Trace allows that trace to be deleted if it is felt it is no longer needed and is a
confusion.
8.10.4 Test Goto
Selecting this item causes the dialogue window in Fig. 44 to pop up. This allows a user
to jump to an out-of-sequence slot for testing. Any data in the slot is overwritten
(unless the user selects Discard instead of End, in which case the original data is
retrieved). The direction must also be correctly defined.

Page 85

V4.04

Fig. 44 Goto Dialogue


Note that if the direction does not alternate naturally (eg if Single Scan is set), then the
Direction set is retained for the remainder of the test (ie until Test >Finish is pressed).
This can be used to advantage if the Single Scan direction (it always defaults to
forward) is in fact wrong, as it can be changed to Reverse (B) for the rest of the test by
doing a Goto at any time after Test >Start and changing it.
The test sequence continues from this slot until the preset Last Slot is reached. Thus if
it is only desired to go back to retest one slot, ensure that the Goto dialogue is also used
to return to the correct next point in the test sequence.
8.10.5 Test Discard
This selection is available after End but not after Finish, and allows the user to discard
the captured trace data for the last trace, and revert to the previous saved trace data (if
available). Testing moves on to the next test slot in the test sequence, thus if the
discarded slot was the only/first attempt, the user must select Redo or Goto to test the
discarded slot again.
8.10.6 Test Begin Slot
This selection starts ELAN recording data from EL CID, which is drawn in the current
test slot trace in the main window.
Data is stored at 2mm (0.08 inches) position increments for a maximum distance of
Length of Core plus a 200mm (8 inch) overrun at each end. If the sensor head is moved
outside these bounds ELAN will report "Position overrun" and suspend data recording
until the position returns to within the bounds.
If the trolley is moved too fast and the position increments by more than 2mm between
data samples, then ELAN will report "Missing Values errors until the movement
slows again and another valid sample is recorded. Any missed positions remain
unchanged (i.e. zero). If more than one sample per 2mm increment is received then
ELAN averages up to the last 16 valid received values for that position.
The trace is automatically scaled down if the data exceeds the selected trace maximum
at any point in the recording. Note this may often cause the trace to shrink during
recording if values are received over the set trace scale. This is not a problem, and
Page 86

V4.04

ensures that at all times the full range of values received are shown without disturbance
to neighbouring traces.
After selecting Begin slot, the only available Test options are End slot.
8.10.7 Test End Slot
This menu item allows the user to end the current slot test, store the data in memory
(and the temporary recovery.dec file) and automatically moves the selected slot on to
the next slot/direction in the test sequence. If the current slot is the last slot to be tested,
Test >Finish occurs automatically.
If Random was selected for Slot number Counting, then the Goto dialog is
automatically presented after each Test >End

Page 87

V4.04

8.11

File Handling
8.11.1 File Formats
The file format for storage of the data is in XML format, where all parameters are
labelled with meaningful start (eg <Date>) and end (eg </Date>) labels.
If the value is null or missing, a single label with the slash at the end is used (eg
<RotationSpeed />). A partial sample of a file is shown below.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1" ?>
<TestData xmlns="http://www.adwel.com">
<MachineParameters>
<Date>22 Jun 1999</Date>
<Station>ANO1</Station>
<UnitNumber>1</UnitNumber>
<Manufacturer>ANO</Manufacturer>
<Power>15600000.000000</Power>
<PowerMeasure>MW</PowerMeasure>
<Voltage>11000.000000</Voltage>
<VoltageMeasure>kV</VoltageMeasure>
<LengthOfCore>1.290000</LengthOfCore>
<NoOfSlots>108</NoOfSlots>
<RotationSpeed />
<InstallationYear />
<Comments>DIGITAL CHECK</Comments>
<ExcitationTurns>5</ExcitationTurns>
<ExcitationCurrent>21.900000</ExcitationCurrent>
<MeasuredSingleTurnVoltage>3.350000</MeasuredSingleTurnV
oltage>
<RecommendedSingleTurnVoltage />
<ConductorsPerSlot />
<Tp>30</Tp>
<MachineType />
<Phasing>3 phase</Phasing>
<CoreSplitLocations />
</MachineParameters>
<TestParameters>
<FirstTestSlot>1</FirstTestSlot>
<LastTestSlot>108</LastTestSlot>
<Timebase />
<SlotNumberDirection />
<Scanning />
<PositionCounting />
<StartPosition>0.000000</StartPosition>
<ReturnPosition>1.290000</ReturnPosition>
<RemoteOperation>Disabled</RemoteOperation>
<StartEnd>Exciter</StartEnd>
<Frequency />
</TestParameters>
<SlotData slot="001">
<Notes />
<Display>yes</Display>
<ForwardExciter>
<Range>4A</Range>

Page 88

V4.04

<SpuPhaseData>1841</SpuPhaseData>
<SpuCalData>0</SpuCalData>
<Quad>0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 152, 152, 151, 150, 150, 149, 148, 147, 146,
145, 144, 144, 143, 140, 141, 140, 139, 139, 138,
137, 137, 136, 135, 134, 133, 132, 133, 131, 131,
130, 128, 129, 129, 129, 128, 128, 126, 126, 127,
127, 127, 127, 126, 125, 125, 124, 124, 124, 122,
0, 123, 122, 0, 120, 118, 0, 119, 118, 0, 117, 116,
0, 116, 116, 115, 114, 112, 0, 112, 112, 110, 109,
41, 40, 40, 43, 45, 40, 40,</Quad>
<Phase>0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0,
0, 0, 2043, 2040, 2040, 2038, 2036, 2033, 2032,
2029, 2026, 2022, 2019, 2015, 2011, 2007, 2006,
2004, 2002, 1999, 1997, 1994, 1992, 1990, 1988,
1986, 1984, 1981, 1979, 1977, 1975, 1973, 1973,
1977, 1974, 1974, 1971, 1964, 1957, 1959, 1961,
1961, 1962, 1960, 1959, , 1973, 1973, 1977, 1974,
1974, 1971, 1964, 1957, 1959, 1961, 1961, , 1973,
1973, </Phase>

and so on for each slot. If there is no data recorded for a slot, then the element tags (eg
<Phase>) for that slot are still present.
The file may be viewed in any Web Browser such as Internet Explorer V5 onwards. If
essential, it is possible to edit the file using normal text editing tools, as long as the
syntax of an existing file is absolutely respected (if it is not, strange things can
happen!). The user should also be aware of the danger of generating data that did in
fact not occur in test and could thus be misleading to others!
8.11.2 File Conversion
The file format used by earlier versions of software supporting Digital EL CID was a
simple text file for the Header data (eg test.hdr) which described the machine and
test, plus binary files for each slot tested (eg test.012) where the file extension was the
slot number. These files are converted into the new XML format before reading into
ELAN V3 by a utility that is automatically called on attempting to read them. The
original files are not affected.
For the file conversion, the following rules are applied for conversion to new XML
data from the original header data :
Date
Station
Manufacturer
PowerMeasure

= Date
= Station
= Manufacturer
= MW
Page 89

V4.04

Power
= Rated Power MW
Voltage
= Rated Voltage kV
VoltageMeasure
= kV
LengthOfCore
= Length of core m
NoOfSlots
= Number of slots
RotationSpeed
= null
InstallationYear
= null
Comments
= Comments
CoreSplitLocations = null
ExcitationTurns
= null
ExcitationCurrent
= Excitation Current A
MeasuredSingleTurnVoltage = Single Turn Voltage V
RecommendedSingleTurnVoltage = null
ConductorsPerSlot = null
Tp
= 'Tp' (Turns Per Phase in Series),
MachineType
= null
Phasing
= 3 phase
UnitNumber
= Unit Number
FirstTestSlot
=1
LastTestSlot
= no of slots
TimeBase
= null
StartPosition
=0
ReturnPosition
= Tractor scan length
StartEnd
= null
Scanning/PositionCounting/SlotNoDirection = null
RemoteOperation
= disabled
Frequency
= null
8.11.3 File Compression
The file size for a larger machine can easily exceed the capacity of a floppy disc, which
remains the most usual form of data back up for portable machines. However most
common forms of data file compression will compress the *.dec file format by a large
degree, often to a lesser size than the previous ELAN V2 format took.
To assist users, a copy of a common compression utility (such as WinZip) is copied
with the distribution of ELAN V3 so that users may zip the *.dec file to a size that
can be fitted on a Floppy Disc and/or emailed to others. If the user chooses to use this,
then they must respect all the licensing requirements of the owner of that software
8.11.4 Crash Recovery
In case of a computer failure/loss of power/crash, all data is saved at the end of each
slot scan to a temporary disaster recovery file named recovery.dec contained in a
specific subdirectory of the installation user data directory. This location is dependant
on the operating system, and is located at:
Windows 98/ME
C:\My Documents\Elan\TempData\
Windows 2000/XP C:\Documents and Settings\username\
My Documents\Elan\TempData\

Page 90

V4.04

In case of a problem requiring recovery, it may be read in to the ELAN program as a


test file, given a new filename, and testing resumed from the end of the last scan.
This file is deleted to the recycle bin each time the user saves the data (via Save or
Save_as) in the normal manner and generated again if further slot testing occurs.
Should a previous test be overwritten by accident (and no backup taken!), then it is
possible that its recovery file may still be in the recycle bin.
If the user frequently saves the data (as a cautious user should), then several copies will
be stored in the recycle bin, and will add to copies from any previous tests. The user
should only empty the recycle bin after they are sure the recovery files are no longer
required as backups, but will need to empty it from time to time to prevent it
overfilling and refusing to take more files.

Page 91

V4.04

9. INTERPRETING TEST TRACES


9.1

Consideration of Maximum Acceptable Fault Current


The EL CID test can detect minor damage which does not prejudice the reliability of
the stator and therefore a strategy is required to decide on a level of response which
warrants further investigation and repair. Measurements of stator cores to date have
shown that responses in an electronically noise free test environment are generally flat
to within 50mA unless the core is in generally poor condition. It is therefore
considered that responses of greater than 100mA (at the standard excitation level of
4%) should be regarded as significant and should be investigated further to investigate
the cause, eg. with the "mini" Chattock.
Simple faults producing an indicated 100mA in an EL CID test at 4% excitation often
correspond to a typical temperature rise of the order of 5-10C in a full Ring Flux test.
However exact correlation will be affected by a number of factors such as the local
heat conductive path in the region of the fault and the distribution of the fault
resistance around the fault current path.
A consideration of the power dissipation in damaged areas is included in the
appendices. EL CID has sufficient sensitivity to detect minor fault currents at levels
which are unlikely to cause problems unless they deteriorate. It is therefore necessary
to decide the level of fault warranting repair. One strategy would be to repair all tooth
tip damage giving an m.p.d. between teeth greater than 100mA under standard
excitation conditions, but this may not always be practicable. In a machine with many
damaged areas it is likely that the decision would be made to repair just a few areas
with the largest faults. This is on the grounds that if minor faults have not caused
problems to date they should not cause problems in the immediate future, but the worst
ones, which would be the earliest to fail, are attended to.

9.2

Influence of the Chattock on Fault Detection


The peak fault current measured with the sensing head across the outside edges of the
teeth could be significantly less than the actual fault current for two reasons, both
associated with the limited axial extent of typical fault currents.
(a)

The diameter of the Chattock core (approx 5-6mm) may be as large as the axial
extent of a damaged area, and so the average m.p.d. measured across the
diameter is much less than the peak current at the centre of the fault.

(b)

The flux associated with a fault of limited axial extent can propagate axially as
well as circumferentially in the conductor slots and teeth. The peak and the
m.p.d. developed across the teeth in the same plane as the fault is
correspondingly reduced.

However these effects also cause the fault trace to be stretched axially and the area
under the fault trace still provides an indication of fault severity.

Page 92

V4.04

9.3

Typical Fault Signatures


Fig. 45 shows the EL CID responses measured with the standard sensing head for three
faults A, B and C at different radial positions on tooth No.14. It is normalized so that
each corresponds to the same fault current. Remote from the damage, along teeth 1213 and teeth 14-15, there is only a slight negative response corresponding to a small
difference in potential between the teeth tips for all three faults.

Fig. 45 Typical Fault response characteristics.


Here we should note that:
(a)

For fault (A) the potential differences between the tip of tooth 13 and the
side of tooth 14 facing 15 are the same as that between the opposite side of
tooth 14 and tooth 15. Therefore identical positive responses are measured
between 13-14 and teeth 14-15.

(b)

With the fault at (B) just below the tooth corner so that it is not quite
spanned by the Chattock between teeth 13 and 14, the response has a
negative polarity. This signal results from the rapid reduction of potential
between teeth 14 and 13.

Page 93

V4.04

(c)

For fault (C), the response is positive and is restricted to the traverse
between 14 and 15. The fact that the response amplitude is over half that
from an equivalent fault at a tooth tip shows the high sensitivity of the EL
CID to sub-surface damage compared to the thermal test. It is also
apparent that faults lying within the span of the Chattock give positive
responses whereas those not encompassed by the two limbs give negative
responses due to the reverse in magnetic potential gradient.

Since examination of the responses measured between teeth can help to identify the
position of the damage on the tip or side of the tooth, the following conclusions can be
drawn, assuming the phase of the reference is set up to give positive QUAD output for
surface damage inside the span of the Chattock coil as above:
(a)

Responses of positive polarity and similar amplitude on traces from adjacent


slots indicate damage near the centre of the enclosed tooth tip.

(b)

Responses of opposite polarity and similar amplitude on traces from adjacent


slots indicate damage on the corner of the intervening tooth adjacent to the slot
giving the positive responses.

(c)

A positive response confined to a single slot indicates damage near the base of
the slot or damage close to the bottom of the tooth. Damage in these positions
does not give a response on the adjacent slot.

Detailed interpretation of traces from the standard sensing head is not always
straightforward. In practice there may be several damaged areas on the same or
adjacent teeth in the same axial position, so that their responses are superimposed
further confusing the interpretation. Having ascertained the approximate position and
severity of any damaged areas from the examination of the recorded traces, the exact
position and fault m.p.d. amplitude must be measured using the mini Chattock.
Because of the small span of the Chattock used for the local test, the measurements of
m.p.d. give a more accurate indication of the peak fault current value. However this
procedure cannot be used for sub-surface damage, ie. below the top surface of the
tooth, unless the conductor bars have been removed.

Page 94

V4.04

APPENDICES

Page 95

V4.04

APPENDIX 1
PRINCIPLES AND THEORY OF EL CID TESTING
1.

MAGNETIC FIELDS DUE TO CORE CURRENTS.


A light ring flux winding is used to excite the core to about 4% of its rated flux so that
small fault currents flow through any damaged areas of the core.

Fig. 46 Magnetic Potential across Chattock Coil due to Current on Core


surface.
The theory of detection and measurement of the currents flowing in the core is based
on Ampre's law which states that, for any closed loop, the line integral of magnetic
field, H, around a conductor is equal to the current, I, through the conductor:
I = ? H.dl

(1)

If the current is flowing along an iron surface, as in Fig. 46, the equation can be
rewritten:
I = ?air H.dl + ?iron H.dl

(2)

For fault current paths, where the field produced by the current flowing along the iron
surface dominates,
Hiron = Hair/? r where ? r is the relative magnetic permeability of the iron. Hence:
I = ?air H

1+ 1
?r

dl

= ?air H.dl

(3)

At the low magnetic fields used in the EL CID test ? ? 2,000 and so the line integral of
the magnetic field in air is an accurate measure of the current flowing along the
Page 96

V4.04

2.

surface.
USING A CHATTOCK SENSOR TO MEASURE FAULT CURRENTS
Line integrals of alternating magnetic fields in air are easily measured with a Chattock
Potentiometer. This consists of a thin solenoid with a double layer of fine wire
uniformly wound on a flexible former, typically 6mm in diameter. Its rms output
voltage is given by:
v = ? o w n A ? H.dl

(4)

where the line integral is along the coil between its two ends. A and n are the cross
sectional area and number of turns per metre length of the winding respectively and w
is the angular frequency of the rms field, H. The output is independent of the length of
the coil and of the path taken by it.
Hence when the two ends are placed on an iron surface to bridge a current flowing
along it, as in Fig. 46, the output voltage is proportional to the current, ie. to the
magnetic potential difference (m.p.d.) between its ends.
3.

EFFECTS OF THE EXCITATION WINDING


To test a core, the span of the Chattock sensor is adjusted so that its ends just bridge
between furthest corners of adjacent teeth. Even in the absence of any core damage the
current through the excitation winding produces a large magnetic potential difference
between teeth. The Ampre-turns Iw, needed to produce the 4% test flux varies
considerably between stators, but is typically 50AT.
Since the permeability is fairly constant around the stator, the magneto-motive force
from the winding is distributed almost uniformly around the core. Hence the m.p.d.
between teeth not carrying fault currents is simply Iw/N, where N is the number of
teeth. Since there are typically 48 teeth, the m.p.d. between adjacent teeth due to the
excitation current is typically ? 1A. This is larger than the current flowing through a
significant fault.
Discrimination against the Iw signal is achieved by using a phase sensitive detector to
measure the component of magnetic potential in quadrature with the excitation current.
If the excitation current is represented by:
iw = v2 Iw sin ? t
the fault current through the damaged region is:
iF = { lF } v2 Vw RF cos ? t + LF sin ? t
{ lC }
RF (? LF)

Page 97

V4.04

where RF,LF, and lF are the resistance, inductance and length of the fault circuit
respectively, lC is the length of the core and VW is the rms voltage induced in a single
turn winding around the core. This equation shows that if the fault current is low, (RF
>> wLF), then it is almost in phase quadrature with the excitation current and therefore
readily measured.
Fig. 47 shows the phase relationship of the fault voltage and current vectors relative to
the excitation flux.

Flux produced by Excitation


Voltage induced across damaged
laminations
Fault Current
Quadrature component of Fault
Current
Watts dissipated due to fault
Fig. 47 Fault Vector Phase Diagram.

Page 98

V4.04

4.

PROCESSING THE DETECTED SIGNALS


The Digital EL CID Signal Processor Unit contains a high gain amplifier and digital
phase sensitive detector (PSD). The reference signal for the PSD is provided by a pickup coil which monitors the phase of the current through the excitation winding. The EL
CID produces signals that are proportional to the in-phase and quadrature component
of the current flowing through any fault in the core being spanned by the Chattock
sensor. These signals are displayed on the front panel of the EL CID, available as DC
voltages on its front panel and recorded on the PC.

Page 99

V4.04

APPENDIX 2
EL CID TEST DATA RECORD
TEST SITE:OPERATOR(S): DATE: DETAILS OF MACHINE
IDENTIFICATION NUMBER OF MACHINE : MANUFACTURER : RATED POWER : LENGTH OF LAMINATED CORE :INNER BORE DIAMETER : NUMBER OF TEETH : CONDUCTORS PER SLOT : VALUE OF TP :COMMENTS (history, known damage, etc) : DETAILS OF TEST
NUMBER OF EXCITATION TURNS : TOTAL EXCITATION VOLTAGE
:EXCITATION CURRENT : SINGLE TURN TRACE VOLTAGE : CALCULATED SINGLE TURN TRACE VOLTAGE FOR 4% EXCITATION : SPU SENSITIVITY RANGE : COMMENTS : -

Page 100

V4.04

APPENDIX 3
EXCITATION OF STATOR CORE FOR EL CID TESTING
CALCULATION OF REQUIRED TEST EXCITATION VOLTAGE AND
ESTIMATION OF EXCITATION VA AND POWER LOSSES AT TEST LEVELS
1.

SYMBOLS USED
V
Vp-p
k
tp
At
Ds
Ph
Pe
Pc
dl

2.

Voltage in trace winding at 4% of working voltage.


Working voltage phase to phase.
Combined form and pitch factor (assumed as 0.92).
Turns per phase in series.
Ampere turns.
Mean diameter of stator core.
Hysteresis losses.
Eddy current losses.
Excitation Winding copper loss.
Lamination thickness.

TEST EXCITATION VOLTAGE


During operation at rated voltage output, the operating voltage along the length of the
stator core will be the rated voltage of the machine divided by the number of
conductors in series making up this voltage, slightly modified by the form/pitch factor.
Each turn of the stator winding is normally made up of a conductor running the length
of the stator in one slot in series with another conductor forming a return path in a
second slot. Hence the voltage along the stator core will be induced twice into each
stator winding turn. Parallel paths have no direct effect but must be taken into account
when deducing the value of tp from the total number of slots and conductors.
The required stator core voltage for the trace winding at the test level of 4% is
therefore given by:V = Vp-p x 1 x 1 x 4
v3 2tp k 100

Page 101

V4.04

3.

AMPERE TURNS REQUIRED FOR TEST EXCITATION


The VA required to excite magnetically the stator core under test is made up from the
following:-

Reactive VA to generate the required magnetic potential.


The iron hysteresis and eddy current losses (Ph and Pe)
The copper loss in the test excitation winding. (Pc)

The reactive VA is the dominant factor in the core excitation requirement and the
smaller loss components contribute only vectorially to the overall value. In most
instances it will therefore be adequate to calculate this value and "round up" to cover
the additional Ph Pe and Pc loss components, although methods of estimating these loss
values are also shown in the following paragraphs.
A.

REACTIVE VA. (VAr)


The Ampere turns required to provide a trace winding voltage of V at 4% of rated
excitation is typically between 2 and 15 At per metre of the circular magnetic path of
the core.
For a typical value of 8, VA required would therefore be:
VAr = V x 8 x ?Ds

B.

VA FOR IRON LOSSES - VAi


Typical values at working excitation are:
Ph = 2.25 W/kg
Pe = 3.0 W/kg for dl = 1.0mm
(NB. these values are normally less before machine is assembled)
To calculate the losses at lower excitation the following relationships are used:
Ph is proportional to B1.6
Pe is proportional to B dl
At 4% excitation the approximate loss for typical 0.5mm laminations is therefore:
Ph + Pe = (2.25 x 0.041.6 + 3xdl x 0.04) W per kg.
= 14w per 1000kg
An approximation of the total iron mass is obtained from the stator core dimensions.
(NB. Density of iron is 7870kg/m3)
When specific details on the core material, flux level and loss characteristics are
available, these may be used for more accurate values of excitation VA if
advantageous.

Page 102

V4.04

NB:
An additional allowance must be made for other parts of the machine frame etc.
unavoidably included in the excitation loop.
C.

EXCITATION WINDING COPPER LOSS. - Pc


A value for the expected copper loss is determined by using an approximation slightly
above that required for the core VA and the resistance of the available winding. The
total VA requirement can be re-estimated if the excitation current value assumed is
found to be significantly different from that of VA requirement.

D.

THE TOTAL EXCITATION VA REQUIREMENT IS THEREFORE


GIVEN BY
VA = v [(Ph + Pe + Pc) + (VAr)]

Page 103

V4.04

APPENDIX 4
CONTENTS LIST STANDARD DIGITAL EL CID KIT
Item

Description

Adwel Part No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

ELCID SPU Model 601


Calibration Unit type 621
(set to 50/60Hz as appropriate)
Sense Head Trolley with encoder
Multimeter
(Fluke 73)
Clamp Ammeter
(Kaise SK 7612)
Calibration Unit Power Input lead
(1m)
Reference signal output loop
(1m)
Reference transducer Coil
Reference Coil terminal box with lead
Reference Coil extension lead
(5m)
Miniature Chattock
(6m)
7 Chattock
(6m)
9 Chattock
(6m)
11 Chattock
(6m)
Chattock extension lead
(5m)
Distance encoder lead to SPU
(8m)
Distance encoder extension lead
(6m)
RS232 Communications lead
(1m)
A.C. Power Input Cord
(2m)
7 core, 20A Excitation cable (2 off)
(10m)
Switched Excitation Control Box
Switched Excitation Control Box input lead (1m)
Red and Black 4mm test leads
(2 off) (1m)

6/100/1/001
6/200/1/001
6/300/1/001

24
25
26
27
28
29

Measuring tape 10metre long


Tools (4mm Screwdriver, 5.5mm Nut-driver, 3mm Hex-driver)
Operators Manual
Software CD and License
ELAN
Spares (8 pin DIN plug, spare chattock holder screws and fuses)
Wheeled Transit Case for SPU and accessories.
6/111/1/023

Page 104

6/203/1/010
6/201/1/002
6/108/1/017
6/108/1/018
6/108/1/019
20068
20069
20070
6/302/1/003
6/109/1/020
6/301/1/002
6/304/1/005
6/110/1/021
6/112/1/201
6/112/1/202
6/112/1/001
99/303/0010
99/303/0011

V4.04

APPENDIX 5
CALIBRATION UNIT AND SYSTEM CALIBRATION
The Calibration Unit provides a standard 100mA calibration signal through 10 turns of a coil
across a test channel, giving a total of 1.0 Ampere Turn signal between the two slots in the test
channel, and an in-phase phase reference signal. It is used for signal amplitude and phase
calibration of the test Chattock coil.
NB.

The Calibration Unit signal frequency is preset internally by DIL switches to that of the
local supply. If it is desired to change this, instructions are given at the end of this
Appendix.

1.

DIGITAL EL CID CONNECTIONS

Fig. 48 Calibration Connections


The figure above shows the system connected to calibrate a chattock.
Connect the Calibration Unit Power Lead from the SPU AUX POWER socket (4 pin
DIN) to the Calibration Unit DC POWER INPUT socket. The SPU unit should be
switched off before connecting to Calibration Unit.
Connect the Reference Signal Calibration Loop to the Calibration Unit REF COIL
output socket (5 pin Domino DIN). Open the Reference Transducer Coil and close it
around the Reference Calibration Loop. The Reference Signal Calibration Loop is
connected in series with the calibration channel winding, thus no signal will flow if the
Reference Signal Output Loop is disconnected.

Page 105

V4.04

Connect the Reference Transducer Coil via the Reference Termination Box to the SPU
Y INPUT - REFERENCE socket.
Connect the Chattock coil to be calibrated to the SPU Y INPUT - SIGNAL socket and
place the coil in the Calibration Unit slot with the two ends in contact with the base of
the two channels (this puts them either side of the calibration current signal winding).
On the SPU, select the 4 Amp Range and the QUAD/PHASE Mode on the SPU.
Optionally connect a DVM, set to read DC Volts, across the Analogue Y Phase output
sockets if it is expected to use the analogue outputs to drive a pen-plotter.
2.

CALIBRATION
Turn on the Calibration Unit by depressing the DC POWER ON/OFF switch.
On the SPU, press the SET CAL Y recessed switch. The Digital EL CID SPU will
display the message: 'CALIBRATION WILL START AFTER THE TONE'. After the
tone, the displayed message will be: 'CALIBRATION IS IN PROGRESS'. When
calibration is complete the tone will sound twice and the calibration parameter will be
displayed before returning to the main display screen. After Calibration, the Phase
signal should read 0.99A to 1.01A.
If present, check that the DVM reading is approximately 1.0 V.
On the Calibration Unit, press the ZERO CAL switch (momentary action) to short
circuit the signal current to calibration channel winding and the PHASE reading should
change from 1 Amp to zero.
Check that the DVM reading is zero. Releasing the ZERO CAL switch will switch the
Phase reading back to 1 Amp.

3.

CALIBRATION UNIT FREQUENCY SETTING


The SPU has to be calibrated both to the Chattock Potentiometer being used in a test
and at the frequency the test is being carried out at. The frequency of the Calibration
Unit can be set to either 50Hz or 60Hz internally in the Calibration Unit. The
Calibration unit is supplied preset to the mains frequency used in the customers
region. A switchable unit can be supplied if the unit is excpected to be taken regularly
between 50/60Hz regions.
To change the frequency of the Calibration Unit the unit has to be opened This is done
by removing six screws in the base of the box and separating the base from the box as
far as the conductors connecting the components mounted on the base and in the box
will allow. Mounted on the base of the box is a circuit board with an 8 way DIP switch
as shown in the sketch below.

Page 106

V4.04

The sketch below shows the switch set for 50Hz and the settings for 50 and 60Hz are
marked on the circuit board above and below the switch as shown in the sketch. Take
care not to disturb the calibration potentiometer nearby. Refit base and screws securely
after changing.
50Hz =

0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0
On = 1

Off = 0

60Hz =

4.

0 0

0 1 1 1 1 0

CALIBRATION UNIT CALIBRATION


The Calibration Unit frequency is crystal controlled and has no need of frequency recalibration. It should be checked when calibrated for current that the frequency is
correct.
The 1.0 Ampere-turn mpd in the Channel should be checked every year by measuring
the current in the Reference Signal Calibration Loop and checking it is 1.00AmpereTurns ac, using a calibrated current transformer and ac milli-ameter, or with an
accurate clip-on ammeter. If a sufficiently accurate ac milli-ameter is available, the
100mA current directly flowing in the loop could be checked instead. The user will
need to construct a test harness to interrupt the loop current which flows from pin 2 to
pin 4.
The unit should be returned to Adwel for re-calibration every 2-3 years, preferably with
the complete Digital EL CID so the system can be checked for full correct operation.

Page 107

V4.04

APPENDIX 6
EL CID RELATED PAPERS AND PUBLICATIONS
1.

Sutton J
'Method and apparatus for testing laminated magnetic cores'. UK Patent No. 7930249,
31 August 1979.

2.

Sutton J
'Electromagnetic core imperfection detector - an easy way to test stator cores'. CEGB
Research, 13, pp 15-21, June 1982.

3.

Shelton J W and Reichman B M


'A comparative analysis of turbo-generator inspection techniques'. Westinghouse
Power Generator, East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, 1985.

4.

Rickson C
'Electrical machine core imperfection detector'. Proc. IEE, pp 190-195, 1986.

5.

Chattock A P
'On a magnetic potentiometer'. Phil. Mag. 24, pp 94, 1887.

6.

Sutton J and Chapman B F


'Electromagnetic detection of damaged regions in laminated iron cores'. IEE Electrical
Machines and Drives Conference, Publication No. 213, pp 119-122, 1982.

7.

Ridley G K
'EL CID application phenomena'. IEE Electrical Machines and Drives Conference,
Publication No. 376, pp 491-498, 1993 (Large Diameter Cores/Hydrogenerators).

8.

Shelton J W, Fischer M W and Paley D B


'Introduction and Qualification of Digital Electromagnetic Core Imperfection Detector
(EL CID) Test Equipment and Associated Robotic and Delivery Systems'. American
Power Conference April 1994.

9.

Sutton J
'Theory of Electromagnetic Testing of Laminated Stator Cores'. British Journal of
Non-destructive Testing April 1994. (Short surface faults and long deep seated faults
within the core).

10.

Ridley G K
'Conducting an EL CID test on a hydro generator'. Hydropower and Dams, November
1994.

11.

Ridley G K
'Electromagnetic Field Distortion Effects on EL CID Tests'. IEE Electrical Machines
and Drives 7th International Conference Proceedings. Publication No. 412 pp 187193, September 1995.

Page 108

V4.04

12.

Ridley G K
'Four Hydrogenerator EL CID Test Analysis Case Studies'. Water Power and Dam
Construction, Proc. of Uprating and Refurbishing Hydro Powerplants. 5th
International Conference, Vol.3 October 1995.

13.

Shelton J W and Paley D B


'Robotic Delivery Systems for Generator Air Gap Tests'. EPRI Motor and Generator
Predictive Maintenance and Refurbishment, International Conference Proc. November
1995.

14.

Ridley G K
'Hydrogenerator stator core condition monitoring by EL CID'. EPRI Motor and
Generator Predictive Maintenance and Refurbishment, International Conference Proc.
November 1995.

15.

Ridley G K
'Why, When and How to apply EL CID to Hydrogenerators'. Modelling, Testing and
Monitoring for Hydro Powerplants II - Conference July 1996.

16.

Ridley G K
EL CID Application and Analysis. Book published by Adwel International Ltd,
2000, ISBN 0-9539465-0-9.

Page 109

V4.04

APPENDIX 7
ROTOR BAR TESTING USING EL CID
Detecting Rotor Bar Faults on Squirrel Cage Motors
The procedure is relatively simple and quick to implement. Essentially, all that is
required is access to the end rings connected to the rotor bars to enable injection of
around 2 amps ac. This can be done by self-adhesive tape clamping the connections to
the end rings although a more stable method is obviously more desirable. In order to
equalise as far as possible the resistive path of the end rings in series with each bar, it is
recommended that the connections to the end ring at each end of the rotor are made
180 from each other. As resistances are so small due to the bars being in parallel the
connection may be made in series with the excitation winding used for the stator check.
This will improve the variac control.
When a current is flowing in the rotor bars, the miniature Chattock potentiometer
should be stepped round the rotor laminations in a radial manner to monitor the flux
and hence current in each bar. Typically there may be 25 bars per cage and 60 to 80
milli-amps per bar should be a convenient level of current. The resultant eddy current
pick up on the Chattock through the individual bars can be clearly seen on the meter.
The EL CID is set to read in the 'Phase' mode.
As the Chattock is stepped round, the signal will be seen to give readings at a
consistent level when good bars are spanned, or a near zero reading if any break or
high impedance circuit is monitored. It should be noted that slight progressive
variations in the pick up from each bar will be noticed as the Chattock is spanned
sequentially across the bars due to the positions of the contact points on the end rings.
The test itself should take only 2 to 3 minutes and a fault is normally very conspicuous.
The tests are normally also effective on complex rotors, for example double cage
rotors, provided access to the flux generated by current in the rotor bars is possible
with the sensing coils.

Page 110

V4.04

APPENDIX 8
OPERATION OF EARLIER ACQUIRE TEST SOFTWARE.
1.

INTRODUCTION
Operation of the Digital EL CID system during testing is controlled by the software
program ACQUIRE.COM which calls up and utilises two sub-programs
HEADER.EXE and ELCIDEND.EXE. ACQUIRE also uses a further sub-directory
DATA in which to store the test result files of the current test in progress. These
programs and sub-directory should be contained in the same directory, normally
ELCID. Entry to the test control and acquisition mode ACQUIRE was via the menu of
the overall windows program ELAN (Version 2.0) although it may also be entered
directly if installed alone (run ACQUIRE.COM).
The user may wish to consider using this software if the only available PC is very low
performance or is only Windows 95, as the Test software (ACQUIRE.COM) is a DOS
application.
The EL CID PC software was contained on the supplied diskettes or CD, and is also
copied in the ACQUIRE directory on the ELAN V3.x CD. The program may be
installed onto the PC by copying inserting the CD into the PC or copying the contents
of the ACQUIRE directory on the CD to a floppy disc, and running INSTALL.BAT,
following the further instructions appearing. The default installation of ACQUIRE
will be to an ELCID directory on the C: drive.
The ACQUIRE operating instructions may also be used for the earlier DEC versions of
the ACQUIRE program, although versions of DEC may not include all ACQUIRE
program features. It is not possible to start DEC from the main ELAN menu, but
ELAN may be used to display test data acquired with DEC.
The DIGITAL EL CID SPU interfaces directly with a PC using the RS232 serial port.
Measurements are displayed on the PC screen in the form of a horizontal trace as each
slot is traversed. These instructions frequently refer to a tractor for scanning the slots
but apply for any method of scanning.
The measurements are also stored in the PC RAM as each slot is being scanned. You
may analyse the data and obtain paper copies using the separate ELAN program or the
earlier display program ELPLOT.
The main features and options of ACQUIRE.COM (DEC.COM) are:(a)

User guidance is provided throughout the program.

(b)

The header and data files are written to a sub-directory, C:\ELCID\DATA. (In
the default mode, ELCID is installed in the ROOT directory).

(c)

Before a new test is started, C:\ELCID\DATA must be empty. If it already


contains data from an earlier test, it must be deleted or alternatively transferred
to a diskette or a new sub-directory of C:\ELCID\DATA.
Page 111

V4.04

(d)

If continuing with an on-going test, a rsum is given of the existing header


and data files. The program then proceeds to the graphics screen (h) for
continuation of the test.

(e)

You will be asked to check the PC date and time since these are used in
labelling the files. Modifying the values will alter the PC internal clock.

(f)

The program asks you for information on the generator and test conditions and
checks that the values you provide are reasonable. The program calculates the
recommended 4% test voltage, based on assumptions of the machine
construction. (If the machine construction is different, an alternative to the
assumed value of Tp may be entered to obtain a revised value of the
recommended test voltage).

(g)

Brief guidance is given on the use of the graphics screen on which the ELCID
traces are plotted.

(h)

The graphics screen has various features to help with systematic scanning of
the stator.

(i)

After quitting the graphics screen at the end of the test, you are given a rsum
of the slot scans that have been measured and recorded as data files in the
C:\ELCID\DATA directory.

(j)

You have options to write a comment file to the disk and to return to the
beginning of the program.
The EL CID data acquisition software is designed to provide data
communication between the EL CID instrument and the associated PC via
either of the serial communication ports COM 1 or COM 2 of the PC. Users
should therefore ensure when using the EL CID test data acquisition program
that the selected PORT is not configured to be dedicated to other use.
(NB Earlier DEC.COM programs can use only COM 1).

2.

STARTING THE TEST PROGRAM


Run the ELAN program and select ACQUIRE from the main menu bar, followed by
Carry Out Test. To run ACQUIRE.COM from ELAN it will need to be in the same
directory. ACQUIRE may alternatively be initiated from the WINDOWS explorer or
other direct method.
The ACQUIRE title page appears with general information on the structure of the
program, including the function of the C:\ELCID\DATA directory and notation used
for naming the Header Files . The second page gives further information including how
the data files are named.
You are asked whether you are starting a new test or continuing an on-going test. A
new test requires the C:\ELCID\DATA directory to be empty, whereas with a
Page 112

V4.04

continuation there will already be some files from the first part of the test (see 6.4)
3.

PREPARING FOR A NEW TEST


Check that the Digital EL CID instrument has been calibrated in the X Axis mode and
that the output from the distance encoder gives a positive reading for the intended
direction of scan in the test. This is necessary for the correct direction of travel on the
PC screen and data storage.
Before starting a test check also that there is sufficient space on the hard disk for the
test results, otherwise the results may not be stored. (For each slot tested, memory
requirements are approximately 500 bytes for each metre of slot length plus 212 bytes.
A further 500 bytes should be added to cover header information).
The program ensures that the C:\ELCID\DATA directory is empty, ready for the new
test data. After asking you to check the PC time and date, you are asked for
information about the generator. The program calculates and displays values for Tp
based on typical machine construction and the 4% test voltage which may be amended.
You are then asked for some test information and this is written to the
C:\ELCID\DATA directory as two files.

4.

EMPTYING THE C:\ELCID\DATA DIRECTORY


The program first checks whether the C:\ELCID\DATA directory is empty. If empty,
it proceeds directly to the check of the PC time and date. Otherwise you are informed
that files already exist and the name of the old header file which details the previous
test. The next pages list the slots that were measured. You have the option of:
Deleting the files
Transferring the files to a diskette in the A:\ drive.
Transferring the files to sub-directory of C:\ELCID\DATA.
as described below.
Deleting the Files
Before the files are actually deleted, you are warned that all the test data will be lost.
Transferring Files to Diskette
First the program checks that the diskette is present, not write protected, correctly
formatted and empty. If necessary it instructs you how to proceed in of these
circumstances, normally without leaving the program. The files are then written
directly into the root directory of A:\.
(Note that DOS permits only a limited number of files in the root directory).
This automatic routine for saving test results assumes that the test results may be
contained within the capacity of the diskette. Larger quantities of test data may be
copied outside of the test program.

Page 113

V4.04

Transferring Files to a new sub-directory of C:\ELCID\DATA


The program works out a default name for the new sub-directory, based on name of
Header File and the information contained in it. The name of the default sub-directory
is as follows:First Four Letters:-

First letters of Power Station Name

Next Two Digits:-

Number of the Unit at Power Station

Last Two Digits:-

Last two digits of the Year of the tests

The program then checks to see if there is already a sub-directory with that name. If
not, it invites you to choose the default name. You can specify another name for the
sub-directory. The program then makes the sub-directory, copies all the files from
C:\ELCID\DATA to the new sub-directory and finally deletes the files from
C:\ELCID\DATA.
5.

Checking the PC Time and Data


You are then asked to check the PC time and date, and to correct them if necessary,
because the time and date are used to identify the header and data files.
Note that changing the time and date will modify the PC clock.

6.

Entering Information about the Generator


You are asked for the Power Station, Unit Number, Generator Manufacturer and about
its power rating, etc. The answers are checked to ensure they are reasonable. Entries
within the following Min and Max are accepted normal limits, a message asks if an
entry is correct before acceptance of unusual limits:
Parameter
Minimum
Maximum
Power Station Name
2 Letters
52 Letters
Note: the station name is used to form the file name, and must therefore only
contain characters accepted by DOS as a file name. This means only use letters,
numbers and the characters - ^ $ ~ ! # % & { } ( ) @.
Unit Number
1
99
Rated Power
1MW
1500MW
Rated Voltage (Phase to Phase)
3kV
50kV
Length of Laminated Core
0.5m
10m
Number of Slots
6
996
The number of slots normally should be a multiple of six, occasionally of three.
You may then make a comment to report known core damage, reason for test, etc.
This information will be stored as part of the Header (~.HDR) file.

7.

The Recommended Test Voltage


The next screen shows the calculated value for Tp and the 4% test voltage for a typical
machine with two conductor per slot, with these two conductors connected in parallel
Page 114

V4.04

paths (calculated from equations in Section 4.3 with k = 0.92). The information may
be useful in checking your own preliminary estimation. You can accept or modify the
value for Tp dependent upon machine construction, and this information would be
used to re-calculate the new value for 4% test excitation voltage.
8.

Entering Test Information


You will be asked for information about the ELCID test itself. These answers are also
checked. Entries within the following Min and Max are accepted normal limits, a
message asks if an entry is correct before acceptance of unusual limits:

9.

Parameter

Minimum

Maximum

Number of Excitation Turns


Excitation Current
Measured Single Turn Voltage
Tractor Scan Length

1
1A
0.5V
0.25m

40
100A
50V
Length of Core

Saving the Information to the C:\ELCID\DATA Directory


All the information about the generator and test conditions is now saved in a file in the
C:\ELCID\DATA directory. The file is named as follows:First Six Letters:-

First Letters of Power Station Name

Last Two Digits:

Number of the Unit at Power Station

Extension:-

.HDR

If Power Station name has more than six letters the end letters are removed, zeros are
added at end of a name having fewer than six letters.
The .HDR file contains all relevant information about the generator and test. It is read
and displayed by the present program when continuing and quitting tests and also by
the off-line display program.
Some of the information is also stored in binary format in the C:\ELCID\DATA
directory as another file, named HEADER.BIN.
The first line in the file is the first four letters of the Station name, followed by the
number of the Unit. Then follows:The Tractor Scan Length in mm.
Acceptable limits for In-Phase mA-turns per slot
The Number of Slots
All this information is used by the main program in setting up the graphs,
automatically cycling the slot numbers and in checking the signal from the SPU. The
in-Phase signal is normally approximately Iw/N and a warning is displayed if the
measured values are less or greater than the expected value for a uniformly constructed
machine.
Page 115

V4.04

You are now ready to progress to the next screen, which gives notes on using the
graphics screen.
10.

CONTINUING AN ON-GOING TEST


This facility enables you to start a test, switch off the equipment and then to resume the
test later with previously entered information. This option is selected near the
beginning of the program.
The program reads and displays the .HDR file with all the test information. (If there is
no .HDR file you will be asked to re-start, using the New Test Procedure). Make sure
that you re-set the excitation current to value shown. The next screens shows which
slots have already been measured at both the exciter and turbine ends. It is suggested
you make notes so that you know which slot to measure next, etc. Then you continue
to the screen giving notes on use of the graphics screen.

11.

USING THE GRAPHICS SCREEN


After the notes on use of the graphics screen, the graphics screen itself appears. This is
explained in detail below.
The X axis of the graphics screen corresponds to distance along the core measured
from the starting end (see below -Display Settings). X=O represents the starting end,
and full scale a distance equal to the Tractor Scan Length (read from the
HEADER.BIN file) into the core.
The Y-axis is proportional to the quadrature component of the signal measured along
the slots. The trace for the first slot is centred on the first graphics line up the page.
After the scan has been completed, this first trace scrolls up the screen to the graphics
second line, leaving the first line ready for the trace of the next slot. This continues for
each new slot. Eventually, the first trace scrolls off the top of the screen.
The top three text lines on the screen are reserved for setting and displaying the test
conditions. The second line down shows the default settings. The following two
sections explain their meanings and how to change them.

12.

Initial Display Settings


The default settings for the test, shown on the second line from the top are (from left to
right):
SLOT # 1

First slot to be measured will be #1

START FROM EXCITER END

Measurements will be started at the Exciter end

SINGLE SCANS

Tractor will travel towards centre of the core on the first slot
and return back on next slot

INCREASING SLOT #

Next slot to be measured will have a higher slot number

Page 116

V4.04

X1

The Y-axis sensitivity has its normal value

The third line contains the message:


Press B to Begin run the above conditions, A to Alter them, Q
to Quit.
13.

Changing the Display Settings


It is unlikely that all the default settings will be appropriate for the test. To change
them, press A (for Alter) and the message:
PRESS LEFT/RIGHT TO SELECT, UP/DOWN TO ALTER, ENTER TO ACCEPT appears on the third line and

there is a large block-cursor above SLOT#1.


SLOT#

If you press the up-cursor (arrow) key once, the slot number increases by one. If you
hold the key down, it increases up to the maximum number of slots for the core. It
then cycles back to slot one and continues increasing, reflecting the circular slot
numbering system.
The down-cursor key behaves similarly but makes the slot number decrease, cycling
back from one to the maximum slot number. Select the correct slot number for the
first scan or to an alternative slot choice. (Subsequent slot numbers will be selected
automatically by the program).
START FROM / RETURN TO

Press the right-cursor key and the block-cursor will position itself above START FROM.
The up/down cursor keys will toggle this to RETURN TO.
The tractor position is always measured relative to the starting end of the first trace of
the START/RETURN pair. START FROM is therefore normally used for scans from an end of
the core towards the centre, whereas RETURN TO is for scans back to the starting end.
(The options are selected automatically during the scanning, see below).
Check for or re-select the START FROM option if the count is required from zero.
EXCITER END/TURBINE END

Press the right-cursor key again and the block-cursor will position itself above EXCITER
END. The up/down cursor keys toggle this to TURBINE. Select the appropriate starting end.
The terms EXCITER and TURBINE are for descriptive purposes only and do not affect the
test. If scanning from one end only, the other end may be used for other purposes, eg
to record additional repeat traces for selected slots.
SINGLE SCANS/DOUBLE SCANS

A further press of the right-cursor key positions the block-cursor over SINGLE SCANS.
Select SINGLE SCANS if each slot is to be measured only once, ie either as the tractor or
other method of scanning travels towards the centre of the core or back to the starting
Page 117

V4.04

end. Use DOUBLE SCANS if measurements are to be made in both directions on each slot.
The program uses the SINGLE SCANS/DOUBLE SCANS feature to select automatically START
FROM/RETURN TO as appropriate at the beginning of each scan.
INCREASING SLOT #/DECREASING SLOT #

Pressing the right-cursor key again allows INCREASING SLOT# with the up/down cursor
keys. The setting has no immediate effect; it is used to select automatically the correct
slot number for the next scan.
If you are measuring around the core so that the next slot has a higher number than the
last, then select INCREASING SLOT# and vice-versa.
X1 / X2 / X5

A final press of the right-cursor key positions the block cursor above X1. This can be
changed to X2 or X5 by pressing the up-cursor key and back down to X2 or X1 with the
down-cursor key. These numbers refer to the sensitivity of one division on the
Y-Axis. The values depend on the SPU range setting as shown in the table.
SPU
RANGE
400mA
4A
40A

Y-AXIS SENSITIVITY per DIVISION


X1
10mA
100mA
1A

X2
20mA
200mA
2A

X5
50mA
500mA
5A

The SPU is normally used on the 4A range and X1 display option selected. This gives
the normal sensitivity of 100mA/division on the Y-Axis.
GENERAL
You can re-select and change any of the options using the cursor keys. Once you are
happy with the options press Enter to accept the settings. The program returns to the
previous menu, ready to start measurements. (You can go back and change the settings
at any time by pressing A to Alter). Remember that the display indicates the setting for the
current scan. Earlier traces on the screen may have been made with different settings.
14.

BEGINNING THE FIRST SCAN


Set up and connect the tractor and Chattock Potentiometer. Position the tractor on the
first slot with the Chattock Potentiometer at the very end of the core. Before starting
the tractor on its scan from the end of the core, press B to Begin. The display scrolls
up and the current slot number is written to the left hand side of the screen near the
current zero axis. The third text line shows the message: Press E at End of Run.
The top text line will read COMMUNICATION FAILURE if the SPU is not switched
on, or if the RS232 serial link is not connected.

Page 118

V4.04

15.

Top Text Line Display Messages


Once the PC is receiving data from the SPU, a new top line is displayed. It gives
the following information:
X=.5m/div

The X axis sensitivity is always 0.5m/division. Separation between the


divisions is varied so that the length of the screen corresponds to the
tractor scan length (read from the HEADER.BIN file).

Y=100mA/div

The Y-axis sensitivity is 100mA/division, assuming that X1 has been


selected and the SPU is on 4A range

POSITION=0mm

This is the distance in millimetres of the tractor from the end of the
core (currently 0mm). The position counts up from zero as the tractor
drives into the core and counts back down as it returns. It can show a
slight negative reading if there is slippage on the tractor's distance
encoder wheel. (This is corrected when the traces are re-produced by
ELPLOT.EXE)

PHASE=XmA

This is the measured in-Phase m.p.d. across the slot. (On a normal core
it is approximately the total ampere-turns through the winding divided
by the number of teeth). The value shown is the average of the last 16
readings and, as these occur every 20ms, the display is up-dated about
three times a second at typical scan speeds.

QUAD=XmA

This is the measured quadrature current across the slot. It is derived


and displayed in the same way as the in-Phase signal.

The SPU sends information on its range setting to the PC only at the start of each scan
and so any change made during a scan will cause errors in the displayed current
values and sensitivities.
16.

Starting the Scans, Using the Graphics Display


Having pressed B to Begin, drive the tractor along the slot towards the centre of the
core. A trace is drawn along the bottom graphics line showing any variation in the
Quad current along the slot. The distance count will automatically begin from zero in
the START FROM mode. In the RETURN TO mode it will begin from the end
count of the previous scan unless START FROM is reselected.
The incoming Quad values are plotted on the screen every time the distance encoder
pulses show that the tractor has moved by a distance of about 2mm. If the tractor is
moving very slowly, a large number of readings could be received and in this case the
average of the last 16 is plotted. If as is usually the case, there are fewer than 16
readings, the average of the actual number of readings is plotted. At fast tractor speeds
there may be about one reading every 2mm with no averaging. (With a vertical stator,
make sure the tractor does not travel too fast, or there will be missing data, recorded by
zeros).
Since the scan length is represented typically by 800 pixels on the graphics screen, it
Page 119

V4.04

will not have sufficient resolution to display every 2mm position for scan lengths
greater than 1.6m. A few measurements will then be plotted at the same screen X
position. Peak readings will still be visible.
If the tractor is returned along the same slot, the two traces will be displayed on top of
each other. This provides a test of the reproducibility of the measurements, since the
two traces should merge provided there is no X axis slippage.
17.

Storage of Data in the PC RAM


The Quad and Phase current measurements are also stored in the PC RAM while the
trace is being plotted on the screen.
Each 2mm section of the scan has a PC RAM storage location and it is filled with both
Quad and Phase measurements as the tractor leaves the section. These measurements
are the average of up to 16 readings if the tractor is moving slowly. If the tractor is
scanned several times back and forth over the same section of a slot, only the data from
the final scan is saved, although the acquisition trace displayed will still show both
new and previous readings.
As the tractor moves away from the starting end, the PC keeps a record of its current
position from the pulses received from the distance encoder. The length of a Back file
is set at the beginning of the Backward Scan to a value equivalent to the current
position. (The length of a Back File is therefore equal to the length of the preceding
Forward File, unless the encoder wheel has been turned after the end of the forward
scan and before the beginning of the backward scan). Hence, if the tractor is not
returned to the starting point of the preceding forward scan, the unmeasured section of
the slot is stored as zeros.

18.

Saving the Data to Disk at the End of a Scan


Stop the tractor when it has reached the end of the scan section and press E to End.
This will terminate the collection and graphical display of the data for the scan. Then
either press S to Save the data, or D to Discard it. If you press S, all the trace
information contained in the PC store will be written as a data file to the
C:\ELCID\DATA directory for later analysis, etc. The files are named as follows:
First Four Letters:Next Two Digits:Next Letter:Last Letter
Extension

First Letters of Power Station Name


Number of the Unit at Power Station
E for Exciter End, or T for Turbine End
F for Forward, or B for Back
The slot Number

If you want to Discard the data, press D and the data is lost. Both S and D clear the
RAM, ready for the next scan.
19.

Subsequent Scans at the Same End of the Stator


Having saved (or discarded) the data for the first scan, the main menu re-appears
automatically. The conditions are up-dated ready for the next scan. With SINGLE
SCANS, the SLOT# will have changed up or down, depending on whether the
Page 120

V4.04

INCREASING SLOT# or DECREASING SLOT# option was selected. (If DOUBLE


SCANS was selected, the slot number will not have changed for a return scan on the
same slot). The START FROM / RETURN TO option will also have toggled as
required.
Move the tractor to the next slot (unless returning in DOUBLE SCAN mode), taking
care not to change its distance from the end of the core. Then press B (to Begin) and
drive the tractor back to the starting end. When it arrives press E (to End) and S (to
Save). Continue this sequence around the core until you are back at the starting slot.
To repeat a scan or to break out of the normal sequence, press A (to Alter) and select
the SLOT# as required. If the scan on a slot is repeated in either direction, pressing S
will overwrite the previously saved data with the measurements from the latest scan.
Normally you should not need to change the START FROM / RETURN TO option
during a series of scans unless you are changing the standard sequence
(eg by carrying out single scans starting each time at the same end)
20.

Scanning the Other End of the Stator


It is not always necessary to scan the core in two halves, but the procedure is similar to
that at the first end. Be sure to change the EXCITER END / TURBINE END as
appropriate. The tractor may need to be turned round so as to position the sense coil as
close to the far end as possible. It will also be necessary to reverse the Reference Coil
through 180 to retain the same polarity of the recorded responses.
Once you are sure that you are properly set up at the other end continue to measure it in
the same way as the first.

21.

Top Text Line Error and Warning Messages


If the expected data is not being received from the SPU, or if it contains error codes,
various warning messages appear on the top text line, replacing some or all of the
normal display messages.
The top line will read COMMUNICATION FAILURE if the SPU is switched off or the serial link
is disconnected.
Other error messages are:
REF TOO SMALL

Displayed if the Reference Signal to the SPU is too


small. Possible causes include the Excitation Winding
not being switched on, and the Reference Coil not
encircling any or sufficient excitation cable.

REF TOO LARGE

Displayed if the Reference Signal to the SPU is too


large. This warning is given only if current linking the
Reference Coil is excessive.

CP SIG TOO LARGE

Displayed if the Sensing Head signal overloads the

Page 121

V4.04

SPU. This could occur on incorrect range or if sense


coil is too close to the excitation winding.
If any of the above Error Messages appear, the SPU ceases normal operation. The
Quad is not plotted on the PC screen and the PC RAM locations for the Quad currents
are filled with zeros. The RAM locations for the Phase currents are filled with
maximum values.
The warning message SIGNAL IS NOT REASONABLE is displayed if the measured
Phase
m.p.d. is outside expected limits calculated from the excitation current and number of
slots. The Chattock Potentiometer signal may be large enough to produce the warning
if the tractor is held close to the excitation winding while it is being moved from one
slot to the next. Also, the signal could be too small if the tractor is rotated so that the
span of the Sense Head Chattock Coil is parallel to the slots. Another possibility is
that incorrect values have been provided for the excitation current and/or the number
of turns.
The system continues to operate normally and to record traces even if the SIGNAL IS NOT
warning is given.

REASONABLE

22.

FINISHING THE TEST


When you have completed measurements at both ends of the core, or wish to switch
off the test equipment before completion, press Q to Quit. The first of several text
screens appears, listing the information in the Header File. The next screens show all
the slots measured. You are asked if the measurements are now complete (ie you wish
to terminate the session). If you answer No, you are told how to quit and to return to
the beginning of the main program.
If you answer Yes, you are invited to write a comment which will be stored as a file in
the C:\ELCID\DATA directory with the same name as the Header File but with a
.CMT extension (instead of .HDR).
If terminating the session, you are informed that all the test Files are stored in the
C:\ELCID\DATA directory and advised to copy them to a diskette in the A drive for
added security. If save to diskette is selected, the program checks that the diskette is
present, not write-protected, formatted and empty.
All the files are copied directly to the root directory of the A: drive.
If the test data is more than can be contained on a standard diskette, the data should be
copied outside the test program.
Finally, the program bids you farewell and exits.

Page 122

V4.04

APPENDIX 9
TROUBLE SHOOTING PROCEDURES
1

No external power light


1.1
1.2

Battery low alarm


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

Take Reference Coil Terminal Box out of circuit.


Check continuity of Reference Coil.
Replace Reference Coil.

No Distance Information from Trolley


6.1
6.2

6.3
7

Check continuity of Chattock.


Change Chattock.

No Reference
5.1
5.2
5.3

Check outputs from power supply board +5V, +6.5V, -6.5V.


Replace display.
Replace No 4 circuit board.
Replace No 3 circuit board.

No Signal
4.1
4.2

Turn external power on to charge battery.


Check D.C. fuses.
Check output voltage from power supply to battery pack. If below 7.0V
replace power supply board.
Battery low alarm after extended charge period and short usage; i.e. loss of
battery capacity; change battery pack.

No or Defective Display
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4

Check supply (note the mains supply light takes about a second to come on).
Check fuses in inlet socket.

X axis Input selected to No.1.


Chart Recorder Output check for square 5V pulses on pin 4, and 0V or 5V
according to direction on pin 2, 0V on pin 3.
6.2.1 Check continuity of encoder lead.
6.2.2 Replace No 5 circuit board.
6.2.3 Replace encoder.
Replace No.4 circuit board

No distance information from RIV Control Unit


7.1
7.2

Check X Axis Input selected to No.2.


Chart Recorder Output check for square 5V pulses on pin 4, and 0V or 5V
according to direction on pin 2, 0v on pin 3.
7.2.1 Check output from RIV Control Unit
7.2.2 Replace No.4 circuit board.

Page 123

V4.04

Calibration Unit
8.1

8.2

8.3

No supply light
8.1.1 Check for volts on pins 2 & 4 on aux. power socket of SPU.
8.1.2 If no volts 8.1.1 replace power supply board in SPU.
8.1.3 Check continuity of Calibration Unit input power lead.
8.1.4 Replace Calibration Unit circuit board.
No signal
8.2.1 Change Chattock
8.2.2 Replace Calibration Unit circuit board.
No reference
8.3.1 Take Reference Coil Terminal Box out of circuit.
8.3.2 Check continuity of Reference Coil.
8.3.3 Check continuity of Reference Signal Output Loop.
8.3.4 Replace Calibration Unit circuit board.

Unable to open COM port in ELAN


Make sure software is loaded correctly and ELAN Options correctly configured
for correct COM serial port.
If the computer is being used with the software for the first time, the most
likely problem is with the software/computer configuration and not the ELCID
hardware. Portable Computers with modems fitted can create conflicts which
have to be resolved using the computers set-up software.

10

Communications Failure in ELAN


10.1

10.2

10.3
10.4
10.5
11

Make sure that the EL CID is connected to the PC and turned on before starting
the ELAN Test program. The correct connection to the EL CID can be tested
via the Options Menu and the Comms Test button. If the PC to EL CID
connection is correctly present this will report Test OK.
Check the RS232 cable for continuity and correct configuration. (See sections
above). Cables not supplied by Adwel International Ltd. may be incorrectly
configured. Particularly note the need for a RTS-CTS connection at the EL
CID end.
If you are sure it is not any of the above replace No. 4 board.
Replace No. 3 circuit board.
Replace No 5 circuit board.

Excitation Winding
11.1

No excitation or lower than expected excitation.


11.1.1 Check supply.
11.1.2 Check excitation is turned on.
11.1.3 Check winding for continuity.
11.1.4 If no current, make sure connectors are screwed well home.
11.1.5 Place clamp ammeter round excitation cable. Measured current should
be N times the supply current, where N is the Switched Excitation
control positions. If it is equal to supply current the trace winding has
been used in error.
Page 124

V4.04

10.2

No trace voltage.
Measured voltage on Trace winding should be in the order of but slightly less
than the supply voltage to the excitation winding divided by the number of
turns. If absent, check the excitation current is flowing, and if so is the
excitation winding continuous and not shorted.

Page 125

V4.04

APPENDIX 10
SPECIFICATIONS
STANDARD DIGITAL EL CID KIT.
Note: The Digital EL CID SPU kit can be used as a stand-alone piece of equipment, but it
requires the use of a Computer to run the ELAN Test data acquisition program, save
the data and then display that data for off line Analysis. A suitable Portable Computer
is normally supplied with the standard kit.
1

SIGNAL PROCESSOR UNIT.


Power Input
Power Supply
Power Input Fuse
Battery Av Running Time
Av Charging Time
Reference Signal Input:
Input Range
Frequency Range
Signal Input:
Input Range
Frequency Range
Digital Signal Resolution
Phase Resolution
Quadrature Rejection
Noise
Accuracy after Calibration
Measurement Speed of Phase
and Quadrature Signals
Range/Resolution
(with 100V/A sensitivity
Chattock)

Distance Encoder Inputs:


Level
Auto-Calibration Range
Pulse Format - Input 1
- Input 2

85-265V (universal), 50/60Hz, 30VA.


500mA T
10 Hrs.
16 Hrs (on load) - 10 Hrs (off load)

2mV to 2V rms Balanced


(from Reference Transducer),
50 to 60 Hz.

0 to 4mV rms Balanced


(from Chattock),
50 to 60 Hz.
12 Bit (1 in 4096).
0.02 degrees.
Typically 1 in 2000.
Less than 0.1% range (Input shorted)
1% signal 0.3% range
(excluding Calibration Unit error)
Once per mains Cycle
Range
400mA
4A
40A

Resolution
100A
1mA
10mA

TTL Compatible.
0.17 to 2.0mm per pulse.
2 Phase Pulses.
Single Pulse plus Polarity.

Page 126

V4.04

Display

32 Digit LCD, 8mm High Characters.


(backlit only when connected to mains supply)

Outputs:
Output to PC over Serial Link
Analogue Outputs
- Y phase
- Y quad
- X distance
Aux Power Output
Mechanical:
SPU Size (W x H x D)

Kit Weight

430 x 210 x 250mm:


(Polycarbonate case).
9.2kg
700 x 370 x 550mm
(Wheeled flight case)
35kg

Environmental:
Temperature Operating Range
Storage temperature Range
Relative Humidity
EMC
Safety
Compliance/Approvals

0 to 50C (32 to 122F).


-20?C to +60?C
0-95% RH (non-condensing)
EN61326-1: 1997 Class A
EN61010-1
CE mark

SPU Weight
Kit Size (W x H x D)

CALIBRATION UNIT
Input voltage/current from SPU
Frequency of Output Current
Output to Reference Coil
A/Turns on Calibration Slot

7 to 11 V DC, 100 mA
50 or 60 Hz, internally selectable
100 mA
1000 mA 1%

REFERENCE TRANSDUCER COIL (Rogowski)


Output with cable through core

RS232
1V/A in 4A range.
1V/A in 4A range.
1V/2m.
7 to 11V dc, 100mA.

2 mV/A at 50 Hz
(Higher sensitivity coils available)

CHATTOCK POTENTIOMETERS
Standard sizes

Nominal Output
Connector
(Other Chattocks available to order.)

100mm (4) long, semi-rigid (Miniature)


175mm (7) long, flexible
225mm (9) long, flexible
275mm (11) long, flexible
100V/A at 50 Hz
5 pin DIN

Page 127

V4.04

SENSE HEAD MANUAL TROLLEY


Magnetically attached with distance encoder.
Distance Information
Chattock Span Range
Bore Diameter range
Weight

Encoder Wheel with visual rotation bars


50 to 185mm (with standard bars)
8 to 300mm at 100mm Chattock span.
1.4 kg without cables and Chattock.

COMPUTER
Minimum PC for operation
IBM PC Compatible, Pentium 166 or higher
32Mb RAM, 50Mb Hard Disc spare
1.44M FDD, free RS232 COM port
SVGA (800x600) Compatible Colour display
Windows 98, ME, 2000 or XP
Recommended PC for operation (if not included with Kit)
Pentium II, 500MHz,
64Mb RAM, 200Mb Hard Disc spare,
1.44M FDD, free RS232 COM port
XVGA (1024 x 768) Compatible Colour display.

PRINTER
Text and Graphics colour printing capability, A4 or 8.5x11

OPTIONAL ACCESSORIES
RIV Robotic Inspection Vehicle
Lap-top Computer if not already supplied with Kit.
Colour Inkjet Printer
Chart Recorder

Page 128

V4.04

PEN PLOTTERS AND RECORDERS FOR DIGITAL EL CID


Recommended Basic Specification Requirements.
Y Axis - Signal Output
X-Y Plotter and Chart Recorder:

Input sensitivity. 0.1V to 1V/cm


Note: The Analogue Y QUAD and Y PHASE
outputs from the Digital EL CID SPU is 4V for
fsd of meter corresponding to the range setting.
The electrical output is linear over the range
and up to 10% over-range.

X Axis - Distance Output


X-Y Plotter:
0.2V/cm

Typical plotter input sensitivity 0.01V to

The Digital EL CID X Axis Analogue X output is 0.5V per metre.


10

CHART RECORDER:
The chart recorder is driven by TTL level pulses into external timebase input. The X
Axis output from the PULSE X Recorder Socket is variable. The number of
pulses/mm of traversed bore, plus direction signal, is dependent on the sense head
equipment used, (RIV output is 3.18 pulses/mm). The required chart recorder input
range will be that to display a bore length of approximately 0.5m to 10m (2,000 to
40,000 pulses) for length of recorded trace required (ie. 80 to 1,600 pulse per cm for
25cm trace).
The chart recorder should be calibrated to a measured distance travelled by the sense
head.

Page 129

V4.04

APPENDIX 11
SYSTEM CONNECTION DETAILS
1.

RS232 DIGITAL EL CID COMPUTER SOCKET TO PC LEAD (standard)


Plug pins (EL CID)
(9 way D Plug)
1,4,6,9
2
3
5
7 Link to 8
8 Link to 7

Skt pins (PC)


(9 way D Socket)
N/C
3
2
5
N/C
N/C

Cable length 1m

EL CID Rx (Red)
EL CID Tx (Blue)
0V (Screen)
RTS
CTS

Alternative Configuration if the PC has 25 way D Socket (to be constructed by the


user)
9 way 'D' Plug (EL CID) to 25 way 'D' Socket (PC)
Pin 2 (Rx)
Pin 3 (EL CID Tx)
Pin 3 (Tx)
Pin 2 (EL CID Rx)
Pin 5 (0V)
Pin 7 (0V)
Pin 7 link to 8
Pin 8 link to 7
Remaining pins have NO CONNECTIONS
2.

RS232 DIGITAL EL CID TO PC LEAD (Trolley Remote Control Interface)


Serial Data Connections
Plug pins (EL CID)
(9 way D Plug)
1,4,6,9
2
3
5
N/C
N/C
7 Link to 8
8 Link to 7

Skt pins (PC)


(9 way D Socket)
N/C
3
2
5
4
9
N/C
N/C

EL CID Rx (Red)
EL CID Tx (Blue)
0V (Screen)
*DTR (Remote LED)
*RI (Remote Button)
RTS
CTS

Remote Trolley Connections


Socket pins
(7 way DIN Socket)
1
2
3
4
5
6

Plug pins
(7 way DIN Plug)
1
2
3
4
5
N/C

Red +5V
Black 0V
Green 0V
Blue Encoder Signal
Yellow Encoder Signal
*Remote Button

Cable length 3m

The signals shown with a * are controlled by electronics within the Interface
Page 130

V4.04

3.

REFERENCE TRANSDUCER EXTENSION LEAD


Wiring (3 pin DIN Plug to 3 pin DIN Line Socket)
Plug pins
Skt pins
1
1
2
2
3
3
Screen isolated from both socket and plug bodies

4.

REFERENCE TRANSDUCER COIL (Rogowski)


Wiring (3 pin DIN Plug to Reference Transducer)
Plug pins
Wire colour
1
Screen
2
Yellow
3
White

5.

Cable length 1m
Red +9V
Blue 0V

CALIBRATION UNIT REFERENCE OUTPUT LOOP


Wiring (5 pin Domino DIN Plug to Loop)
Plug pins
Connection
1,3,5
N/C
2
Loop
4
Loop

7.

0V
Sig
Sig

CALIBRATION UNIT POWER INPUT LEAD


Wiring (4 pin DIN Plug to 4 pin DIN Plug)
Plug pins
Plug pins
1,3
N/C
2
2
4
4
Connect screen to body of both plugs

6.

Cable length 5m
Screen 0V
Red Sig
Blue Sig

Cable length 1m

CHATTOCK LEADS
Wiring (5 pin DIN Plug to Chattock Coil lead)
Plug pins
Wire colour
1
Screen
2
Red
3
Black
4 and 5
N/C

Page 131

0V
Sig
Sig

V4.04

8.

DISTANCE ENCODER INPUT LEAD (TROLLEY)


Wiring (6 pin LEMO Plug to 7 pin DIN Plug, 6 core cable)
Plug pins
Plug pins
Cable length 8m
(Lemo Plug)
(DIN Plug)
6
1
Red +5V
5
2
Black 0V
5
3
Green 0V
3
5
Yellow Encoder Sig
2
4
Blue Encoder Sig
1
6
White Reset Zero
4 = N/C
7 = N/C
Screen sleeved both ends
Screen isolated from both plug bodies

9.

CHATTOCK EXTENSION LEAD


Wiring (5 pin DIN Plug to 5 pin DIN Line Socket)
Plug pins
Skt pins
1
1
2
2
3
3
Screen isolated from both socket and plug bodies

10.

INPUT LEAD FROM TRACTOR AND X OUTPUT LEAD TO RECORDER


Wiring (8 pin DIN Plug to 8 pin DIN Plug)
Plug pins
Plug pins
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5 to 8
N/C
Screen isolated from both plug bodies

11.

Cable length 5m
Screen 0V
Red Sig
Blue Sig

Cable length 3m each


Green Remote Control
Red Direction
Blue 0 Volts
Yellow Count
Screen sleeved both ends

EXCITATION SUPPLY CONNECTIONS


Mains Input lead 4mm2
Brown
Blue
Green/Yellow

(1m)
Live
Neutral
Earth

Sockets (4mm)
BLUE
Blue

AC Voltmeter
AC Voltmeter

Page 132

Trace Winding

V4.04

APPENDIX 12
CONSIDERATIONS WHEN TESTING HYDROGENERATORS
1.

INTRODUCTION
Although the basic principles of ELCID testing are the same as for turbogenerators,
there are significant differences in the way tests on hydrogenerators should be carried
out. These practical aspects are addressed in this section.
The major differences in construction that affect the preferred test procedures are:?? The core diameter is generally much greater in hydrogenerators. Hence larger
excitation currents (Ampere-turns) and a different winding configuration are
required.
?? Hydrogenerator cores are often built in two or more sections (spanning 180, 120
or 90, etc) and then assembled on site. There are then inevitably circumferential
gaps at the joints between the sections of laminated core, which cause high
PHASE and QUAD readings. These high background readings can mask signals
from nearby faults. Procedures for managing these difficulties are given later.
?? Hydrogenerators are, more often than turbogenerators, tested with the rotor
partially or fully in situ as access is normally less difficult. Extra steel in the
vicinity of the core in the form of the rotor bearings, the rotor itself, etc. can cause
tilting of the base lines of measured QUAD traces.

2.

GENERAL PREPARATIONS
The general preparations are similar to those described in Section 4.2 for
turbogenerators.
a.
Access
If the rotor has been removed, access to the stator bore is likely to be straightforward.
It is also possible to perform an ELCID test with the rotor in place. If the air gap is
sufficiently large, it may be possible to do the test without removing any poles by using
a special Adwel low profile tractor vehicle (RIV 702).
If one or more poles are removed to provide access for the Sense Head/Trolley, or if
the space between poles can be used, then it is essential that the rotor can be rotated
easily. This is straightforward if high pressure bearing lubrication is available,
otherwise arrangements are required to jack the rotor and apply rotational torque
manually.

Page 133

V4.04

b.
Scanning the Slots
Decide in advance of the test the best way of scanning the slots, taking into account the
height and diameter of the core, access, the test equipment available, etc. With the
hand-held magnetically attached trolley, it will be necessary to be able to reach all parts
of each slot, possibly with the aid of a ladder. Alternatively, it may be possible to work
from the top of the core using a lead attached to the trolley to lower or pull it down
each slot and to pull it back up again. If you have a motorised magnetic tractor then it
may be best to work from the bottom of the core, driving the tractor up and down each
tooth.
3.

THE EXCITATION WINDING


The purpose of the excitation winding is the same as with turbogenerator tests (Section
4.3), i.e. to induce about 4% of the rated magnetic flux uniformly around the core. The
greater core circumference means that hydrogenerators require much higher excitation
current (ampere-turns) to establish the 4% flux. However the unwanted leakage fields,
produced by the radial sections of the excitation winding, are larger and extra
precautions are required to avoid associated problems of sloping base lines in the
ELCID traces. The larger core diameter also makes it more difficult to generate a
uniform flux density around the core.
a.
Types of Excitation Winding
The preferred excitation winding configuration for turbogenerators, Figure A13.1
(below) i.e. wound along the axis of the bore and returning to the back of the core at a
single circumferential position, can cause difficulties with hydrogenerators. The return
loop to the back of the casing, which should be as far as possible from the top and
bottom of the core, is often restricted to less than one metre by the available space. The
large leakage fields from the high excitation current flowing in the radial sections of
the winding close to the core may then cause unwanted tilting of the ELCID trace base
lines on the nearby slots.

Fig A13.1
Preferred winding
for Turbo-generators

Fig A13.2
Distributed Winding

Fig A13.3
Recommended winding
for Hydro-generators

Distributing the return winding at three, four, or more, equally spaced positions around
the core, as shown in Figure A13.2, alleviates the tilt problem by reducing the leakage
fields from each radial section of the winding, but this type of winding may be difficult
to install.

Page 134

V4.04

The winding configuration shown in Figure A13.3 is now generally recommended for
testing hydrogenerators. The winding is made up of preferably three or more sections,
each wound close to the core and uniformly spaced around it. If the core is split it is
preferable to have one or two winding sections for each section of core. A minor
disadvantage is that it is necessary to move the windings during the test because
ELCID measurements should not be carried within one metre of any section of the
winding. Hence there must be sufficient slack in each section to enable it to be moved
around the core. The cable connecting the sections around the core should also have
enough slack to enable each section to be moved at least one metre in either direction.
The return" cable connecting the last section to the power supply should preferably be
brought back alongside the "go" cable, so that their unwanted magnetic fields cancel.
It is also important to ensure that all the sections are wound directly around the core,
with the winding in the bore parallel to the teeth.
b.
Calculation of Excitation Voltage
The required ELCID excitation voltage is calculated in the same way as for
turbogenerators (Section 4.3) This handbook also contains a more detailed APPENDIX
3 covering excitation calculations. The stator bar winding arrangement on
hydrogenerators is normally more complex than on turbogenerators and care must be
taken to establish the correct value for tp.
Alternatively, if you are not sure of the stator winding arrangement, but you do know
the flux per pole, you can easily calculate the rms rated voltage V, using:
Vr = 2.2 f ? p
where
f is the frequency (Hz)
and
? p is the peak flux per pole (Webers)
Hence the 4% of rated flux excitation, used for the ELCID test, is given by
VT= 4.44 ? p
for f = 50 Hz
VT = 5.33 ? p
for f = 60 Hz
c.
Calculation of Excitation Current
As with turbogenerators, the Ampere-turns( It Nw) required to generate the 4% test
flux in the core is proportional to its circumference -which is normally larger. It may
also,be more necessary for the winding to enclose other magnetic components. Extra
Ampere-turns@are required to drive flux across the gaps at any joints in the core. @
@Because of these three effects, the Ampere-turns required for a hydrogenerator is
often 5 to 1 0 times greater than for a turbogenerator with similar power rating.
If a theoretical value for excitation current is required and a reliable magnetisation (BH) curve for the stator steel is available, the required excitation may be calculated as
described in this paragraph. From Faraday's law, the peak flux density in the core is
given by:
Bc = 2 VT / 2 p f Ac
where Ac is the cross-section of the flux path in the stator iron
given by:
Ac = (Do Dg - 2ds) (Lc Nd Wd) SF/2
where
Do is the stator core outside diameter (m)
Dg is the stator core internal diameter (m)
Lc is the stator core length (m)
Page 135

V4.04

and

Nd is the number of radial ventilation ducts


Wd is the width of a radial ventilation duct (m)
ds is the depth of the stator winding slots (m)
SF is the Stacking Factor or Space Factor, the volume
fraction of iron in a length of laminated corer
(typically 0.9 to 0.95).

Having calculated the Bc value, look up the magnetisation (B-H) curve for the stator
steel to find the corresponding H (in Ampere-turns per metre). The Ampere-turns
required to excite the core is then given by:
IwtNw = H Cc
where Cc, the average circumference of the core, is given by:
Cc = 7c (Do + (Dg - 2ds))/2
About 30% should be added to this value to compensate for the effects of the gaps and
other steel linked by the winding.
A useful rule of thumb for the excitation is between 10 and 40 Ampere-turns per metre
of circumference of core, measured at the mean 4 diameter of the main core. In
practice most hydrogenerators require between 150 and 500 Ampere-turns.

d.
Calculation of Number of Winding Turns, Current and Voltage
Having estimated the Ampere-turns (Iwt Nw) decide on the number of turns Nw, taking
into account the current ratings of the available cable and the single-phase supply.
Assuming you are using a recommended winding arrangement, the number of turns
must also be a multiple of the number of winding sections, Ns since all sections should
carry the same Ampere-turns. Also Ns should be equal to, or be twice, the number of
sections in a jointed core.
The number of positions at which the winding can be installed around the core may be
restricted by access to the machine, e.g. there may be only 6 openings around the
bottom of the stator frame. In this case the winding could only realistically have 3 or 6
sections.
A variable ratio autotransformer (Variac) may be required to obtain exactly 4%
excitation, but it may alternatively be possible to achieve close to 4% by matching the
number of turns to the voltage of the mains supply.
Example Calculation.
Suppose that the 4% flux level corresponds to 3.8V/turn and the
supply voltage is 120V. A 30 turn winding would then develop
120/30 = 4V per turn. Hence a three-section winding would have ten
turns per section. An altenative would be 32 turns (3.75V per turn)
arranged in four sections each with eight turns. The actual induced
voltage in the core will be rather less because of the resistive voltage
drop in the excitation cable. (This could be calculated from the length
Page 136

V4.04

and resistance per metre of the cable. Remember to use vector


addition.)
Having decided on the number of winding turns and estimated the Ampere-turns, the
excitation current and power requirements are given by the simple equations of Section
4.3.
4.

INSTALLING AND TESTING THE EXCITATION WINDING


The excitation cable should be double insulated and rated for at least the expected
winding current, Iwt_ The cable should be long enough to wind the required number of
turns, Nw, loosely around the stator casing and though the bore. Allow extra cable
also for the connections between sections around the back of the core and for the
"return" cable to the power supply, which should be brought back alongside the go"
cable.
If the core is split, there should be one or two winding sections symmetrically located
within each core section. Ascertain the locations of the core joints and mark on the
core the correct positions for the winding sections. Then proceed as follows:
i.

At the first of the Ns positions on the core, wind Nw/Ns turns of cable
loosely around the stator casing and through the bore. Tape the turns
together and ensure that the section can be moved easily around the core.

ii.

Repeat step a) for the remaining Ns -1 winding positions, taking care to


allow at least one metre of slack in the cable connecting the sections
together at the back of the core.

iii.

Return to power supply via the first winding section, laying the return cable
alongside the cable already connecting the sections together. Tape these
"go" and "return" cables together every metre or so.

iv.

Wind a single turn, trace winding around the core at a convenient position,
close to the power supply.

v.

Connect a voltmeter to the trace winding and use a clip-on or other ammeter
to measure the current through the excitation winding.

vi.

Connect the excitation winding to the mains supply, either directly, or via a
suitably rated variable transformer (Variac).

vii.

Before switching on the current, double check that there are no foreign
metallic objects in the bore

viii.

If you are using a Variac, turn its output knob to zero before switching on.
Then gradually increase the output while monitoring the current and the
trace voltage. Continue until you reach the required trace voltage or until
the rating of the power supply or excitation cable or Variac is reached.

Page 137

V4.04

5.

ix.

If you are not using a Variac, switch on the mains supply and check that the
current through the excitation winding is within the ratings of the cable and
power supply. It may be necessary to increase the number of winding turns,
Nt, to reduce the current (at the expense of reducing the voltage at which the
test is carried out).

x.

Check the uniformity of the excitation voltage around the core by moving
the trace winding voltages around the core. There should be only a few
percent difference between the voltages close to a winding section and that
mid-way between two sections.

xi.

Switch off the power until the ELCID test equipment has been set up.

ADJUSTING THE SENSE HEAD


If the rotor, or one or more of its poles, has been removed, adjustment to the various
types of Sense Head is similar to the procedure for turbo-generator testing.
If a special low profile vehicle is used with the rotor and poles still in place, any
additional adjustments for the associated Sense Head are normally covered separately
with the vehicle instructions.

6.

SETTING UP AND CONNECTING THE TEST EQUIPMENT


The general layout of the equipment for a complete ELCID test is similar to that for a
turbo-generator. Decide on the most convenient location for the test equipment, which
will probably be on a table within the core if the rotor has been removed. If the rotor
has not been removed then it may be necessary to move some of the equipment around
the top of the stator as the test proceeds.
a.
The Distance Encoder and X Axis Transducer
The signal for the X Axis of the plotter or PC graph is normally obtained from the
distance measuring wheel, driving an encoder, on the Sense Head (i.e. the Magnetic
Trolley or the Robotic Tractor Vehicle). Alternatively a separate X Axis Unit is used if
the Head does not have an integral encoder. You will need to prepare a suitable
structure to support the X Axis Unit at the top or bottom of the stator. The Unit's pullcord is then attached to the Head so that a signal is generated as the Head is moved up
and down the slots. The structure is moved around the core as the measurements
proceed.
b.
The Reference Coil
The magnetic based field pickup coil or a current probe on the excitation current may
be used. However if variable reference phase angle techniques are required with an
analogue EL CID, only the current transformer type has the variable phase facility.

7.

DIFFERENCES IN THE TEST PROCEDURES


The test procedures given in this handbook are all generally applicable. Additional
guidance is given below for testing hydrogenerator.
a.

Setting the Phase of the Reference Signal


Page 138

V4.04

In a turbo-generator, the phase of the leakage field from the winding is virtually
constant around the bore. This is not the case, however, with most hydrogenerators,
since the phase of the leakage field varies considerably around the core if it has joints
or if the rotor has not been removed.
It is recommended that the PHASE RESET operation (or any equivalent phase
adjustment to the Reference Signal with an analogue instrument) is carried out at the
start of a global test, and that the phase setting is not altered (except see paragraph 7f)
until all the slots have been measured. Carry out this PHASE RESET with the Sense
Head positioned slightly (say 10mm) above one of the slots midway between two
sections of the excitation winding and half way up the slot, in the centre of a packet.
Record the Calibration Angle indicated by the SPU where available.
b.
The Initial Check
When carrying out the initial check or phase adjustment on the core, ensure that the
chosen slot is well away from any joint in the core and is at least lm from the nearest
section of the excitation winding. The PHASE current measured across the slot may
be rather less than Iw/N, because, of the extra mmf developed across the gaps at any
joints in the core.
c.
Measurements Close to Sections of the Excitation Winding
When you get to within one metre of any section of the excitation winding, stop
making measurements and move that section at least one metre further away around
the core. Then continue measuring the slots until you reach the original position of the
winding section. Then move section back two metres, or more, so that it is at least one
metre away, on the other side of its original position. Then continue the measurements
until the next winding section is approached.
d.
Measurements with the Rotor in situ
If one or more of the rotor poles have been removed, start by measuring a slot near the
centre of the gap between the remaining poles. As you continue measuring slots closer
to one of the poles, you will probably find that the base lines of the recorded QUAD
traces become tilted at the top and bottom of the scans (because of changes in electrical
losses in the poles). Since such tilts can mask the presence of a fault, it is then
necessary to turn the rotor to increase the distance of the pole from the area of core
being measured.
If none of the poles have been removed, it is possible that the QUAD traces for slots
underneath the pole pieces are sufficiently flat, as well as those measured between
poles. In this case there is obviously no need to turn the rotor. However, it may be
advantageous or necessary to turn the rotor at regular intervals to reduce trace
distortion.
e.
Changing the SPU Range for Measurements Close to Core Joints
If the core has joints, the inevitable gaps between the laminations will generate a high
impedance to the magnetic flux flowing around the core. This means that the PHASE
current (magnetic potential difference) measured across the slot or tooth containing the
gap will be much higher (up to 25A) than elsewhere in the core (typically around 1 A).
A large signal is also likely across the adjacent slots, either side of the joint.
Page 139

V4.04

Hence the large magnetic potential difference across slots with a gap is likely to
overload the SPU signal input if it is has been set to the 4A range as normally
recommended. It is therefore usually necessary to switch to the 40A range when
measuring the slots either side of a joint. Remember to change back to the 4A range
when you have passed the joint.
f.
Repeat Measurements of Slots near Core Joints.
The magnetic field near core joints is much higher than elsewhere because of the
magnetic flux 'leaks" from the core at the gaps. Since this flux emanates from the core
itself, it is phase-shifted, typically by 15 or more, with respect to the current in the
winding and to the leakage field away from the joints (because of eddy current and
hysteresis losses in the core).
Because- the leakage flux at slots near the joints is so large and because it is phaseshifted, the QUAD traces can have very large offsets (a few Amperes) that may swamp
the signals from currents flowing through any damaged regions of the core on adjacent
teeth. Resetting the Reference Phase at the SPU helps mitigate the problem. This
should be carried out after all the slots have been scanned with the standard phase
setting (paragraph 7a). At present the recommended procedure is as follows:
i.

For the slot spanning the joint, position the Sense Head so that the Chattock
Potentiometer is about 10mm above the tips of the teeth, half way up the
core and in the centre of a core packet.

ii.

Carry out the Phase Reset operation and record the Calibration Angle
indicated by the SPU where available.

iii.

Re-measure the slot at the joint.

iv.

Repeat procedures for the a), b), and c) for the two slots either side of the
slot spanning the joint.

v.

Repeat procedures for the a), b), c) and d) at the remaining joints.

If the joint in the core is on the tooth tip rather than at the base of the slot, the problem
with the high leakage flux can be further mitigated for detection of faults in the core up
to the edge of the joint by reducing the width of the Chattock Potentiometer so that it
does not span the joint. In this case however, any faults between laminations at the
joint itself are less likely to be detected and a trace spanning the joint should still be
taken.
g.
LOCAL CORE TESTS
As with tests on turbogenerators, local core tests should be made to confirm, pinpoint
and measure the severity of any core damage found visually, by global EL CID or
thermal ring-flux tests, especially if field distortions at core splits cause uncertainties in
global test interpretation. The local tests are particularly effective near core splits,
since the much smaller span of the mini Chattock Potentiometer means that unwanted
signals from the high leakage fields are greatly reduced. Effects of leakage fields are
Page 140

V4.04

further reduced if you Reset PHASE with the mini Chattock Potentiometer on the tooth
close to the -suspected fault, as described below.
Follow the detailed procedures for the local core tests given in Section 5.3. When
pinpointing suspected damage on a tooth tip, Reset the PHASE with the mini Chattock
Potentiometer on the tooth close to but not on the suspected damage. This will bring
the QUAD reading to a low value so that it is easier to detect the increase when the
Chattock is spanning the damage.
8.

INTERPRETING TEST TRACES ON HYDROGENERATORS


The guidance given in the this handbook on the interpretation of the QUAD traces for
turbogenerators, applies equally to slots measured on hydrogenerators away from any
splits in the core and rotor poles. However due to the differences in dimensions and
construction covered earlier, a number of additional effects may be present.
At, or close to, the core joints there are likely to be large variations in the background
QUAD traces as explained in paragraphs 7e and 7f. Comparison of the QUAD trace
with the PHASE level (Reference Ridley15 'Why When and How to Apply EL CID to
Hydrogenerators') may assist in detecting faults on these slots. Local tests, as
described in 7f and the Handbook should be on any suspect areas on tooth tips, or on
the sides of slots if the conductor bars are absent.

9.

ESTIMATING THE GAP WIDTH AT CORE JOINTS


In some instances it may be of interest to estimate the gap at core joints or to monitor
any changes in this value. As mentioned in paragraphs 7e and 7f, the high magnetic
fields at core joints are produced by the magnetic flux flowing around the core crossing
the gaps. Applying Faraday's law to this situation yields the following simple
equations for the width of the gap at a test voltage of VT:
g = (0.395 Ac I) / VT
g = (0.474 Ac I) / VT

at 50 Hz
at 60 Hz

where Ac is the cross-section of the flux path in the stator iron given by:
Ac = (Do - Dg - 2ds) (Lc Nd Wd) SF/2 (see Section 4.4), and
I = v(P2 +Q2) , the vector sum of the measured PHASE and QUAD
currents.

Page 141

V4.04

APPENDIX 13
CE DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Manufacturers Name:
Manufacturers Address:

ADWEL International Ltd.


Park House
Greenhill Crescent
Watford,
Herts WD18 8PH
UK

The manufacturer hereby declares that the product


Product Name:
Model Number:
Production Options:

Digital EL CID
601
All

conforms to the following Directives through compliance to standards


Electromagnetic Compatibility:
(Council Directive 89/336/EEC,
92/31/EEC & 93/68/EEC)

EN61326-1: 1997

Safety:
(Council Directive 73/23/EEC &
93/68/EEC)

EN 61010-1: 1993

When and Where Issued:

Class A

8th October 1999, Watford, UK

Issued and Signed by:


David Bertenshaw
Director, UK Operations
ADWEL International Ltd.
Park House, Greenhill Crescent
Watford Business Park
Watford, Herts, WD18 8PH
UNITED KINGDOM

Marks of Compliance

Page 142

V4.04