Texts and Monographs in Physics

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N. Reshetikhin H. Spohn W Thirring

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Texts and Monographs in Physics
Series Editors: R. Balian W Beiglbock H. Grosse E. H. Lieb
N. Reshetikhin H. Spohn W Thirring
From Microphysics to Macrophysics
I + II Methods and Applications of
Statistical Physics By R. Balian
Variational Methods in Mathematical
Physics A Unified Approach
By P. Blanchard and E. Bruning
Quantum Mechanics:
Foundations and Applications
3rd enlarged edition By A. Bohm
The Early Universe
Facts and Fiction 3rd corrected
and enlarged edition By G. Borner
Operator Algebras and Quantum
Statistical Mechanics I + II 2nd edition
By O. Bratteli and D. W. Robinson
Geometry of the Standard Model
of Elementary Particles
By A. Derdzinski
Random Walks, Critical Phenomena,
and Triviality in Quantum Field
Theory By R. Fernandez, J. Frohlich
and A. D. Sokal
Quantum Relativity
A Synthesis of the Ideas of Einstein
and Heisenberg
By D. R. Finkelstein
Quantum Mechanics I + II
By A. Galindo and P. Pascual
The Elements of Mechanics
By G. Gallavotti
Local Quantum Physics
Fields, PmticIes, Algebras
2nd revised and enlarged edition
By R. Haag
Elementary Particle Physics
Concepts and Phenomena
By O. Nachtmann
Inverse Schrodinger Scattering
in Three Dimensions
By R. G. Newton

Scattering Theory of Waves
and Particles 2nd edition
By R. G. Newton
Quantum Entropy and Its Use
By M. Ohya and D. Petz
Generalized Coherent States
and Their Applications
By A. Perelomov
Essential Relativity Special, General,
and Cosmological Revised 2nd edition
By W. Rindler
Path Integral Approach
to Quantum Physics An Introduction
2nd printing By G. Roepstorff
Advanced Quantum Theory
and Its Applications Through Feynman
Diagrams 2nd edition
By M. D. Scadron
Finite Quantum Electrodynamics
The Causal Approach 2nd edition
By G. Schm'f
From Electrostatics to Optics
A Concise Electrodynamics Course
By G. Scharf
Large Scale Dynamics of Interacting
Particles By H. Spohn
General Relativity and Relativistic
Astrophysics By N. Straumann
The Mechanics and Thermodynamics
of Continuous Media By M. Silhavy
The Dirac Equation

By B. Thaller

The Theory of Quark and Gluon
Interactions 2nd completely revised
and enlarged edition By F. J. Yndurain
Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and
Introduction to Field Theory
By F. 1. Yndurain
Supersymmetric Methods in Quantum
and Statistical Physics By G. Junker

David Ritz Finkelstein

Quantum Relativity
A Synthesis of the Ideas of Einstein
and Heisenberg
With 14 Figures

Springer

Professor David Ritz Finkelstein
Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Physics
Atlanta, GA 30332-0430, USA

Editors
Roger Balian

Nicolai Reshetikhin

CEA
Service de Physique Theorique de Saclay
F-91191 Gif-sur- Yvette, France

Department of Mathematics
University of California
Berkeley, CA 94720-3840, USA

Wolf Beiglb6ck

Herbert Spohn

Institut flir Angewandte Mathematik
Universitiit Heidelberg
1m Neuenheimer Feld 294
0-69120 Heidelberg, Germany

Theoretische Physik
Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitiit Munchen
TheresienstraBe 37
0-80333 Munchen, Germany

Harald Grosse

Walter Thirring

Institut fur Theoretische Physik
Universitiit Wien
Boltzmanngasse 5
A-I090 Wien, Austria

Institut flir Theoretische Physik
Universitiit Wien
Boltzmanngasse 5
A-I090 Wien, Austria

Elliott H, Lieb
Jadwin Hall
Princeton University, P. O. Box 708
Princeton, NJ 08544-0708 , USA
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data.
Finkelstein, David, 1929 - . Quantum relativity: a synthesis of the ideas of Einstein and Heisenberg I
David Finkelstein. p. cm. - (Texts and monographs in physics) Includes bibliographical references
and index.
e-ISBN-13: 978-3-642-60936-7
ISBN-13: 978-3-642-64612-6
DOl: 10.\007/978-3-642-60936-7
I. Quantum theory. 2. Physics-Philosophy. 3. Einstein, Albert, 1879-1955. 4. Heisenberg, Werner,
1901-1976. I. Title. II. Series. QC174. 12.F56 1996 530.1'2-dc20 94-14490 CIP

I st Edition 1996, 2nd Corrected Printing 1997
ISSN 0172-5998

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Dedicated to my children

Daniel, Beth, Eve and Aria

Foreword

Quantum physics is a comprehensible and comprehensive physics of the fine structure of nature. This book presents its fundamental concepts and principles. It also
applies these concepts and principles to formulate a quantum theory of spacetime
structure.
I write for thoughtful students of physics, mathematics and philosophy. If you
have done the basic experiments in optics and atomic physics that we take up,
especially polarization, interference, and atomic spectra; if you have seen how one
uses quantum theory to predict the results of experiments, and still wonder what it
all means; if you enjoy algebra; and if you can imagine that nature might permit
a comprehensive theory and still not admit a complete one; then you are my ideal
reader.
Here are some of the topics and specialties of this work. Some remarks are
addressed primarily to those who already know. If you meet some idea here for
the first time, you might better return to it after Chapter 1.
About the Physics

We make quantum theory first an extension and finally an envelope of relativity,
following the trail found by Paul A. M. Dirac.
Quantum theory continues an evolutionary tendency already manifest in special
and general relativity, from absolute, object-based conceptions toward relative,
action-based ones. The common-sense physics that we learned when we were
youngest, least experienced, and least critical, is still comparatively object-based
and absolutistic. Special relativity is less so, general relativity is still less so,
and quantum theory least of all. Often, therefore, quantum theory conflicts with
the common sense of the past, even when it accords most spectacularly with
new experience. Our main project is to stretch our common sense to fit quantum
physics, just as we stretched it to fit relativity. We strive not to crush the theory
to fit into a prior frame.
From beginning to end we must work on language. Natural languages incorporate several common-sense counterfactual assumptions, about tense and mode for
example. To help isolate and discard these, we design an action-based algebraic
language derived from quantum physics and set theory, based on seven core words
of universal significance.

VIII

Foreword

Our path is helical, covering a circle of playground problems again and again
at higher levels. Mathematical treatises can avoid redundancy, but repetition with
variation seems to be important for learning a language.
Following Dirac, we cut straight from the work of Newton and Malus on
polarization, done before 1810, to quantum kinematics and Dirac transformation
theory. We take kets to form a generalized Hilbert space, called a t space, with
a possibly indefinite metric, much as the indefinite-metric Minkowski spacetime
is a generalized Galilean definite-metric one-dimensional time axis. We define the
indefinite metric and the adjoint operation t by a kind of total time reversal extending the Wigner and Racah time reversals. For illustration we take a single photon
along the Dirac, Gupta-Bleuler, Faddeev-Popov, Becchi-Rouet-Stora, Tyutin route
through t space, and sketch the trip for gauge theories in general.
Quantum theory changed the epistemology of physics; but not enough. The
existing quantum physics still relies on critical pre-quantum object-based, absolutistic preconceptions. Spacetime itself has most resisted a full quantum analysis,
perhaps because it is most quantum in its structure and activity. We propose a
still more quantum epistemology and language for quantum spacetime physics.
After we reformulate quantum theory as an action theory, we do the same for
general relativity. When they are both seen from this one viewpoint they seem to
fit together rather naturally, into a fusion theory of quantum spacetime that may
still be called quantum relativity, though now in a more special sense.

About the Mathematics
Our unifying concept is the semi group of actions. As part of a semi group reformulation of classical and quantum kinematics we recapitulate, reinterpret, and extend
the algebras of vectors, matrices, extensors, groups, categories, sets, and double
algebras as we need them. Category theory and quantum theory specialized semigroup theory in different directions. Classical actions on a classical system form
a category, and act on elements called identities,the states of the system. Quantum actions on a quantum system do not have such identities to act on; they are
stateless, non-categorial. This is a key difference between classical and quantum
actions. Nevertheless quantum kinematical systems themselves form a category,
and some key categorical concepts will be recognized in our presentation, such as
subsystems, products, and exponentials.
We use concrete, coordinate-based definitions as more harmonious with our
relativistic philosophy, and we avoid abstract "coordinate-free" ones that only hide
the coordinates they rest upon.
We write mostly of finite dimensions, treating ~o dimensions as an ideal limiting case. This is a matter of principle as well as simplicity. I doubt that nature
makes infinite assemblages.
We iterate (again and again and again) to form an algebraic taxonomic hierarchy. Iterating the operator concept results in operators upon operators upon ... , ad
fine. Iterating the set concept results in sets of sets of .... Iterating the act concept
results in acts upon acts upon .... Iterating the ket concept results in kets of kets

Foreword

IX

of ... , represented by the sequence of symbols la), Ila)), Ilia))), ... of growing
order or type. These higher-order operators, sets, acts and kets prove useful for a
quantum theory of spacetime structure.
As part of this construction we quantize everything that moves, not only set
theory but also groups, spaces, semigroups, and discrete structures in general. Once
I thought that quantizing meant deforming a commutative coordinate algebra into
a non-commutative one. This is not precisely right. Non-commutative algebras
and their commutative subalgebras arise in both classical and quantum physics.
Quantization mayor may not deform a given commutative subalgebra, but it
always relativizes it. Quantum theory is above all an extended kind of relativity.
We quantize by relativizing.
About the Philosophy
To go with our action-based language, I experiment here with an action-based
philosophy in an extreme form I call praxism, which renounces ontology and
absolute states of being in favor of actions. If the name "pragmatism" had not
already been preempted by Charles S. Peirce and William James, I would have
used it for this action philosophy.
The mathematician John Von Neumann first regarded quantum theory as an
evolution of set theory. We concur, but we evolve set theory in a direction somewhat askew to his. When I first encountered Von Neumann's "quantum set theory"
I was still under the spell of the logicism of Principia Mathematica of Alfred N.
Whitehead and Bertrand Russell, and set out to redo Principia with quantum logic
instead of classical. Now I attend more to what Von Neumann did than what
he said. What he did was to extract one physical logic from classical dynamics
and another from quantum dynamics. I infer that logics come from dynamics. I
therefore construct now not a quantum logic but a quantum dynamics, a theory of
actions.
As a sophomore my classmates and I would speculate around the cafetaria
lunchtable about what kind of mathematics God used: Differential equations? Geometry? Algebra? Number theory? Set theory? If quantum theory is a true indication, God is not a mathematician at all. I insert some smatterings of philosophy and
history to illustrate how some famous thinkers and most of the human race have
functioned with non-Cartesian, non-objective, non-mathematical philosophies for
millennia, as we may have to now.
Outliue
The work is organized into four Acts.
Act 1 concerns the verb, and the two particles of language 8, expressing
"and then", and t, interchanging agent and recipient of an action, defining a t
semi group. We deal with only one system, and so can do without explicit nouns.
Act 1 includes a projective (non-metric) quantum algebra, and a metric one with
t and gauge generators (BRST operators).

X

Foreword

Act 2 forms many from one, raising grade or degree. The basic language
particles of Act 2 are V expressing a disjoint union, and 1., a negation. Act 2
represents both classical and quantum first-order set theory as Grassmann and
Clifford algebras of higher-degree actions.
Act 3 re-bonds many into one, raising order and type. The main new language
particle is a linear operator t that connects or unitizes actions.
In Act 4 we apply these tools to a theory of quantum groups of quantized
actions or operons. We experiment with this extended set theory in Chapter 16 to
formulate a quantum theory in which the topological pattern of causal connections
is the only variable in nature. We find, unexpectedly, that the symmetries of the
simplest such quantum spacetime provide candidates for the internal degrees of
freedom of spin, color, and isospin. This theory is still in development.
A mathematical toolshed (Chapter 17) organizes most of the mathematical
concepts, conventions and symbols that we use. If a mathematical term seems to
fall from the sky, the index should let you find it in the toolshed.
The bibliography at the end includes several hundred items on quantum spacetime, starred, most of them not further cited in the work, without by any means
exhausting the vein.
[[Notes, often at a higher level, are imbedded in the text and set off by double
brackets like this. They can be omitted without breaking the line of thought.]]
Some chapters begin with a list of mathematical prerequisites taken up in Chapter
17. The bracketed items are needed only for the bracketed material.
I am glad I abandoned my plan to finish this research before writing it up
and publishing it, for the pressure of publication has greatly furthered the work.
Since my ideas have changed during composition, I ask your indulgence for the
inconsistencies in style and content that have slipped through the re-writes, as well
as for my undoubtedly unprofessional handling of some elementary mathematics
and philosophy that this attempt at synthesis required.
Thanks

This volume derives from a bright hope that formed one afternoon in 1946 at
the City College of New York, in the high-ceilinged Tech Library, long since
demolished, when a student first encountered Von Neumann's logical analysis of
Heisenberg's quantum theory. The work is a response to the thought of Bohr,
Dirac, and Heisenberg, who changed our logic irreversibly, and of Von Neumann,
who pointed out this change and that it was just beginning.
Numerous students in the Quantum Topology Workshop at Georgia Tech have
provided useful criticism and corrections and enjoyable discussions in the last
two decades, especially Sarah Flynn, J. Michael Gibbs, Christian Holm, Wolfgang
Mantke, Ernesto Rodriguez, F. Tony Smith, Zhong Tang, and John Wilson.
I acknowledge with pleasure other key thought-shaping conversations with
Yakir Aharanov, James L. Anderson, Norman Austern, John W. Barrett, David

Foreword

XI

Bohm, Jeffrey Bub, Martin Davis, P.A.M. Dirac, Hans-Peter Durr, Richard P. Feynman, Edward Fredkin Ernst von Glasersfeld, Werner Heisenberg, Theodore A.
Jacobson, Josef M. Jauch, Evelyn Fox Keller, Robert Parris (then Moses), Aage
Petersen, Roger Penrose, Daniel Pisello, Gian-Carlo Rota, Heinrich Saller, Ralph
Schiller, Jack Schwartz, Dana Scott, Steven Selesnick, Saul-Paul Sirag, F. Tony
Smith, Lee Smolin, Raphael Sorkin, Henry Stapp, George Sudarshan, Leonard
Susskind, Jil'i Toller and Carl-Friedrichs von Weizsacker, among too many others
to list.
For money or hospitality that furthered this exploration I am happy to thank the
National Science Foundation, Stevens Institute of Technology, the Ford Foundation, the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN), Yeshiva University, the
Visiting Scientist Program of the American Institute of Physics, Tougaloo College
(now University), the Nyingma Institute, the Lindisfarne Association, the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (Trieste), the Esalen Institute, the Church
Foundation, the Max Planck Institute (Starnberg), Georgia Institute of Technology,
the Mathematical Institute of Oxford University, the Heisenberg Institute of Theoretical Physics of the Max Planck Institute (Munich). and the Ferst Foundation.
Shlomit Ritz Finkelstein, my beloved wife and esteemed co-worker, provided
constant support and valued critical discussions during recent years of this study.
Atlanta, November 1995

David Finkelstein

Contents

Act lOne
1. Quantum Action ...........................................
1.1 The Quantum Evolution .................................
1.2 Quantum Concepts .....................................
1.2.1 Initial and Final Modes ............................
1.2.2 Quantum Relativity ...............................
1.2.3 Time ...........................................
1.2.4 Being, Becoming and Doing .......................
1.2.5 Ontism and Praxism ..............................
1.3 Quantum Entities .......................................
1.3.1 Sharp Actions ...................................
1.3.2 Complete Actions ................................
1.3.3 Quantum Acts ...................................
1.3.4 Quantum Activity ................................
1.3.5 Quantum Superposition ............................
1.4 The Quantum Project ...................................
1.4.1 Understanding Quantum Theory .....................
1.4.2 The Quantum-Relativity Analogy ....................
1.5 Quantum Nomenclature .................................
1.6 Summary .............................................

3
3
11
12
19
21
22
24
27
27
28
29
29
30
33
35
36
37
41

2. Elementary Quantum Experiments ...........................
2.1 Malusian Experiments ...................................
2.2 Adjoint ...............................................
2.3 Action Vector Semantics .................................
2.3.1 General Actions ..................................
2.3.2 Action Vectors of Classical Systems .................
2.3.3 Equivalent Actions ...............................
2.3.4 Semantics and Ensembles ..........................
2.3.5 Logic, Kinematics, and Dynamics ...................
2.3.6 Complex Vectors .................................
2.3.7 Adjoint and Time Reversals ........................
2.4 Quantum and Classical Kinematics ........................
2.4.1 Classical Kinematics ..............................

43
43
49
53
53
55
56
57
58
59
60
65
65

...............1.............3 Bin and Commuting Calculus ............... and POR ...4............ 3....... 109 109 109 110 112 115 116 118 120 121 2.....5 Interpretations of Coordinates ..... 3.. Quantum and Classical Relativities ...... 2...........3 Some Classical Systems .....2............2 Classical Cooperations and Coarrows ..................... 3.. 3...................... 4........4 Bits and Anticommuting Calculus .......6 Framed Algebras ........................... 4.. 4..2....................... 3..2 N-ring ..........4......2 Adjoints and Metrics ......................3 Complete Coordinates .............. 3............ 3......... 3...........5 Causes .........2 Quantum Systems Are Not Categories .........3.............6 2.. 3................................3 Linearization .........6 Completeness .........4 Summary .......... 3........1 Quantum Arrows and Co arrows ....................5 2..................2..........................4....2.............. 4.... 3..............................3.............4 Vacuum ....................... 2.....2......2 Spectral Analysis .... 3.......................7 Connectedness ................. 4.... 2............... 3................. 3...................4.. 3..........................6 Extended Bin .......3..................... 3..1 Operations and Cooperations .....................................................4 Logical Modes ........3 Projections .......2.............. 4.......... 3......1 Bit ...1 Classical Operators .... Sums Over Paths ..... 4.......3 Quantum Kinematics ....................8 ........ 2... Summary ............................1.......................4 OR.....................1.................3.2 Bohr Quantum Principle .................1. XOR.......................... 4....................... 3..... 3....... 2..............................2.............5 Top Bin ...................... 3.....2.................... 3....................................2 Ordinates and Coordinates ........ 79 79 81 83 85 87 88 90 91 93 94 97 98 99 100 102 103 104 105 106 108 108 4.............. 4........1.5 References ...5 Averages .........................................2....4.2.XIV Contents 2.............. Discrete Quantum Theory ......7 2.....3..2.......1 Quantum Operations ....4 Quantum Coordinates ..............2 Negative Norms ...................4.............................................1 Classical Eigenvalue Principle .......................... 66 67 69 70 71 71 72 74 76 78 3................................1 Quantum Types .. Classical Matrix Mechanics ..1........ Quantum Jumps .3...........

1 Photoelectric Effect ......6..... ........... 5. ........5. ......6 Projective Coordinates ..... ........ . ........ 4..............7 Indefinite Quantum Kinematics ....... ............................ ..... . 5..... 5........................2...5 Born-Malus Law .................... .. 5.4... 5....6 Photon and Ghost ..4.................. ...... 5.. ...........3 How Did Newton Know? ..... 4.......4 Quantizing ..................................... 4.......... ....2... .......2 Unified Fields ..................7 Non-numerical Coordinates ............ ... 4.3...... ... 4.........2 Newton's Aether .............. 5.......2..3 Transformation Theory ...........3 G is for Gravity .............3 .. 4. ..................1 Quantum Binary Variables ..6...3 Projective Quantum Bin ..............5 Planck Units ................. ........1 Bit ... .. 5..............1 Re-relativizing ............. ..... .............8...........1 Descartes' Mathesis ..... ..8... ....... 5......... 153 153 156 156 158 159 160 163 164 164 165 165 165 167 167 168 169 171 173 ....... ...3 Quantization and Non-Commutativity ..........2 Quantum OR. .......8. 5...... .. 5..... ................... .... 5....... ...3 Diffraction . ..............1 Partial Reflection and Interference ........ . ..3. ........ 4.3.. .. 4.1 Correspondence Principle .. 4....... 4......2 Operator Kinematics....... .... 4.... Quantum and Classical ..Contents XV 4........ ........ .... ...... .........2 Rephasing .................... 5.5 Bohr's Atom ............... . .................. ....6 Quantum Logic ......9 Summary ... POR... 4.............. 5....4...... .... 5..... ........ .. ..................................4 Quantum Principle ....... Non-Objective Physics ................. 4.....3......... ......... .......4 h is for Quantum Theory ..3 Quantum Entity ....8............... 4...8...4.4.... 5. ................................8 Simple Quantum Systems ... .... ... ...... .. ......8...... ..... 4......3 Quantum Cooperations ......... 5.........2...........4 Einstein's Quantum ............................2. ...............2 Polarization ...... 4..... ........... . ............ ............... .. ............ 4......3.......... 4........5 Hydrogen Atom ......................... 4...... 5.... 4.1 k is for Thermodynamics ...... .......... 4..2 c is for Special Relativity ......... ...... .. . 4.. ... .......2.. ................4 Indeterminacy Principle ..................... ... .......3.................. 123 127 128 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 136 136 138 139 140 140 140 141 143 144 145 150 5..1 Frames .................3............ 4........ and XOR .. ......... ....6................. ........ .............. .......4....3 Planck's Constants ... .2 Bin ........ .........

.........4 Sequence ..... .............................................................................5.... 196 6.....4 Quantum Set .. 7................... 197 6........ 198 6.....3 Symmetry and Duality ................ 5..... 199 6...... 7............ 7........................... 195 6.........1 Quantum-Logical Addition ............................... 7........5.................. 203 Act 2 Many 7..2.........6 Generators ............... Why Vectors? .....4.4 Why Tensors? .....3 Multiplicity ...............................................................................1...2 Quantum-Logical Multiplication ........ 188 6....2 Quantum Series ....................................6........3 Singleton .........................................6......................................................3 Quantum Sib ...1 Fundamental Theorem (Weak Form) ....2 Theory N ...........................6.......8 Summary ........2 Quantum Combinatorics .................5 Why So Many Theories? ...2 Identification ...1..1 Theory S ...3 Adjoint ... 198 6. 193 6...........................................5 Fundamental Theorem (Strong Form) ..1 Quantum Sequence ....2. 5.........................1 Occlusion ..5........................................................1 Classical Combinatorics ..1................ 199 6...........4 Modularity ......... 173 176 178 179 182 183 6....7 Critique of the Lattice Logic ..4.........5.............. 7....4 Logic-based Arithmetic ...........1.................6 Desarguesian Postulate .2 Unordered Pairs of Units . 5................................... 7...... 191 6..2..................... 7...........Contents XVI 5............... 202 6...........2 Galois Lattices and Galois Connection ....1..................6 Post-quantum Theories ...............................................7 Proofs .. 7..... 187 6........................... 7...5 Irreducibility ....................6................ 202 6........5..1.. 7.5.3 Theory 0 ..... 7................... 5........... Many Quanta ....................................... 197 6.................... 199 6..... 185 6...5............ 192 6..............2.... 7......6 Sib .................................... 207 208 210 212 212 214 216 220 221 222 224 224 225 226 228 229 229 ............................4 Theory [.....................5 Series .5 Summary :....................... 7........... 7......... 5............................. 7................................................................6.7 Set ............. 7.....1 Ordered Pairs of Units .1....................................

.... 8..........9 .................. . Clifford .5 The 8qcs Process .1 Superpositions and Mixtures ....... 283 285 288 288 290 290 292 293 294 295 9...................1 Tychistic Logical Algebra .......... 8.......2.6.... 8............... Leibniz ......5 9.............. 10........2 Mixed Operations ...1............2 9................ 10..3........3.....2.............................................................................. 8.5 Coherent Cooperators ................. Peano ...........................7 9....6..................2 Strong Law of Large Numbers ..................4 Hidden States ............. 10.............2......1 Weak Law of Large Numbers .2 Extensor Terminology ................. 10................1 Coherent States ..... .. 231 232 234 235 235 235 236 238 238 239 240 240 242 243 245 246 248 9..............1 Remarks on Set Algebra ........3 Recursive Construction ........4 Diffuse Medial Actions ..................................... Summary ..1 Opposite .. 8.................2.............................................. Quantum Set Algebra .................................3 Classical Limit .....Contents XVII 8.. 8.................. Aristotle ..................... 10............... 8............2.5 Products .... 8......4....................3 Equatorial Bulge .2 Diffuse Initial Actions ...2..3 Extensor Structure .........4...............................8 9.. 9...................1.......... Quantum Probability and Improbability .................................... The 9...................... 8..................................... 9... Peirce ............... 8........... 255 256 260 262 265 265 267 268 271 273 275 277 278 279 281 10.3 9............................3...........1 Quantum Law of Large Numbers ...................... 8.. Llull and Bruno .......2..............1 9.. 8...............3...............................4 Search for Pangloss .....3 Diffuse Final Actions ........6..... 8... Grassmann .......................4 Bases ............ 8.......2..............2 Macroscopic Measurement ....... 10....2 Degree ............ 8........6 Complement 10.............6 9..........................................................2......................2...................... 9.................................................... 9............. Boole ..... 10............2 Tensor Algebra of Sets ... .......2 Synechism and Quantum Condensation ..................1 Extensors ...........................4 Coherent Plane .............3........................................................... 8........3 Nomic Evolution .. 9......................... 10...................2.

. 11................ 11....................................................... 10........ lLl................... 11.............5................................. 10...............................2 POINCARE ..3................................................4 Spin Adjoint .......................... 297 300 304 306 308 311 312 313 315 Act 3 One 11.......4 The Real World .................7................ 11.....2....5...1 Chronometry .2 Distortion .... 11.4 Ricci Tensor .. 11.....6...............8 Summary .... 11....6.............................3 Curvature .... 11...6 Gravity ..... 319 319 320 323 323 324 326 328 328 331 333 333 334 336 337 337 339 339 340 340 340 341 343 346 348 350 350 352 353 354 356 358 ...4 Infinitesimal LORENTZ ......................... 11.........................5 Spacetime Decomposition of Spin .................. 11.6..................1.............5..5......1..1 Spinors and Polyspinors .......... .....2.......... 10....l Null Symmetric Metric .. Mixed and Fully Quantum Set Algebras ................. ILl Flat Spacetime ..4 Infinite Sets 10.4 The Idea of Gauge . 11.................... 11......2.......1 Covariant Derivative ................. 11.......2........7 Spin .... 11........ 11...................................3.....6.....1 Classes as Clifford Extensors ..............7...2 General Relativization ..3 Episystemic Variables ..........3 Einstein Locality .......................2 Spin Algebra ... 11......... Classical Spacetime ............................. 11........6 Clifford Algebra ........ 11.......7...........l Special Relativistic Gravity ................................................. 11............................2 Causal Symmetry Implies Minkowski ..5........... I1....... 11............................ 10.............3 Sesquispinors ...... 11........................ 10.................................5 Classical............. 11.........................................1 Equivalence Principle .7....................... 7................................ 11................3 LORENTZ 11.........................3 Spinors and Minkowski .......................................6.7................. 10.............XVIII Contents 10.......6.............. 11..................... 11.......5 Tensor Differential Calculus ..............9 Summary ........... .... 11.....................................8 Spin Gauge ...........2 Real Quantum Theory ..5 Torsion Tensor .....6 Dirac Spinors .....7 Quantum Extensors .....2 Einstein Gravity ...............2 Causal Symmetries ..... 10. 11.

..4 Schr6dinger Picture ..6 Action Principle ... 12..................1.............2.....4....2............5......................3.... Semi-quantum Dynainics ............................................4......4 Schwinger Variational Principle ............................. 12.. 12.1.........3 Odd Fields .............1 Forward Propagation .......................4 Energy ..... 13. 12.5 The Measurement Problem ................................................. 12..............3.1..1 Local Fields 13........... 12........................................... 359 359 359 360 360 362 363 365 366 366 367 369 370 370 371 373 376 376 379 380 381 382 384 386 388 389 389 390 391 393 395 396 397 13...........2...1 Quantum Energy .............1 Phase Space ..........................7 Hamiltonian Dynamics ....................2.......................6 What do Physicists Want? ...3 Quantum Propagation .... 12............... 12.............2 Coherent states .3 Heisenberg Picture . 13........ 12..........4..... 12.....2 Classical Dynamics .............. 12.....................................................2 Least Time Principle ....1 Propagator .5.........................Contents XIX 12........ 12................. 12.......................... 12................ 12..................1 Path Amplitude ......... 13.........5 Time-dependent Dynamics ........4 Backward Propagation .....2................5 Superquantum Theory ....5.....................1.2.............5......3 Measuring the Gauge Connection ................ 12.............................. 12.....5 Quantum Locality .2. 12.... 13. 12... 12........ 12.........4.... 12............ 13..........3 Hamiltonian and Lagrangian Theories ..............6 Generators ......3 Canonical Quantization .5.....1 Gauge History ..5 Stationary Phase ............................. 12... 12.2 Standard Model ......1 Real Time and Sample Time ............. ......................2...................................... 12.... 13..........1.........2 Classical Propagation .............2...........1.....2 Gauge Physics .........................................4.............. Local Dynamics 399 401 407 407 411 412 415 418 418 13........................................5......................6 Summary ....5 Quantum Action Principle ....................................... 12...... 12.................4 Variational Derivative ..2..........2 Quantum Connection ...........................2 Path Tensor ...... 12. 12........... 12..........3 Endpoint Variations ........ 12.............................. 12.4 Quantum Dynamics .....

. ......3 The Operon Concept ...... ........ ........... ... 14........ . ......... ......... .4 Tensor Set Theory ... ............ 15... .. .............. . 15... .......................... .. . ...... .................. ........... ......3 The Quantum Set .. 14...8 Summary ..... .1 Why Set Calculus? ..... ....... ...1. . 445 445 448 448 449 451 454 455 458 459 461 461 463 464 466 468 470 470 471 Act 4 Nothing 16. 14... . 15.... . .... ............... .. ...3.... ... .... ..........3.... .......... ... ........ ........6.. ....6... ... ........ . ... ... 14...... .1 First-Order Random Sets 14. ........................ .. ........ ....1.....2 Random Sets ..... . 15... ...... . ...... .. .. 15. ... .6 Metastatistics ............ ............3 Classical Double Semigroup and Algebra ...... .. 15........6 Examples .... .... . ........ .. ...... ...... 15..5 Order ...... .. . .... ... ............ ......2 Classical Double Arrows . . 15.....5 Quantum Double Arrows ..3..........3. Quantum Groups and Operons .3 Does Unitizing Respect Degree? .. ... .. ..... Quantum Spacetime Net . .......... 14. ..... .. 421 421 423 424 426 427 428 428 429 429 434 435 437 438 438 439 439 442 444 15.......1 Interpretations of Set Theory ..... ............ 15... ......3 Classical Pure Sets ...... .... ........... .6 Summary ..... . 15..XX Contents 14.. .. ..... 477 ...2 Double Operations ....... 15..6......3 Operation Semigroup .... ....... ... ..... . ................2 Activated Set Theory ...... 14...2 Grassmann Algebra of the Random Set . 14..... ..... ......... .. ......... ......... .......... 475 16.. ....2.. 14...... 14.. .....3................. 14........... . ...... ........7 Coherent Group of a Quantum Monoid . ... 15..1 Unit and Inversor ... ... ...2........ . .. ... ........... ........ 14.. 15. ..................... . ...... .... 14..... 14. . . ........ 14......6...... Quantum Set Calculus ..... ..3. .. ......... .....5 Quantum Mapping ...... ..... ....1....... ... .1 Algebraic Preliminaries .. .............6. ...........5........ ..1 Motivations ..5 Pair Monoids .................. ... 15......2 Quantum Four-group ............ .1 Higher-Order Quantum Set .. ... . .. 15............ . .... 14. .. .. ........ ... ... .... ... 15...4 Act Algebra .................. ...2 Operators of the Quantum Set .. ......... ..1 Quantum Topology .......... ... ........... . ....3. ...... ...................4 Quantum Operon .... ... 15.. . .. .4 Operon Diagrams ..2................ ..... ...... 14... 14.. ... .2........................ ....6 Projective Quantum Groups .... ... .... .............2...7 Quantum Lambda Calculus ... ... . .... . ...........6.. ......1 Quantum Plane ..... 15.

......... .........................8 Quantum Network Dynamics .........3........................7 Internal Groups ........... .. 16...... 16.......................................... 16............................ 16....................... 16................ 16... 16..2 Acts .............. 17..........4...............4............1 Causal Spacetime Network ......3 Indefinite Spin Metric .......2 Minkowski Spacetime .. ..3 Microstructure ..........3 Quantizing Discrete Spacetimes ......................3 QND Action Principle ............. 16..3..1 Discrete Poincare Group .... 16...6...2.............3............4... 16......................2..................3 Quantum Poincare Group ..........7 Graph Theory ............. 16... 16................ 17..... ......... 16....................................3.................................................4 Coherent Translation Group ....4.... ........................ 16.............6............. .............5 The Supercrystalline Vacuum ............1.. 17........................Contents XXI 16..5 Membership Theory ..3. Toolshed .. ...4 Net Notation .........................8......1 Semigroup and Group ..... 16....... 16...........5... 16.3.......... ......... 16... 16......8...... 16......1 Logic and Sets ...............1 Network Charges and Fluxes . 16.. .... 16..... ......8 Inclusion Theory ..2 Quantum Spacetime Past . 16... 16..... . 16..5.... .....2. .. 16. 16............7.... .. ............................ 16.. .....5 Spin .............3.............................2 The Unitary Groups ..... 17....9 Summary . 16...................... ...........5.2. 17............ ..............1 Hyperspace .... 519 519 520 521 522 522 . 16...... ....... 16.................. 16.................... .. .1 Correspondence· .....6....2 Causal Relation and Successor Relation ...9 Choosing a Spacetime Theory .......................................1 Discrete Spin ..4 Coherent Spin .......2 Infraspace ..... 16...................1........1 QND Gauge Symmetries ... ........... .............8.......2 Net Diagrams ........... .........................2 Algebra .... . 16. ............2 Commutation Relations of the Standard Model ............................4 Quantum Spacetime Nets ...................... ...6 Flat Spacetime .6..............7. ................................6 Vertex Theory ...... 16. ............3 Quantum Spacetime Present ...4 Simplicial Complex Theory ........... ....... 16.............. ................4.......... ...3.............................2 Quantum Spin ....... 479 481 481 481 482 483 484 484 485 485 486 486 486 486 490 490 493 493 494 495 496 497 500 502 503 504 505 506 507 507 509 510 511 512 512 514 514 516 17................3....3 Hyperalgebra ..................5.1 Recursive Constructions ... 16.....

.... Order Concepts ......5.2.................................................................. 17........2...... 557 Index .................. 17............3 Perturbation Series ..................... 17........... 17.....................6 Involutions ....1 Tensor Calculus .... Topology ......2.............................3 Relation ............ 17.............................2..........3........1 Projective Geometry .............................6 17..........................2............................2...................4 17..........2. 17.........2 Gauge .. 17............ Module..............................3 17................. 17.................3 Diagram .3.......2....2 Double Operators ........ 17. ................ 17........3 Group .....9.........................XXII Contents 17....7......5... 17........................4 Ring.......5 17........................2....2 Mathematical Symbols and Abbreviations ........1 Discrete Perturbation Theory .......7 17........ 17........ 17......2.... Bibliography 524 526 526 527 527 528 531 532 534 535 539 540 541 541 541 543 544 545 547 547 548 550 551 552 553 553 554 .............2................. Hilbert Space and t Space .........................7 Lie Algebra .......................5........................2............. 17.............5 Group Representation ................. 17........ Vector Space ..........5.......... Notation ......................2...................3........9.2 Complex ............9 Manifold .. 17...... 17.2........2 Category .................7.. 17....... 569 .8 Tensor .1 Indices ............ 17.................4 Continuous Perturbation Theory . 17......... 17............................2................ .. Perturbation Methods ................. Algebra....................2 Order Structures ..................2...1 Graph .......

Goethe .Act lOne In the beginning was the act.

simply to clarify their meanings. Chapter 17. a theory of classes.. the hardcore mathematics. ray. One purpose of this chapter is to explain how to take the rest of the work. say. We call this switch of attention from objects to acts upon them the "activation" of a theory. It happens that when the logician George Boole (1847) first formulated these. basis. shared by all known particles and likely universal.. rests on a dynamic. Mathematical tools: semi group. namely an "act of election" that "selects from the general population the subpopulation of those individuals" belonging to the class. Boole defined a class by a "mental action". These. It deals with a certain kind of activity called quantum. [[category. At least skim this chapter before plunging ahead. yet totally unexpected and anomalous from the point of view. He could recognize this possibility because he expressed his concepts of classes and their relations in terms of patterns of human actions. He dropped this practice once it had done its job [Boole (1854)]. he already pointed out that they were in principle subject to revision. It is possible to read this book as a work of mathematics and learn no quantum theory from it at all. Notes fenced off by double brackets [[ . I used to skip such chapters to get to the real stuff. metric. We introduce it in this chapter and develop it in the rest of the work. I remind you. .1. We copy Boole's early practice of putting acts before things. We cannot. 1. vector space. As a result. of medieval Scholastic logic or 20th century Boolean logic. some Boolean concepts and laws do not work for quanta. are kept in the toolshed.1 The Quantum Evolution Quantum physics brings the most exact and subtle experiments to bear on our most general and primitive convictions. because of structural differences between Boolean theory and quantum theory. ]] can be left for later. What Boole seems to say is that logic. To begin with. coset]]. Quantum Actions I assume that a good physics language must have a combinatorial structure that reflects the combinatorial structure of nature itself. It is easier to learn new mathematics than to change how we think about ourselves and nature. a theory of actions. The quantum theory has a language whose structure differs from the other theories of physics. dual space. algebra.

whether as respects the repetition of a given action or the succession of different ones. It is possible to assign relations among them. Boole defined the AND operation on two properties (and the intersection or meet of two classes) as this product. that if they were other than they are.. which are never violated. As he put it: "Now the several mental actions which in the above case we have supposed to be performed. albeit in the words of his day. for example. Let us call this closure assumption Boole's zeroth law. and so little important as to be undeserving of special notice. and stands for concatenation.) With these concepts he formulated several algebraic "laws of thought" which today we recognize as postulates of logic. A set of actions can form a natural semi group (a set of elements with an associative product) whose product o is called serial. for his mental acts of election and naturally wrote AB for the execution of act A followed by act B. Yet it may with confidence be asserted. (For purely historical reasons one does not carry this definition into the quantum theory. Quantum Actions Doing two actions in succession is also an action. including both selective and non-selective acts. true that the result of two successive acts is unaffected by the order in which they are performed. instantaneous) physical operations. Underlying our working logic for any closed physical system f (which we assume has a well-defined temporal structure) is a semi group Op f of (sharp. The briefest of Boole's laws are his first and second: AA=A (1) BA=AB. Quantum physics changes the structure of this semigroup radically. the performing of one action after another. We see this experimentally as follows. . Boole used letters A.. that mental selective acts form a distinguished commutative sub-semigroup within the semi group of all mental actions on the system under study. It is. and there are at least two other laws which will be pointed out in the proper place. The selective actions of quantum physics neither commute nor form a sub-semigroup of Op f .4 1. the entire mechanism of reasoning. These will perhaps to some appear so obvious as to be ranked among necessary truths. are subject to peculiar laws. B. First he wrote that if A and B are class-defining acts of election then so is the product BA. nay the very laws and constitution of . in pre-quantum physics selective acts form a distinguished commutative sub-semigroup of Op f. as a reluctant concession to the dominant algebraic practice of today) and drop the O-sign here. (2) That is. We generally write this as BOA (in reverse order. or some other particular. he postulated that the serial product of elective acts defines an abelian semigroup of idempotent elements. Boole said precisely. Further.

in J. A Logic might indeed exist. The very thought of revising logic immediately raises a certain problem. and even as they build particle accelerators in which special relativity will be important.A.M. Similar doubts arose with each of them and were resolved in much the same way we use now.l. the newer theories of Einstein have the same practical consequences as the older and less accurate theories of Newton and Euclid. This does not lead us to doubt that special and general relativity change our concepts of space and time. which we therefore take up at once. Ultimately. any new physics must effectively incorporate the part of the old that works in order for us to take it seriously. P. The machinist actually uses special and general relativity without knowing it.1 The Quantum Evolution 5 the human intellect. would be vitally changed. Let us call classes and logics mental or physical according to whether they are defined by mental elective or physical selective actions. These selective actions include what Dirac calls "acts of free choice": Dirac described them thus: The perturbations which an observer inflicts on a system in order to observe it are directly subject to his control and are acts of his free will. . Then Boole's algebra was one of mental actions and defined a mental logic while ours will be one of physical actions and define a physical logic. machinists continue to use standard time and Euclidean geometry. All physical selective acts change their recipients. It is exclusively the numbers which characterize these acts offree choice which can be taken as initial numbers for a calculation in the quantum theory." Boole (1847) I have italicized what I take as license for enterprises like our present one. it lets us forget that they are actions at all and enables us to think of them as direct information about states of being. For example. In general. but it would no longer be the Logic we possess. Kalckar (1985) Boole's second law permits us to infer that his selective acts do not change their recipient. with its limited precision. because in the machine shop. Do we not use the old logic of Aristotle and Boole in this very discussion of the allegedly new one? Does it not follow that we retain the old logic after all? Conservatively radical evolutions are now well known in physics. Dirac. even after the discovery of special and general relativity. or radio telescopes to verify predictions of general relativity. The "vital change" Boole foreshadowed in 1847 began in 1926 when the physicist Werner Heisenberg recognized that our atomic selective acts break Boole's second law. The new theory effectively incorporates the working part of the old. It goes forward today.

A dark-adapted eye will perceive a sufficiently dim light as a sequence of discrete scintillations. In this chapter when we speak of photons we shall consider only their polarization variables. and verify that the old pre-quantum relations among them hold well enough within the quantum theory. The light from such a polarizer thus has its electric vectors aligned . The ultimate question of which logic is right is an empirical practical one: Which best represents the selective and dynamical actions that we can actually perform? We return to the reconstruction itself. First we recall what photons and polarizers are. by introducing enough ideal actions. o Nowadays polarizers are apt to be plastic sheets with long light-absorbing molecules aligned by rolling the sheet out to stretch it greatly in one direction (just as needles lying on a rubber sheet are aligned when we stretch the sheet along one direction). which happens to give correct averages in this case. This requires us to discover the physical selective acts underlying each of the classes of the old logic. because the new logic incorporates the working part of the old one. The fewer degrees of freedom take part in an experiment. fortunately. a photon's polarization variables separate rather cleanly from the others.6 1. Light from the sun has electric vectors in random directions. such as one of the following kinds. At first we shall use only linear polarizers. show a similar discreteness. For example in the quantum experiments of Malus (1809). has spacetime variables. The component of the electric field along each molecular antenna drives currents in it. and a quantum one in a classical one. Quantum Actions Even after we reconstruct our logic. In some experiments. even in its own construction. the more clearly quantum effects show up. We can always imbed a classical logic in a quantum one. the aligned molecules are line antennas which absorb energy from the electric field of the light wave. Lightdetectors of any kind. at least in a first discussion. In treating such Malusian experiments we may ignore the momentum and the position of the photons. too many for a primer example. we must be able to claim that we actually used the new logic all along without knowing it. a variety of calcite. A photon. or photons. when pushed to sufficient sensitivity. Quantum physics begins with the study of photons. The rods in the eye are so sensitive that several photons suffice to stimulate one. momentum variables and polarization variables. Mathematics cannot make this choice for us. The component of the electric field normal to the antenna is not. This experiment also demonstrates how to fix the broken law. o The earliest recorded polarizers were crystals of Iceland spar. light from the sun is passed through two calcite crystals in succession and then reaches the eye. and is attenuated. We infer that light consists of indivisible units or quanta of light. does work. This discreteness is not entirely an optical illusion. however. It is easiest to see quanta break Boole's second law with photons and three polarizers. According to the wave theory of light that dominated physical thought in the 19th century.

) to one kind of photon and transparent (0) to another. y and the x + y ("diagonal") directions be called X. behaves more like such an ideal polarizer in series with one gray filter and in parallel with another. o When sunlight passes through clouds or mists. By convention the polarization is said to be along the transmitted electric field. We imagine an ideal polarizer to be opaque (. and merely extend the domain of definition from the pre-quantum to the quantum.3 as we sharpen our language. o Light glancing off a shiny transparent material like glass or water at a special angle called the Brewster angle of the material is also linearly polarized. but the composite act X 0) P = X P does not. Then the following experiments show that X and P separately obey Boo!e's first law (1) well enough. By A = B we mean that we cannot statistically distinguish an A act (or a sequence of A acts) from a B act (or a sequence of B acts) by their outcomes. however. Y. We mention some of the complexities of actual polarizers only to ignore them with better conscience. using Iceland spar. In commercial production. Vikings navigated on days when clouds hid the sun by viewing the horizon through crystals of Iceland spar. . Drawing on their experience. Here for example we assume we know what it means to use the same crystal again but define what it means for two polarizations to be the same. it is linearly polarized in a direction normal to the plane defined by the incident and scattered propagation directions. We define this a bit more precisely in 1. the light singly scattered through is polarized in this way. and so normal to the molecular alignment. In what follows we write equations A = B between selective acts. o When light is scattered through 'Tr /2 by suspended particles in a transparent fluid. 'Tr /2 We write 0 for the action "Stop!" We can use it for any experiment that produces no counts. and so locating the hidden sun. and P respectively. We understand that 0 0) A = 0 = A 0) 0 . the Danish scientist Erasmus Bartholinus (1669) published the first paper on polarization. Let the physical acts of selection performed by polarizing filters along the x. at the cost of making the extra series one significantly absorbing. determining the polarization of cloud-scattered sunlight. Newton and Malus used his work.3.1 The Quantum Evolution 7 and is said to be linearly polarized. but our definitions always rest on a prior pre-quantum understanding of the very concept we define. Therefore much sky light is polarized. An actual polarizer. one usually makes polarizing filters thick enough so that the extra parallel filter is rather close to opaque. so that is never totally transparent or opaque. and omit them. We must therefore define operationally what it means for two selective acts A and B to be "equal". We do not ask how the language game began. A stack of flat glass plates illuminated at their Brewster angle is an effective polarizer. in a way that allows for (but does not commit us to) the possibility that they change the system upon which they act.1. We pretend that the extra series filter is completely transparent and the extra parallel one is completely opaque. A = B.

unlike Boole's mental ones. It follows that XP #. just as physical boosts do not all commute. All boosts along the x axis commute. The body of thought that rests on this false premise one calls classical. To show that X P #. unlike those of pre-Einsteinian physics. the fact that classes are defined by acts. .. predicates.O.P X (again). This is why we cannot ever suppress. To be sure there are commutative boosts or selective acts in our experimental repertory. It follows that X P #. • This is the sign of a quantum system: Our selective acts for it do not all commute.. classes.X P . Pre-quantum physics implicitly rests on ideal selective acts that do not change the entities they select. Then compare transmission (say of sunlight) through a sequence X P X P with that through X P. Infinitely gentle non-disturbing acts of selection would commute. Now we are ready for Malus: Experiment 1. fails to commute with almost all others.PX. as Boole finally did. Do the same for P. in both cases.8 1. According to quantum theory every non-trivial physical selective act. Experience seems to support relativity. Verify that XY = 0 and that P XY = O. Experiment 2. To show that XP #. and the null action in that it does nothing and takes no time. It follows that the composition of two selective acts in series is not always a selective act. violating relativity. X and Y commute. properties. Then interchange X and P and verify that X PY transmits a significant fraction (ideally 1/8) of the incident polarized light.PX. Two selective acts that do not commute (and the variables. for from XP = PX and XX = X and PP = P we could infer that XPXP = XXPP = XP. The difficulty with this axiom-clutching. change the photon that they act on. Quantum Actions We write 1 for the action "Continue!" 1 is the identity action. Quantum complementarity implies that all physical acts. We understand that 1 0 A = A = A 0 1 . But there are many such sets of commuting acts and they do not all commute with each other. our first conservative impulse is to deny that such non-commutative acts are truly selective acts. Therefore X PY #. Whose x axis shall we prefer? To prefer one such commutative set over another would arbitrarily single out one experimenter over others. It is not just that some rare and special selective acts fail to commute. Similarly. in that inserting it in an experiment changes nothing. .. not commutativity. and so we might wish to disqualify them as boosts. they define) are called complementary. is that it leaves us stuck. We shall accept that physical selective acts do not all commute.P x. Verify that X obeys (1) by comparing transmission through two polarizers X X with transmission through one X. Note that they are not equal: X P X P #. the boosts (transformations to moving coordinate systems) of special relativity do not commute. When we come to quantum theory from classical.

Nevertheless Boole was right: A logic indeed still exists. Even mental acts of election do not obey Boole's second law exactly. We cannot partition quantum acts cleanly into selective and dynamical. This is one of many quantum unities that we gain by renouncing classical certainties. dissolves. In quantum theory. be it constructive. any (non-trivial) selective act must sometimes change the photon.1 The Quantum Evolution 9 Today one calls the body of thought that incorporates this complementarity. They cautioned us not to regard microscopic events as real things apart from their macroscopic traces. deduce that our experimental technique is too coarse. continually varying entities. Selective quantum acts are so far from commuting that we can with some probability effect any physical change in nature whatever. But one can imagine indivisible units without complementarity. a physicist before special relativity might have set out to transmit signals faster than light. Lawyers speak of "leading the witness". and clashes with our everyday experience with people and other sensitive. the term "quantum" referred simply to their indivisibility. Before complementarity was discovered. and not the one he knew. This conceptual evolution need not be a complete surprise.) Because the concatenation of two selective acts is a more general kind of action. the quantum theory would tell us to look more sharply for the change. Can you see its empirical meaning? What experiment would break it? (Remember the empirical meaning of "=". According to the quantum theory. On the other hand. and nowadays these might not be called quanta. and set out to observe photon polarization without changing the photon. it is artificial and clumsy to separate logic from dynamics in quantum theory as we do in classical thought. Although X and P obey Boole's first law. X and P are. Doing selective acts in series leads out of the class of selective acts into the wider class of acts in general. Likewise. deduces from these photon changes that our experimental repertory might conceivably be full. Therefore the selective acts X and P also violate Boole's zeroth law. . are collectively called quanta. The order in which we ask ourselves questions sometimes significantly affects our answers. because XP does not we do not call it a selective act. Had our polarization selection never perceptibly changed the photon.1. however. they change everything that can change at all. There must be a complementary property. The classical line between knowing and doing. The classical physicist might see that polarizing filters change photons. conservative or destructive. ideal selective acts change nothing. between information and action. such as printed letters. Heisenberg and Niels Bohr saw early in their work together that applying the classical logical particles AND and OR to microscopic events could lead to contradictions with quantum experience. or a mathematican before Galois might have set out to solve the general quintic equation with radicals. the associative law A(BC) = (AB)C seems to persist. The quantum physicist. Boole's second law extrapolates our experience with specially stabilized and taxonomized entities. with a succession of two physical selective acts. In classical theories. quantum. but not X P. Indivisible units such as photons and electrons.

The mathematicians Emil Leon Post. it was born out of relativity. Von Neumann developed a functional set theory that took mathematical transformations or acts as fundamental rather than sets themselves. Quantum theory soon exposed even deeper absoluteness assumptions. We moderate this enthusiasm with a hardearned lesson: Logic is but a part of a theory. And Heisenberg'S quantum theory at last dealt with non-commutative physical actions of determination. Continuity with Einsteinian relativity was uppermost in Heisenberg's mind when he set out to "eliminate" (actually. Intuitionistic logic is also useful therefore in dealing with computer actions. selection and control. about being. may no longer be appropriate. and relativized them. It would be poor strategy to attempt an empirical logic independently of the rest of its science. Here for example we imbed each logic in an action semigroup. Quantum mechanics can- . knowledge. and meaning. taking into account their supposed finiteness. This relativity has led to an even greater economy of concepts than Einstein's. Relativistic mechanics might be regarded as a special kind of Newtonian mechanics (namely one having certain symmetries. Instead of dropping logic when we learn quantum theory. Von Neumann did not carry his functional approach to logic into his quantum theory. with its simple chronological order. He gave a preliminary reconstruction of elementary logic along this line by 1929. not the older class-based one. not the serial product 8. Increasingly action-based logics followed Boole's. the Poincare transformations of special relativity).10 1. His quantum logic was a modified theory of classes. for example fusing time and space into spacetime. The acts of free choice adduced by Paul Dirac in the quotation given above are modern descendants of the acts of election introduced by Boole. but in some physical domains (say quantum gravity) the semigroup concept. Quantum Actions The mathematician John Von Neumann proposed a more constructive program. Kurt Godel. we recall. relativize) these unobservable absolutes. Quantum physics is action physics. which is but a part of a science. and Alan Turing developed decideability theories based on the actions of a mathematician or a computer upon ideal symbols. they revised it. not actions. based on commutative AND and OR operations. In doing so it united concepts that had previously been thought to be separate. Later he declared the study of physical or empirical logics (Von Neumann's plural) in general and quantum logics in particular to be the most important problem of mathematics of the coming century. Relativity. and so simplified our world picture and language. Von Neumann proposed to revise it. brought to our awareness the assumptions that time and space were absolute. Luitzen Brouwer developed an intuitionistic logic in the early twentieth century that was again a theory of mental actions. for example fusing spacetime and energymomentum into one irreducible algebra. People did not drop geometry when they learned special relativity. We follow the younger action-based Von Neumann in this matter. making the least possible changes consistent with quantum experience. truth. which is essentially experimental. While quantum theory was foreshadowed by Boole and created by Heisenberg as a break with commutativity.

2 Quantum Concepts Today logic and set theory undergo. in a still more drastic form. [[In our exploration we come to a "universal" algebraic action language ACT (Chapter 14) that envelops many of these algebras.1. In one famous retirement address to mathematicians. time. in quantum language we give our actions upon the system. being. and a logistics to tell which of these experiences we can actually have. Newtonian mechanics is a degeneration of quantum mechanics. We cannot make even the simplest quantum principles both succinct and precise in ordinary language. but a praxic one. which incorporates the very rules that quantum theory revises. here called N. Like semi group theory. In the non-relativistic physics called quantum mechanics. who recognized a physical geometry that was empirical. and even dynamically varying. Once again one needs a new tool. one that says what things are. not a general framework for it. In his own sequel to this address. We take up first the quantum theory of the 1930's. N was a historically important early phase of quantum logic. The portion of a quantum logical language formulated by Von Neumann. Modern physics incorporates many of these assumptions without change but it relativizes some basic classical absolutes. elementary quantum theory represents acts without mentioning their agent (that which acts) or recipient (that which undergoes the act. and Bernhard Riemann and William Clifford. It leads us into old grooves. presumably because we did not evolve from quantum physicists. we develop for each quantum entity € an elementary (that is. a semantics to relate these expressions to experiences they stand for. one that records actions. Act is an operator algebra designated by Op = Op €. 1. Instead of saying what the system under study is. and specifically the lattice arising in projective geometry. Classical assumptions about the nature of knowledge. The quantum language is not an ontic language.2 Quantum Concepts 11 not. the patient of the act). in older philosophical terms. truth. who still believed that Euclid's axioms were both necessities of thought and physical truths. and number seem to permeate all natural languages. Von Neumann proposed a revised logic for physics as a step towards the solution of Hilbert's problem. the kind of flow that geometry underwent between the days of Immanuel Kant. like a musical or choreographic score or a computer program. though Von Neumann recognized that it would need to be modified to take Einsteinian relativity into account. or what its state is. This reduces the need for nouns. much of which survives today. first-order) algebraic action-semigroup Act = Act € to formalize our reasoning about quanta. Natural language has become impractical for reasoning about quanta or spacetime. David Hilbert posed the problem of ax iomati zing physics. a natural candidate for a lan- . uses the generalization of the Boolean algebra of AND and OR called lattice theory. Any language has at least these three parts: a syntax to produce expressions. subject to revision. To help us to reason about these unreasonable quanta.

the operator language of Heisenberg and Von Neumann. but also a mental tool for thinking about nature and existence.2. It is not only a branch of pure mathematics. and £. the general lattice language has proven too inexpressive and too remote from experiment for physics. While the syntax of ACT is mathematical. Bohr formulated a provisional atomic theory. We suppose that any scheme that goes so far beyond experiment is bound to be somewhat classical at the core and ultimately impractical. here named N. and Hugh Everett III. W. It incorporates the basic lessons of the polarization language of Malus. We build Act on H. Bohr noted. built on experimental and probabilistic inference. Eugene Wigner. ACT may be formulated as a relativistic generalization of a "noncommutative lattice" extension of N. It is only in such transitions. only during transitions between these orbits.1 Initial and Final Modes What does it mean to know something? Your answer to this question defines your epistemology . 1.]] Some have generalized from N to other lattices. that we never see the atom as it is. respectively.12 1. which continues to use the algebraic action language ft of Heisenberg. so that in the limit we could gain knowledge of the thing as it is. In the brief interregnum between classical and quantum mechanics. an Omnilingua (Leibniz's term) or a Pangloss (Voltaire's parody). and the quantum relativity of Dirac. that ascribed to electrons in an atom stationary orbits in which they did not radiate. We mention some of its novelties next. All of these present themselves as ontic rather than praxic languages. It follows. not arguments. The scientific method popularized as a Novum Organum (new tool) by Francis Bacon defines one effective epistemology. we can no longer imagine taking this . In Chapter 5 we will also mention four alternative formulations to ft. It differs from all natural languages and all pre-1926 mathematical ones in how it does this. still pursues what he called a logic of effects. but it is still an extension and refinement of natural language. S. that we see the atom. Physicists Enrico Fermi and Paul Dirac expanded H to a language for ensembles of quanta using Grassmann algebra. and not only an instrument for computing the outcomes of some experiments. Epistemology was the midwife at the birth of quantum theory. but ACT might be useful for a time. now called the old quantum theory. Since Bohr's atomic orbits are a discrete family . We cover this important (but still first-order) expansion with the same label H . the algebraic logic of Grassmann. especially the dialect of Fermi-Dirac ensembles. In classical physics one imagined that such changes could be made arbitrarily small. leading to a branch of lattice theory often called "quantum logic". Bohr postulated. therefore. Though useful for some discussions. it is still designed to communicate and reason about experience. however. Any act by which we see an atom changes it drastically. Quantum Actions guage to describe "all" systems. after John Von Neumann (as already mentioned). Quantum theory. the deepest revision of the scientific epistemology since Bacon. Atoms absorb or radiate. Erwin Schrodinger.

Quantum theory goes further. and so we must arrive at the same result either way. we can know a system at one instant either by an act that we did just before that instant. An initial action occurs before the fact of which it informs us and invalidates some knowledge about the variables of the system at still earlier times. Some actions attain practically maximal knowledge about the future of the undisturbed system by renouncing all knowledge of its past. Let a photon pass first through a horizontal linear polarizer X and then through an oblique analyzer P. and from the final analyzer P. To see this bargain in action. There is a quantum-relativity analogue of this change in our world picture. In classical thought. unpredictable effect upon the quantum. Generalizing: If every selective act has a significant uncontrollable. or conversely. this would leave little knowledge at all. or the "thing-as-it-is". It denies the very being of the instantaneous present in the classical sense. and Ockham's razor cuts it off. What we experience sharply is always a will-be or a has-been. not their doing. We can always carry out an initial act with a universal or "white" source followed by a . In this way one would infer contradictory information about the photon's "state of polarization".1. What we must doubt is only their being.2 Quantum Concepts 13 limit. one might expect to learn the polarization "state" equally well by looking upstream to the initial act X or downstream to the final act P. however. where Bohr's question arises most simply. A transition either has a certain minimum size or it does not occur. never a being. Nature seems to be more generous. called an initial action. What can it mean to know something about this photon in flight? A classical physicist might ask its "state of polarization" between the two filters. that they act and are acted upon. We resolve this problem by renouncing all talk of absolute "states of being". the past and the future both determine the present uniquely. Bohr then asked: What can it mean to know something about an atom? Classical thought might lead us to expect that the most we could glean from such interactions would be knowledge of the atom up to the effects of the interaction. From the initial polarizer we would infer that the photon "state" was X. called a final action. we cannot say that we know a quantum as it "is". In general. in the same spirit in which Einstein dispensed with points of absolute space. given that the initial and final acts give maximal information and that the photon emitted by the initial act is registered by the final one. Special relativity allows a local observer to communicate directly with remote events in the future or the past but not the present. There is no reason to doubt that photons and other quanta exist in the sense. consider a photon in flight between two noncommuting polarizers. Therefore being is an unnecessary concept. As the interactions change the atom drastically. or one that we will do just after it. What could this mean? Thinking classically.

(Later we use these symbols for vector spaces in which these acts are represented. Ordinary perception increments our knowledge. There is no need. initial or final. vague or inexact knowledge or observation can seem unimodal. which have more appropriate associations. at least as a limiting case. Some use the terms "emission" and "absorption". the entity under study could act upon our instruments or sensory organs with no reaction back upon itself. Selective actions of maximal exactness we call sharp. we replace the one single declarative mode of classical grammar by the two initial and final modes of selection we actually experience. expressed by forces. a final action occurs after the fact of which it informs us and may invalidate some earlier knowledge about the system at still later times. We accepted that dynamical acts. selective (acts of knowing and classifying the system) and dynamical (acts that change the system). for the system under study. In either classical or quantum physics. generally have reactions. These are acts of an experimenter with a large reservoir of quanta from which to draw and in which to deposit. It deserves special symbols. any action we mention is assumed to be sharp. Later. represent initial and final acts. Any photon in the experimental region will be finally polarized obliquely when it is counted. In classical particle mechanics an initial action puts a particle into a certain state s represented by a point of the state space (also called phase space). is the most important symmetry of quantum theory. also called kets and bras. Initial and final actions taken together are collectively called external (or terminal) actions. but we imagined that in ideal selective acts. All sharp knowledge is ultimately modal. and does not completely invalidate everything we already know. Quantum Actions filter. We designate by IN and FIN the classes of all sharp initial and final actions. a sharp initial act wipes out all traces of the system's past and begins a fresh development. however. Unless otherwise stated. effectively modeless. IN and FIN designate two mutually dual vector spaces whose vectors. These terms appropriately dramatize the great difference between sharp determinations and the determinations we make in ordinary life. described by logic and dynamics respectively. The duality between initial and final modes. In classical physics we imagined that we could divide our acts into two kinds. Often we call initial actions "creation operations" and final actions "annihilation operations". The standard example is the act of injecting a polarized photon. thus invalidating all prior knowledge about the state of the particle.) For clarity we sometimes append the name of the system concerned. . A vertically aligned linear polarizer located before (upstream from) the experimental region under study initially polarizes the photon vertically. to imagine creation from nothing or annihilation to nothing. We can always carry out a final act with a universal or "black" detector preceded by a filter. In general. in the quantum version of these considerations. respectively. between before and after the fact. Dually.14 1. Sufficiently diffuse. In the standard example we use an analyzer placed after (downstream from) the beam segment under study.

. quantum physics unites them. we inevitably create a quantum set theory. . and is better called quantum kinematics and dynamics. have not only first-order theories. A sharp initial act must drain all entropy or disorder from the quantum and transfer it to an entropy dump or heat reservoir. but that two ideal selective ones must commute. More accurately. but not that it is polarized. The theory of "is" (E) is usually considered to be part of the subject matter of set theory. In the photon example we describe an initial act of polarization by a vector. as if classical logic ended with Boole and quantum logic with Von Neumann. Henceforth whenever we use "is". and that a dynamic act would certainly not commute with a selective act for a property that it changed. When we revise it. therefore. vertically or obliquely. but also higher-order theories. Set theory and logic. perhaps because he turned to other problems. and though Von Neumann spoke of a "quantum set theory". A sharp final act amplifies the disturbance produced by one quantum until it irreversibly affects a macroscopic number of atoms. Despite the symmetry between initial and final. The modern study usually called quantum logic has limited its scope to the first order. without contradicting experience or the other laws of physics. we stipulate that we are not making a sharp statement at the quantum level but a sufficiently vague one about a sufficiently large system that for our current purposes we may ignore the non-commutativity of the implied selective acts. he too stopped at the first-order theory. neither kind of act is thermodynamically reversible. Knowing is doing. and also something about any photon that passes through such a polarizer. as we do in the previous sentence. Where classical physics split logic and dynamics.1. Boolean algebra is a first-order theory. which we may stamp indelibly on the polarizer if we wish. We may say at one moment of its flight the photon was initially polarized vertically and will be finally polarized obliquely without inconsistency. it is as valid a selective act as any other. . Such a polarization vector tells us much about the polarizer.. Our topic is broader than logic is usually considered to be. The order of the two external acts is implied by the terms initial and final. If an act obeys Boole's first law. even though such acts do not all commute.. The instrument must have an unstable but metastable mode whose decay the quantum triggers. Quantum external actions must be highly specialized in order to control a single quantum sharply with actions on a scale of 1026 quanta (roughly the number of atoms in a kilogram of hydrogen). we supposed that the world is as if such ideal commuting reactionless selective acts could be introduced. classes of classes of classes (third order). however. as limiting cases of effective acts. dealing with classes of the system under study. but since spacetime theory uses a higher-order set theory.2 Quantum Concepts 15 Therefore we took it for granted that two dynamic acts need not commute. We do not attribute a modeless polarization to the photon. we develop a higher-order quantum set theory in Act 3. dealing also with classes of classes (second-order). as when Heisenberg revised Boole.

if context permits.16 1. wAa A is the contraction of two mutually dual vectors describing the polarizer and analyzer. the persistent absence of signal. Later we will define a number wAa A = (wla) = w 0a = wa that will be 0 just for forbidden transitions. with the understanding that we know it only through initial and final actions. In a more complex experiment we may insert a third polarizer between the initial and final ones. An action vector does not describe a state of being of the system but an action of the episystem on the system. including external acts. Just as the basic elements of our theory are acts. If w0a does not hold. the apparatus. Thus 0 is a relation verified by null readings. one that goes on between initial and final acts and is neither. then the transition wa is called allowed and we write -. We will call this division of an experiment into system and episystem. Dirac called such vectors kets. We shall always . The entity under experimental study one calls the system. and an entropy dump. as a verb separates and connects the grammatical subject and the grammatical object. the recording system. w0a. We express such a relation between initial action a and final action w by (1) meaning that the experiment wa never goes. The episystem consists of everything playing a significant part in the experiment that is not part of the system. We write an initial vector as la) ("ket a") or a A or simply a. This is the prototype quantum selection rule: When the analyzer is orthogonal to the polarizer. For example. "w 0 a". or that the transition w t-. and certain relations between their elements. the system cut. Any vector used to represent a sharp initial or final action. the basic structural element of the theory is the selection rule. which ties these external acts together. a horizontal polarizer might occur in one inlet channel labeled 11) and a vertical polarizer in another labeled 12). It separates and connects the agent and the recipient. we call an action vector. or wa f. This is the standard example of an internal or medial act. O. like a polarization vector. and a final one as (wi ("bra w") or WA or plain w. The parts of the system and episystem in immediate interaction during the external acts on the system form the system interface. We read (1) as "a precludes w" or "w occludes a". or. simply a vector.a is forbidden. and then we will express the same selection rule w0a as (wla) = 0 (1') In the polarization example. We define a system f by its dual classes IN = IN f and FIN = FIN f. without explicitly giving them this interpretation. Quantum Actions Quantum theory describes all its sharp external acts by vectors in this fashion. no photons pass. or simply. including the experimenter. What acts on the system we will call the episystem. The indices label channels for a quantum.

or we would count it as an initial or final act. in chemistry we call initial and final acts on chemical substances "synthesis" and "analysis". The free index is raised or lowered as the channel is initial or final. Alfred N. and Percy Bridgman an operation. an idealized limit of actual acts. an initial act produces the particle beams and targets that interact and a final act analyzes the interaction products. That quantum variables are complementary. In normal practice. Peirce. We started from external acts because they are closer to us. In particle physics.1. In electricity. the founder of pragmatism. and each can be used to define the other. Whitehead a process. regarded as two modes of determining the class to which a character (or word) belongs. referring to a transfer from initial action A to final action n . force. Whether we base quantum theory on external acts or on internal acts.2 Quantum Concepts 17 describe internal acts T sharply by two-index matrices like Tfl A. the acts of writing and reading the letter "A". The initial-final modal duality abounds. of which selective acts are special cases. One may then say that the quantum theory has two different modes because the left and right cosets of a non-commutative semigroup are different. Classical logic is unimodal because the left and right cosets of a commutative semigroup are the same. action (energy x time) and mass in terms of quantum actions. Had we started with internal acts. speaking and listening are initial and final acts for sounds. Medial selective acts generate a subsemi group G se1 C Act of the action semigroup. polarizers and analyzers are one piece of apparatus used to carry out initial and final acts. respectively. Whenever we classify a character as "A" we rely on a body of information about external acts of that kind. Calibrated voltage supplies and voltmeters are initial and final modes for potential differences. This act tells us nothing about the photon polarization itself because the cell does not recoil appreciably from changing the polarization of one photon. One example is the act of rotating the polarization of a photon by a cell of sugar solution between the initial polarizer and the final analyzer. are effectively classical acts of the initial and final modes respectively. all express much the same fact of quantum experience. External and internal acts are mutually dual. This is a coset of the semigroup Gmed. we make certain when we write an "A" that we cannot (immediately afterwards) perform upon it the act of reading it as a"B" .] What we call an act overlaps with what Charles S. might have called a pragma (deed). is a matter of expository taste. Again. we could define an external act by the class of internal acts that null it. An internal act TB A gives us no information about any property of the system. Likewise actions are both in quantum physics. In classical physics forces were both high-level theoretical abstractions and effective physical agents. It is supposed to act on the quantum with negligible reaction. In optics. In general each free index stands for one channel. For example. . [Later we express classical dynamical concepts such as energy. that quantum logic is bimodal. but can read it as an "A". the terms "cathode" and "anode" were coined to express such a duality. in communication. and that quantum selective acts do not commute.

o The action mode of a fact is important for its logical relations to other facts. mixed or vague. This infinite precision means that a sharp external act is an idealized limiting case of acts that are actually executable. o The action mode of a fact (whether it is initial or final) is irrelevant for its logical relations to other facts.18 1. For example in a single quantum physics experiment we cannot make a sharp initial determination of both a photon's X and P polarizations. o Knowledge is a mental representation of things as they are. out of the infinity of possible directions. Crisp acts obey Boole's First Law A2 = A. o Sharp. say by closing a switch. a 0 or 1 count. Selective acts that are not sharp are called diffuse. one additional bit is all we need to supply. For example. passing those with energies in a certain interval. making a yes-or-no statement about the system. Boole's "acts of election" are crisp. medial. or final. such relations between facts do not depend on their action modes at all. In classical theory. to carry out an X polarization we woud have to align a polarizer exactly along one direction. such as giving the exact value of but one of several independent coordinates. . the x axis. o Knowledge of a system is a record or mental reenactment of actions upon the system. After we have chosen a polarization angle. can be classed as follows: o Complete. A spectrometer slit performs a nearly crisp selective act on quanta exiting the spectrometer. but we can make a sharp initial determination of its X polarization and a sharp final detennination of its P polarization. sharp final acts give the experimenter a return of only one bit of infonnation. These require an infinite amount of information from us. Classically. o An ideal observation informs us about its object completely and without changing it. by contrast. saying as much as possible about the system. Quantum Actions Now we can fonnulate and contrast some precepts of the classical and quantum epistemologies. to order that a photon be actually put in with that polarization. Selective acts upon a system. or maximal. o Crisp. This does not occur for quantum systems. Sharp acts are crisp. on his (ideally infinite) infonnation investment. and we drop modes. The following concepts apply to both quantum and classical physics and are useful here. whether initial. providing total information about the system. And in a quantum epistemology. o An ideal external act gives incomplete knowledge and may change properties that it does not detennine. and dually.

perhaps a common noun like "proton" or "hydrogen atom". represented by distribution curves that are a spike. containing all the external acts we mention in this work. respectively. for example. A quantum world view allows the possibility that the creation of the universe is still going on and its annihilation has already begun. both repressed in classical theories. within which we can represent not only our acts but also all those of other experimenters. and need not satisfy Boole's First Law. unless the two commute. but not in quantum theories. In our standard example. We suppose. The transformations from experimenter to experimenter are supposed to form a group. but we still allow every experimenter to represent them all. Classical theories can claim to be complete only by actually omitting much more experience than the explicitly incomplete quantum ones. crisp and general distributions. We must also say what experimenters are possible and how they relate to each other. sharp. crisp or diffuse. f stands for "photon polarization". most of which we cannot carry out (without becoming a technically different experimenter).2 Quantum Relativity In any physical theory.1. and it does not admit any complete descriptions of that part. In Act 1 we deal with one system at a time. Here "f" stands for the name of a quantum system. called its initial space. Theories too can be classed as complete. 1. an . a physical entity is specified by representing it for one experimenter and telling how to transform this representation to all others. that each physical act can be represented by every experimenter.2 Quantum Concepts 19 o The general case. Quantum theories are incomplete in two ways. There sharp information is complete information. The relativity group is an essential part of every physical theory. The Cartesian world view implicitly postulates that the universe is complete and eternal. • With each system f we associate a vector space written IN f or simply IN. and so the formal language needs no name for the system. One way of saying that no complete theory of nature exists is to say that nature is incomplete. in which case they are called compatible. In classical physics too there are sharp. including the diffuse. called the relativity group G of the theory. Dirty polarizers still perform external acts. Only data that have a definite transformation law under the relativity group are said to define a physical entity . the system. A quantum theory does not describe the universe sharply but only a tiny part of it.2. General external acts allow any amount of ignorance on our part of what actually goes on. a rectangle. or a general curve. Each selective act we perform invalidates any that we may have carried out before it. It is not enough to say what one experimenter finds. It is the essence of quantum theory that not every experimenter may carry out every act. A physical entity is a description plus a transformation law.

to frame relativity: changes of entire frames. one in each channel. or their labels. all experimenter transformation are trivial. This was therefore an absolute frame. We call the selective acts one experimenter E may perform on the system the acts proper to E and assume that they make up a frame.E): IN -> IN. Classical physics assumes that each system has just one. from coordinate relativity: mere changes of coordinates within one frame. Such a maximal collection of commuting sharp selective acts defines a frame. each a collection of mutually commuting selective acts. Classical physicists imagined that each system had one and only one frame (up to trivial transformations). which all commute. respectively. The old relativity is the restriction of the new to transformations that . transforming from experimenter E to E'. For example. commute and form a sub-logic that obeys Boole's laws. Different experimenters E use different bases B(E) in the linear space IN of initial vectors. Transformations of experimenters that do not change the frame we call trivial. In quantum physics there are many relative frames. we change the frame. We assume each experimenter has names for his or her proper actions. Therefore we cannot determine all the properties of a quantum entity at once. One thus imagined a sharp absolute distinction between selective acts. Quantum theory relativizes state space as special relativity relativizes ordinary space. but two non-commuting acts cannot belong to one frame. which give names to acts. and P and . Different observers could disagree about coordinate systems. but not about the totality of selective acts to be named.y directions. defined by the totality of all selective acts we could carry out upon it. related by G elements. but no absolute one. but when we rotate it through 7r /2 we do not. being compatible. the above X and Y form one polarization frame. absolute frame. The mapping an experimenter E makes from proper acts to labels for these acts (usually numbers) is called the coordinate system of E . The closest we can come to this classical ideal is a multichannel analysis with as many commuting sharp selective actions as possible. They are the states of being of the system according to E. and so they represent the same act by a different array of coefficients.lP select for polarization in the x + y and x . We nominally associate each experimenter with a frame.20 1. where P and . we even declare ourselves to become a different experimental frame if we change our frame. When we rotate our optical polarizer through 7r /4. Thus quantum theory extends relativity. Quantum Actions exceptional case.lP form another. and dynamical acts. which do not all commute. common to all observers. but merely permute its elements. Each selective act belongs to many frames. Each system E has a relativity group G = G(E) of coordinate transformations T(E' f . between knowing and acting. E's proper selective acts. In classical thought. We may regard each frame (modulo trivial transformations) as expressing one concept of "state of being". just as it assumes there is just one absolute geometrical space. but the act itself is regarded as the same for all experimenters that can carry it out.

as though by continuous observation. not one continuous experiment. A discrete version is a network dynamics. A sequential dynamics assumes an single unanalyzed initial act and a like final act at two instants of time. Newton succeeded in describing how a particle is at every instant. there is a basic difference between the time concepts of quantum and classical physics. which assumes a network of causal connec- . 1. The classical time parameter t is a real time. It uses a Galilean. Indeed. Newtonian motion is a continuous sequence of states of being in real time. the beginning and the end. initial and final (which may degenerate to one). pre-Einsteinian concept of instant. Frame relativity was called transformation theory by Dirac. Some of these assumptions are modified in classical spacetime theories and others in quantum theories. a sequence of choices.1. present. at least in imagination. that is. who introduced it. In quantum physics we recognize that we learn something about the system at just two times in every experiment. even though they may differ with quantum theory about the actuality of action. Within the bimodal sample time of quantum theory there is still room for many conceptions of time. such as the existence and absoluteness of the classes of past. There is no use trying to understand quantum relativity in the terms of classical physics. such as the Either-Or of S0ren Kierkegaard. In classical physics we can imagine that we know everything about the system at every value of the time.2. the historic prototype is the Newtonian theory of gravity. A distributed dynamics allows interventions at all points of spacetime. and future events at each time. quantum physics dismantles Newton's great construction. quantum physics operates in sample time. to schools of thought which recognize mutually incommensurable ways of looking at the world. and treats dynamics as a sequence of transitions between such instants. that ends one experiment and starts another. In renouncing both states and real time. Where classical physics imagined that it operated in real time. By inventing and applying the differential calculus.2 Quantum Concepts 21 merely permute the elements of a frame. A sequential dynamics need not be local since it relates one entire time-slice to another. Natural languages incorporate other assumptions about time in their tense structure besides unimodality. If we learn something about the system at a different time.3 Time As a corollary of quantum bimodality. or to systems which renounce all being as an illusion. To find even remote cousins of quantum relativity one must go outside science. a non-local theory assuming instantaneous action at a distance. since before Heisenberg all physicists imagined that there was only one frame. developed for particles and fields respectively. We deal in this work with two forms of dynamics. termed sequential and distributed. Pictures that may seem to show how a quantum system evolves over an interval of time actually show the results of many experiments of different duration. who put the aesthetic and the ethical views of life into such a relation.

The network itself may be a fixed structure populated by dynamical entities.22 1. One defines entropy as zero for sharp actions. That is. There is an element of spontaneity in quantum activity. and while the quantum physics improves these divergences. When we write "A" we can read or select "A" but not "B". Becoming and Doing We define a system by the semigroup of the actions we may carry out on it. This assumption led to divergent results in classical physics. or for a given sharp W with several sharp Q. we write sharp actions: .4 Being. It can go on at absolute zero. taken out by final acts. Any change or transition in an object is sharply described by an initial and a final state of its state space. we explore a quantum network dynamics with a discrete fundamental quantum of time or chronon /). w8Q 1= 0 defines a 1-1 correspondence between initial and final actions we call the system inactive or passive or an object. A distributed dynamics may be local. In quantum physics. The standard example of a passive system is a mathematical one. and this is still the only working theory of time we have. But later we will see that even the classical concept of energy represents a certain vestigial quantum activity. In electrical network theory an element is called active if it introduces energy into the network. quantum activity does not increase or decrease entropy in the way that thermal activity does. After we present the usual quantum theory. and describes how each event influences those immediately connected to it. and mathematical idealizations. A photon is active. Although entropy is also associated with choice. Allowed transitions generally do not define a 1-1 correspondence between initial and final sharp actions. Quantum Actions tions among events. If. If S is the state space for the object E. like the digit (an integer from o to 9). some remain. W 8 Q 1= 0 may hold for a given sharp Q and several sharp w. Thus quantum activity is deeper than the choices that are expressed by entropy or chaos. not energy. and selected by medial acts. on the contrary. Then each pair wand Q related in this way define what is called a state of the system. In this case we call the system active. we write S = SpaceE. This is not quantum activity. fictions. Among these we may recognize initial. even maximal information still leaves choice. 1. medial and final actions. or it may be a dynamical variable in its own right. and much that they do not.t. What quantum activity injects is choice. and the totality of states is called the state space Space. (1) An object can be put into its states by initial acts. associated with maximal information.2. in the search for a more consistent theory. and is first understood deeply through quantum theory. Newton assumed that time was infinitely divisible. like a switching network. There is no evidence that passive systems exist except as approximations. A digit is passive. For objects (as later for quanta).

s) (s <.) establish a connection between initial acts and final acts. (sl = ([S]A) = final act for state S. are totally connected. For a passive system.s') (s' <.s) (s <. . an initial arrow (s <. By implication. Thus allowed (instantaneous) transitions of objects are totally disconnected. But in general arrows deflect uncontrollably at quantum entities.s'). neither totally quantum or totally classical. Each connects to every other through some intermediate allowed transition. 23 = ([StB) = internal selective act for state S. We call these initial and final arrows. In some experiments this state is a vacuum. as in [lmn]A or Ilmn).s) (s <. (tlls) E In the bra-ket notation. the stroke "I" stands for the boundary or interface between successive stages of the experiment. then we may identify an initial act Is) with an arrow (s <. an object. and the name has stuck. Action arrows go "straight through" objects. the argument of a function representing the act. etc. an ordered pair representing a mapping with one-point domain of definition consisting of V and with image s). That is. One can use the vacuum concept to eliminate all initial and final acts in favor of internal or medial acts: If we designate the vacuum state of the system by V. When we represent external acts by arrows. There is a pair of connected initial and final arrows for each state of being of the object. A general system.V) from the initial state V to s (that is. on the contrary. For an active system.V).V). it may stand for what crosses the interface. and a bra one that ends at the vacuum. each initial arrow uniquely allows one final arrow and conversely: as in (V <. If the system under study is removed.1. each initial action (ingoing arrow) allows (that is. what is left is the episystem. In the latter reading. Is)(sl D =([t]B[S]A) = experiment (tl <-Is). in programs like (V <. The allowed transitions of a system (entity. by which we define the system.2 Quantum Concepts Is) = ([S]A) = initial act for state S. evidently. Then it serves as a placeholder for an unwritten variable point of the state space. =(EBA) = general (sharp!) external act. we may represent a system by a vertex that all the initial arrows enter and all the final ones leave. When it is convenient to label a state with several symbols. which we may picture as its straight extension. may have intermediate connectivity. we bracket them. Is) = ([s]A) represents the Kronecker delta function 8A s . = (DAB) = general (sharp) internal act.s) from s to V .V) connects by allowed (instantaneous) transitions to more than one final arrow (V <. the system itself. They are arrows joining states to themselves. object. does not preclude) only one final action (out-going arrow). Then a ket represents an arrow that starts at the vacuum. For a quantum entity. including the experimenter. almost any initial . Allowed quantum transitions. and a final act with an arrow (V <.

differing only in the allowed transitions. Let us assume that a physical theory should at least lead us to. is tertiary. Different experimenters dealing with the same quantum use different repertories of initial and final acts. What quantum physicists do are external acts. We may optimistically suppose that this analysis has an end. generalized and algebraicized. 1. and dynamics. is the most fundamental theory.) . appropriate to their frames. ontology. The classical cosmology that dominated science before quantum theory assumed that the world was an object made out of objects. which represent physical acts either on the system or the episystem. derivative status. motion or becoming. A passive and an active system could have isomorphic repertories of initial and final actions and assured transitions. In such a cosmology. and were less successful in their later years when they renounced or abandoned this principle. Einstein advised us not to listen to what physicists say but to look at what they do. statements of the form "If we do so-and-so. composed of symbols called actors. and by the actions transforming any experimenter into any other.2. the description of action. A quantum cosmology relativizes ontology within dynamics much as relativistic physics relativizes space within spacetime. kinematics. if not consist of. defined as a difference in position per unit time. and gave change and action a secondary. For example Newton describes the intensity of motion by a velocity. (1) Suitably idealized.24 1. the theory of being. here called acts or actions. the theory of the control of motion.5 Ontism and Praxism Both Einstein and Heisenberg in their early successful works consciously formulated their theories in terms of idealized experimental acts. We analyze a general quantum process into more elementary quantum acts. such doings and findings become the basic physical units of our theory. The algebra Act is a language of and for action. Quantum Actions action allows almost any final one. including those which we carry out and those that go one between our own actions when we are not looking. The states of classical mechanics and thermodynamics also play the role of such states of being. we will find such-and-such". but we have not reached it yet (and presumably will not as long as we analyze nature into particles or fields in spacetime instead. that there are truly atomic or elementary acts. Heisenberg took his advice. Quantum physics deals with actions that do not fit together like actions connecting prior states of underlying objects. so is what spacetime physicists do. In classical physics we assumed that the system has states of being and that every change is a transition from one definite state of being to another. This deflection characterizes Heisenberg's quantum kinematics. We describe a quantum entity not by a complete description or state but by the external acts by which we prepare or register it. much as curvature characterized Einstein's spacetime. is secondary.

To emphasize the action interpretation we set up an action diagram notation for quantum theory. This generally requires us to supply ± signs (or more generally. The fundamental question of physics. Action vectors represent ideal sharp initial actions that may be carried out by an episystem upon a system. not some hypothetical static matter into atoms. We call this action S when we need to distinguish it from the actions that one carries out. if not. If a 7 is present. a hand. this action leaves it alone. and probably refer to rather limited domains of nature. "Dissect nature". respectively. The classical theory omits more information than the quantum. and minute in the face of the greatest. Rephasing restores some of this missing information. They idealize an interaction of the system with part of an episystem such as an eye. The acts considered by any quantum theory or spacetime theory we have today are useful theoretical constructs but not universally valid concepts. the experiment stops. but we read it (or misread it) as the injunction to dissect dynamic history into least actions. For example in experiments with digits we can factor the selection of a digit 7 by an annihilation of a 7 followed by the re-creation of a 7 (the reverse of the time order of external acts in an experiment): [7] = [7) (7] . We suggest the following. called internal actions. Implicit in classical physics is a theory of selective acts analogous to Boole's. In classical mechanics. any path n in state space has a quantity S = Sen) with the dimensions of energy x time called its action. is not "What are all things made of?" It is "What goes on here?" What we seek are the basic actions that go on in nature and the constant relations among them of the form (1). We call this part of quantization re-phasing. or a tub of water. phases) when we quantize.2 Quantum Concepts 25 The operators of Heisenberg's quantum theory describe actions of transmission or propagation. let alone controlling them sharply from our laboratory bench. We imbed the few acts that we actually carry out in the much larger space of physical acts that can in principle go on in nature when we are not about.1. Each point of state space or phase space represents such an act. not selective ones. Initial and final acts occur in classical physics too. . and as quasistatic processes for thermodynamics. and any classical selective act of Boole is then a disjunction of such products. at the beginnings and ends of experiments. based on Feynman diagrams. We are gross compared to the smallest entities in the universe. Such an element of IN x FIN is equivalent to a sharp selective action. Our acts are not the basis of all natural processes. then. These actions function for quantum theory much as forces do for mechanics. The bras and kets of quantum theory stand for initial and final acts. To quantize is always to take a square root. In this sense classical physics is a square of quantum physics and quantum physics is a square root of classical physics. We are not the center of the universe. Terms for this belief and its opposite are useful. We retain Francis Bacon's maxim. and use it from the beginning. We do not imagine that we can carry out all the acts that we name in our language. and we have great difficulty in apprehending them at all.

26

1. Quantum Actions

By ontism we will mean the theory that there are absolute, completely describable states of being (on). (Elsewhere I used the term "statism".) We reserve the
term "object" for entities having such states of being. In ontic theories we take
states of being, and the objects that have them, as absolute and primary entities,
and take changes, becomings, and doings as derivative and secondary. Ontic states,
in their function as states, form a structureless set. No operation has to be defined
on a state space for it to be a state space. In ontic theories actions are constructed
from states.
By praxism we will mean the belief that nature is composed of elementary
actions, possibly with unpredictable consequences, rather than of elementary objects. This makes doing (praxis) more basic than being. Praxism leads us to analyze
nature into actions rather than beings. Praxic theories take actions as primary entities, and regard states of being as secondary, relative, derivative from actions,
and approximations of limited validity.
We can distinguish ontic and praxic theories by their mathematical structures,
without relying on their choice of terms.
[[Recall that a semigroup is called a category (see Chapter 17) when its elements can be interpreted as the structure-preserving transformations of mathematical structures of some kind into one another. The prime example is the category
of all group homomorphisms, from which the name "morphism" for the general
element of a category derives. The morphisms representing identity mappings of
a structure into itself are called identities of the category.
Ontic actions may be represented as arrows joining states, and always form a
particularly simple kind of category. The identities of this category are the states
of the object. Praxism is more general than ontism. The actions of a praxic theory
form a semigoup that in general is not a category, because it may not have enough
identities. If the action semigroup is a category, then the identities of this category
are the states of the object and the theory admits an ontic formulation.
Now any definite pattern of points joined by arrows is also a pattern of arrows
meeting in points. In principle classical physics is therefore neutral between being
and becoming. Once we accept that both exist absolutely, which we take to be
fundamental is moot.
Quantum physics, on the contrary, seems irredeemably praxic. The arrows
representing the acts we carry out in quantum physics do not form a category.
In quantum theory therefore we dispense with identities or objects and take these
pointless arrows themselves as basic.]]
While quantum theory can be called non-objective, in the sense that its actions
lack objects, this does not imply that it is subjective.
A quantum theory is not a disfigured classical theory. While it forces the
theorist to give up many cherished absolutes, it sweetens each such loss with
some new power even beyond agreement with experiment. What does the theorist
get in exchange for renouncing objects? We return to this in Chapter 4.
We work today with a compromise: our dynamics is non-objective and our
spacetime is still an object. Die-hard ontists will search for new objects underlying

1.3 Quantum Entities

27

quantum dynamics, convinced that they must exist. Visionary praxists will seek
to analyze the spacetime that has defied quantum analysis so far.

1.3 Quantum Entities
To define a physical entity we must represent it in one experimental frame and
tell how to transform this representation to all others. The entities of our study
divide into constants and variables proper, and the variables then subdivide into
classical and quantum. Classical variables may also be called random variables,
because certain probability laws apply to them though not to quanta. The theories
of
1. constant entities,
2. random entities and
3. quantum entities
are related to each other much like the respective mathematical theories of
1. arithmetic, which deals with constants like 2 and 7r,
2. elementary algebra, an arithmetic of commutative variables like x and y, and
3. matrix algebra, an arithmetic of non-commuting variables.
We can further classify our entities by degree and order. Degree counts individuals
and order indicates the level of abstraction, which we define thus:
Any individual system, by which we mean any unanalyzed entity, has order 0
and degree 1.
A set of N entities En (n = 1, ... ,N) of respective orders Pn is a single entity
of order sUPn(Pn + 1) and degree N.
We develop the quantum syntax and semantics of individual systems in Act 1,
of higher degree systems in Act 2, and of higher order systems in Act 3. In each
case we first treat constant entities, then random entities, then quantum entities.

1.3.1 Sharp Actions
Einstein objected to putting probability among the fundamental concepts of physics
and insisted on a deterministic theory. "God does not play at dice," he said. We
can formulate this in a way that is compatible with quantum theory, where most
outcomes are unpredictable:
The law of nature is a sharp statement about sharp actions.
We formulate this as a heuristic principle of maximal astonishment:
Only a theory whose concepts and statements give maximal information, and
which thus have maximal probability of being wrong, has any hope of being basic.
Einstein's dice are imagined to be subject to Newton's deterministic laws
and their unpredictability comes from ignorance or noise. Quantum activity is a
different kind of unpredictability. In this unit we give experimental meaning to

28

1. Quantum Actions

the notion of a sharp action starting with more general actions. In the next we
define a complete description in similar terms. We will carry out this construction
in fuller detail in Chapter 6. We shall assume the existence of sharp acts in this
work, at least as ideal limits, like the absolute zero of temperature. In the rest of
the work we will take the concept of a sharp action as a primitive and define other
concepts in terms of it.
Then the quantum theory gives the consequences of those relatively few sharp
acts that have certain consequences. We find the consequences of diffuse acts by
simple summation and averaging over sharp ones.
We have to distinguish carefully between a sharp description and a complete
one in order to understand quantum physics and its relation to classical physics.
The essence of classical thought is the implicit assumption that a sharp description
is complete, while the point of quantum physics is that a sharp description is not
complete, there being no complete descriptions. It is therefore important to know
how to recognize sharp acts among the diffuse. We can no longer simply say that
they provide complete information, as one did in classical physics. We do this
in 2.3.
1.3.2 Complete Actions
We now define a complete (that is, completely determining) external act, primarily
in order to be able to say simply that none exist. In classical thought one implicitly
assumed that a sharp initial act will preclude all but one sharp final act: Where
we write "A" we ma.y read "A" and only "A".
Definition. An initial act that occludes all but one sharp final act is called complete; and dually for final acts.

A sharp external act merely determines the system maximally; a complete one
determines it completely.
Any complete act is sharp. (The proof is straightforward.)
In classical theories it also taken for granted that any sharp act is complete.
This assumption was crystallized in the classical concept of the state, which both
sums up the preceding initial act and completely determines which final acts can
follow. All classical objects make the same transitions in the same circumstances.
In classical thought, the behavior of an individual is decided at the collective level;
individuals have no individuality.
But in nature we find no complete initial act at all. For example, as far as
photon polarizations are concerned, linear polarization of light is a sharp external
act. This merely means that the only more informative polarization act is the null
one. And yet when we import a photon that is sharply polarized along the x axis
by an act IX) and export a right-circularly polarized photon by (RI, about half the
experiments (RIIX) go. We have no control over which linearly polarized photons
are stopped by a circular polarizer. The behavior of a quantum entity is decided
at the individual level.

1.3 Quantum Entities

29

1.3.3 Quantum Acts

We have characterized selective acts on photons by the polarizing filters that we
use to carry them out. To complete our definition we must say when two filters
perform the same act. We have written equations among selective acts, but we
have not given experimental meaning to the statement that two such acts X and
Yare equal, X = Y.
We mean by X = Y that the selective acts X and Y have statistically indistinguishable consequences.
We can determine this by a game with the following rules, much as Turing
proposed to define when a computer was "equal" to a person in intelligence. Each
experimenter E performs a finite series of experiments of the form (wIZla). E
chooses the number of experiments and varies the initial and final acts freely. Only
the medial filter Z is hidden from E. Experimenter J chooses Z (say at random)
to be either X or Y for the first experiment in the E series, and alternates between
X and Y therafter. After finishing the series, E must publicly state whether the
hidden filter Z was X for the odd experiments (and therefore Y for the even
ones). E can train for the task, both before it and during it, by carrying out as
many open X and Y side experiments as E wishes, choosing the initial, medial,
and final actions freely. These side experiments are not counted. If in the long run
no experimenter can name the hidden filter more often than pure chance would
predict, then we say that X = Y.
Therefore two equal initial acts X and Y must occlude the same final acts.
We return to this point in 2.3.1.
1.3.4 Quantum Activity

We call a process that is allowed but not assured, a spontaneous transition.
Example: The transition (RIIX) from X linear polarization to right circular
polarization (RI.
Thus a system is active if it makes spontaneous transitions and passive otherwise. Classical physicists generally supposed that all systems are passive in this
sense.
Due to quantum activity, under almost all circumstances the quantum theory
cannot predict exactly what a quantum will do but only gives the probability of the
possible outcomes. Paradoxically, quantum physics nevertheless permits arbitrarily
fine prediction and control:
o Given initial and final acts in series, quantum theory almost never can predict
the outcome, even if the interval between them is brief.
o Given any a final act w nevertheless, we can always find a sharp initial act a
such that wa is assured, and conversely.
These statements mean that while beams of quanta disperse in a way that
classical physics did not expect, they can nevertheless be accurately focused into

30

1. Quantum Actions

arbitrarily small or distant targets, subject so far to technological rather than fundamental limitations. Spontaneity is not noise.
For example, from the fact that half the photons from an initial x-polarizer
would be absorbed by a final x + y-polarizer, one might at first expect (and in
classical epistemology must believe) that these photons differ intrinsically in some
random way that any sharp filter would inevitably detect. Yet all of them would be
accepted by a second x-polarizing filter and rejected by a y-polarizing one, even
after a long flight in vacuum, and these filters too are sharp. A quantum theory
makes just as many predictions as a classical theory with the same size frame,
but it recognizes the existence of many more experiments whose outcomes are
unpredictable. These are quantum superpositions, and a classical theory overlooks
them all.
If an experimental enactment of la) consists of a white source (one that emits
all kinds of quanta) followed by a sharp filter /L, we can generally make a unique
sharp final act (wi by putting the same filter /L before a black target (one that accepts
and registers everything). Then we find that the transition (wlla) is assured. We
say that (wi and la) respectively import and export quanta "of the same kind",
and we write (wi = tla) = la) t = (al.
This mapping t from initial to final actions is called the adjoint operation. t
reverses mode. For complex action vectors t can be expressed as t = MC, where C
is complex conjugation and M is a hermitian symmetric form called the transition
metric.
There is usually also a sharp medial act which certainly transmits entities of
the kind imported by la) and exported by (ai, and which we represent by la)(al
or for short lal. The creation and annihilation acts in a medial act lal occur in
the opposite time order of the acts in an experiment or transition (alia). Such
sharp internal acts represent acts of selection that obey Boole's First Law (except
in some special cases, if M is indefinite) but almost never Boole's Second.
The paradoxical predictability of assured transitions in the presence of unpredictability distinguishes quantum activity from random fluctuation, diffusion,
chaos, or mere indeterminacy of a more classical kind. Quantum activity is not
just noise.
According to some philosophers, every occurrence has an antecedent cause,
and nothing comes from nothing. Others hold just as firmly that some occurrences
have no cause and that something can come from nothing. Quantum nature has
both aspects. Quantum activity leaves room for cases of quantum certainty, few
and special but all the more important.
1.3.5 Quantum Superposition
Classical and quantum theories differ about how diffuse acts analyze into sharp
ones. In classical physics we took it for granted that any analysis of a given initial
act into sharp ones is unique. To make succotash we must mix corn and lima
beans. No other vegetables will do.

1.3 Quantum Entities

31

In general, in both classical and quantum physics we may combine any two
sharp medial acts a and f3 by choosing between them at random with equal
probability ~ to form a diffuse act, that one writes as a sum
(1)

In quantum theory this is called an incoherent superposition.
According to classical logic this diffuse act, cannot be carried out by mixing any sharp ones other than a and f3. Classical mixtures have unique sharp
constituents, much as natural numbers have unique prime factors.
But in actuality we may make effectively the same unpolarized light by mixing
left and right circularly polarized photons, or vertically and horizontally linearly
polarized photons, or any of an infinite number of other pairs of sharp beams. Let
Land R be sharp medial selective actions for left- and right-circularly polarized
photons, and let X and Y be the same for linear polarization along the x and
y axes respectively. Then the mixtures ~(L + R) = ~(X + Y) are equal (that is,
statistically indistinguishable), although all the four constituent acts are sharp. In
the quantum theory, in general, for every mixture of two sharp acts there are
infinitely many other pairs of sharp acts which would produce the same diffuse
act " although the sharp internal acts a, a', ... are all distinguishable:

1

1

,

,

, = 2(a + (3) = 2(a + f3 ) = ...

(2)

This leads to a kind of superposition that is special to quantum theory. One
sharp initial act I,) is said to be a coherent (or quantum) superposition of two
others la) and 1(3) when every final act (wi that occludes la) and 1(3) also occludes

II):

[(wla) = 0

AND

(wlf3) =0] ~ [(wll) = 0] .

(3)

In ontic thought, any sharp initial acts la), 1(3), ... correspond to states a,

f3, .... Then (3) would imply that every state w that differs from both of the
states a and f3 differs from the state " and therefore that either, = a or , = f3.
We may call a and f3 the trivial coherent superpositions of a and f3. There are no
nontrivial superpositions of actions in ontic, classical physics.
In quantum theory, the acts a and f3 are represented by vectors la) and 1(3)
in a vector space. Recall that a ray is an equivalence class of vectors which
are non-zero multiples of each other. A ray abstracts from the scale of a vector,
leaving a pure direction. Evidently the scale of the arrow we draw on a polarizer
is irrelevant. In general, while vectors indeed represent sharp acts, rays represent
them biuniqely.
Any vector II) in the plane of the vectors la) and 1(3) satisfies (3). The ray
of the sum of two vectors depends on their scales, the act represented by a vector
sum is not uniquely determined by the acts represented by the summand vectors.
The operational meaning of action vector addition is more complex, and we take
it up later. If and only if the act "( is a superposition of the acts a and f3, there

32

1. Quantum Actions

are coefficients a and b such that /1') = la)a + 1,6)b represents f. If In') obeys (2)
for some 1,6') then la') is a quantum superposition of la) and 1,6) .
Quantum superposition implies quantum activity. Since the mixtures L + R
and X + Y are indistinguishable, and since on the average half the final of the
mixture 4L + 4R undergo the final action L, half of 4X + 4Y must also undergo
L. That is, on the average half of the quanta from the sharp initial act X undergo
the sharp final act L, and half do not. Thus the transitions LX are spontaneous.
We will represent an internal selective act sharply by a matrix Ipi =(pS A), in
such a way that a transition (wllplla) is forbidden if and only if its matrix element
vanishes: (wlplo:) =O. A matrix with any number of indices with a linear law of
transformation is called a tensor in general, and in the present case P = -<E--< of
one high index followed by one low one, the tensor is an operator. By a simple
operator IJ! we mean one that is a Kronecker or tensor product of a column vector
o:A and a row vector WA :

4

4

4 4

(4)
To mix selective acts PI, P2 we average their matrices, in general with weights
representing probabilities. The result WI PI + W2P2 is also called an incoherent superposition. Coherent superposition is represented by linear combination
/1') = 10:) + 1,6) and is also called quantum superposition. Since the same initial
act is represented by a ray consisting of many vectors, the acts represented by 10:)
and 1,6) do not determine the act represented by the vector sum 10:) + 1,6).
The action vectors of quantum theory and their addition are different in interpretation from any previous vectors and vector addition of physics. While in
classical mechanics we use a vector to describe an act that accelerates, in quantum
theory we use a vector to describe an act that creates, and we never completely
describe the entity itself. (There is indeed not merely an analogy but a physical
connection between the concepts of action vector and force vector, which we take
up later.) Kets are basic to quantum theory: we will represent the most general
kind of action on a quantum in terms of them. These action vectors seem unnatural
to ontists, just as force vectors were to some of Newton's contemporaries, and for
just the same reasons: for example, because they seem immaterial, vitalistic, or
anthropocentric.
The last charge at least is unfounded. Quantum actions are no more anthropocentric than classical forces. In elementary mechanics too, the first action or
force vector we encounter is one we carry out ourselves, an interaction between
ourselves and the system. When we tell beginning students that a force is "a push
or a pull", we mean at first a human push or pull. We follow a similar practice
in quantum physics, first taking up acts of the episystem on the system. Then
we expand both force and act to actions that take place within the system itself.
We do not suppose that human actions are fundamental elements of nature, but
we assume they are fundamental elements of human understanding. We learn by
doing.
WI, W2

1.4 The Quantum Project

33

1.4 The Quantum Project
To recapitulate our theses so far: Einstein's theories of spacetime and gravity
modified the tense structure of physics, but Heisenberg's theory of quanta modifies
the copulative and modal structure.
Thus quantum theory is the most radical deepening of our understanding of
nature since antiquity. Quantum superposition makes quantum theory simpler,
more unified and more powerful than classical theory, which is a singUlar limiting
case. Quantum activity represents an irreversible advance in our understanding of
nature. Although still unfinished, the present quantum theories have already made
possible kinds of understanding and control of nature that could not be envisaged
in classical physics with all its illusions of certainty.
But we still have no valid quantum theory of the highest energies or smallest
sizes, nor of gravity and spacetime structure. The quantum project is to extend
quantum theory to these domains. For this we may have to make quantum theory
still more praxic and less ontic.
Most of the pioneers of the quantum theory, including Einstein, de Broglie,
Schrodinger, and Wigner, retained more of the ontic classical epistemology than
Heisenberg and Bohr, and rejected the quantum project in principle. Einstein's
view is clearly stated and frequently quoted:
There is no doubt that quantum mechanics has seized hold of a beautiful element of
truth, and that it will be a test stone for any future theoretical basis, in that it must
be deducible as a limiting case from that basis, just as electrostatics is deducible
from Maxwell's equations of the electromagnetic field, or as thermodynamics is
deducible from classical mechanics. However, I do not believe that quantum mechanics will be the starting point in the search for this basis, just as, vice versa, one
could not go from thermodynamics (resp. statistical mechanics) to the foundations
of mechanics.
Einstein 1936
Bohr believed that quantum mechanics "will be the starting point in the search",
as Einstein put it, but proposed nevertheless to give classical concepts a permanent
place in its foundations. To be sure, Bohr noted, our "classical" (that is, classical)
concepts are "gross and inadequate", and nature "leaks through them like water
through a net".At the same time, Bohr explicitly rejected the idea of a "quantum
universe" (in the sense of a universe described by a 'lj; vector).
When the concept of a "'lj; vector" or ket for the universe was broached to him,
he responded vehemently "You might as well say that we are only dreaming that
we are here." He held that we must use classical concepts to communicate about
our experiments if we wish to be understood. Heisenberg soon accepted Bohr's
position on this matter, and it became part of the Copenhagen quantum theory:
The concepts. of classical physics form the language by which we describe the
arrangements of our experiments and state the results. We cannot and should not

34

1. Quantum Actions

replace these concepts by others. Still the application of these concepts is limited
by the relations of uncertainty.
W. Heisenberg

The insistence of Bohr and Heisenberg that we cannot use quantum concepts to
describe the episystem seems over-dogmatic today. Natural languages evolve with
their cultures, including the language of science. Some aspects of an episystem
- say a superconducting magnet - might profitably be captured by the quantum
algebraic language of bras and kets.
Thus on the one hand, many physicists and philosophers still seek to retreat from the Copenhagen epistemology towards the ontic one of yesterday, and
the Copenhagen position is represented in but a small minority of physics textbooks published today; while on the other, some search for a still more praxic
theory. There is little communication between these anti-Copenhagen and postCopenhagen camps.
We experiment with a praxic, post-Copenhagen position here. Although we
shall deal briefly with several ontic theories, this is but to clarify our own position
by contrast. The quantum project will undoubtedly force us to revise our language
further. Language is not a single static structure, but a community of structures
that differentiate, compete, and evolve like genes. To freeze language, were it even
possible, would not aid communication but cripple it, since the world about which
we must communicate does not stop.
The quantum project is the central problem of physics today. Since 1926 two
potent and beautiful but partial bodies of theory, the quantum theories of quanta,
and the classical theories of motion and gravity, have confronted each other. We
have working theories of particular systems, like an atom, a gene, or a field, but
none of the whole, nor even a plausible concept of what a whole theory of nature
might be like.
While the only working quantum theory we have today is quantum field theory, its fundamental concepts lack experimental meaning. Early attempts to find
experimental meaning for the basic concepts of quantum field theory, mainly by
Bohr and coworkers, failed because they called for stable test-particles with arbitrarily small values of q/m (charge-to-mass ratio). These do not exist, it seems.
Moreover, even thought experiments using these nonexistent particles fail to give
experimental meaning to spacetime location below a certain length, the Planck
length discussed below, due to interactions with the gravitational field, which becomes highly nonlinear for strong fields. Nevertheless, since the field theory of
quantum electrodynamics was uniquely successful, and there was no plausible
substitute for a field theory of the other forces, in the 1930's the physics community by and large chose field theory and sacrificed operationality. As long as one
could compute cross-sections and energy levels, the experimental meaning of the
foundations of the theory could wait.
In this work we accept that there is a fundamental conflict between field theory
and operationality, and. seek to replace field theory. The particle-fields and the
spacetime are kept separate in any field theory, even when it is called unified. One
of our purposes in the quantum project is to express their unity.

1.4 The Quantum Project

35

1.4.1 Understanding Quantum Theory
It is common to deny that quantum theory is understandable or provides an under-

standing of the universe. We have already quoted Heisenberg's remarkable "cannot
and should not" in connection with a quantum language. Richard P. Feynman cautioned us, "Don't try to understand quantum mechanics or you will fall into a
black hole and never be heard from again." He declared that even today no one
understands the quantum theory.
On the other hand, it is conceivable that we have to understand quantum theory
in order to carry out the quantum project. It may even be heuristically helpful to
believe the quantum theory, at least to the extent that a physicist can believe any
mere theory. This requires us to renounce objects, and the kind of being that objects
are supposed to have, ultimately even for ourselves. This is part of the "painful
renunciation" that Bohr spoke of. If we cling to absolute Being, we cannot hear,
let alone understand, the quantum theory, but will see only a tool for computing
predictions about special laboratory experiments; rather as someone who clutched
the concept of absolute Time might find relativity impossible to understand, but
could still use it to compute some predictions about laboratory experiments.
Fortunately, while it is impossible to fit quantum theory into classical understanding, it is possible to understand it on its own praxic terms. The language that
seems best for understanding quantum physics is the one of vectors, matrices, and
tensors. Learning to speak and think this vector-based language is the first task of
the student who wishes to understand quantum physics.
When we grasp a cane or a pencil loosely we are conscious of it in our
fingers. When we grasp it firmly and probe with it, especially with closed eyes,
we become unconscious of the tool and conscious of what is at its tip. It is as if
our consciousness moves from our fingertips to the tip of the probe.
With natural languages a similar phenomenon occurs. We may perceive words
and sounds as we learn a language, but when we have mastered it these recede
into the background and we seem to deal directly with meanings.
The mathematical language of classical physics does not become transparent in
this way, except at the most rudimentary level. There seems no way to represent
the Cartesian spacetime continuum with the discrete combinatorial structure of
human language. Yet somehow we seem at home in that spacetime, and our tenses
seem to work.
The finite combinatory structure of quantum theory, which we see graphically
in the stick-and-ball models of chemical molecules, is rather more like human
language in this regard. Though the initial and final modes of quantum grammar
are not part of normal experience, we can translate them into ordinary subjectverb-object sentences like" I polarized the photon vertically." While we will never
be as at home in the world of physics as we are in the forest or the city of our
senses, the real renunciation was to accept classical mechanics. Quantum theory
only slightly extends the process that classical mechanics and relativity began. We
are all blind to quanta, and action vectors are our canes.

36

I. Quantum Actions

1.4.2 The Quantum-Relativity Analogy

Since quantum theory is a deepening of relativity, there is an extended parallel
between the structures and developments of relativity and quantum theory, which
we call the quantum-relativity analogy. This analogy is both heuristically and
pedagogically useful.
o Heuristically, because the similarities between the contours of relativistic
spacetime theory and quantum theory suggest how they might fit together, just
as when we look at a globe of the earth we see how the continents of Africa and
South America might fit together. The similarity and overlap between these two
basic theories are clues to their ongoing synthesis, and key data for the quantum
project. .

o Pedagogically, because if we recall how we managed to assimilate the relativistic evolution in spacetime physics, this will suggest how we can stretch our
imagination and our language to accommodate the quantum evolution in kinematics.
The young Heisenberg used the quantum-relativity analogy to discover quantum mechanics. Einstein had purged mechanics of unobservable Newtonian time.
Heisenberg, consciously emulating Einstein, set out to purge mechanics of still
more unobservables. He considered the limit h ---> 0 in quantum theory to be
analogous to the limit c ---> 00 in spacetime physics. Classical physics was to be
merely the limit of quantum theory for small h, not a separate ingredient of the
quantum theory.
In the following we draw some analogies between quantum theory and relativity. A pair Q : R means that Q is a quantum concept and R is the analogue
in relativity. The list is neither exhaustive nor independent. Most of these analogies stem simply from the fact that both hand c are continuous parameters in
deformations of the old theory, which is a singular limit of the new; and some are
deeper.
o Each theory is epistemological, in that it was initially formulated in terms of
informative acts (selective acts: signal acts) and revises ancient assumptions about
them (Heisenberg's microscope experiment: Einstein's train experiment).
o Each relativizes concepts that used to be absolute (Being: Space)
o Each theory has its own characteristic fundamental constant, distinguishing it
from previous physics (Planck's constant h : lightspeed c).
o

Each of these characteristic constants sets a universal limit on informative acts

(h the compatibility limit: c the speed limit).

o Each such limitation is compensated by magical-seeming, paradoxical powers
(barrier penetration, coherent superposition: control over mass, age).
o Each theory has a correspondence principle recovering the old physics in the
transition to a singular limiting value (h ---> 0 : c ---> (0).

To read a diagram as a product. It is more likely that any self-contained closed subtheory of physics violates the unity of nature and has limited validity. a Each looks more complex than the old theory from the older point of view. relativity group (Dirac's transformation theory: Poincare transformations of spacetime points). and then combine. a The elementary signal acts of relativity are actually complex quantum acts. however. About tensor notation: The three main notations for organizing tensor equations are diagram notation. and index-free notation. a Each rejects temporal assumptions implicit in earlier syntax (modes: tenses). a Each unites time conceptually with another fundamental physical dimension (time-energy: time-space). To match the order that we already use when we write .1. For organizing or expressing complex products. an arrow head touching an arrow tail represents a contraction. including some yet to come. a In each. nothing beats the diagram notation: A vertex represents a tensor. such as logic. develop them separately and fully.5 Quantum Nomenclature 37 a Each theory has a new. I used to proceed as if one could cut physics into free-standing sub-theories. so that the new theory is more unified than the old. we emit many correlated photons. an arrow tail represents a low index. an arrow head represents a high index. To send a radio signal. for example. mainly for the benefit of the educated. a Each has a pair paradox expressing its novel non-commutativity (the two slits: the two twins). a Each replaces a static object (state: space point) by a transient process (act: spacetime point). less commutative.5 Quantum Nomenclature In this unit we discuss and justify some non-standard terminology that we use in this work. index notation. a The symmetry of a projective quantum 2-channel system and the space-time symmetry of the spinors and vectors at a point are mathematically the same (SL 2 : SL 2 )· a Both quantum physics and spacetime physics represent certain basic relations by vectors (Minkowski vectors: action vectors) with an indefinite fundamental quadratic form distinguishing the possible from the impossible (transition metric M : spacetime metric g). spacetime geometry and dynamics. The final three correspondences of the list point beyond analogy to a possible future unity of the two sub-theories of spacetime geometry and quantum kinematics: 1. we must somehow order the vertices in the diagram. formerly commutative acts become non-commutative (p and x determinations : x and y axis boosts).

looks like (. for these symbols. A "row" -< is a sharp source action. and keep his names "bra" and "ket' . a transition amplitude. all handled simply and uniformly by diagram or index notation. one contravariant) thus should have the form I. A tensor product bra®ket has the form (.• ) . 1.or three-stage experiment. The index notation is easier to type than the diagram and orders its tensors automatically. Quantum Actions products in algebra.. because it is standard.. as . This suggests that the part of the Dirac symbol that represents the implicit vector index on these vectors is the vertical stroke.. If a = wand is normalized to unity then the amplitude of w -< ~ H -< ~a is an average or expectation value. This then determines the following diagrams: 1 . Thus the bra-ket notation works for the simplest actions but can be improved. and -< -E-< ~ is a whole three-stage experiment. It came from the classical bracket symbol (Q) for an expectation value or average. and stand for experimental actions. as in (BITIA). 1 and I . In fact averaging is not what actually goes on. ) . -E-< Operators ~H-< = Cooperators -<E~ = -<~ Initial vector a-< = -< Final vector ~w = ~ w-<~H-<~a = -<-E-<~ Experiment These are verbs. A tensor R of type (VVtvtv t ) then has the curious form IRIII. What actually goes on within a single experiment is an operation. such as a filter might do. almost never the expectation value.. an "arr" ~ is a sharp sink action. the bra-ket notation puts covariant indices to the right of their root symbol and contravariant to the left. An diagram like ~ H -< for an operator H is therefore a better (more praxic) starting point for physics notation than an expectation value formula. as in R~J1-I/' What is one to do in a unified theory of both? One might do both for good measure.. Thus an arrow -E-< is a sharp medial action. A cooperator -< ~ represents the external acts of a two... An operator (one covariant index..38 1. An index-free algebraic linear notation inevitably spawns a glut of special signs for different contractions. ) . and its contraction. In an individual experiment one always meets an eigenvalue. Bra-ket symbols translate into diagrams thus: la)=~ (1) (al = -<. About indices: In quantum theory.. represented by an operator.... In relativity one lowers covariant indices and raises contravariant. We write actions in a simple linear sequence with Dirac bra-ket notation (. we order vertices first by horizontal lines from top to bottom and then within horizontal lines from right to left. 11 •.

We therefore call it a (quantum) kinematics rather than a logic or an ontology. We name the basic concept rather than its many representations and elaborations. and acts. due to the pre-quantum connotations of the word "state". I have honored usage where it is aids the meaning and modified it where it does not. tensors.5 Quantum Nomenclature 39 in ETA. suffixed with "-or" for the linear object . Naturally. initial vectors. About "kinematics" and "logic". Heisenberg. be it real numbers. classical predicates. or whatever. we must interpret the operands and the operators in any expression to fit each other. Better a wrong meaning than none. In classical physics the state is an observable on which all others depend. not aid it. While ACT certainly grew out of Von Neumann's quantum logic(s) N. flouting an older practice in mathematics and logic. and Von Neumann. Our symbols "Act" and "ACT" will represent an equally polymorphic concept. although technically these are all different operations. representations and guises: quantum and classical. which includes a search for meaning. matrices." for set inclusion. About "actor": It is customary to name a physical entity and a linear object representing it by the same root stem. About "act" and "action": Some people say that the action vector 'IjJ is "the state" or "the state vector". To give all these concepts different names or symbols would quickly block understanding. extensors.. So we use Peano's one sign V for a host of disjoint-union-like operations. Similarly we write "<:. functions. and initial and final. There is no such observable in quantum theory. and apologize for this idiosyncratic use of language. Some current quantum language is neutral about interpretation. and logical implication. but this often makes it impossible to see which radix owns an index. That kind of neutrality would be inappropriate for our task. ACT is more temporal and modal than N. It is rather closer to Grassmann's theory than to Von Neumann's. quantum sets. among others. The notation can easily explode when every concept appears in so many forms. Dirac. These vectors 'IjJ stand for what a quantum can undergo. One already writes addition as + and its identity as 0 whatever we add. class inclusion. This vestige of the early non-quantum theory of SchrOdinger outlined in Chapter 5 makes it harder to understand quantum theory and leads to persistent elementary errors. complex numbers. Therefore we follow common physics practice. The state misnomer has led some people to imagine that a quantum "has" a state in the classical sense. and omit or de-emphasize its operational meaning.. vector and operator. among others. and to spend much time trying to understand how it arises and evolves. We adopt the tensor notation of general relativity as adapted by Van der Waerden to complex spaces.1. variously acting on classical sets. it is not a special case and is not even a lattice. leaving fine distinctions to context. This simplified notation also links quantum concepts with corresponding classical ones. ACT may be regarded as a non-commutative and relativistic generalization of a projective-geometry lattice. a main point of our work. This is second best to diagrams but easier to type. extensional and intensional. We therefore call them that. not have. final vectors. explicitly declare that these vectors ultimately represent acts of the experimenter.

Acts do not always occur in that order. Examples: a tensor represents a tension. About "operation": Ordinarily an operation can be anything one does to something. where first we create the quantum system with I) and then we annihilate it with ( I . observable. Nevanlinna (1952)]. We call this the or-ion (or Orion) convention. "Creator" and "annihilator" are more accurate terms. an operator represents an operation. About "sharp". as well as a Hilbert . so we prefer them to the quite cogent "state" and "test" of Giles (1970) and the "preparation" and "registration" of Ludwig (1985-87). are not downright wrong. on the contrary. About "initial" and "final": The core ideas are source and sink. than the system does. emitting and absorbing the system under study. just so we can say: An operation is an action described sharply by an operator. an operator I) ( I (which does not represent an entire experiment) first annihilates and then creates the quantum. Since the vectors 'l/J of quantum theory (and associated tensors) represent actions. and we use them sometimes. Its initial vector I ) comes after its final vector ( I . and a propagator represents a propagation. We retain the older terms "sharp" and "diffuse" in tribute to the spectroscopists from whose discoveries the quantum theory grew. About "coordinate": We prefer this venerable term to many synonyms (including property. Since Dirac (1942. and Mischung for a diffuse case. I do not know who coined the excellent term "crisp". we call them actors. quantity or magnitude) when we wish to emphasize that the coordinates of an object are categorically dual or contragredient ("co") to the object. A quantum system is not an input-output system in the usual sense.40 1. but the term "output" suggests that in the final phase the system puts information out to a passively waiting experimenter. About "determinations": In quantum physics I speak of determinations or selective acts instead of observations. however. To fit with the term "* algebra" we call a space provided with a *. For example. The photon does not put out information. and variables instead of observables. one might well call such a space a Dirac space. Quantum Actions and "-ion" for the physical entity. variable. Caution: These terms give the order of acts in a standard experiment or cooperator ( II ) . The terms "input" and "output" also suggest themselves. In quantum practice. and is misleading for acts which change their operand so significantly. and bring out the exact mathematical duality between the two modes. We often use this familiar term in a sharply limited and unfamiliar sense. which is intermediate between "sharp" and "diffuse". 1943) emphasized its fundamental physical importance a decade earlier. streuungslos (non-dispersive) instead of complete (vollstiindig). and "diffuse": Von Neumann (1932) wrote rein (pure) instead of sharp. The terms initial and final have been used since the early days of quantum physics. the experimenter takes it out. parameter. Hermitian-symmetric form has been called a Nevanlinna space [Nagy (1966). "complete". just as about the initial act. a * space. for example by Heisenberg. and also a Krein space. the experimenter provides overwhelmingly more information about the final act. About "* space" and "t space": A vector space with a possibly indefinite. The pre-quantum term "observe" suggests non-involvement and non-disturbance.

Bohr. Where the sharp actions of classical physics form a category with many identities. those of quantum physics form a full semigroup with no identities. While classical physics uses an ontic language of states quantum physics uses a praxic language of acts. to complete the physical interpretation. We still call such a generalized space a t space. When the t is indefinite.6 Summary The quantum theory differs from all pre-quantum theories so fundamentally that it has changed the framework for all physical theories. not impoverished. The patterns of actions allowed by quantum physics are intrinsically different from those of classical physics. Quantum actions are more connected than those imagined by classical physics. influenced by Kierkegaard.6 Summary 41 space. They were overly pessimistic. The meanings in action are as important as the mathematics. we provide the space with nilpotent hermitian operators. even more radically than Copernican astronomy and Einsteinian relativity. declared that dissatisfaction and even suffering are inevitable parts of being a quantum physicist. Similarly. The quantum evolution has enriched. This is first of all a language primer. 1. as in BRST theory. William Blake . Instead of taking quantum incompleteness as a loss. here called gauge generators. both our theory and our world. physicists can take quantum spontaneity and connectedness as a gain. is not the same that it shall be when we know more. European existentialists of his time expressed distress or "nausea" at the absence of Being. Reason or the ratio of all we have already known.1.

The episystem in these Malusian experiments includes a photon source. and the * semigroup to a t semigroup. an assembly of simple machines. which we call the optical axis or z axis. Then in Chapter 4. The various linear polarizers we place on the bench differ among themselves only by rotations about the z axis and by translations along the z axis. First we study only those quantum and classical concepts which can be expressed solely in terms of one operational element of structure. in an elementary case study in relativistic quantum mechanics. Let us mount polarizers on an optical bench with their planes normal to the axis of the bench and the light beam. In this chapter we contrast the core languages of quantum and classical physics. the definite metric to an indefinite one. and the simplest quantum machines are polarizers. There is no sign that a photon polarization changes in flight through empty flat spacetime. We need its semantics as well. To learn this language it is not sufficient to master its syntax. several polarizers.1 Malusian Experiments We return to the polarization demonstrations of Chapter 1. . 2. This is the basic operational language for non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Elementary Quantum Experiments Quantum theory provides a language for experiments and other kinds of actions. The plane of the last is called final or FIN. Later we consider circular polarizations and boosts. we generalize the * to at. and an experimenter. This is the basic operational language of relativistic quantum theories. The outcomes of these polarization transition experiments are insensitive to the distance between polarizer and analyzer in vacuum. Then we study the assured transitions. determined by the vanishing of the semigroup product /3 8 0: of two actions. We pretend that FIN immediately succeeds IN. The two together are defined by a * semigroup. This enables us to ignore at first the dynamical evolution that occurs during a more general experiment and consider it later. determined by an adjoint operation * and a positive definite metric. the forbidden transitions. with gauge generators. an optical bench. a photon detector like the human eye. We learn and teach the language of quantum theory by using it in a quantum playground.2. The plane of the first polarizer we call the initial plane or IN.

we describe a sharp final action by a final vector. To represent a vector in turn in the language of numbers. and into a photon counter at the other end. of 'ljJA. the three vectors (2) are synonyms for the same action. we need a vector basis. We give physical meaning only to the direction of the polarization vector. In order of increasing complexity: o We may simply measure the projections of the polarization vector on the basis vectors and enter them in the matrix.3. and it passes through an initial polarizer. To make things easy. one initial and one final. we import a photon at one end of the optical bench. the axis of the optical bench. and what represents polarization uniquely is an equivalence class. Here the equivalence class is a ray. not necessarily orthogonal. Dually. Then we call it an initial-action vector. An initial vector describes an initial action and is a contravariant vector or ket. This means that there is an equivalence relation among polarization vectors. o We may in principle determine the components purely from a network of occlusion relations. We represent them as convenient by any of the following synonymous programs or codes. and final actions by row matrices. There are three experimental roads to the numbers in this matrix. For example. with)" real here and complex later (2. o We may measure enough transition probabilities to determine the components. not its sense or magnitude. Elementary Quantum Experiments Suppose that in one run of a simple polarization experiment E. We shall also use that vector to represent the act of producing one photon polarized in that manner. consisting of all numerical multiples 'ljJA). . Choose the z axis to be the line of flight of the photons.. or briefly an initial vector. Relative to the given basis we represent initial actions by (single-) column matrices.44 2. This is how we represent polarizations in the language of vectors. Choose any x and y axes in IN. a covariant vector or bra. Choose the initial vector 'ljJA along the polarization direction of the filter. let us put the stages face-to-face to minimize and then ignore the propagations. Associated with each initial polarization action is a polarization vector. in which the action flows from right to left: E = (wBa A) (1) = (wlla) =w0a = w-<:~a =-<:~ =-<:E~.6). through a final analyzer. What remains is a sequence of two sharp external acts.

In particular we can represent the basic photon polarization actions IX) and IY) by the column matrices (4) This representation also shows that every initial act is a quantum superposition of these two. (Later we see it as dual to an operation. Here we follow the simplest procedure. The corresponding analyzers are represented by the row matrices ~=:(XA) (5) [II] =: (YA) . since every vector is a linear combination of X and Y. We as experimenters set the initial and final polarization directions on our optical bench. not the vector.2. A linear space. not the system. (6) We term an experiment of the simple dyadic form (1) a transition experiment. the initial arrow does not become the final one when a transition occurs.6. we will promote it to a complex one in 2. belonging to a different level of abstraction than occlusion relations.1 Malusian Experiments 45 We first discuss transition probabilities in Chapter 4. The column matrix W=:X (3) representing a unit vector along the x axis.) • Caution: We provide no way to recover an external vector from one actual photon in flight. The polarization direction may be permanently engraved on the polarizer at the factory. The photon makes the transition. The analyzer has its own polarization arrow too. supplies the initial and final vectors. The episystem.6 to describe circular polarization as well.3. like the first vector in the action diagram of Eq. and it does not leave the polarizer during the experiment. although this brings in extraneous (non-quantum) geometrical concepts such as spatial angles. There is none. generally of greater dimension.1 (1). and the pure occlusionrelation method in Chapter 6. For these linear polarization experiments IN is a real two-dimensional linear space. If the photon had a state. In particular. We discuss this in more detail in 4. is now a quantum word that may be paraphrased in an imperative mode as "Emit an x-polarized photon".2. But the initial . the state might change during the quantum transition. plays a similar role in every quantum theory.

Ignoring these two distinctions would simply lead to false statements. are self-replicating patterns of actions. like writing "See jump run" instead of "See Jane run". This is what goes on between and connects the other actions. though they are often less localized in space. From the action point of view. each of which is created. With a slight stretch of terminology we can indeed read an action diagram as a circuit diagram. The modules of circuit or flow diagrams can be persistent and act again and again. It stands for that which can happen. that between the action and the recipient of the action. and it is meaningless to speak of it "changing". they don't change into each other. It is more verb than noun. Each "<" in (1) represents the beginning or end of an action.) Polarizers and photons and other hardware may persist but the polarization action is brief. A photon will transit a polarizer 1 mm thick in about 3 x 10. A one-photon ket does not represent that which can evolve or collapse. That distinction is the one we call the system cut in quantum theory. This semantic distinction. (We repress speculations about timeloops for now. subprograms and hardware. Actions succeed each other. all in one brief moment. and in this non-relativistic form of quantum theory we idealize them as instantaneous. Such actions generally take place in times that are infinitesimal on the human scale. Elementary Quantum Experiments vector represents the initial action. between agent and recipient of the action. Photon external actions occurring in individual atoms are still briefer. To ignore it leads not to falsity but to ungrammatical nonsense. Each internal line "-" in an action diagram represents a quantum propagation.12 s and by then the polarization action is over. Ordinary flow and circuit diagrams show (logical or geometrical) space and quantum diagrams show spacetime. whose temporal dimension is omitted in circuit diagrams. the modules of flow and circuit diagrams. and the quantum undergoing the action. The distinction we make here is an even more rudimentary one. • The last representation in (1) is a rudimentary action diagram. Nor is it the old distinction between the experimenter and the system. • Caution: Action diagrams superficially resemble circuit diagrams or computer flow diagrams. • . between a photon and a way to produce a photon. but the elements of these quantum or Feynman diagrams stand for acts which can happen just once in each experiment. But computer software and hardware are both wares. In this respect vectors resemble events described by spacetime points. Its grammatical counterpart is the noun-verb distinction. is not the old one between map and territory. That is not problematical here. and these elements are not. and replaces a vector index of the tensor symbol. one that we draw again and again.46 2. but one composed of peculiarly transient modules. acts once. and is annihilated.

The product (wi 8 la) of initial and final actions in . The terms in (3) are called contractions of the corresponding terms in (1). The idea of the state of being is symmetric with respect to past and future. Each such action then defines a state of the projectile. and register it by a suitable final action at a given later time t. When we say the tensors represent experiments. The tensor E is a history or flow diagram of the experiment. no experiment Qn the photon can tell us the orientation of that polarization. we mean: o When we combine actions in series we multiply their tensors in the same order. which we formulate more explicitly in due course. No experiment on a photon will tell whether it ever did (or will) undergo a polarization process at all. The initial vector represents the initial action as far as all final actions are concerned. o When the experiment never works. We call such a composite an external action. The flow diagram of (1) shows both the separate external actions and their Kronecker or tensor product. One informally often uses the same diagram -<~ for the amplitude (a number) and for the action -<~ (a tensor) as well. We do not find this unique determination for a photon. more explicitly written E = (wBa A ) = Iw) 0 (al. This suggests an equivalence relation. We cannot infer back to the initial quantum act from one quantum that it produces. We ordinarily rely on context rather than quotation marks to tell whether a symbol like la) designates a physical action or a ket that serves as a name of that action. then each of these two actions determines the other uniquely. Such a vector representation provides each Malusian experiment (1) with an amplitude (7) A = ampE = (wla) = wa = Tr(w 0 a) =-<~ given by the value of final vector w on initial vector a. the final vector represents the final action as much as concerns all initial actions. we shall designate a sharp external action by just one of the many synonymous vectors in its associated ray. As we develop the quantum language we will represent more and more complicated experiments by tensors. Even if we know from reliable informants that it did. We assume that our actions form a semigroup A. With a customary slight impropriety. We used to imagine that when we fire a projectile at some given initial time to.2. And dually. whose associative product represents serial execution. one initial and one final. Two nearly-touching arrows in an action diagram represent a pair of indices that are contracted: equated and summed. This is the main difference between the quantum and classical epistemology. the product vanishes. We take up the physical meaning of A below. Consider the classical story for contrast.1 Ma1usian Experiments 47 No photon produced by an act la) carries much information about that act. Let us dwell on it further for a paragraph or so. consisting of two actions. and these acts are not. Under these circumstances it is confusing to continue to say that either the initial vector or the final vector of an allowed transition represents "the state" of the quantum under study.

and is usually ignored when symmetries are being enumerated. an a-polarized photon. If we turn our attention from the photon to the details of the act of its emission or absorption. (wla). (9) Then the final photon count remains zero. These actions are also called "creation" and "annihilation". for instance. If the two polarizations are exactly crossed so that the amplitude vanishes. "Import (= inject = create = prepare = ..48 2. or doing two final actions in succession. we do not allow doing an initial and a final action in the wrong order. are merely best possible or maximal descriptions. no matter how many initial photons there are. then we perform new kinds of initial and final actions on a different. When this number is 0 the transition is not allowed. ) a photon linearly polarized along the direction a". One can then recognize initial actions a as non-zero elements of A with the property that for all f3 E A. at will. Although the English paraphrase is a complex expression. and the final vector (wi as "Export (or extract. A = Tr E = wa = 0 . not complete. or annihilate) an w-polarized photon". though because it goes between two different vector spaces it is quite different from the other symmetries.. or "production" and "registration". we find three main kinds of transition: o Forbidden Transition. or collapsing into the other. or briefly. here we do not analyze the expression la) and what it stands for but regard it as atomic relative to a given study. The dual symmetry between initial and final vectors is the most basic symmetry of quantum theory. or doing two initial actions in succession. The transition is forbidden. They describe actions performed by polarizers (and photon sources and detectors) on a photon. The episystem and the system of the experiment are usually left implicit when they are common to all sentences of a discussion. af3 = 0. They belong to the episystem more than the system. The photon flies from polarizer to polarizer. The initial vector la) may be paraphrased as an imperative. We need not ascribe the quantum an unobservable state of being. . much larger and more complex system. on the contrary. There is no question of one vector evolving into the other. These vectors. In this elementary example. and final actions by the dual property. Then each vector defines an elementary quantum sentence. at opposite ends of the optical bench. or analyze the polarizer itself. or reducing to the other. States are complete descriptions. That is. The polarizer does not fly down the bench and become the other. never goes. (~) then no photon passes through both polarizers: w!/la. we set both of these angles freely. Idealizing away the small losses of actual polarizers. Here we therefore give these products the default value O. In this Part 1 we develop the quantum language for a fixed individual system. a number. Elementary Quantum Experiments the normal order is represented by the vector contraction. The two filters have independent initial and final polarization angles a and w.

Quantum theory usually does not tell us whether an individual photon will make an allowed transition. The idea that some are not is peculiar to quantum theory. o Allowed Transition. the forbidden transitions. When a transition is forbidden we say that the initial action precludes the final one. the metric quantum theory first arising for the global system. Thus a closed system is composed of many open ones. In classical thought the allowed sharp transitions are all assured. The allowed transitions (or. . Therefore the local quantum subsystem may well be projective. but we may need to do the experiment itself to find out which actually happens. that either the photon will be counted or not. The Copenhagen quantum theory was formulated for closed systems. If in every trial of the experiment the photon makes the transition. and the final action occludes the initial one. a small region of spacetime within a larger experimental volume is not a closed system.2 Adjoint If a system is closed off from the rest of the universe between our external acts. An open system might not have a unique adjoint. each w defines a linear subspace of a's obeying (8). 2. Open systems seem more fundamental than closed ones. we expect that for every initial act la) there is a unique final operation. We now take up the assured transitions briefly. What is not forbidden is allowed. or the relation Ill) do not determine the assured transitions for a quantum system. No fuzziness in experience is implied by this. when spectroscopists inferred from a dark line on an emission spectrum that a certain transition is forbidden.2 Adjoint 49 This is a selection rule. since quanta enter and leave it freely. such that the transition (alia) is assured. although of course we have supposed that it is totally open to us in the initial and final stages of the experiment. Since (8) is a linear equation. then the transition is said to be assured. only an incompleteness of theory. equivalently.2. Specifically. We may identify w with such a linear subspace. This uses the vocabulary of projective geometry for quantum purposes. and not conversely. that is. Selection rules dominated the early days of quantum theory. Later we will find a meaning for the numerical value of the contraction wa in the case of a transition that is not forbidden. the statement that wand a are incident on each other. and regard the null relation (8) as the incidence relation. We call such a system "closed". o Assured Transition. It does assure us that something definite will happen. designated by (al and called the adjoint of la).(wllla). If the transition w ® a is allowed we write . called a copoint. happens every time we try the experiment.

and assume one distinguished adjoint t : 10:) >-+ (0:1.3 E HI . o A * semigroup is a semi group provided with an adjoint operation obeying (tl. In semi group terms. in Chapter 4 we give a t space more structure (gauge generators) to give physical meaning to the action vectors of negative norm. (t2) The transition (0:110:) is not forbidden: -'0: t 1Il0: . A * is a definite t. Definition. In elementary quantum theory we assume that IN is a * space. It would be paradoxical if some assured transition were also forbidden. 2). o A * operation is an adjoint operation obeying -> A (tI. and that t : A +--> A. . o A reversible semigroup is a semigroup that admits some adjoint operation. In elementary (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics (P) determines a * physically and uniquely from an infinity of mathematically possible *'s. Elementary Quantum Experiments Here we study systems that are closed except during the initial and final actions. 2). IN +--> FIN has the following properties (for all sharp initial acts 0: and nonzero initial vectors 10:) ): (tl) The adjoint is an involutory antiautomorphism of the action semi group A: tt = id . (. An external action vector space with a * we call a * space.3t .3o:)t =o:t. o An adjoint or t operation on any semigroup A is a mapping t : A obeying (tl). oAt semigroup is a semigroup provided with an adjoint operation. (2) Only for definite adjoints can we demand (P). (t2) prevents this. If (t2) is false then we call the adjoint operation indefinite. (t2) means that V. An external action vector space with a (possibly indefinite) adjoint t we call a t space.3 0 0: = 0 . We call an adjoint (operation) definite if it obeys (t2).50 2. It relates the adjoint operation to the selection rule III more strongly than (tl). (t3) Any transition (0:110:) is assured. It follows from (t l) that any adjoint respects the null relation: (1) (P) implies that there is a unique assured transition from each initial vector. In elementary (non-relativistic) quantum theory we assume that every non-zero external vector represents a doable act.

For classical systems the serial product determines the adjoint uniquely. It evidently defines only the ray of tla). Any count at all is evidence that a transition is not forbidden. Then t may turn out to be indefinite.. as long as the transition goes our confidence in the hypothesis that (wi = tla) continues to grow.8. and choose the t so that it respects the dynamics.3. We see this in more detail in Chapter 4. 3).2 Adjoint 51 When t is definite. It is simpler to verify by experiment that a transition is forbidden than assured. there is a dot over every . It then remains to be seen experimentally if the adjoint map so constructed obeys (fl. We have already seen that a quantum theory without a fixed adjoint operation still has operational meaning. and so there is only one possible negation operation.] M has three real parameters.81· t may be a (3) 0. Proof It follows from (fl) (we see in Chapter 6) that the mapping represented by a 2 x 2 symmetric matrix Mo. M is Hermitian. If a real quantum system € has real dimension dim IN € = 2 then the general adjoint operation t contains 2 arbitrary real parameters. In Von Neumann's quantum theory he assumed that t was definite and then chose the dynamics so that it respected t. and must keep track of .4.(3: t "" L Mo. In the complex theory of 2. the elements of M are complex. We emphasize that quantum polarization violates this classical "law of thought": Proposition.2. An overall real factor does not change the adjoint mapping of the rays of IN €. This generalizes readily to IN € of any dimension D = Mult €.(3(aI0 (. we discard the hypothesis. but the two have a fundamentally different experimental nature. and the number of independent real parameters in the adjoint is 3. Therefore by making enough runs of the experiment we may recognize a forbidden transition even with unstable objects and variable detector sensitivity. it is reasonably clear what w = ta means operationally: If we perform the experiment (wlla) repeatedly. as in the basic polarization example.(3 [in the present real model quantum theory. But to verify that a transition is assured we must know the fraction of the initial quanta that survive to the final stage. Moreover this parameter count is not reduced by postulating definiteness. This is a potentially infinite sequence of actions. If it fails significantly often. The difference is roughly that between a calibrated ammeter. which provides a useful numerical reading. like the operational definition of quantum superposition +. Malus' law covers both forbidden and assured transitions. The coefficient tensor M defining the adjoint t is called the transition metric (form) of the initial space IN. which only distinguishes a zero reading from a nonzero one. and an uncalibrated galvanometer. Nowadays we proceed in the opposite order: We set up the dynamics first.

to determine an assured transition one may compare counting rates at the two ends of the experiment. and depends on the gravitational field. then to verify that a transition to the ordinary beam is assured it is sufficent to verify that the quantum is stable and that the transition to the extraordinary beam is forbidden. calibrated detectors. It represents initial actions by rays in a linear space much as points of the plane are represented in projective geometry. The traditional term "metric" is rather misleading in the present context. but speak of both definite and indefinite metrical quantum theories. and the quantum adjoint t to the geometer's compasses. This presupposes comparing clocks at the two ends. It has a metric form M and a scalar product like those of Euclidean or pseudoEuclidean geometry. To determine that a transition is assured thus involves more experimental resources than to determine that it is forbidden. and explore the system purely as a pattern of forbidden transitions between initial and final actions. Therefore in the remainder of this chapter we shall forget the assured transitions and the adjoint t. Elementary Quantum Experiments all the quanta in the input. ordinary and extraordinary. therefore the space of rays through the origin of a threedimensional vector space is called a projective plane. The projective geometer has but a ruler. and such a clock comparison is relative to the state of motion of the subject. . and can draw the straight line incident on two points. Iiall := at a. In the early days of quantum mechanics one assumed that the transition metric was definite like the distance metric of early geometry. Metrics are small between points that are near together. but cannot compare angles or lengths. To verify that a transition is forbidden. We do not insist on this anymore. has no simple physical meaning. Again. The theory of the assured transitions is therefore called metric quantum theory. This presupposes a stable quantum. in which each point of a scene is projected onto the canvas by a light ray from the point to the artist's eye. The form w t a vanishes when a and w are far apart. Caution. but merely the information that the beam is on. The Euclidean or metric geometer uses ruler and compasses and can compare angles and compare lengths. selection rules. The quantum physicist's selection rule ~ corresponds to the geometer's ruler. the experimenter does not need the extraordinary beam and need not verify that the quantum is stable.52 2. The theory of allowed transitions alone may be called projective quantum theory. The "distance" of the vector a from 0. however. This representation of points by rays ultimately stems from the Renaissance invention of perspective drawing. To determine a forbidden transition requires no clocks. and a global concept of number. and the point incident on two straight lines. If the fundamental polarizing unit of our transition experiment is a prism of Iceland spar which splits the original beam into two orthogonally polarized ones.

is that of the target "annihilating".. The final action transforms a quantum into a bit. to the most general system. (. First for each initial act a = [a) we define the class 0a of all final acts that occlude a. The initial action transforms a bit into a quantum. and (w] for a general final act. (2) . and their 0 relation. a is included in (3 if every final act that occludes (3 occludes a..3 Action Vector Semantics Now we extend the idea of the action vector from photon polarization. whose vectors have any number of components. . We limit ourselves to finite dimensionality at first. For any system.. if it occurs. . If you prefer to take the concept of a sharp (initial.. called inclusion between diffuse initial acts a = (a). possibly diffuse.1 General Actions Here we fit sharp actions into a broader scheme of general actions. and la) and (wi for the sharp actions to be defined. ) . which create or annihilate the system under study.3 Action Vector Semantics 53 2. an initial action (or channel or mode) is that of the episystem "creating". final or selective) action as a given for now.. Dually. In the next section we give experimental meaning to the concept of sharpness for initial and final actions. . We may idealize the initial apparatus as a white box with one button.. We write a = [a) for a general initial act.. During the final action.. Then we construct a natural partial order ::. you can go directly to the next unit.. in a sufficiently long sequence of experiments (3 will sometimes actuate any final channel that a will sometimes actuate. Therefore (30a if and only if (3 E 0a.. ) and a wider one [ . (3 = [(3). or emitting the quantum. a quantum goes in and the button pops out. 0a] . In one initial action. The inclusion ordering of final acts is dual: x::. . w := [w0 <.. rather than reconstruct it in terms of general actions. and to characterize sharp external acts.. importing. We may think of the final apparatus as a black box with one button. (3 := [0(3 <. x0]. for each final act w = (w) we define the class w0 of all initial acts that w occludes. roughly speaking: a ::. exporting or registering the quantum.2. we push the button and the box injects a quantum into the experimental chamber. skipping the rest of this unit. We use the 0 relation to define an inclusion relation::.].3. / / / / Here we start from the concepts of general external acts. whose vectors have 2 components. Inclusion is the relation between a narrow beam ( . Equivalently. dually. 2. (1) That is. A final action.

In a finite state space. Now we can define sharp actions in terms of general ones. In the definition 'Y stands for a general act: Definition. To bring this idea out more fully.has long been standard for orthogonality between vectors of the same mode. since it holds between orthogonal polarizer and analyzer. full initial act that precludes no final acts. but 1. The null relation fIl stands between two vectors or acts of opposite modes. Now we can define a sharp act as a minimal non-zero act in the partial order (2). and we will use it for that later. a is covered by j3. They are: 1= 1t = I = It = null initial act that precludes all final acts. The 1. (5) • A technical remark on the choice of the concept and symbol fIl: The sign 1. full final act that occludes no initial acts. means that a [a='Y or :I j3 and that for all 'Y. And dually for final actions. Elementary Quantum Experiments We further postulate ideal lower and upper bounds for this order. (3) null final act that occludes all initial acts. (4) That is. the occlusion relation fIl is closer to experiment than the orthogonality relation L . Definition. a <J j3.54 2. These null and full acts are done with closed and open windows respectively. j3='Y] . we first define the relation of covering between two general acts a and j3. We may adjoin such ideal acts to any theory that lacks them. The initial action a is sharp when it covers the null act: l<Ja .might seem natural for this relation at first.relation will be related to the fIl and t relations thus: (6) [j31-a] == [j3t fila] or equivalently (6') Since actions do not connect directly to others of the same mode but only to others of the dual mode. The act a covers j3 if a includes j3 properly but is as close to being equal to j3 as possible. (4) holds when the set j3 consists of the states in the set a and exactly one additional state not in a. a <J j3 means that a is properly included in j3 and not in any initial act that is properly included in j3.

The state space is also called the phase space in mechanics and thermodynamics. representing annihilations of f'S.1 of like modes. Henceforth (except briefly in Chapter 6) we take sharp external actions as the basic physical elements of our theory. The null external acts 1 and 1t are both represented classically by the empty set. Points of S are supposed to represent states of being and acts of selection.2. we now introduce a representation of classical initial and final acts by kets and bras.1] is the set of all mappings m : 1 -+ S. The number of points in S is called the multiplicity MuIt f of the system f. [1 f . Here 1 designates the unit set of the null set.1] and [1 f . we construct two isomorphic replicas of S.S] is the set of all partial mappings m : S -+ 1 with single-point domain. the situation before the system is created or after it is annihilated.. . In classical physics any object f has a state space that we designate by S = Space = Space(f). and the inclusion (2) holds between these initial acts just when set inclusion 0: ~ {3 holds between the associated subsets 0: and {3. written [S f . In classical logic each system under study has and is defined by a state space S. it comes so close to a quantum theory that we can cross over to the quantum domain with a single step. We do this in part to practice this action language on familiar material.S]. But our main reason is to develop a quantization process. We nevertheless consider the occlusion ~ of dual modes to be more fundamental than the orthogonality . each state 8 E S being a complete description of the system. and the corresponding vectors as our basic mathematical units.1] represents a transition from the vacuum to a system in state 8 which we identify with an initial act. which contains all the information that ~ does and more. We continue this process in Chapter 3. the relation ~ does not presuppose or imply a transition metric or a concept of orthogonality. Indeed. Thus each mapping (8 f . To make the classical language as expressive as the quantum. and the full external acts i and it by the entire state space S. In classical physics we need never mention initial and final acts. [S f . Nevertheless classical physicists did experiments too. Like the incidence relation between points and lines in plane projective geometry. 2. To represent creation and annihilation. or final acts. in general we expect more informative concepts to be more basic.3 Action Vector Semantics 55 It would be possible to found quantum theory on the orthogonality relation . primarily because it is closer to experiment. Their points represent classical initial and final acts respectively. When we put the classical theory in action terms.2 Action Vectors of Classical Systems We now return to classical physics and cast it in action form. and these had beginnings and endings. Then any crisp initial and final acts 0: = [0:) and w = (w] biuniquely define subsets 0: and w of S.3.1. Dually. representing creations of f'S..1) E [S f . which serves as the vacuum.

S]. which puts in no quanta at all. The force vector abstracts the consequences from the material agency. A c B and A f B. signified by the same initial vector or final dual vector.S]. If the probability P(x) = oX = constant wherever P(x) f 0. (1) . Identification Principle. Every (complete) input action is now represented by a ket Is) E IN 10 and every final action by a bra (sl E FIN 10. so that a transition is forbidden just when (win) = O. is represented by the constant P(x) = 0. The ones that do form a basis. weights. We may represent general classical initial and final acts by distributions on [S +. strings. a crystal of Iceland spar. A polarizing filter. if they produce the same acceleration. Similarly in quantum mechanics each initial vector may result from a host of different experimental activities.56 2. then the distribution is crisp. Elementary Quantum Experiments Now we represent initial and final actions on a classical object by kets and bras as we do in quantum physics. despite the difference in their physical agencies. We identify two sharp initial actions nand j3 and represent them by the same initial vector In) if for every final action w.1]. A classical diffuse selection action on an object 10 is represented by a probability distribution P(x) on S giving the probability that the action will select an object in the state x from a uniformly random population. The dimension of the initial space of the system 10 is Mult Eo The catch is that most bras and kets of these spaces do not represent actions. If in addition P = 0 except at one point (where it is therefore 1) then the distribution is sharp.1] and [1 +.3. We define the classical ket space IN 10 as the space of formal linear combinations of initial actions in [S +. Dually we define the bra space FIN f as the space of formal linear combinations of final actions in [1 +. According to the definition in the previous chapter. If the probability distributions A and B are supported by regions supp A (read "support A") and supp B in phase space. which emits no quanta and is accomplished by a closed port. such as hands. then the inequality A < B (A "sharpens" B) implies that the region A is properly included in the region B. or a stack of glass plates at the Brewster angle may all be instrumental in carrying out the same initial or final action. 2. The null initial action 0. and we have learned to regard it as a physical agent in its own right. but no proper superpositions represent actions in this formulation of classical thought. A is sharp when no initial action sharpens A except the trivial null one 0. w~n = w~j3. and so obeys p 2 = OXP for some constant oX. There is a natural product on FIN x IN ~ C that permits us to identify each of the vector spaces IN and FIN with the dual of the other. springs. which is not a probability distribution. We recognize two forces as identical.3 Equivalent Actions In classical mechanics one force vector F may result from a multitude of different force-exerting elements. and levers.

Informally we often use the same word "vector" or symbol la) for both the mathematical vector symbol and its physical referent. a column matrix. E) is called the semantic triad. The initial action acts on or produces a physical quantum. the trio (U. but even less material in their nature. however.2. It corresponds physical external actions to mathematical vector symbols. any more than one event of space-time evolves into another (to use a quantumrelativity analogy). Thus la) does not itself truly evolve. we can speak of the ket and the action. into the final vector or anything else. but the momentary action of importing the initial photon. Each initial vector symbol is a quantum word. giving meaning to the points of phase space of classical mechanics. usually implicit. S. 2. w0a. The action vectors represent the actions themselves. or an arrow symbol. We regard these vectors as early examples of basic new kinds of physical elements proper to quantum physics. an object that admits a complete mathematical description.3. One remark about semantics is in order: The triadic relation "U uses S to mean E" among the users U and symbols S of a language and the entities E named by the language is called the semantic relation of the language. each state has probability 0 and is unattainable. Formal theories of semantics specify how meaning transfers from one language to another but cannot provide the meaning of the initial language. but a photon. When we need to be less ambiguous. a physical entity that does not. We still use vectors as symbols to communicate about our actions upon quanta. It represents directly not the photon. We represent a sharp initial polarization action by a vector a A called an initial vector and a sharp final polarization action as a dual vector called a final vector wAin such a way that wa = 0 if and only if the initial action precludes the final one. A semantics is thus a tripod with one foot in a linguistic community. just as in the case of force vectors. In the usual case of a continuous state space. is sufficiently novel to require explicit attention. and one in the outside world.3 Action Vector Semantics 57 and dually for final actions. There is a classical operational semantics. but we imagined that we could produce and register systems in an arbitrarily small neighborhood of it. We will not seek to express them in classical terms. to express classical concepts in terms of quantum. not a vector. The initial vector abstracts the consequences from the material agency. with the equivalence relation (1). such as a letter. What flies down the optical bench and evolves is not a vector. a sharp external action. related to and underlying the classical notions of force and action. Our program is the converse. one in a lexicon of symbols. All is quantum. which lasts until it is absorbed at the final end of the bench. The final vector abstracts the antecedents from the material agency. not the quanta they . Quantum semantics. We may regard an initial vector as an equivalence class of implementations.4 Semantics and Ensembles Now we generalize the vector kinematics from polarization to any system.

as within all words of natural language. Later we will represent the passage of time by an operator on initial acts. in that we have as yet found no fundamental obstacle to coming arbitrarily close to this ideal. to mention and discuss physical entities.58 2. We call this ensemble of all the legitimate uses of a symbol its semantic ensemble. An initial vector symbol 't/JA names a sharp initial action for a quantum. Like all words. This will not change the meaning of these vectors. spacetime vector. one that has been or will be or might be carried out and that is considered defined by the final actions it precludes. logic was restricted to supposedly atemporal notions such as truth. and two final actions that occlude the same initial ones. by the epithets "virtual" and "actual". we identify two initial actions that preclude the same final ones.5 Logic. More generally we distinguish a class of possibilities from a class of actual specimens. It is an ensemble of possibilities which can never be exhaustively enumerated and none of which need ever be actualized. Minkowski taught us to see a pattern of spacetime vectors in spacetime. The appropriate response is: Name of what? What knowledge? When we do physics we do not wish to mention names at all. There are close relations between these non-material concepts of force vector. and not to its sense or magnitude. . We may recognize several instances of actions as referents of the same vector symbol. and then discard it. The action vector is thus an idealization. kets are reusable. and Dynamics Newton taught us to see a pattern of forces in a dynamical system. we wish only to use them. which we explore throughout this work. There is therefore a concept of an ensemble hidden within a ket. such as the electrons in a given salt crystal.3. Kinematics. we give meaning only to the direction of an initial vector. We may leave this ensemble as tacit in quantum physics as we do in ordinary language and classical physics. Too thick a polarizer may stop a photon of the right polarization even when they are parallel. but a better one than the point state of classical mechanics. By the 18th and 19th centuries. And dually for final vectors. We do not reserve a vector symbol for a Wlique instance of an action. Too thin a polarizer may pass some photons even when the initial and final polarizers have orthogonal polarization directions. and necessary relations among them. and action vector. Elementary Quantum Experiments create or annihilate. Since according to the identification principle. One may say this of any symbol of physics. Action vectors represent ideal sharp external actions of maximal though incomplete information. Quantum theory teaches us to see a pattern of quantum acts in an experiment. let alone discuss them. Neither of these actions are sharp. the study of logic included theories of perception and time. but reuse it to express general conclusions that cover many cases. In ancient times. 2. implication and conjunction. Some say that an action vector 't/J is "merely a name" or "merely represents our knowledge about the system".

The sandwich thus emits L polarized light. Dynamics then studies which of the kinematic possibilities are actualized. The actions Land R are superpositions of the actions X and Y. The second slice is another quarter-wave plate and converts X into L. initial vectors with two real components can represent the linear polarizations of a photon. and as an approximation for some experiments of low resolution on exceedingly composite systems. complex. But forming real superpositions of the vectors X and Y produces only other linear polarizations. Experimentally. even if there is no time interval between the two acts. We show in Chapter 6 how the experimental data actually determine the coefficient field (real. Now atemporal classical logic of the Boolean kind emerges exactly only for the proper actions of one frame. say. dynamics with more contingent truth. The first slice is a quarter-wave plate whose characteristic action is to convert circular polarization into linear. The linear polarizer comes next and selects X. already dominates the instantaneous external act. We take up circular first. to become kinematics. in that they preclude any final action that occludes buth X and Y.2. where it appears as a phase factor eiq.1 (4). Logic was supposed to deal only with necessary truth. the outcome is contingent and varies from trial to trial. X and Y respectively. of which circular and linear are extreme special cases. say. In the polarization playground. The core dynamical concept. the logic of possible trajectories.and left-handed circular initial polarizations may be represented by the complex two-component column matrices .3 Action Vector Semantics 59 Logic then had to be suitably enriched with space and time structures and applied to the description of motion.3. or any other). Here we summarize the basic results. In quantum theory. but miss the elliptical. All present quantum theories exhibit a special degree of freedom that is captured most succinctly with complex vectors. however. circular polarization comes in two forms. which never represent the actions Land R. There is no need to introduce a new concept of force to account for contingency when we turn to longer experiments. the angle between action vectors. left and right. for example. the simplest truth already has a contingent element. To perform a right circular polarization we use a linear polarizer sandwiched between two slices of Iceland spar of suitable thickness and orientation. or L and R. 2. In a representation where X and Y linear initial polarizations are represented by the column matrices 2. and it suffices for extended experiments too. When a photon from an initial act Q immediately undergoes a final act w. Let us suppose that it transforms Land R circular polarization into..6 Complex Vectors We need complex vectors in order to faithfully and compactly represent the selection rules we infer from experiments so far. right. We therefore enlarge the coefficient ring to the complex so that we can write Land R too as superpositions of X and Y. There are no simple filters for these.

rather than the potentially infinite experiment of 2. for example. Elementary Quantum Experiments ~=: X+Yi=: R. the spliced motion picture will show the ball leaving the child's hand. and the fundamental selection rule is expressed by the vanishing of the matrix product or contraction. the initial act a is that of a child throwing a ball. wa = O.2.3.7 Adjoint and Time Reversals It is natural to seek a single action that accomplishes and defines the adjoint. More generally. abruptly reversing its motion in mid-air. (2) called the dual (or reciprocal) basis. ~ ~=: X - l=iJ (1) Yi=: L. flying some distance. which we shall use to give the adjoint meaning in general. defined below. . for which the method of assured transitions does not work. 11 + i I=: xt + iyt =: L t . In classical thought.iYt =: Rt . This enables us to express the empirical inference that R precludes nO final linear polarization. also called motion reversal. and finally returning to the child for a perfect catch every time. any homogeneous initial polarization (action) is represented by a complex column matrix W=: (a A ) (3) and any final one by a complex row matrix (4) These vectors form dual complex vector spaces.60 2. We also need some other way to understand indefinite adjoints. We may construct from this initial vector basis a unique final vector basis 11 . Suppose we have an initial act a and seek a final act w such that the transition w <. It thus depicts an assured transition. If.i 1=: xt . 2. There is a close intuitive relation between the adjoint t and time reversal T. defined by the conditions that the diagonal transitions Rt Rand Lt L have amplitude 1 and are allowed while the off-diagonal transitions Rt Land Lt R are forbidden. to depict an assured transition wa we need only make a motion picture of the initial act a and splice it to its Own time-reversal. but precludes a final L circular polarization.a is assured.

2... Let the two brief segments between the throw a. When we represent internal actions by matrices. Then Wigner pointed out that the linear operator T R was not a symmetry of the dynamical theory but changed the sign of the energy E rv ia / at.. -xi-').. and the catch w both approach zero.. just because we cannot reverse them... Concepts of time reversal combining various of these operations developed in stages. and the perfect catch or assured transition implies that w = t(Ta..... This also reverses the order of factors in tensor products. Negate time t.. Generalizing.3 Action Vector Semantics 61 In this construction we keep the irreversible parts of the initial and final acts in the episystem off camera... T is a time-and-mode reversal that we call total reversal. Transpose time-ordered indices. First a linear operator TR = (t .. Solving for t between these two equations we find (1) This expresses t in terms of total reversal and motion reversal. t . There are several related concepts in use.. in an early writing of Giulio Racah. In sequential quantum dynamics the parameter t itself is not a variable of the system but of the episystem.. o (i . means that at the reference time t = 0 we fix physical quantities like position and negate quantities like the velocity dx / dt.. -i). To define them formally.. A)' Dualize (interchange initial and final modes)....1 • In elementary quantum theory these are unit matrices and can be supplied tacitly. we consider the following five actions that they might include: o (xi-' . Negating time.. In quantum physics we recognize that no complete recording is possible.. we lower high indices with the metric M and raise low indices with its inverse M. (AB . o (AB .. where TT := t .... He therefore introduced the combination T = (t .... This is often called Racah time-reversal. reverse the horizontal order of all indices whose order expresses the chronological order of the acts they represent. Then the experiment is wTa....... consisting of the mode reversal t and the time-reversal T. -t) (2) of time negation alone was considered. BA).. -i) (3) .. of the ball.). This arises because quantum dynamics ties the imaginary i of quantum theory to time (see 12.. but effective on a tensor representing an operator or cooperator... -t)(i .. o (A . the motion reversal T. That is. -i). We write complex conjugation of complex numbers as C : (i . but we hold onto the concept of time reversal T.......3).. BA). let w = TTa. -t.. It is simply the time at which the experimenter carries out the action it labels. This operation is ineffectual on an individual vector. Negate i.

We interchange the initial vector and the adjoint of the final vector (two vectors of the same mode) with total reversal TT. but an adjoint t maps IN ---> FIN and its extension to entire experiments reverses the order of factors.A -< -E-o (5) and dually for final actions and black sinks. t .A-< acting down-beam from a practically white source 0. Elementary Quantum Experiments now called (Wigner) time-reversal to interchange past and future and still respect the energy. We carry out the adjoint t in the laboratory thus: Suppose that we can accomplish any initial action -E. while the adjoint t L is a left-handed circular polarization final vector. This sends quanta through all the filters in the reversed sense. This balance of the forbidden and the assured is special to two dimensions. a Wigner time reversal T is an antilinear operator T: IN ---> IN. It is a nontrivial empirically meaningful assertion that the concepts of initial vector and final vector already defined by the forbidden transitions consistently support the assured transitions as well.. For example let L be a left-handed circular initial polarization vectOr. Total reversal TT is not an operator IN ---> IN at all. (4) In sum: a Racah time reversal TR is a linear operator T R: IN ---> IN. For example. In the elementary theory of polarization. and just one to which it is assured. for any initial vector there is just one final (dual) vector (up to a factor) to which the transition is forbidden. and conversely. the combination TT := (t +-+ -t)(i +-+ -i)(AB +-+ BA)(A +-+ A) = TR .62 2. but considered both to represent "the state" of the quantum.A = -E. Then: a TT: IN a a The time reversal T L is a right-handed circular polarization initial vector. which register every quantum. but an antilinear mapping ---> FIN. Wigner.A with a filter -E. however. Since in fact they represent initial and final acts. one which produces every kind of quantum: -E. Time-reversal T maps IN ---> IN and its extension to entire experiments respects the order of factors. • We may extend the adjoint to entire experiments. Then to make the adjoint of an experiment we replace all the white sources 0 by black sinks . the adjoint of an initial act is a final one: . did not give vectors (lA and dual vectors WA separate experimental meaning. we must exchange them too in order to truly reverse the experiment.

written as tlA) = (Atl. a=tw=wt. Then we must label the selective acts to indicate that the filters are reversed. We then adjust the sign so that t is positive definite: at a > 0 unless a = O. Then the adjoint operation becomes an involutory exchange of initial and final vectors. we write this adjoint action too from right to left. (8) Usually the adjoint map is fixed and implicit during a discussion. We apply the adjoint operation t (like any other operator) after the initial act and before the final one. Likewise there are two final spaces FIN and FIN C. 63 (6) In order to combine this action most simply with others in the usual algebraic notation. component by component. The numerical sesquilinear function {3t a of the two initial vectors a and {3 is called their inner product (relative to the transition metric form M or adjoint t). back to the initial end. is called the length of 'I/J. which runs from right to left. We allow C to act on vectors as well. all norms are non-negative. An adjoint map with the property that at a = 0 only if a = 0 is called definite. and so we assign them to different initial vector spaces IN and INC. Therefore we assume the adjoint form t has an inverse. Then the positive square root JITifJTI . We designate the complex conjugate of a complex scalar z by Cz = z*. The label is t: (6 cont. If the transition metric is positive definite. as long as context makes clear what the space is. 'I/J and C'I/J do not transform the same way. In elementary quantum mechanics one assumes that the adjoint map is definite. We may safely designate this inverse by the same symbol t since it acts upon a different space. Under complex coordinate transformations. and conversely. Then there is no case where the transition at a is forbidden. (7) We also write this adjoint relation between a dual vector w = (WA) and a vector a = (a A ) as w=ta=a t .3 Action Vector Semantics [~A-<~]t = [>-A-7>-e]. a sesquilinear form. Presumably we can take a filter that has been moved from the initial end of the experiment to the final. The number 'I/J t 'I/J associated with any vector 'I/J is called the norm of 'I/J and written II 'I/J II. and we write the final vector adjoint to 'l/JA simply as 'l/JA.2. with tta=a. The antilinear adjoint map factors as t = CM and thus defines and is defined by a tensor M called the transition metric. Then for any initial vector a or final vector w.) In this way the initial vector IA) uniquely determines an adjoint final one. Complex quantum theory brings in two more vector spaces.

consisting of the initial vectors f3A that obey wf3 = n. Creation still goes on. we see that the normal to the grating lines is CY. we can represent it in IN to reduce the number of spaces that we bring into the discussion. he infers from the polarization phenomenon that the photon has transverse structure. we leave this question unanswered as a matter of principle. IN has dimension D and the grating consists of elements of dimension D . But the light consists of photons all produced identically to the limit of our ability. and that the intensity varies as the square of the electric field. In Newton's Opticks. .2. that is.1 (hyperplanes) . We shall represent final vectors by gratings in general.. sides. (This is the common practice.. What causes some photons to pass the analyzer and others not? Having found that polarization is a sharp external action.64 2. A polarizer would then be a microscopically fine analog of a wire grating that passes arrows whose fletches are parallel to its wires and catches the rest. we could argue that only the projection of the electric field along the polarization direction is transmitted. Therefore the row matrix (9) along the x dual axis is the final vector for an analyzer with its polarization along the x axis. at the expense of obscuring the dual symmetry of the theory. For a system of multiplicity D. Any final vector WA E FIN defines in IN a system of parallel lines called a grating. Suppose the counter counts all the photons that pass through the final polarizer and none that are stopped by it. . in series with a counter.) Then an analyzer is represented by a grating with hyperplanes normal to its polarization direction. The past does not determine the future. If light were a wave.. 1. It follows that the adjoint t maps any initial ray into a grating whose lines are normal to that ray. Putting n = 0. like an arrow whose fletch defines a plane including the line of flight. for n = 0. Elementary Quantum Experiments Although the adjoint vector belongs to FIN. he speaks of the photon as having "coasts". Things happen. • The experience with oblique polarizers raises persistent questions of cause and meaning. One could count the stopped photons instead.

is called its state space Space f. The special case of a classical object with only one state we shall call a constant object. The main difference between quantum and classical theories already appears in their operator kinematics.but . (1) This is how one might have represented external acts before quantum theory. The class of states of a system f.. and the possibility space by J. In this section we discuss classical kinematics. Represent all possible experiments.1 Classical Kinematics CO The sharp initial and final actions of any closed system f. The object system is called a random system and its variables are called random variables. The state space is variously called the sample space in mathematical statistics. We look at internal actions later (C2). Bub. We call systems or theories obeying CO-l classical or c. The extension to infinite ones brings in some topology. Dynamics then tells which experiments will go. in preparation for the quantum.everything changes .4 Quantum and Classical Kinematics 65 2. including a semantics. Tell which experimental transitions are forbidden and which are assured.4 Quantum and Classical Kinematics The fundamental problem of theoretical physics consists of two parts: o Kinematics. (81 <--> 8 <--> 18).2. o Dynamics.8']. And to correspond with the quantum kinematics that follows. phase space in classical mechanics and thermodynamics. A more general concept of state space is a measure space endowed with a concept of measure or probability for its measurable subsets. the set of possible worlds in Kripkean modal logic. we cast the classical kinematics in its pre-relativistic form and consider finite state spaces only. 2. correspond 1-1 to points 8 of a state space. A variable of a classical system is defined by assigning values to states. Kinematics provides the formal language for experiments. It is difficult to find constant objects in nature .4. The case discussed above is the discrete case where each point of the space has the same nonzero measure. such that Cl An instantaneous transition 8 --> 8' is forbidden if and only if its initial and final states differ: (8'1018) == [8 #. by giving for each value of the variable the class of states where the variable takes that value. or equivalently. A state represents a complete description of a possibility.

2.. This means that an allowed transition is defined by a single classical state. with conservation of total energy. The Bohr quantum principle BQl is central to that transitional theory: BQO A system defines a state space (phase space). The system of arithmetic itself was once regarded as another constant object. which happen to be orbits rather than points. Classical kinematics implies that for each classical initial action there is only one allowed final action. then called the quantum theory and now the old quantum theory.4. since there is no complete postulational definition for it. . without introducing inconsistency.2 Bohr Quantum Principle Between the centuries of classical thought and the present half-century of quantum thought there was a brief interregnum dominated by a frankly inconsistent and provisional theory. the common value of the initial and final states. The above corollary may be paraphrased: What is not forbidden is compUlsory. This does not hold in quantum physics. Arithmetic might be considered to be a variable depending upon those choices. We mention the Bohr quantum principle mainly to distinguish it from the quantum kinematics that followed it. 1. is supposed to be a constant object. however. Each sharp initial action admits only one allowed transition. Elementary Quantum Experiments they are usually supposed to abound in mathematics. Like the classical kinematics. BQ 1 Atomic transitions accompanied by the emission and absorption of a single light quantum occur between these orbits. This is called the state of the object system in that experiment.. each natural number 0. It is uniquely defined by either the initial action or final action alone. as shown by Godel's work in classical logic. Superpositions of these states do not occur in the old quantum theory. We can doubt the constancy of arithmetic. In a theory with an infinite state space. there exist an infinite number of further assertions that may be postulated or denied. which is therefore assured. BQ2 In a spectroscope the emitted photon exhibits radian wave frequency w determined by its energy E: (1) E=nw. The atom is restricted to a discrete set of periodic orbits in this space obeying the laws of classical mechanics. for example. as we choose. For any finite list of axioms of arithmetic. almost all transitions are forbidden. . the old quantum theory allowed us to imagine that the object system had states. .66 2.

In both classical and quantum kinematics the dimension of IN E is called the multiplicity of the system and written Mult E. with x'l/J lower dimension than the whole space. the null relation does not hold.3 Quantum Kinematics Here is the core principle of quantum kinematics in its vectorial form. A system obeying the quantum kinematics is called a (fully) quantum system._ =0. QI states that an instantaneous transition wBa A is forbidden if and only if its final vector nulls its initial vector. (1) These principles apply only to a closed system. If there is ever any final signal. Conditions that a relation 0 must satisfy to admit such a vector space representation as (1) are discussed in Chapter 6. such as people. are open. or of 'l/J's for given X. leaving the parallel or network forms for later. To verify that a given collection of action vectors represents a system of physically given external actions takes a potentially infinite series of null experiments verifying (1). . Almost all quantum transitions are allowed. For these experiments we need not calibrate either the source or the detector beyond establishing their threshholds. being bathed in air and light. The still more trivial null system E(O) of multiplicity 0 is also both classical and quantum. We state QO-l in a sequential form here. The left-hand side of (QI) is both a vector contraction and a flow diagram for a transition. Corollary.4. Proof The subspace of X's for given 'l/J. We will not consider open systems yet. The trivial system E(l) of multiplicity 1 has no choice at all and so is both classical (with a one-point state space) and quantum (with a one-dimensional initial space). although the systems we pay most attention to in daily life..4 Quantum and Classical Kinematics 67 2. and extend quantum kinematics from external actions to internal actions (Q2). QO The sharp initial and final actions of a system f correspond 1-1 to rays of vectors a A and final vectors WA in dual linear spaces IN f and FIN f such that QI An instantaneous transition (wlla) is forbidden if and only if its final vector nulls its initial one: (wI0Ia) == [wa = 0] . QI defines IN := IN f only up to isomorphism.2. by which is meant one that is sufficiently isolated from other variable entities between our experimental acts. is of In Chapter 4 we restate both classical and quantum kinematics in a language of operators rather than vectors.. We write f(N K) =: E(N) for a hypothetical quantum entity whose initial vector space is the N-dimensional K-module K EB . EB K (N terms) =: N K.

the quantum kinematics is intended to apply to all isolated entities. The effective logical unit is not the vector but the ray. what can interfere are alternative possible actions by the same . however. a crystal. (3) Proof Clear. What makes quanta different from previous lumps is quantum superposition.) =O. E + E means a quite different electric field from E. as the atoms of Democritus and Epicurus for example. This integrity was the historical import of the word "quantum" and the name "quantum principle".8) be linearly independent. _ This combination of two allowed transitions to produce a forbidden one is caIIed quantum interference. (wl13) . The statements QO and Q I express two basic features whose combination is unique to quanta. In ordinary physical applications we apply the quantum kinematics to whatever entity we are studying: an atom. But in the form we have stated it. Quantum superposition Ql is quite distinct from the usual classical superpositions of acoustics and optics.8)b = I. The entity either makes the transition or it does not. has vanishing transition amplitude: (wi. The quantum system.68 2. or a gene. 0 f. A classical entity is only an unresolved quantum entity. In all those cases there is a genuine splitting of the wave system into a wave that makes the transition and a wave that is reflected or absorbed . and poses the question of what its underlying quantum nature actually is. The mathematics splits (represents both possibilities) but the entity remains entire (chooses one course of action). In classical physics expressions like wo: also appear to govern transitions. In quantum interference. their integrity and their interference. Suppose that for some bra (wi the transition amplitudes from kets 0: and 13 do not vanish: (wlo:) f. of which the most dramatic instance is quantum interference: Corollary. If E is an electric vector. for example in the propagation of waves of all kinds. Elementary Quantum Experiments The selection rule (QI) and the identification principle imply that an initial vector 1jJA and any non-zero complex multiple 1jJA A are indistinguishable in their allowed and forbidden transitions. for example. Lumps occurred in classical physics also. At any epoch in physics many quantum entities remain unresolved.). the destructive case of quantum superposition. preserves its integrity. Which to resolve next is a matter of strategy. but 1jJA and 1jJA + 1jJA are different names for the same act and do not occlude each other. and these two states of the electric field occlude each other. where physical waves are superposed and the representation is not projective. Let kets 10:) and 1. (2) Thenfor suitable coefficients a and b the transition to the linear combination Io:)a+ l.

Some triplets are coplanar and some are not. and expresses every external action as a creation or annihilation operation performed on or leading to the vacuum. one introduces a special reference mode called the vacuum. All its rays are isomorphic and all its pairs of distinct rays.2. So to speak. The physics of continuous state spaces. namely a continuous measure structure. One calls a space ( = set with structure) U homogeneous (and of degree D) when for any two subsets S. Traditional truth modes include possible truth and necessary truth. The classical kinematics is included in the quantum kinematics as a special case where we have practical access only to a subcollection of practically orthogonal initial actions. and so forth. How can any possibility that does not actualize. S' c U of D points each. namely as initial. all one can predicate about points x and y of S is whether they are the same or different. We will see that this practical orthogonality arises naturally for some large and complex quantum entities. It still measures the possibility that the quantum emitted in the initial action is reabsorbed in the final action. Quantum theory incorporates a modal logic in that it deals not only with what we know but also with our mode of knowing it. there exists an automorphism U -> U that maps S -> S'. imperative and subjunctive. uses preclusion relations that give S structure. Then any transition amplitude appears as a vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude. however. Using the classical preclusion relation III. For example. a blank point set.4. or final. The quantum occlusion relation III endows its initial and final spaces with structure. 2. so that the superposition principle is practically ineffective. is homogeneous in every degree. but not all its triplets. In quantum field theory. not quanta themselves. the system before the initial action and after the final action is called the vacuum.4 Logical Modes A modal logic in general is one that concerns itself not only with the simple truth or falsity of propositions but also with how the proposition is known or held. All its points are isomorphic. matter to the one that does? Can we not deal purely with fact and ignore possibility? Later we understand this and many other peculiarities of classical physics as macroscopic remnants of the quantum superposition of possibilities. A projective quantum initial space is homogeneous in degree 1 and 2 but not 3 or higher. a structureless state space S. nor action vectors for distinct quanta. while the classical occlusion relation III does not. The principal modal forms or modes of classical English grammar are the indicative. determined by us before the fact. all its point-pairs are.4 Quantum and Classical Kinematics 69 experimenter for the same quantum (system) having the same mode. determined . We shall take the quantum kinematics as the starting point for quantum theory and derive the classical kinematics as an approximate or limiting case. besides simple non-modal truth. this action is predicted not to occur. This should be considered mysterious. characterized by maximal symmetry. including a topology. Quantum classes thus show more structure than classical ones. if it is zero.

Thus time enters more explicitly into the quantum kinematics (QO-I) than the classical (CO-I) (2. uncaused causes throughout history. providing most of the information in both phases. In some measure one may say that the episystem acts on the system in the initial phase and the system acts on the episystem in the final phase. Grammatical voice. active or passive. Presumably an original cause is a cause that itself has no prior cause. Grammatical tense relates the time when the predicate holds to the time when we utter the predicate. The difference between the initial and final vectors a A and WA is temporal. and the modal one the experimenter. admits what we might well call original. relates the time when the predicate holds (say. a typical modal concept.70 2. In the Malus experiment with oblique polarizers. 2. moreover. because we need to distinguish between vertically polarized and vertically analyzed. that chooses both the initial and final phases. This modal distinction resembles both grammatical tense and voice. The action vector language puts any determination of the photon and any predication about it not merely into a single mode of possibility but into one of two modes. and yet it is not quite the same thing as either. If we ask the quantum theory whether a given photon makes .4. But it is always the experimenter.5 Causes It has seemed natural since Aristotle to seek the causes of events. however. possibly or actually. an extrapolation into the future. The modal distinction between a A and WA. the annihilation of the photon in the analyzer is just one of those things that happen. It is an assertion about all trials. The voice distinction. concerns the speaker. tells whether the speaker acts on the object or conversely. however. but nowadays this search confronts the principle of classical mechanics that nothing really new ever happens. The occlusion relation wj. It is an original cause.}a does not merely express the absence of a count in a particular trial of an experiment. the initial mode or the final mode. an uncaused cause. never the system. they may both lie in the past (or both lie in the future) of our utterance. It states not merely that a count is zero but that it is predictably or necessarily zero.1). between initial and final. Elementary Quantum Experiments by us after the fact. and even ultimate causes. Even when the final action is in the future of the initial. something that just happens. It belongs to a logic of actions and they to a logic of utterances. one moment while the photon is in flight) to the time when we determine the predicate (the instant of the external action). Quantum theory. The uncaused cause is placed inaccessibly at t = -00. and is simply abandoned as hopeless. In classical mechanics the search for cause leads to an infinite regress and never to original causes. Quantum physics has has-beens and will-be's but no Beings. We cannot simply say that the photon "is" in a state of vertical polarization. except for the trivial cases of the identically false or true predicates. and that the cause of each state is a prior one. The algebra of predicates about a quantum is even more modal than pre-quantum modal logics in that it lacks non-modal predicates.4.

4 Quantum and Classical Kinematics 71 a given transition.. 2. it almost always tells us. To balance this judgment. we may define a neighborhood of an initial vector 1/J by choosing a basis and giving any neighborhood for each of the components 1/JA of 1/J in that basis. Thus the terms "complete" and "incomplete" are biased towards the classical epistemology and against the quantum one. feeding in all the infonnation we have. . In particular a quantum kinematics defines a useful nontrivial topology on its initial actions.2.. .6 Completeness A formal theory is said to be "complete" if any well-fonned question in the theory is decided within the theory.1/J. In the infinitedimensional case this component-by-component neighborhood construction fails to define a useful topology. The space IN of a classical system is totally disconnected in this sense. "I don't know. 2. (3 are connected by allowed transitions W <-. will be incomplete in just the quantum way.7 Connectedness The most conspicuous positive feature of quantum systems that all classical ones lack is connectedness. that a transition WBQA will take place between oblique QA and WA. Its only convergent point-sequences 1/J A are trivial almostconstant ones (1/JI. The classical theory can call itself complete only because it denies the existence of oblique action vectors and undecided transitions. Nevertheless its great predictive success and simplicity suggest that any maximal theory. In the finite-dimensional case.. go see for yourself'. One might call this omission an incompleteness of classical mechanics. Only when quantum theory is viewed from the classical perspective do we make this negative judgment. the activity that exists in nature and the undecideable statements of the quantum theory.4. besides agreeing better with experience. We mention the infinite-dimensional case for orientation. A so-called "complete" classical theory actually cuts out and throws away vital elements.. The exceptions are the rare forbidden transitions and the even rarer assured ones. The quantum theory is infinitely more descriptive.4. The rays through the vectors of such a neighborhood then define a neighborhood of a ray. for example. 1/J. in that it explicitly declines to decide the truth of well-fonned. and a classical one does not. we should look at the classical theory from the quantum perspective. while that of a quantum system is totally connected. one that answers all the questions that can be answered by a theory. Thus quantum theory declares itself to be incomplete. Any two quantum initial actions Q.(3 to a common final action w.Q. meaningful statements about the system under study. At first mathematicians worked with the . ). 1/J2. In classical theories initial acts are connected only to themselves. Later we encounter intennediate degrees of connectedness when we regard some variables of a system as classical and others as quantum. 1/J. W <-. .

but this proved unwieldy. . The transformations relating different frames form a category. Hilbert introduced the condition that the sum of the absolute squares 11'Ij!11 :=:L1'Ij!1 2 (I) A be convergent. and with the set of all No x No matrices. called L2{1R). 2. (2) We define a projective vector space as a vector space provided with an equivalence class of equivalent metrics. Each frame defines a Boolean logic that the experimenter uses to order her or his proper selective acts. we may represent a point particle in Newtonian mechanics in Cartesian frames related by space translation. with a universal law of force Fn(x) giving the force on each particle due to all the others. forming a ten-parameter family of frames and experimenters. time translation. and write M rv M'. such as a particle in an interval 0 ::. It may also be represented as the space of complex functions 'Ij! : IR --> C of (Lebesgue)-integrable square. x ::. In the projective quantum theory of infinite systems. Each system has an infinite collection of frames associated with different possible experimenters. as two such matrices rarely have a convergent product. all metrics of the same signature are equivalent. typically numbers. In addition . rotation and boost. we renounce the metric of Hilbert space but keep the topology. Let the position vector of the n-th particle at time t be Xn. This structure is called the transformation theory or relativity of the system. with the frames for its objects. Such vectors form the space S20~) ("summable square". N is the index set). when each is bounded by a mUltiple of the other: (3A)(V¢ E FIN)(V'Ij! E IN)¢M''Ij! ::. this provision is redundant. and we drop it. This is the vector space we use for the metric quantum kinematics QO of systems of infinite multiplicity. For a classical example. for that experimenter.5 Quantum and Classical Relativities By a frame we mean a sequence comprising the physical actions proper to one experimenter coupled with their names. relating the descriptions of different experimenters and respecting the law(s) of the system.72 2. Hilbert space is the resulting space S2{N) abstracted from a particular orthonormal basis. A¢M''Ij! . In the finite-dimensional case the boundedness condition is redundant and we drop it. provided we identify two vectors when the L2 norm of their difference vanishes. Elementary Quantum Experiments vector space C No of all infinite complex sequences. For the finite dimensional case. Call two metric forms M. A¢M'Ij! AND ¢M'Ij! ::. 1. The projective transformations are now the bounded linear operators with bounded inverse. and a transformation law connecting them. Then the laws of mechanics take the same form md2Xn/de = Fn{x) in all these frames. M' on a linear space (topologically) equivalent.

the kinematics of an entity is still fixed when we give its possible descriptions in one frame and the transformations relating this frame to all others. . by arbitrary column vectors. If we represent the states by binary vectors (vectors with components 0 or 1). frames almost never have rays or actions in common at all. None of the statements of this paragraph apply to classical relativities. with three parameters. In classical relativity theories. as for classical theories. Each frame provides a seriously incomplete picture. Each experimenter can carry out his or her proper actions only. but may also describe improper actions. There is a one-parameter family of such polarization frames. and generally of but half an experiment. We may define the kinematics of a classical physical object by giving all its complete descriptions in one frame and the transformation law to all other frames.2. For a quantum example. Different frames generally represent different totalities of actions. In quantum transformation theory. we need the entire space to express the relations among all the experimenters rather than the actions of anyone of them. We can no longer enumerate all the maximal descriptions of a quantum entity by giving those proper to one frame. position to another. If we allow complex transformations and elliptically polarized reference vectors. Observers have all their actions in common and merely number or name them differently. In both cases. then we enlarge the transformation group to 5U(2. Nevertheless. This creates another quantum-relativity analogy.5 Quantum and Classical Relativities 73 we may make arbitrary changes of coordinates. forming a vast number of frames in which the laws of mechanics take other forms. JR) of 2 x 2 orthogonal matrices. We call such a transformation theory a quantum relativity. the vector space IN of a quantum system includes many acts not accessible to the experimenter associated with anyone frame. we may represent a frame transformation by a binary matrix representing a permutation (having exactly one 1 in each column). Only the names change. since the accessible rays of the frame form a countable set within the uncountable totality. These examples illustrate a dramatic difference between the quantum and classical relativities. we may describe the initial polarization vector 'ljJA by its two components 'ljJi with respect to any pair of real orthogonal unit vectors.1 zeros). in contrast to classical. related by the group 50(2. C) of 2 x 2 complex matrices of unit determinant. since the initial and final actions may belong to different frames. Just as Minkowski space time includes many points not accessible to an observer at the origin. Each frame represents a choice among all possible actions. those proper to other experimenters. The transformations to other experimenters are then represented not by binary matrices but by more general matrices. Each experimenter describes his or her proper actions by binary column vectors with a single 1 (and N . For example momentum external actions may belong to one frame. A complete description of a physical object in one frame determines one in every other frame according to a fixed law of transformation. frames differ only by permutations of their basic rays. We call such a transformation theory a classical relativity. only more so.

(4) We call X and Y the projectors (or projection operators) for the basis vectors IX) and IY).74 2. It is built into the action vector description and is an essential part of the quantum kinematics. and orthogonal. Let the initial vectors IX) and IY) represent initial polarizations along the x and y axis. Let IX) and IY) be normalized to unity as well as orthogonal: (XIX) = 1 = (YIY). hermitian. Leaving a fuller discussion to Chapters 3-4. and sum to 1: XX=X=xt. (YIX) = o. We can use them to resolve any initial vector axes respectively. respectively. If o:A and WA are initial and final vectors. Similarly any final vector W may be resolved into w=wX+wY. a famous anomaly differentiating any quantum theory from any classical one. (I) Y:= IY) ® (y1 representing selective actions for horizontal and vertical polarization are idempotent. and let (XI and (y1 be their adjoints.6 Sums Over Paths Opening a new path may block a transition. This is quantum interference. (2) XY=O=YX. 2. X+Y=l. The three-stage action w ® 1 ® 0: is also such a sum: w® 1 ®o:=w®X®o:+w®Y®o: (5) . Then the operators X := IX) ® (XI. according to 0: into vectors along the x and y (3) The two terms are called the projections of 0: along the x and y axes. We add operators by adding their values and multiply them by composing their mapping in series. a vector-valued function of a vector. The quantum concept of a physical entity is intrinsically different from the classical one. the root of all quantum paradoxes. we define an operator to be a linear transformation IN ~ IN. Elementary Quantum Experiments Thus each kind of transformation theory has its own concept of physical entity and of transformation group. then we identify the serial product with the tensor product o:w := o:®w and with the operator mapping ~ ~ o:[w~].

That is. It is the core paradox of quantum theory. We now discuss two cases of the path sum principle (5). In quantum physics the effect occurs with one quantum in transit at a time. / / / / . and inserting it turns on the the beam. as the twin effect is the core paradox in special relativity.2. the addition of initial vectors. and yet no transition occurs. The basic ingredient of quantum theory that permits this paradox is the new operation +. This two-slit paradox of quantum interference is an expression of superposition. There are two paths open. then the quantum epistemology reduces to the classical. we insert the polarizing filter X into the experiment w ® a. Evidently the operator form (5) is a more informative path-sum than its contracted form (6). (6) Therefore we call the action w ® 1 ® a a superposition of the actions w ® X ® ~ and w ® Y ®a. We do not try to explain it mechanically but take it as basic in the new quantum physics. In classical physics this would strongly suggest that there are several particles in transit at once. wXa. In some experimental situations opening a channel stops the count. (9) We see that in this case removing the X polarizer stops the beam. For a system with continuous spectra it becomes an integral with respect to a path. Quantum superposition converts two orthogonal vectors into an oblique one and implies activity. This is the essential quantum paradox. This eliminates one of the terms in (7). o Now consider the experiment wX a. The sum (6) is the simplest case of the Feynman path sum. Suppose the transition amplitude wa on the right-hand side of (5) vanishes: wa = 0 (7) and neither term of the right hand side does. If the only accessible action vectors are mutually orthogonal. of which the classical physics of objects is a degenerate case. and closing a channel increases the count. resulting in a nonzero count: wXa '# O.6 Sums Over Paths 75 and its amplitude is the sum wa=wXa+wYa. o First consider the experiment wBa A • wa=wXa+wYa=O. interacting with each other as in a traffic jam.#O. (8) Then we say there is quantum interference between the two paths of (7).

and of quantum kinematics as a relativization of classical. Thus complex polarization vectors of dimension 2 are real vectors of dimension 4.7 Discrete Quantum Theory There are at least two persistently troubling features of quantum logic as a revision of classical. This does not yet eliminate the i. It is therefore interesting that we can leave the stairway of quantum coefficient rings at the integers Z. then on the way to the complex numbers C. to be sure. and it is the rays which correspond to physical initial actions. Let us find our way down the stairway from the complex numbers. however. 2JR. with a discrete quantum theory. without changing the physics significantly. but most of the problems of continuity and abstraction remain. One can use the reals as the basic coefficient ring of a quantum theory. and so into the foundations of quantum thought. has an infinity of rays.76 2. but only such basic concepts as equal and different. we pass the integers Z. We think of the complex numbers as high-level abstractions: If we begin with Peano's postulates for the natural numbers N. The quantum kinematics. and the language of nature. instead of before the physics begins. the rationals IF. where rl is the real part and r2 the imaginary part of v. () < 7r. The transition I +. puts the complex numbers into the quantum superposition principle. Each of these steps raises the level of abstraction. o Continuity. and may be written as a pair of real vectors of dimension D. if there is a symbolic structure that can be called that. r2) + (81. they usurp the role played by the two numbers 0 and 1 in classical physics. in that sequence. one for each angle () with 0 :::. v = (rl' r2). C contains only one ray.r2C2. possible and impossible. The addition of such pairs and their multiplication by complex numbers C = CI + iC2 = (CI. Quantum physics expresses a novel discreteness of nature. on the other hand. The higher-type coefficient rings then arise naturally within the physics. C itself. 82) = (rl + 81 . This difference is already seen for dimension 1.i from . and the reals JR. Finding such a high-level continuum as the complex numbers at the base of our physics suggests a basic discrepancy between human language. As components of kets. C2) is defined by (1) (rl. Elementary Quantum Experiments 2. which seems to be a finite combinatory structure. r2)(CI. however. rl C2 + r2cd . but its theory introduces a novel continuity.r2 + 82) (rl . There is an essential experimental difference in quantum physics between the initial (ket) spaces IN = C EB C = 2C and IN = JR EB JR EB JR EB lR =: 4R They have exactly the same vectors. o Abstractness. so that it represents only one initial action and only one final one. but they have different rays. C2) = (rl CI . The classical kinematics requires no knowledge of complex numbers for its formulation. First. actions therefore upon an entity with no property but existence. a complex vector v of dimension D is a fortiori also a real vector of dimension 2D.

From the rationals to the integers: For any finite dimension D. between rational and integer operation semigroups. Because vectors represent acts projectively. Then we represent each sharp initial action on € not by a ray or onedimensional subspace of INR but by a two-dimensional subspace of INR invariant under €. We have mentioned that C and 2lR. there are two isomorphic candidates for i. Once the complex quantum theory has been reduced to a real one. Among the operators on 2lR. From the reals to the rationals: There is no practical difference between the quantum theories based on the reals lR. Real and complex quantum theories can be imbedded in each other: o To describe a complex quantum system € in a real vector space INR. and establishes isomorphisms between rational and integer projective geometries.2.f . are isomorphic as real vector spaces. we must set aside a special antisymmetric linear operator € : INR --+ INR obeying €2 = -1 to use as i. We must stipulate that the rays of INR themselves represent actions we cannot carry out yet. for none of these isomorphisms is natural.2. o To describe a real quantum entity € within a complex vector space INc we introduce an antilinear operator C : INc --+ INc to use as complex conjugation. while the matrices of . . the real theory is merely the topological completion of the rational one. and finally between IF-based and Z-based and quantum physics. where the corresponding vectors are orthogonal. Then we represent each sharp initial action on € by the ray of a vector 'lj. E INc that is invariant under C. this fraction-clearing process changes no physics. the dimensionality of the number field of a quantum theory is the dimensionality of the family of all final actions that null both of two given independent initial actions. Here we stop our descent. but forbidden by the 2lR. each vector of the rational vector space D·IF becomes a vector of the integer module (free abelian group) D . Once again a symmetry breaking must be hopefully invoked. and the rationals IF. Complex quantum theory is real quantum theory with an antihermitian superselection rule. There is a crucial difference between the matrix algebras over the integers Z and over the natural numbers No The matrices of integers Z exhibit quantum interference and define a quantum kinematics. We may imagine that other rays of INc represent actions we cannot carry out yet. Empirically. The stipulation that all our actions respect an operator X is called a superselection rule.5. namely the antisymmetric € and its negative . The one that multiplies a/at to make E is the one we call i. for we violate well-established physical principles if we continue. We discuss this further in 10. Real quantum theory is complex quantum theory with an antilinear supers election rule. Z when we clear fractions. the rest of the descent is easily sketched. theory.7 Discrete Quantum Theory 77 the complex number i to the complex number 1 (regarded as vectors of C) is assured in the complex quantum theory in the vector space C.

and likely impossible. finite) computer.b11 = 1. What seems difficult. The adjoint t interchanges initial and final vectors (and respects the dynamics). We do not know its program. There is no state-variable in quantum kinematics in the sense that there is in classical kinematics.b of all initial vectors 1.78 2. expressing an external action. is to preserve the ordinary locality properties of quantum physics within such a discrete classical model. and proceed to learn about these by trial-and-error experiments. A covariant vector or bra (wi represents a sharp final action.bt 1. probabilistic but not quantum.8 Summary A contravariant vector or ket la) represents a sharp initial action. The system-computer can be hard-wired to respond to our test messages in such a way that quantum kinematics QO-l governs our determinations of the system. Emily Dickinson . representing the system. Quantum locality. For this we model the process of experimental determination of a system by a process of experimental determination of a computer. Elementary Quantum Experiments natural numbers N form a category and define a classical kinematics. 2. For a (positive-)definite adjoint. the transition w ® a is assured if and only if w belongs to the same ray as at. The contraction wa predicts the transition w®a. has been so fruitful that it seems foolhardy to renounce it because we prefer Z2 to Z. I must admit that it is possible to imitate quantum superposition using external actions described by matrices of natural numbers N. or state. these acts represent acts of observation. however. which we take up in Act 3 and 4. Suppose we communicate via input-output channels only with a (classical. It defines the norm 111. The transition will not happen if wa = O. Experiment escorts us last His pungent company Allows no axiom An opportunity.b. We send in test messages and record the responses. Each action vector is effectively a predicate verb. or even of integers modulo 2 (Z2) [Finkelstein and Finkelstein (1983)]. language.

so as to understand it better. 3. or IN. which we may label with the values s = 1.4. For simplicity consider a system € with a finite state space S in the sense of 2. and final. an impulsive change or transformation of the object from one state to another. Many-body quantum physics requires many-index tensors. and FIN. Here we practice this tensor language on the actions of classical physics. A transformation is a map S ---> S. The physical concept of a jump. Today the language of quantum physics is a species of tensor algebra. Quantum theory unifies the concepts of transformation and coordinate at the start. we take as basic. quantum mechanics was first called matrix mechanics.1 CO-I. which transcend anyone frame. After Dirac's transformation theory. We put it into action language and then into matrix language."Go". N of a state variable s where N = Mult €is the mUltiplicity of the system € . a digital computer. In quantum theory we represent both by matrices. such as a switching network. these matrices become tensors. We will even express continuous . Classical Matrix Mechanics In this chapter we restrict ourselves to commonsense classical physics. MED. so the theory should have been called operator or tensor mechanics. Our purpose is to practice the action language in a familiar context.1 Operations and Cooperations We advance now to experiments E of three stages called initial.···. or a digital representation of an astronomical system. First we define classical operators. coordinates "generate" transformations. Before the quantum theory one maintained a sharp distinction between transformations and coordinates of a system. Two-stage experiments (Chapter 2) are now merely the special case where the medial action is the identity. Indeed. This brings classical theory so close to quantum that a single careful step then takes us across the chasm between them. while a (complex-valued) coordinate is a map S ---> Co In more advanced forms of mechanics. namely operators. medial. A classical state s describes its system completely and afortiori sharply. We follow this path in classical physics now. S is a finite class of states. Then we use them to express both transformations and coordinates in one algebraic language.3.

but it transforms contragrediently to 8 1 and cogrediently to 8 2 .s). only because soon we will represent it by an operator.so] and [S2 <. Sometimes we omit the multiplication sign 8 . 0 is the default value for most of our definitions. The image of a state u under the arrow a = (t <. The head or final state of the arrow a = (t <. We designate the system f augmented by the vacuum by f + 1.8].s)u. representing a jump of the system.80 3. To simplify the later algebra we include in 8 <-' 8 an ideal impossible action. We call such an impulsive change a jump. like the operation of hitting a ball with a bat).so]. composed of the initial state t and the final state s. Classical Matrix Mechanics motion as the limit of a sequence of discontinuous changes. The changes may be either passive (a change in the coordinate system) or active (an action upon the object. while 8 2 x 8 1 is cogredient to both 8 1 and 8 2 • Any (classical) arrow a = (Sl <. We also adjoin a special vacuum state designated by 1 to 8 to represent the state of affairs before f is created and after f is annihilated. As a set [82 <-' 8d is isomorphic to the Cartesian product 8 2 x 8 1 . Then we may express each arrow . is a partial mapping s I-t t with single-point domain {s} and range {t}.sd is [S2 <. We do not need to distinguish these two cases. and again designated by ARROW 8. Do not confuse the arrow-semigroup ARROW 8 = [8 <-' 8] with the mappingmonoid [8 <. An arrow (t <. called the serial product.s) is fin(a) = t. Thus "a 8 (3 =0" means "a 8 (3 is undefined or impossible".s). s). Now the serial product defines a semi group on the set 8 <-' 8. We write the class of all arrows from the system fl --> f2 as (1) where 8 k = Space fk. Such a mapping is usually represented by an ordered pair (t. where sand t are states of a system f. the jump never taken. In general the apostrophe on any operation means that we apply the operation (here "<-") to each element of the written argument(s) (here 8 x 8) separately (or perhaps to the unit set of each element) and then unite the results. we identify any sharply defined jump with such a one-point partial mapping. The main thing is that the 0 transition never goes. The serial product t 8 s of two non-zero arrows of the form [Sl <. called the arrow (or jump) semigroup on 8. Therefore sometimes a natural associative product (38 a is defined for jumps and the arrows that represent them. and also an operation. We can sometimes do one jump after another. we represent it by an arrow symbol (t <. We represent such an action by a mapping with domain s and range t that maps s into t . the tail or initial state is inCa) = s. All other products take the default value O. consisting of all (total) mappings of 8 --> 8 . The set of arrows on 8 we designate by ARROW 8 := [8 <-' 8]. Definition.s) is written as = (t <.so) on any set 8 may also be regarded as a partial mapping of 8 --> 8. represented by the zero-symbol O. In this classical theory.

At this stage of this classical development we do not interpret all operators. extended to operators so as to be bilinear. regarded as classes of ordered pairs.S as an annihilation at s. To represent a jump we use an operator: Definition. The operator algebra Op t is the tensor product OPt = INt ® FINt. (3) 3.a) defines a minimal relation {(b f in this order and a minimal partial mapping. as one does for quantum jumps. a special case.3. of what an arrow describes sharply: a jump).so] is an arrow with [SI f . = an Definition. which is the associative product 8 already defined for jumps.so] E R then we say that SI is a value of Rso.4. In the following definition the concept of "identity" is that of category algebra (also called "object") and not that of group theory. in the same way that a state S defines a minimal class s. followed by a creation at t. If R is a relation and 0: [SI f .3. but only those which are multiples of single arrows. (1) provided with a serial product operation 8. An operator of a classical system is a formal linear combination of its arrows.s). a formal linear combination of arrows is a formula consisting of arrows preceeded by numerical coefficients and separated by + signs. We define formal linear combinations precisely in 3. An arrow (b f . written (t f . . An identity of the arrow semigroup ARROW S is an arrow [s whose head is its tail. These represent impulsive changes or jumps. Therefore we may (and do) regard any dyadic relation whatever as a diffuse description of an arrow (more accurately.1 Classical Operators We now construct a matrix representation of these classical jumps and their semigroup product. f- s] .1 Operations and Cooperations 81 t f . Intuitively speaking.1. Sl E S} U {O} . Classical thought represents any relation by a class of arrows.s) (2) We write the collection of all arrows on the state space S (including the ideal arrow 0) as ARROW S := [S f-' S] := {[Sl f- so]lso.a") = (t f . A (dyadic) relation is a generalized mapping that may be both partial and multivalued.1.1): (7 f . such formulas being added and multiplied in accord with the distributive and associative laws. There is a natural partial order by inclusion among relations. We represented classical initial and final actions on S by kets and bras in 2. which we write as (1 f .1) 8 (1 f .

We represent an initial state or creation Is) by a contravariant vector or column matrix with a 1 in the Sl cell and 0 elsewhere.so] itself by the Kronecker product lSI) ® (sol. • The arrow semigroup [S f .s] is now represented by an N x N matrix having 1 in the diagonal cell (s. This is an elemental propagator.so] are the identity arrows [SI f ..' S]. [1 [2 f- f- 1] 2] = = 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . The identity arrows form a natural or canonical maximal commutative sub-semigroup of the arrow category . of a particularly simple kind. For example. 0 0 0 ...... The identities and 0 of an arrow semigroup [S f ... 0 0 0 . crisp) arrow determination.... In particular..stl and [so f . T is therefore not a sharp but a diffuse (more specifically.. We represent the arrow [Sl f .. any time arrow [t2 f .. s) and 0 elsewhere.' S] form a maximal commutative sub-semigroup of [S f ....SO]B A) or [SI f ... 0 (2) . we represent a final state or annihilation (si by a covariant vector or row matrix with a 1 in the So cell and o elsewhere.so].. Dually.82 3. an identity [s f . In classical dynamics. leaving much information about what actually happens to be supplied by the initial conditions of the experiment. Classical Matrix Mechanics An identity [s f .. We designate this matrix also by ([SI f .. .... • We now set up a standard matrix representation of classical arrows and their composition..ttl defines a mapping S ~ S..... a physical counterpart of Boole's "mental act of election".so] respectively. The initial and final (or left and right) identities of the arrow [Sl f . called the identity semi group on S ..s] of the arrow semigroup represents a selection or filter for objects in the state s.' S] is also a category. a matrix with a 1 in the SI row and So column. 0 and so forth. a mapping [hITlt l ] from initial to final states called the propagation from tl to t2' One arrow in T leaves each point of the sample space.

to define an experiment. S <- I. Here we drop the hyphens in our 'co-' words. 3. (3) We have made a linear representation of the passage of time.3.s. Arrows begin with an annihilation I <. It must be completed with external actions.td. and what represents it we call a co-arrow . Since the internal action is called an operation and represented by an arrow. The unique final state q = (qA) allowed by a given initial action p = (pA) and medial propagator T is then q=Tp.1). called a co-arrow.SI) x (so <. dual to the internal one. which is 0 for forbidden transitions and 1 for assured transitions. A . We shall regard the external action as a single physical object.1 Operations and Cooperations 83 Without further loss of information we add ail the arrow matrices in T = [t2lTltd to obtain a single matrix T = (TB A) = «(BI[t2ITltdIA)) called a propagator describing the propagation for the given time interval [t2 <. Si E SpacetO . A co-operation of a classical system to is an ordered pair of an to creation followed by an to annihilation. and is represented by a mapping of the form (I <. We represent co-operations by tensors called co-operators. their contraction being the amplitude for the experiment. Definition.2 Classical Cooperations and Coarrows An arrow represents only an unseen internal operation.4 (I). initial and final. we term the external one a co-operation.1. co-arrows with a creation co-arrow is also the transition of 2.

Its coalgebraic structure gives the same physical information about the system f as the algebraic structure of the internal actions T. If E is any cooperator of a system a. an element of the dual space OP' f to the space Op f of operators. since the two have different meanings. and is written as a tensor of type EBA . = The contraction amp ET E(T) of a cooperator EBA and an operator TB A is the amplitude for the experiment with external action E and internal action T. it vanishes for forbidden transitions. This defines a natural linear isomorphism between operators and cooperators. A notational preliminary : Since we write operators to the left of their operands. we may take its argument to be the tensor product A ® B. . Definition. then we define the coproduct cooperator E 0 := E O : IN ® IN -+ IN ® IN on the product system a x aof two a's by (1) (E0 )(N ® M):= E(0 [N ® MD:= E(N 0 M) Just as E(T) is the amplitude for an experiment with external cooperation E and internal operation T. Since we have not yet formed bad habits. codistributive) coproduct is called a coalgebra. Therefore we ought to write the coproduct of a cooperator E as E 0 . due to the different time-order of their initial and final acts. Classical Matrix Mechanics When we use operators TB A to represent internal operations or arrows.84 3. When we dualize we ought to reverse the order. We take the external actions E to be a coalgebra. Using T we could eliminate cooperators in favor of operators. that is. A cooperator of a classical system f is a linear combination of coarrows of f. They are enjoyed by the coproduct. and makes Coop f a coalgebra. The Kronecker product with the same factors in the transposed order would be an operator representing an arrow. one ought to write the operator product AB A 0 B as 0 AB (Polish notation). This would impoverish our language. (E0 (N ® M)) is the amplitude for the experiment with the same external cooperation E and with the internal operation N 0 M. the serial product of M and N . we use cooperators to represent external operations or coarrows: Definition. the transpose T :E = (EBA) f-t T = ET = (T BA) with TB A EA B . = = Definition. Cooperators and operators assign amplitudes to each other. A vector space with a (coassociative. defined and interpreted as follows. Since 0 is bilinear. the dual coproduct will map Coop -+ Coop ® Coop . The product of operators induces a mapping of cooperators called the coproduct. let us write the coproduct as we ought. Since the operator product maps OP ® OP -+ OP. For a physical language we need both. The properties dual to associativity and distributivity are called coassociativity and codistributivity. They mirror each other. or for clearer association sometimes as E O .

T reverses the horizontal index order and (in an orthononnal frame) E flips indices vertically. consisting of linear mappings 1jJ : KS --+ S. The adjoint does both. charges. This extends the definition of T given in 3. 3.2 for operators. masses. An element of K K S is also called a fonnal vector over S .S]. and is also written [K f . Let K S designate the module over K of mappings ¢ :S --+ K. We regard vectors in KS as covariant and write them as (nl .[K f S]]. We regard vectors in K K S as contravariant and write them as In).1 to raise all low indices.3. so that the contravariant factor is on the right-hand side. and K is a ring. or the like. o The adjoint mapping t is the product t = CTE. Its physical meanings vary as the coefficients in K are interpreted as probabilities. . o The conjugation C maps i o The flip E uses the metric E = (EBA ) to lower all high indices and its inverse 1-+ -i. Then KS designates the dual module to KS. we write K S as Sf and K K S as S".1. We write the value of 1jJ E K K S on ¢ E KS as ¢1jJ. by the linearization of S (with coefficients in K). We identify each element s E S with an element Is) of KKS so that (¢Is) := (¢lI s) = ¢(s) . The K-linearization of S can also be defined as a K-module with the elements of S as a basis. We shall make take linear combinations so often that it pays to fonnalize the process in general once for all. When K is understood from context. then we write the value of ¢ on s as ¢(s). raising every low index and lowering every high one.1. we mean KKS. also written KS = [K f . (2) In index language. with the natural vector operations for K-valued functions. Here we define the linearization of any set as a double dual.3 Linearization We defined an operator as a fonnal linear combination or arrows . If ¢ E KS and s E S. added and K -multiplied as vector-valued functions. (1) This makes it possible to add and K -multiply elements of any set of states of a classical system. E.1 Operations and Cooperations 85 • Now we introduce four involutions of tensors that we need to fonn invariants: o The transpose Treverses the factor order in all tensor products. If S is any set. or the K linearization of S.

(3) In preparation for the quantum theory we call S' = Cs the space of formal final vectors of €. Proposition. and S" = CCS =: IN € the space of formal initial vectors of €. We now revert to K = C and write S' :=c S. We may then say that the operators of € (the formal linear combinations of arrows of €) are just the linear operators on the formal initial vectors of € : Op € rv [IN € f . initial and final. Therefore the mapping . it reverses order. its dual linear space cOP € has a coproduct and is a coalgebra: COP € := C[S" f- S"] := S' ® S" .t S can act on ARROW Sand OP S from either side. What we have done for arrows we do for coarrows too. the enveloping algebra of G. If the s-th column of the matrix (6) is zero. or if K is a field. The mapping m : S . its linearization K KG is naturally a ring. Proof Let s' = f(s) be any partial mapping of the state space S . These spaces are provided with natural bases by S itself. Initial (right) multiplication 0: f-t 0: 0 m is not a realization of the mapping semigroup.IN d. m 0 0: will be an arrow whenever 0: is. then f(s) is not defined. If m is a mapping.86 3. (4) Each element of cOP € := Coop 0: is called a cooperator. The (complex) operator algebra OP € over the state space S = Space € can be defined as the enveloping algebra of the arrow semigroup over S : OP € = cC[S f-' S] = [S" ® ~'] . Since Op is an algebra. Then f is induced by the operator f =L [f(s') f- s'] . Operators (not classical arrows) represent the most general mappings. also called the enveloping ring of G. This defines a realization (homomorphism) of the sernigroup of mappings by final (left) multiplication on arrows. and the epithet "formal" reminds us that in the classical theory only basis elements in Cs and CCS represent a physical final or initial action. Classical Matrix Mechanics If G is a semigroup. (2) Operators of S are also linear transformations on the vector space S' := Cs of complex functions on the state space S = Space € of the object € : OP € = Cs ® CCS = Endo Cs = EndocSpace€ rv [IN € f- IN d . As part of a process of forgetting S in favor of ARROW S we observe that the mappings of S can be realized as mappings of ARROW S and in two natural ways. Any partial mapping of a set S is induced by an operator over S. The operation represented by such an operator may be regarded as one that is sometimes impossible and may then stop the experiment. (5) Sf a formal sum of arrows.

FIN E. where m T is the transpose of the arrow-sum m. the final vectors are vacuum-to-system operators. which we call the vacuum state 1. Here is a simple form of that construction for a classical system. Whenever we turn our attention to an external act we see an internal act. being the absence of the system.3.1 . Operators represent the same mappings of points by formal sums of arrows. and then define its initial and final acts by internal acts that start or end in the episystem. depends . this shifts the interface to put the act within the system. or equivalently a set of arrows. we cut some arrow heads from their tails. we see. The correspondence f -+ (JAB) from mappings of the state space to matrices is a monoid homomorphism. which. IN E. where C is the one-dimensional space generated by the vacuum state 1. we may say. the initial vectors are system-to-vacuum operators. When we cut ourselves out of the picture. and the usual operators are system-to-system operators. and to take the basic actions of nature to be entire arrows.e extend ARROW to Op by linearization. If we examine an external act more carefully.4 Vacuum Internal acts seem more fundamental than initial or final ones. We can indeed formulate a physical theory entirely in terms of internal acts. To multiply mappings we mUltiply their operators. is conventionally called the vacuum. by 0: f---t m 8 0: and by 0: f---t 0: 8 m. Thus it seems possible to regard initial and final vectors as physically inseparable. Op E is the vacuum selector ~vac-<. This puts mappings one level of aggregation above arrows.1 Operations and Cooperations 0: f---t 87 0: 8 m T. The key we need in order to unpack the operator algebra OP(E + 1) into the four spaces C. When we act on a system. we actually carry out arrows that have one end in ourselves and one end in the system. somewhat as magnetic north and south poles are in the theory of magnetic dipoles. Everything is operators. 3. realizes m on ARROWS. We append one more. When w. these realizations become representations. Suppose the system E has N states. thus: C FINE OP(E + 1) = IN E Op E (1) The complex numbers now are the vacuum-to-vacuum operators. Similarly there are two natural realizations on ARROW S of the group of invertible mappings m : S -+ S. Tradition represents a mapping by a set of ordered pairs. forming an enlarged system E+ 1 with a distinguished state 1 and the initial space IN EEEl C. the quantum construction parallels it closely. where we see it as a dynamical interaction between what were parts of the system and episystem before the shift. We may now imbed the four most important E spaces within the one operator algebra OP(E + 1). External acts go on only at the external interface. We often use the same symbol for mappings and the matrices or operators representing them. The theory based on IN(E).1.

= (aim. but these coordinates respect the system. a mapping or arrow v : S --> C annihilates the system and creates a complex number. We read the following semigroup products off (1): la) I 0. We start from initial and final vectors nevertheless because they seem closer to experience and therefore easier to explain. (2) =0. = 1.61 (al 01. The totality CS of such functions is a commutative algebra C = Coord a with the usual operations of + and x for complex functions. . among others. A selective act also has this conservative feature. 3.6) 1. and OP E in one action semigroup with serial product 0 . With our present interpretation.2 Ordinates and Coordinates A physical coordinate v of an object E is traditionally defined in classical theories as a function or mapping v: S = Space a --> C associating a value v(q') with state q'. • We use (1) as a guide to imbedding all the actions of C. The coordinate algebra C = Coord E of a system E is the maximal commutative subalgebra of the operator algebra A = Op f generated by the identity arrows.6) 0 (al =0. The general operator of A represents a change of the system. we redefine the coordinate algebra C as follows: Definition.88 3. just as in mechanics we start from our own pushes and pulls to explain the concept of force. and therefore represents a selective measurement better than a final act.6) (a10 (. but any operator of C involves only selection without change. Classical Matrix Mechanics on our choice of a vacuum 1 for the extended system E + 1. IN E. Boole's acts of election are faithfully represented in C. and it is quicker to make that algebra out of a vector space IN than out of the operator algebra Op IN . And also because in Act 2. In our action language this representation does violence to what goes on when we measure a coordinate. Thus the operator-based theory has a larger symmetry group. we must construct an appropriate (Grassmann) algebra. FIN E. This choice may not be absolute. This is algebraically isomorphic to the traditional definition. when we deal with many systems at once.6) (ai. In classical physics our measurements often seem to leave the system (say the planet Mars) unchanged. called the (complex) coordinate algebra of the object E. Generalizing.

If v is any variable. for example one with one initial and N final channels. (2) sES This is an isomorphism of the commutative coordinate algebra C into the operator algebra A. (1) The actions considered here are one-channel actions in the sense of Section 2. In quantum theory. We identify the coordinate v that assigns a number v(s) to each state s with the operator v := 2:)s +- s] v(s) . It is a diagonal matrix (vB1A) which lists the values of v along its diagonal : . Since ensembles associate average values with coordinates. and this is standard in quantum theory. The coordinates now fonn a maximal commutative sub algebra of the operator algebra. using the language of quantum systems. coordinates are often still called observables.) Nevertheless some multichannel actions can be encoded into one-channel operators. an asymmetrical relation. to express that v' is in its spectrum. logz N actions. Yet an N-valued coordinate is physically associated with more general kinds of external action. (The tensor language introduced later covers N -channel actions. In this chapter we deal exclusively with classical systems and their coordinates. each with its own final signal. The class of values of a coordinate is called its spectrum. f 89 is the dual coalge- Thus C' is a subspace C' =: ORD f within the cooperator coalgebra A'.3.) Thus the general N -channel action is in principle beyond the arrow language. (If we generalize from sharp to crisp actions.2 Ordinates and Coordinates Definition. We use complex numbers as coefficients of A so that we can represent complex coordinates within A. that generated by the identity coarrows. we write v~v'. such as vectors. to detennine the value of one N -valued coordinate. which covers one-channel actions only. We may need a cascade of as many as N . we represent classical ensembles by ordinates.4. although we know how to observe almost none of the coordinates of any quantum system more complicated than a spin. sets of numbers or still more general sets. We have already represented jumps and arrows by matrices. are also useful. Its elements are dual to coordinates and therefore we call them ordinates of the object f. As a result. The ordinate coalgebra C' =: ORD f of a system bra C' to the maximal commutative subalgebra C.1 sharp one-channel actions in succession. especially when we wish to distinguish them explicitly from average values. but all coordinates mentioned have numerical values unless otherwise stated. The values of a coordinate or variable are also called its eigenvalues. as lip service to the original operational philosophy of Heisenberg. every classical coordinate v has a matrix. we can do this in ::. Coordinates that have more general kinds of values than numbers.

where v is a value of the coordinate and P is a projection that selects objects with that value. A physical coordinate V is also defined by giving for each value v' the sum p(v' ) of the identity arrows that select objects with v = v'. coordinates are always defined. If a state does not ocur in the arrows of (1).2. The diagonal matrices taken with the usual matrix operations of addition. we may do the same for their matrices. The isomorphism between coordinates and diagonal matrices permits us to identify coordinates with matrices. we assign that value to the classical coordinate v in the corresponding state. (4) An algebraic element with these properties is called a projector. multiply. or complex-conjugate coordinates.v). we write v for both. and a matrix is an array of numbers. and conversely. Classical Matrix Mechanics o V2 0 0 0 0 0 V3 o 0 0 . multiplication and complex conjugation of coordinates.1 Classical Eigenvalue Principle The possible experimental values of a coordinate v are the eigenvalues of the matrix v = (roB A). respecting the operations of addition. . The order of the coordinates in a product does not matter because the order of selection operations in an experiment does not. Evidently this designation of coordinates by matrices incorporates the following principle of classical physics. We bring in C here in the prequantum theory only because it appears . which are partial mappings. Unlike arrows. VI V= o o o (3) VN We list the values of a variable along the diagonal of a square matrix rather than in a single column so that to add.. A sum P of distinct identity arrows has the algebraic properties p2 = p= pt.90 3. The range of the matrix elements for these coordinates is C. A coordinate defines a collection of ordered pairs (P f . multiplication and complex conjugation form a commutative algebra isomorphic to the coordinate algebra C = S" of the state space S. When we write a number in a diagonal cell of the matrix (roB A). In any classical theory the coordinates form a unique maximal commutative self-adjoint subalgebra of the operator algebra. which remains valid in quantum physics: 3. the coordinate v is zero on that state. the two commutativities are equivalent.. the complex number field. Nevertheless a coordinate is a physical entity determined by certain physical operations.

. We represent this class by a diagonal matrix [v] defined by (1) (sl[v]ls) = 1 if v(s) = v with otherwise undefined elements = O. This stands for an initial state. A binary coordinate or class of multiplicity 1.6. a spectral class or eigenclass of v. This stands for selecting = ([S']A) E CCS = FIN E.2 Spectral Analysis We call the class of all points s E S at which the coordinate v takes on a constant value v'.. . The (matrix representing the) coordinate that is 1 in the state s' and 0 elsewhere is the matrix [s'] = Is') I8i (s'l = [s'][s'] . the number of states for which v has the value 1. (2) [v]t=[v]. In addition. We explore the physical origins of the real and complex numbers in 6.. an internal act. o The square matrix [s'] = ([s']B A) an object in state s'. v" . doublet. is called a singlet. or for short as [v']. The matrices [v] are known as the eigenprojections or spectral projections of the coordinate v.1 and 10. We have now associated each state s' E S = Space E with three linear-algebraic objects.2 Ordinates and Coordinates 91 at the corresponding point in the quantum theory that follows. = OP E. . and write it as [v => v']. This stands for a The vector spaces Cs and CCS of column and row matrices are the initial and final spaces of the classical system.2.. (3) self-adjoint: mutually orthogonal: =0 if v' I)v] = 1. an external act. with the coordinate 1 in position s' and 0 in all other positions.3. The spectral projections of any coordinate are each idempotent: [vf=[v]..2. with three distinct physical meanings: o The column matrix or vector Is') = ([S']A) E S' = Cs = IN E. E Cs I8i CCS o The row matrix or dual vector (s'l final state. The number of points s with v(s) = v' is called the multiplicity (or degeneracy) of v => v' and designated by Mult[ v => v'] . or even [v]. context permitting. the trace Trv of a binary coordinate v = (vB A) gives its multiplicity. . 2. (1) 3. an external act. (4) (5) Any projection-valued function [v] with the properties (2-5) is called a spectral analysis (of unity). [v'][ v"] and complete: v f.

one by one. only for power series. It is important for the later quantum theory to recognize the values of a coordinate in a way that does not depend on the choice of frame in C S • We express that the coordinate v takes on the value v' in the state [s'] by the invariant eigenvalue equation (7) v[ s'] = [s']v' .92 3. and the diagonal elements of M mix with the off-diagonal ones. The special case of diagonal matrices that arises in this classical context is considered trivial. the function f of the matrix v. by inserting the matrix v into the power series for f: (11 ) n This method is useful. we apply the function to the eigenvalues. If f(x) is any function of a real coordinate x that admits a power series. L S' . Under a linear mapping L of the vector space CS. If the spectral analysis of the matrix v is given by (6) then we define f (v) as the matrix (12) f(v) = [s]f(v~) . Classical Matrix Mechanics Any classical complex coordinate v of the system. originally represented by a complex function v(s') = v~ on the state space. To apply a more general function to a matrix with a spectral analysis. The expression (6) for an operator in terms of its eigenstates and eigenvalues is the spectral analysis of the operator. leaving the spectral projections unchanged. for example a position-dependent potential energy. is now identified with the diagonal matrix (6) v= [s']v(s') L s' where each [s] is an eigenstate of v and its coefficient v~ is the associated eigenvalue of v. one might define f(v). (10) and v is a matrix representing a coordinate. =? v': (8) v(s')=v' Then the following spectral theorem holds: The variable v can always be expressed as a sum of such eigenprojectors times eigenvalues: v= L [v']v' . The eigenprojector [v'] combines all the states in which v [v'] = L [s']. each matrix M transforms into LM L -1. when coordinates are operators? Spectral analysis is the key. (9) v' How do we define functions of coordinates. however.

then these form a complete set of one-dimensional projections.···. N an integer in the interval {I. . the supremum of two real coordinates x and y is defined as the function sup(x. z). then we define sup(x. y. y) = x if x ~ sup(x.. .. The state [s'] is the eigenstate of the matrix s with eigenvalue s =} s'.. The same method works for any function of several system coordinates.2 Ordinates and Coordinates 93 Any function whatever that is defined for real numbers is now also defined for matrices representing system coordinates.2. It is often convenient to define the state by the values of a sequence of coordinates (x. 3. L s' Similarly we represent the equality [x = y] of two coordinates as a property of the system by the matrix [x = y] = L [s][x: = y~] .. z) is called a complete sequence of coordinates. y (13) If now x and y are diagonal matrices (representing system coordinates) with diagonal elements x~ and y~. Such a sequence of coordinates may be regarded as a single . [a = b] is understood to be 1 when a = b and 0 otherwise. A coordinate whose determination uniquely determines the state is called complete or nondegenerate. If the general (sharp) state has the form [x =} x'. y) = [s] sup(x~. z =} z'].3. If the system has N states. we may now define discontinuous step functions of a diagonal matrix. For example. and (x. y) = y if y ~ x. When we wish to make the difference between the coordinate s and the state [s'] even more conspicuous we revert from the abbreviation [s'] to [s =} s']. then we determine the state of the system. . y~) . If we determine the value of the coordinate 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 (1) 0 S =: s' [s'] = 0 0 3 L s' 0 •••••••••••••• 0 0 0 . N}.. For example. a point in a cubical lattice may be described sharply by discrete Cartesian coordinates (x. . expressing the fact that every classical object always has a state. For example.3 Complete Coordinates The classical state itself may be identified with a system coordinate.. . (15) s' When a and b are complex numbers. a complete coordinate must have N values.. y) without recourse to power series as the matrix (14) sup(x. .. z).

Rather. A predicate p for a system (also sometimes called a quality or property of the system) is classically represented as a subset of the state space. and the final experimenter determines the final value. p = 1"". and POR The operator algebra OP E includes a predicate logic for E within the subalgebra Coord E. N.4 OR. Only in this weaker. is said to transmit I = log2 N bits of information (in the sense of Shannon). The entries 1 and 0 on the diagonal of a binary coordinate matrix p are called truth values when we think of p as a predicate [s = s'] about the system. because if N is a power of 2 then the determination of v can be reduced to I binary determinations. They tell us whether p is defined on the point s' when we think of p as a partial mapping. N}. we will know how to extract its logic.94 3. It takes on non-numerical values which are sequences of numbers. like a two-letter code-word uv. The operator for a coordinate encodes the actions of observing its values. We examine this logic nOw so that when Op E becomes noncommutative in the next chapter. we add their informations. The operator representing a coordinate generally does not represent (in the sense of a monoid morphism) the action of observing its value. 3. The N states among these are the unit sets {n} com- . called the characteristic function of the property. Here we write Mat : p S --> M(D. all of whose values have equal probability 1/N. XOR. Then when we transmit a pair of independent coordinates. Eventually we identify predicates with their binary coordinates and dispense with Mat For definiteness we may consider a classical variable p whose state space is S = {I"". It corresponds to a selective action and a crisp description. and occupation numbers when we think of p as a class. q for the mapping from classes (elements of the power set p S of S) to D x D matrices. A coordinate may be used to carry information from initial experimenter to final. one for each subset of S. Briefly. The transmission of a complete N-valued coordinate v. Here we biuniquely associate each predicate with a coordinate (matrix) p that is 1 when the property holds and 0 when it does not. We call such a coordinate (matrix) binary or Boolean. broader sense may we say that the operator for a coordinate "represents" the observations of the coordinate. The initial experimenter determines the initial value of the coordinate. The transpose of such an operator is its inverse if it has an inverse. from white box to black. The trace of an operator representing a partial mapping is the number of fixed points. If the coordinate has N eigenvalues then these determinations are N -channel external actions.2. Classical Matrix Mechanics sequence-valued coordinate. each binary coordinate in the spectral family of the coordinate v represents (in the sense of a monoid morphism) an action of observing one value of v. There are 2N possible classes of p.

N) and 0 elsewhere. We write [s] for e(s) =Mat[s] too. If the action [s] can be carried out. Then under Mat the following transformations occur. then the action is impossible and the experiment stops. The selective action [s] : Observe that the system is in state s (4) becomes the projection operator e(s). Any matrix A A = A~e~. N 95 themselves. This holds when M' is an eigenmatrix of M :::} 1 . The implication relation becomes the numerical inequality C' ::. M] (5) == [M' <. o State. TRUE.. m) place (where m.. Classes become 2N diagonal matrices with N two-valued diagonal elements 0 or I. referring again to (6). · · · . One also says that M' "absorbs" M . The null predicate 1 (and the null set 1) become the matrix O. by e~: .···. and may be written as Then the matrices of Mat have D = N rows and columns. it does not change the system.2 Ordinates and Coordinates prised of the individual points n [p= 1]' · ·· . (6) . C between the binary coordinates: Mat[C' ~ C] == [M' ::. o FALSE. MM'=M'.. o IMPLIES.m (enm)Pq -_ Un q . Designate the matrix with I in the (n. = (A~) can then be expanded It is convenient to factor the matrix (1) In terms of the e matrices as into a column matrix 10 m with a I in the m-th position and a dual row matrix IOn with a 1 in the n-th position (and 0 elsewhere): e~ (2) We write the diagonal matrix e(n) e~ =IOn 0 (no sum over n) as IOn (no sum over n) . (3) The diagonal e's commute with each other.P u. = I. o Class. We call these binary or Boolean matrices.. a binary coordinate. If this action occurs in the course of an experiment. M] . The true predicate and the full class become the unit matrix 1 . and the system is not in state s'.. n = 1.3. [p=N]. <. No off-diagonal e commutes with all the diagonal e's.

each d~agonal matrix element of MuM' is the supremum of the corresponding matrix elements of M and M' . For example. This completes our first translation Mat of classical logical concepts into matrix algebra. TU T= 1 u 1 = 1 corresponds under Mat to 1 U 1 = 0 U 0 = O. . o POR = V.M =: . We revise it drastically in the still more quantum theory of Act 2. The disjunction becomes the supremum: Mat(C U C') := sup(M. and is the same as "either but not both".C becomes Mat.C= 1. o XOR = U. M') (9) =:MUM'. this is also a dictionary from on tic to praxic forms of expression. XOR stands for "exclusive or". AXORB is true if and only if A or B is true and not both. We revise it slightly it in the quantum theory of Chapter 3 when the ontic forms become extinct. Classical Matrix Mechanics NOT = ' : The negation of a predicate . Thus the truth value of M V M' is not determined by the truth values of M and M' . That is. The subtraction in the second line of (10) compensates for doubling the states common to C and C' when we add. o AND = n . One says that POR is not truth-functional.96 o 3.2MM' (10) =:MuM' . Inasmuch as states are ontic and matrices (linear transformations) are praxic.M (7) where 1 designates the unit matrix. The partial-or combination of two binary variables is non-zero only if they are disjoint and then agrees with OR and XOR: Mat(CpORC') = MUM' if MM' = 0 (11) =:MvM' (and is 0 if M M' f 0). If MatC = M and Mat C' = M' then Mat(CUC') = M +M' . MuM' is Boolean addition of matrices (adding matrix elements modulo 2). It is the only non-truth-functional operation in this list. The conjunction becomes the matrix product: Mat(C n C') = M M' (8) =:MnM' o OR = U.

E E E (1) and likewise for cumulants. of which phase transitions are the most dramatic. Av is then a cooperator (or dual E operator) that represents the ensemble and may be called the initial statistical cooperator of the ensemble. We should write the indexed form of the initial statistical cooperator and operator as Av=Av=(AvB A ). In this unit we study the statistical description for initial.8)". Any actual diffuse act may be represented by an ensemble of sharp ones. Averages are normalized in that Av I = 1. E E (2') a =(aBA). E Av A = Tr(aA) . If 8 is the state space.2.2. then any ensemble E of initial actions may define an average value and a cumulative value for A over all the members of the ensemble. Averages are linear in the sense that for any coordinates A and B. E We extend the definition of Av to off-diagonal matrices by stipulating that E Av X = 0 for all off-diagonal matrices X. For example. N of the system with the weights or probabilities al. and so we need a statistical theory to deal with heat and the collective processes of thermodynamics.2 Ordinates and Coordinates 97 3..' . medial and final acts in turn. from which we choose one at random. . .aN to form the ensemble E. E and the cumulant as L::E A or simply L:: A.3. then the statistical operator a of E is the diagonal matrix . First initial actions: If A is any coordinate of a system. The most massive cannon still undergoes some random thermal vibration which limits its precision. While we have founded our theory on sharp actions. Av(aA + bB) = aAv A + bAv B . Often one represents the cooperator Av by its transpose. in principle we can never actually carry one out. the initial statistical operator is an element of the algebra (8 f-.. We assume these properties for any ensemble average Av.5 Averages Entropy is randomness. We write the average as Av A or simply Av A. if we mix systems in the various states 1.. It is defined to be a diagonal matrix for classical systems. . the operator (a BA) = E a = aE = T(Av) so that the average over the ensemble E can be written as a trace. E (2) The operator a is called the initial statistical operator of the experiment.

6 Framed Algebras While every classical object E defines an operator algebra Op E./-L f-.. for example free choices of independent experimenters..(8 f-. in such a way that the transition probability from 0:' to w is still given by (5) When we use this expression we implicitly suppose that the initial and final acts are independent random variables. we represent a diffuse medial act by a four-index tensor /-L. that is. one which acts on one initial statistical operator to produce another. and N normalizes 0:' to unit trace. 0 o 0:'2 0 . by which is meant an operator in (8 f-. . In a dual way.98 3.8)".. Therefore we describe a diffuse medial act by an operator-on-operators or a double operator. We represent only sharp medial acts by linear operators on IN. 0 = 0 0 0:'3 . the result is equivalent for the purposes of future final acts to some modified IN act. an internal action can also vary randomly.. Apertures and obstacles between the initial and final phases of the experiment can also vibrate and rotate.•• 0 o (3) 0 0 .2. Finally. Thermodynamics may be based on the Boltzmann initial statistical operator.8)" f-. O:'N In general when we mix initial acts we average their statistical operators with probabilities as weights.0:' is given by (6) where the initial and final statistical operators wand 0:' are those already defined. for selecting one system at random from a population at temperature T of weakly interacting systems each with energy operator H. a final act may be a mixture of many different sharp ones. TrO:' = 1 . Op E does not fully define the structure of Eo In particular Op E does not tell us which operators are the coordinates and states of the system. medial actions: Since a sharp medial action is a two-index operator A. Classical Matrix Mechanics 0:' O:'J 0 0 . We suppose that when a randomly varying medial act follows an initial one. called a medial statistical operator. And last..8)". given by (4) O:'(T) = Nexp(-HjkT) where k is Boltzmann's constant. Now final actions: A final analyzer or target can also vibrate or spin rapidly. in such a way that the transition probability for the three-stage experiment w f-.. again described by a final statistical operator w in (8 f-. 3.

a framed algebra (A. 82 E S with nonzero weights. the subalgebra of Op E spanned by the states of S. C). for example. A random sib of 1's is an object Sib 1 of infinitely many states called the bin. For quantum physics the two most important modes of aggregation will be the set and the sib.3 Some Classical Systems 99 To be sure. C). To treat the simplest examples of these aggregation operations first.3. and yet they are algebraically indistinguishable from states. The states of Space E correspond to the minimal projections of Op E that belong to Coord L All such maximal commutative subalgebras of Op E are equivalent up to isomorphisms of OP E. . We interpret a frame algebra as an algebra of coordinates of E. Algebra alone does not determine the states of the system that an observer experiences. 3. A 1 is an entity whose classes or properties are only "to be" or "not to be".8) E Op E. The two parts A and C have some operational meaning: o o The elements of C are all the coordinates of E. but only one represents the coordinates and states of the object E. Some of these classical systems have important quantum descendants. These projections are not states of the classical system. The states are determined. however. a frame algebra of A (or E). First we take up some useful modes of aggregation or grouping. A classical kinematics is completely defined by its framed algebra (A. and have at best statistical interpretations. if we give both the algebra Op E and the coordinate algebra Coord E. Coord E is a maximal commutative subalgebra of Op E. We examine aggregates of replicas of a system E with only one state. each state 8 E S = Space E defines a unique minimal idempotent element (8 +. the projection 1jJ 18l1jJ t on any unit vector 1jJ = 18\)c\ + 182)2 that is a linear combination of two statt<s 8\ . The elements of A that have initial and final identities in C are arrows (or transitions) of L The remaining elements of S are formal linear combinations of these arrows. which is in tum determined by the frame algebra C. 0 -:f c 1 . A random set of l' s is an object Set 1 of two states called the bit or 2. But many minimal idempotents in Op E do not derive from states. We call any operator algebra A provided with a frame C. we apply them to the simplest systems.3 Some Classical Systems We have seen how operators may represent internal operations and coordinates and how cooperators may represent external actions and ordinates. called a unit system or 1. We tum to some examples. being isomorphs of projections that are states.2 E C. We call any maximum commutative subalgebra C of an operator algebra A = Op E. with which it may be identified.

Classical Matrix Mechanics 3.o. The endomorph isms {2 +.~=: 1 = 1f+. The projections are symmetric.. we list some of the structures associated with the classical bit. arbitrarily choosing one state to be the bottom. a coin toss produces a bit whose two states are called heads and tails.-component.100 3. All the operations in ARROW 2 are represented by the five binary matrices fOOlfOOlfOOlfOllflOl ~~~~l~~J (1) OP 2 is the algebra of complex 2 x 2 matrices enveloping these operators.1 Bit It is understood that something is either in a set or not and that it has no meaning to say that some (completely defined) thing is in a set twice. One often represents any two-state system by a bit. The operators of a bit are represented by the 2 x 2 matrices ~ ~ (6) .o. the set {I.3. the null set contains none. For example.} = Space 2 for the state space of the bit 2 and write matrices with the 1f-component of a column vector below the . The binary coordinates (and the predicates and classes) of the bit are the operations fOOl IoOl flOl flOl ~= : O. For example. I} is not defined.o. The full set of l' s contains one 1. With this understanding the two possible states for the random set of l' s are null or full. so that the vacuum comes first.~=: 1f. and are also called "top" and "bottom" or plenum and vacuum. These two states of the bit are written 1f and . To practice the matrix language on a trivial example of great importance.n :=~=: . (3) The idempotents of the bit are the mappings fOOl fOOl fOOl flOlflOlflll ~~~~~~.o. (2) The automorphisms of the bit are the two mappings fOllflOl ~~.0. We write 8 2 = {1f.. (4) Notice that two of these are not projections... (5) The coordinate n is called the occupation number for the bit.2} of the bit are the four mappings fOOlfOllflOlflll ~~~~ .

-U---> ~ := 1t . The fundamental involutory symmetry 1. which Dirac used to make a theory of the vacuum. 1. (jt. and resurfaced in quantum theory as the particle-hole symmetry of solid state physics. is a linear operator that interchanges the full mode 1t and the null mode -U. in Dirac's theory. Correction: An anti-particle of positive energy is a vacancy of a particle with negati ve energy. forming the frame algebra of the bit. We must restore it when we apply this concept to physical particles. t --> t := t (10) on the algebra defined by (9). An anti-tO is also called an to-hole or to-vacancy. The complex coordinates of a bit are the matrices IaOl ~. . This re-interpretation of the initial and final vectors of the unit sets up a correspondence A between algebraic elements associated with 1 and those associated with I.. and we drop it for now. with (9) The creator (j increases the occupation number n of the bit. the mapping A must reverse the order of factors in all products. At the same time. . reappeared in set theory as the set-theoretic complement.3. We retain the inventor's name for his discovery and call 1. The bit creator (j and its adjoint annihilator (jt are defined by IoOl (8) (j=~. entered algebra as Grassmann's complement operation. aside from the distinguishing over-bars. This "anti" correspondence is the root of the complement 1. The double arrows and double operators of a bit are represented by 2 x 2 matrices whose elements are 2 x 2 matrice. X the complement of X. where initial actions stand on the right of final actions.3 Some Classical Systems 101 with complex elements. The energy flip makes no sense in this first non-dynamical toy theory. (7) with complex elements. in order to respect the form of the selection rule. In bit theory. and its adjoint the annihilator decreases n. That is. A is defined by its action A : (j --> if := (j t. The A image of the relations (9) is. We may re-interpret the initial vector II) of a unit I as the final vector (II of another unit I called the anti-unit (relative to 1). A maps the creation of the unit into the annihilation of the anti-unit. the electron. and the positon.

the integers modulo N. . 0'1'1 = 0 . 0'1 for each bit anticommute with those for every other bit: aaab + abaa = 0 (12) a1ab+aba1 =0. . Classical Matrix Mechanics a t a + 0'0' t = 1.t.. 1 be N binary variables.J. The vacuum of the composite system (which has all bits f3a = 0) is then defined by (13) aa.na correspond isomorphically to the truth values of the N propositions Za = 1 and their negations Za = O. The state space S of the N-ring is 'LN. The bit may be regarded as a 2-ring.=O. A complete coordinate is the integer n modulo N labeling In). The occupation numbers na and their binary complements 1 . Its spectrum is {O. The above construction is justified (and motivated) by the following isomorphism: Proposition.t. Proof Let Za = 0.. .102 3. we first form the algebra OP f3a for each a = 1. These generate the Boolean algebra in question . The class algebra defined by C c Op 2N is (isomorphic to) the Boolean algebra of N independent binary variables. f3 N. The unit and the anti-unit are intrinsically indistinguishable..··· .3..N-I}='L N • The creation operator a on the N -ring is defined to shift every ket In) 1--4 In+ I) one place around the ring in the positive sense: a[n'] = [n' + 1] (I) where the addition + is modulo N. To deal with N independent bits f3a = f31. We designate its n-th initial vector (n E 'L N ) by In) . The adjoint at lowers n by 1 mod N. N). like those in a random binary string of length N.J.2. f32..···. Thus a raises n by 1 modN. a=I. . (11) We may satisfy (11) with the same a and t as (9) and with 1l' = a . .2 N -ring The classical N-ring is a point located at one of the vertices of an N-gon and moving only to adjacent points. . Then we combine these into one algebra Op 2N = Va OP f3a with the rule that the creators and annihilators aa. taken separately.. The frame subalgebra C C Op is that generated by the N occupation numbers na (a = 1...I.• 3. n modulo N labeling the state of the N-ring. 2.

called the vacuum.= [n = 0] of the bin obeys (4) We may base the theory of a bin on the algebra with the basic operations (. since . It is a singular limit of the N -ring for N ---> 00. For the annihilator we can take the degree-lowering differential operator zt = d/dz.[j.[j. The state space of the bin is the set N of the non-negative integers.2 (1) as the ring shift operator 0".[j. The bottom state . mUltiplication by z).[j. With this choice. . we have LtL=U t +1. t. obeying Lt . the creator L has lost its inverse. the annihilator.4.··· occur. Henceforth we write L for both the incrementing operator and the complex variable z that represents it. not mod N. We may designate a chosen vector with eigenvalue n' by In'). In the limit N ---> 00 that transforms the N -ring into a bin. The bin is completely described by the coordinate n = 0. but now the addition is ordinary addition.= .2.. each transverse mode of oscillation of the electromagnetic field will define a quantum bin. We represent the state of a bin containing n units by the monomial zn of degree n in a new formal complex variable z. In the quantum theory of light. (1) called the canonical commutation relation. Then by induction all the eigenvalues n =} 0. the commutation relation (l) implies that nL = L(n + 1).[j..3. The bin has a bottom state . called the occupation number of the bin.3 Bin and Commuting Calculus The classical bin is an assembly of a variable number n of units. (2) Independently of the representation. +).3 Some Classical Systems 103 3. and with the same multiplicity. or creator. and (3) implies that the spectrum is closed under addition of 1. 1. and the occupation number is n= ut . for the bin by L It satisfies the same defining formula 3. and we write d/dz for Lt . Then (4) serves as an initial condition guaranteeing that n has the eigenvalue 0. Similarly Lt lowers n by 1.. . whose occupation number is the number of photons in that mode. but no top state 11 obeying L 11 = o. Then we can represent the creator L by the degree-raising operator z (that is.1. (3) This verifies that L carries an eigenstate with n =} n' into one with n =} n' + 1.2. we designate the creation or shift operator. There is always room for one more. L.3. We express this by saying that L raises n by 1. such as irreducibility. is not the L-image of any state. That this multiplicity is 1 requires a further assumption about the algebra. = 1. Following Peano.[j. It still has an adjoint Lt. which we may then use to generate the set of natural numbers N. We may construct the state In) (now n is the eigenvalue) from the reference vector 10) by .

.. . . . . which we take up later.. .. . defined as follows. . ... . . but it involves no limiting processes. . . 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 3 0 0 0 . 0 .104 3.. . .8<I» are free of a.. O! 0 0 0 1! 0 0 0 2! 0 0 0 3! 0 0 0 (6) and the representations of ~ and its adjoint ~t are ~= 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . .8 with respect to a by the rule that (9) with the conditions that <I>o. ... . . . .... . <I> is at most of degree 1 (linear) in a. . .. . In this basis the transition metric form is . 0 0 0 0 .. . We define a left derivative 8" and a right derivative . (8. .. Classical Matrix Mechanics (5) These are not unit vectors.. 0 . We simply change some of the formal rules to accommodate anticommuting variables.. Then we can identify at with 8" just as we identify ~ with 8 •. ... .. ... . Its so-called "derivative" is a coefficient in a linear polynomial. . If a is the creation operator for a bit. . .. . . .. and (. . . . .3. t ....... with anticommuting variables a). . such as one that we might use to represent a state of the bit... .... .. but not for states of several bits. Since a 2 = 0. let <I> be any polynomial in a. (7) ... . . 1 .. These matrices use only natural numbers for their coefficients. a2. The resulting algebra is called the anticommuting or Grassmann or odd-graded or odd differential calculus. . The number operator n is diagonal in this basis: n= 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 . . ... 0 3 0 (8) . .4 Bits and Anticommuting Calculus We can use our background in the differential calculus to help deal with bits as well as bins..<I». . In the present case of a single bit the two derivatives are the same.... 3. . . ... . ...

3. (3) It follows that on the doubled bin BD. To restore this symmetry. We designate the reflection of . we take W = IN ED INR as our new IN space for a new system B := B ED BR called the doubled bin. We similarly define the annihilator it on BR by itRs := RiS. The bin thus lacks the symmetry A between top and bottom that the bit has.3 Some Classical Systems 105 The odd derivative is a linear operator. f =Deg 111 Deg cP (10) with a change in sign if a a in 111 must cross one in cP on its way to the right. Every mode is a superposition of these.i on the top bin: (6) This evidently defines a definite norm on the IN vectors of BD. 111 are homogeneous polynomials in a of degrees Deg CP.ij. then a" obeys the graded Leibniz rule a. and its reflection BR is the top bin. which can be either the bin or its reflection. The original bin B is now the bottom bin.3. The adjoint t on the doubled bin BD agrees with the original adjoint t on the bottom bin and with its reflection R t R.5 Top Bin The bin has a bottom state . (1) We extend the creation operator i from modes near the bottom to those near the top by decreeing that a state s of B moves down (in occupation number) as its reflection Rs moves up: (2) iRs:= RitS .(cp1l1) =(a"cp)1I1 + (-I)' 1I1a"cp .i gives the occupancy for the reflected bin states.ij.. Deg 111 =0. 3. . Evidently the vacuum and its reflection the plenum are characterized by (5) The operator n = u t gives the occupancy for the bin states. let us hold a metaphorical mirror over the bin B. defining a reflected bin BR with a reflected state Rs for every state s of the bin. If IN and INR are the two IN spaces. and its reflection n R = RnR. If CP. by 1l' :=R.ij.1. Modes near the bottom are in B and those near the top are in BR. but no top state. (4) where the sign-operator f is + 1 on the bin states sand -Ion their reflections Rs.

it also lowers N relations. Near 'ft. Classical Matrix Mechanics 3. 2' 2' 2' (4) We call a state of the extended bin nearly empty or near J. using it instead of i. the norm of the eigenstate [N] changes sign every time N decreases by 1. we simply posit a top state 'ft on which creation stops.t. We define a bin number N so that it will be invariant under the interchange of i and it: (3) Since it lowers n = u t . Furthermore the norm of ¢ is given by II¢II = 'l/Jtut'I/J = (N' -~) II'I/JII (5) by (2). and annihilator of the inverted bin in the frame of the basis vectors (it)n J. The eigenvalues of N are positive near the bottom and negative near the top. are respectively . the eigenvalue of n := -N . In order to top the bin but keep the original canonical commutation relations between i and it. by a finite-degree polynomial in i.4.~ is the occupation number of the bin.3.1] with still more negative eigenvalue N' . if it is obtained from the vacuum J.. with (1) We still posit the canonical commutation relations (2) The resulting entity we call the extended bin BE. or is a limit of such. then ¢ := it'I/J is an eigenstate [N' . Taken together.the eigenvalue of n := N .t.±.4 (4). the nearly empty and nearly full states are all the states of the extended bin.t. The operators i and it do not change one kind of bin into the other. The transition metric. We symmetrically define states nearly full or near 'ft.~ is the vacancy or hole number of the bin. Near J. From the canonical commutation 135 ±.6 Extended Bin The double bin has a non-canonical commutation law 3. N has the spectrum N =} = n + ~.t. as well as a bottom state J. The inverted bin has an indefinite transition metric on its In space. If 'I/J = [N'] is an eigenstate of N =} Nil < 0.±.t.1.106 3.. we say. The nearly full states form the state space of the inverted bin. disfigured by E. It follows that once N is negative. on which annihilation stops. BE := B EB BA. creator...

. .. . the two transverse modes of the electromagnetic vector potential. . ..... . since one has a definite transition metric and the other an indefinite one. .. however.. and the corresponding scalar (time-like) and longitudinal modes Ao(k) and Al (k) are inverted bins. ... . . . . correspond to two bins. .. . . . 1 . 107 (6) .. .. given by the following more general. AI(k) and A 2(k). . . .. .. .. We may arrange the states of the extended bin in a doubly infinite sequence (7) running from the vacuum to the plenum.3 Some Classical Systems . . transition metric-changing.. ... L= . ... There is a weaker symmetry between them... . with two infinite segments at the center which no recursion can cross.. . For each propagation vector k. . . O! 0 0 0 0 -I! 0 0 0 2! 0 (Mn'n) = M = 0 0 0 0 -3! 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 . .. . . Neither contribute any physical degrees of freedom to the final system. 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 3 0 . The bottom and inverted bins are not isomorphic to each other in the usual sense. .. . . but together they make a local Lorentz transformation law possible... ...3. 0 .. They do not have isomorphic t-algebras.. .. The extended bin BE =BtfJBA is an object whose state space is the (disjoint) union of the state spaces of the bottom bin and the inverted bin. transformation: (8) Indefinite metrics were first introduced into quantum theory in the now standard (Gupta-Bleuler) Lorentz-covariant form of quantum electrodynamics. . . . The two inverted bins cancel each other in virtue of the Lorenz gauge condition 8A = O. . . ..

classes. The amplitude vanishes for forbidden transitions. Most of these algebraic concepts are not special to either classical or quantum physics. o The average value of a coordinate v for an ensemble E is Tr Ev. Classical Matrix Mechanics 3. propagations. Sudarshan (1990) did. Logics should be inspired by experience. variables or coordinates. formal linear combinations of arrows and coarrows. He did not correctly transfer the Hilbert space structure. predicates. In classical and quantum physics: We can represent physical operations.5 References Koopman (1936) transferred some quantum operator ideas from quantum to classical mechanics. and the amplitude for an experiment is the contraction or trace of its operator. a maximal commutative subalgebra of the operator algebra. John Von Neumann . and ensembles. however.4 Summary We have seen how to express some of the main ideas of classical kinematics through operators and cooperators. o The possible values of any physical coordinate are the eigenvalues of its operator. o In classical physics but not in quantum physics. These tensors represent initial. 3. and coordinates by operators with a product representing serial operation in a linear time stream.108 3. Arrows form a category with states as its identities or objects. o o Coordinates form an algebra. medial and final actions. The kinematic structure of a classical system itself is specified by a framed algebra. however. o We can represent external actions and ensembles by dual operators or cooperators. We represent actions by tensors so that the tensor for an experiment is the product of the tensors for its parts.

An operator is a ket for a quantum operation. This transition from a classical to a quantum theory sets a pattern for all such extensions of theory. We characterize them abstractly in Chapter 6. Operators have many other physical uses. This is a tensor and is represented in each basis by a matrix (T B A). This still builds in a global serial time as in 3. which we represent by operators called arrows.4. correspond biuniquely to sharp descriptions of operations.1. Quantum Jumps In the previous chapter we described three-stage classical experiments by means of arrows and coarrows. 4.f) on the quantum system 10 is an abrupt change or transformation of 10. Quantum arrows like classical have a serial product (38 a (we often omit the 8) which represents doing one operation after another. The operator rays. An operator of the quantum system 10 is a linear mapping T : IN ---> IN. We shall develop the further structure of A in the course of this work. rather than the operators themselves. Now we extend these concepts to the quantum domain.1 Quantum Arrows and Coarrows 4. we take the central mathematical structure defining any physical system to be its action semi group A consisting of jumps or operations. Definition. We define the serial product of two operator rays as the class of all serial products of operators in one ray by operators in the other. In this Act I we deal just with the product 8 and the adjoint t. Then .1. An operator ray is a set of the form Ray T := {I'i:TII'i: E C} for some operator T. and is a quantum entity sharply described by an operator ray. We regard this tensor as projectively describing a sharp quantum operation on 10 (upholding the Orion convention).1. A quantum jump (or quantum operation) (10 +.1 Quantum Operations Generalizing from the examples of Chapters 1 and 2. We represent these semigroup concepts in the linear space IN and its tensor spaces. An arrow is an operator that describes a quantum jump sharply.

which we still term a (quantum) operation. like the vector 0.1) . however. holds for the composite entity described by these products. The classical operator addition is a formal rather than physical concept. Mostly we just relativize the classical theory. The sum of two quantum operators is not merely a formal sum but sharply describes another physical operation that we can carry out on the quantum.1. In the classical case a maximal categorical subalgebra does this. Sharp quantum arrows. Quantum Jumps RayT 8 Ray S := Ray[T 8 S]. Here is another non-correspondence.2 Quantum Systems Are Not Categories Here is an important break in correspondence between c and q: A classical arrow defines its initial and final states completely. The class of all operators of the system € naturally forms an algebra Qp €. But in the quantum case the operator algebra projectively represents the operation semigroup. we assume that all operators (but 0) represent physical operations sharply. For example. and of cooperations and cooperators. The semigroup Qp e of a quantum is not a category (except for trivial € = 0. For fully quantum systems. most operators do not represent operations. We take up non-sharp (diffuse) arrows in Chapter 8. however. and is designated also by O. In the rest of this unit we discuss some of the physics and metaphysics of quantum operations and operators. By the operator algebra of a quantum system € we sill mean the class of operators Qp € taken with the serial product 8 as for a classical one. with superposition. The operator ray {OJ = Ray 0. Sharp classical arrows form a semigroup and a category. whose product defines a semi group of operators that projectively represents the semigroup of operations Qp €. For classical systems.110 4. . we assume that quantum kinematics QO-l. defining an algebra A. a physically possible operation.Q on the basis vectors of a frame. (1) The serial product of two operator-rays is an operator ray. closely related to the previous. Definition. By the operation semigroup Qp € of the system € we mean a semigroup consisting of all operator rays of IN € with the serial product 8. We introduced a formal sum for classical arrows or operators too. 4. The states of the system are the identities of its category. That is. but a quantum arrow need not define its initial and final acts even maximally. In the c theory the unit operator does not sharply describe an arrow. the unit operator gives no information at all about an initial or final action. obviously do not have enough identities for a category: Proposition. however. the otherwise undefined. Only arrows linking states enjoy that privilege. In the q theory it describes a superposition of the projections Q f . is the default value. while still a semigroup.

classical operations are singular. Recall that an automorphism . C and I . A semigroup (or ring) is called full if every automorphism is inner. This did not alter Dirac's opinion. • Not being a category is a negative feature of quantum arrows.4. Obviously no automorphism of the operation semigroup of a classical system is inner.1 Quantum Arrows and Coarrows 111 Proof Here 0 and 1 are the trivial quantum systems with initial spaces 0 . likely h will go. Dirac uses the initial vector language consistently but his description of how to use this language is imprecise. in the following sense. This manner of speaking and the term "state vector" are vestiges of classical kinematics. Weyl. · e2 / e.04 . is the operator l. as if it were assigned not to a sharp experiment but to the photon. 1 = 1 8 1 = 0 . We do the same in this work. absorbed the constant e into the vector potential A so that only the quantity e2 appears in physics. There are compensating positive features that makes the quantum theory more unified than the classical. C.1 (3). Definition. so that either h will be replaced by 137. Perhaps this slight dissonance between his teaching and his practice of the quantum theory is also connected to Dirac's belief that quantum theory is a provisional language. which is indeed a variable of the system.04· . however.• For classical arrows.04···... Not every automorphism of the operation semi group (which is what counts) comes from an automorphism of the operator algebra. The only identity of the polarization operation semi group. Evidently the quantity e2 = 137. not e. or e will be replaced by [he/137. To be sure. the initial and final identities are the states of the system.04··· he can be predicted without square roots. Dirac (1930-67) speaks of a single vector or ket called "the state vector". and as if the vector were a variable of the photon. The essence of classical thought is that the transformations of an object form a category whose identities are the states of the object. He suggested that a fundamental theory must predict the value of the fine-structure constant e2 /he = 137. We prove the assertion for the polarization example f. Therefore if X has a left identity and Y has a right identity. and by 17. The selective operations X and Y have product XY = O. not e itself (and then only as a multiplier of the electromagnetic action). and one whose value is a single point in the state space of the system. The operation semigroup of a quantum system is half full. and that since fundamental relations seldom involve square roots. That a quantum system has no state means the same as that a quantum arrow has no initial or final identity. C.1 (3). probably resembling electrodynamics. by 17. ]1/2.2. They confuse the unimodal initial vector of quantum mechanics with the bimodal state of Newtonian mechanics. He did not think such matters of interpretation were important compared to predicting the numerical results of measurements. and that eventually we would return to a more classical language. then they are both 1.2. = 2 .

This is borne out in 10. C). Antilinear automorphisms are not inner because all arrows commute with i. and from vectors to operators. If € is a real quantum system then OP € is full . We call such a transformation an automorphism of the structure (IN.• This important result means that the arrow semi group of a quantum system includes half of its own symmetries. Proposition. FIN -+ IN. .ln coordinates. ta =0. May one say that a complex quantum system is half full? If fullness is the essence of being quantum./a.1 • -+ IN € there Proof. product. omitting the antilinear ones. We suppose that IN € is provided with a suitable adjoint operation t :IN -+ FIN. a semigroup concept. The linear automorphisms of (Op t. for every automorphism or anti-automorphism A : IN € is an a E Op € such that for all "'/ E Op t. C are full. an automorphism of (IN. id and C. 4./ = a". a limitation of superposition. This then defines an adjoint operation t on operations. In the same way we define automorphisms of the structure Op t C) and distinguish linear and antilinear transformations of OP t which respect sum. Proposition. the assured transitions or the transition probabilities. These too induce automorphisms of the semigroup of operations. First we recapitulate the vector adjoint operator: An operator t : IN -+ FIN. a vector-space concept. where A is linear. C) transforms vectors in one of two ways: a -+ Aa or a -+ CAA. A". implying a superselection principle. but with possibly transformed complex coefficients. See Chapter 6. therefore.• Thus real quantum theory seems more quantum than complex quantum theory. Quantum Jumps of the vector space IN does not transform the complex numbers C. one wonders why it is not manifested fully.112 4. and linear combination. however.2. We use this to construct an adjoint operator t on operators. la) f-4 (al is said to be o singular when for some initial vector a.2 Adjoints and Metrics The operation semigroup of a system determines the selection rules but not the selective acts. That is.6. This limitation disappears for real quantum systems. A more general kind of symmetry preserves linear combinations but with transformed coefficients. In this unit we extend the quantum concept of adjoint operation t of Chapter 2 from initial and final acts to jumps. Half these automorphisms are linear and half antilinear. One is forbidden to superpose linear and anti linear operators. There are only two automorphisms of the complex numbers. For these we need an adjoint.

Tw: =w" a. the adjoint operator on arrows exchanges the two modes and reverses the order of factors in all serial products. (1) o definite when for every nonzero vector la). . To write this compactly we first define the transpose operator T. defined by = a ® w is any product arrow over IN then the adjoint of . An adjoint operator is a mapping non-singular and Hermitian symmetric. we define its adjoint term by term using (6). T does the kind of traffic control that the diagram notation handles graphically and automatically.4.2 Adjoints and Metrics o 113 Hermitian symmetric when (.t := wt ® at.T : = (7) . Definition. is a sum of such products.Bla) = (al.. not necessarily positive definite. is (6) If.B) C . (5) A vector space with an adjoint operation t. . (3) t IN -+ FIN that is antilinear. We use the transpose in order to write an arrow on the left of a dual vector nevertheless: Definition. Such an adjoint operator can always be represented as an antilinear mapping of the form w = Mea with a tensor M = (MBA) called a transition metric enjoying the corresponding properties: o M is non-singular in that the inverse MBA exists with (4) o M is Hermitian symmetric in that MBA = MAB C . We then extend the adjoint operation from vectors to operators: Definition.a. (ala) 'f 0. we call a t space. An arrow <E-< normally acts on a vector ~ from the left (the final side) to form <E-< ~ and on a dual vector --< from the right (the initial side) to form --< <E-<. (2) o positive (definite) if for every nonzero vector la) (ala) > O. If . For any arrow" any initial vector a and any final vector w . That is.

When we generalize to a space IN E of countably infinite dimensionality. just as there are many ways to define "at the same time". • A nonzero vector la) with (ala) = 0 (or> 0. but we may use different messengers with different itineraries to do this. and is an anti-homomorphism in the sense that (9) Finally we recognize that this algebra adjoint defines an adjoint operation on the operation semigroup. Thus there are many ways to define "with the same orientation". This semigroup adjoint too is an involutory anti-automorphism.1). we impose topological conditions on IN E and FIN E so that they are still isomorphic. We avoid this ambiguity by specifying that the final action related by t to an initial one follows that initial one promptly. and anti-isomorphic under t. or < 0. If a is null then a ~ . or negative vector) of the adjoint form t and the metric M. • Then if M is Hermitian symmetric and non-singular (has an inverse M. respectively) is called a null vector (or positive vector. t:= eM defines a symmetric non-singular adjoint. taken operator by operator. Then the transport ambiguity remains elsewhere in the theory but the adjoint can be unambiguous. is also a ray.a would appear to be both forbidden (the transition amplitude vanishes) and assured (the final vector is the adjoint of the initial vector). The transition a t . (10) ._ The adjoint operator t : Op E -+ OP E is involutory (tt = id) and antilinear like the adjoint operator. The adjoint of an operator ray.114 4. We must carry information about the orientations of the polarizing filters between the initial and the final stage of the experiment. This means that no transitions from In) are allowed. (8) Proof Straightforward. just as there are many ways to compare gyroscopes at different spacetime points. • If the initial and final acts related by an adjoint are separated in spacetime there are many subtly different ways to carry out such an interchange. Quantum Jumps Proposition.la. A nonzero vector In) that is orthogonal to every vector «(aln) = 0) is called a nil vector. which is termed a contradiction in classical logic. The identification principle then implies that there are no nil vectors.

initial and final. C is a natural antiisomorphism between the two spaces. The complex structure introduces two more.2 Adjoints and Metrics 115 If M is definite. the vectors were spinors. Van der Waerden introduced the separate space INc and the dotted indices for the complex conjugates of vectors (in his theory.1 Quantum Types In Chapter 2 we dealt with two vector types. so is t. which we call antivectors (and later. The endomorphism semi group of a t space is a t semigroup. Recall that an anti-automorphism of a semi group G is a mapping A: G ---> G such that \. (al 1-+ la). T does not interchange initial and final modes. when we represent the adjoint by a metric tensor we use the operators of complex conjugation C and (later) transpose T. relativistic field theories like quantum electrodynamics require an indefinite transition metric for their relativistically covariant formulation. but we still assume that adjoints exist. la) 1-+ (ai. The definite adjoint depends on the experimenter. For example. A t semi group is a semi group with an possibly indefinite involutory anti-automorphism t. antispinors) or = = = . called the transition metric form oft. 4. has the form (7) for some positive Hermitian symmetric form M. Every symmetric definite isomorphism M : V The proof of this theorem is sketched in Chapter 6. assured transitions are never forbidden and the adjoint is definite. To help distinguish clearly the adjoint t. The operator C maps a vector space V with typical vector 'l/J = ('l/JA) to the conjugate space CV V C of complex conjugate vectors C'l/J 'l/Jc ('l/JA). transpose T and time reversal T we recall that while both T and M reverse the direction in which photons go through each polarizing filter. In the projective quantum theory we give no fixed t as an element of structure. The dot indicates a vector that transforms under the complex conjugate transformation matrix. Proposition.g E G I A(gf) = (Af)(Ag). which we take up in Chapter 12).2. A * semigroup is a semigroup with a definite involutory anti-automorphism *.4. In everyday. from an N-dimensional complex linear space V to its dual V t . There is a direct relation between the indefiniteness of the spacetime metric and the transition metric. That of a Hilbert space is a * semi group.'l/J with positive 'l/J. Definition. Every assured transition has the form 'l/J t <-. The representation with a definite adjoint is not itself invariant under the relativity group when the spacetime metric is indefinite. The time reversal of an initial act is still an initial act.//. Moreover T and t transpose the order of factors in a product but (AB)T = AT BT. classical experience. non-relativistic. ---> vt. This seems to work in quantum physics too in that we can represent all acts of anyone experimenter with positive vectors and therefore with a definite transition metric M. Nevertheless.

A Hermitian symmetric ambilinear form is called a sesquilinear form. The most general tensor type for a given initial space is a sequence of vector types of these four kinds. C occurs again in the theory of antiparticles. The type of the transition metric tensor of IN is VA VA' A tensor of this type is called an ambilinear form.2. ···. 0.2. -1. What do action vectors of negative norm mean? We know how to interpret spacetime vectors of these three kinds.. Positive spacetime vectors represent shifts that can be carried out on a given system by applying suitable forces to . O. We then have anti vectors as well as dual vectors and vectors proper. t and M are singUlar if z f. . our understanding of the operator C is incomplete until we know what operation it represents. .116 4. if M is suitably transformed with the xy reference system. There are now four basic D . n count the positive. the name "antivector" anticipates this application. 4. z.. whose operational meaning has been given. Quantum Jumps conjugate vectors. At present.2. Spacetime vectors represent acts of displacement or shifts. The natural numbers p. nil and negative basis vectors respectively. C appears only as one stage in the construction of the adjoint operation..dimensional vector types with the following transformation laws: Vector 'ljJA' =TA~ 'ljJA Covector cPA=cPAIT A'A Antivector 'ljJA' =TA~ 'ljJA Co-antivector cPA = cPA'T AA' (1) . -1) = Ip EBOz EB (-In) (1) where Ip is the p x p unit matrix and Oz is the z x z zero matrix. For any Hermitian form M AB there exists a basis where M = Diag(l.1..1 (1) holds whether or not the xy axes are orthogonal. There will still be null vectors if pn f.1 Conjugation C is now an invariant antilinear transformation from vectors to anti vectors. We sort out the intrinsic content of 4. . They are invariant characteristics of the form M and the adjoint t it defines. we assume that z = 0 for the transition metric. . however. The difference p .1 (1) from the extrinsic in Chapter 6. For definite adjoint the signature is the dimension D of the initial space.n is called the signature (of t or M).0.0. n] the full signature. In an operational treatment.2 Negative Norms The form of 4. z. We call the invariant triplet [p.

At first there may seem to be a logical contradiction associated with a null vector. All arrows of negative norm and possibly some of positive are improper. and in the limit no photon crosses the first polarizer and gets to try the transition through the second. They represent relations between systems or episystems. We take them up briefly here.4. or make a particle traverse it. allowed and assured quantum transitions. there are some that we cannot even try. Negative ones do not.'IjJ to fail every time we try it. the repetition rate of the experiment approaches 0 as V -+ c. These are positive. but they do represent relations between two systems that can be recognized after the fact. This makes at least some physical sense. it does not. at least in principle. For a null vector we have both cases at once: ¢ = 'IjJ t and ¢'IjJ =o. but not acts that can be carried out by an experimenter on an individual system.'IjJ to go on every trial. Negative and positive norms have different physical interpretations. in the quantum theory some action vectors represent actions that a given experimenter can effect on the individual system. and it never goes because we never try it. There is no contradiction. we suppose that if (2) is the number of trials of a transition ¢ f- 'IjJ. The usual transition probability is the ratio P = SIT of successes to trials. Then P is the undefined quotient 0/0. Thus it is conceivable that the quantum prohibition of transitions with null norm is connected with the speed limit of special relativity. then (3) is the expectation value of the number of successes. To draw a quantum-relativity analogy. (according to relativistic locality) but we can recognize a spacelike interval between two events or experimenter origins. transitions that actually occur. limits of proper vectors. For any nonzero vector 'IjJ we expect the transition 'IjJ t f . And if ¢'IjJ = 0 then we expect the transition ¢ f .5. Some null vectors 'IjJ are borderline cases. Improper vectors represent improper acts. when a norm is positive. There are some experiments we cannot even try. A quantum theory with indefinite transition metric includes some limiting experiments with physical repetition rate o. When it is negative. we give further structure to the t space (gauge generators) to determine which positive vectors are proper. . The transition goes every time we try it. Anticipating the Born-Malus law of 4. and so are easier to interpret. We cannot traverse a spacelike interval between two particles. If we do a Malusian crossed-polarizer experiment with polarizers traveling at speed V down the optical bench relative to us. We have called these proper (to the experimenter). If 'IjJ t 'IjJ -+ 0 then T -+ O. the vector in MINKOWSKI (or a t space IN f.2 Adjoints and Metrics 117 it. In 4. An indefinite metric implies that besides the usual forbidden. Similarly. respectively) represents the square of the proper time (or the number of experiments).

If t is positive then in an orthonormal frame. if and only if the metric M is projectively Hermitian symmetric. Two vectors (of the same external mode) are called orthogonal (relative to a given adjoint operation) if the adjoint of either annuls the other. J. we specialize from projective to metrical kinematics or geometry. This provocativ~ proposal.. 4.) A real diagonal matrix in an orthogonal reference basis is self-adjoint.. independent of any adjoint operation. there always exists an orthonormal basis.. The orthogonal subspace J. . While ¢J is a projective concept.118 4. An adjoint operation makes it possible to speak of the length of a vector. The basis vectors of an orthonormal basis are mutually orthogonal and of norm ± 1.J to any subspace J ~ IN (relative to a given f) is the set of all vectors in IN orthogonal to every vector of J. Quantum Jumps (Dirac (1942. If M is positive. defined relative to a fixed adjoint operation t· tJ and ¢J lie in the final space. The adjoint subspace to J is the set t J of all N for 'IjJ E J. {3t a = 0 = at {3. For any two operators X. it represents a debit. and any complex number z with complex conjugate zC = Z = z· . Translated into the language of actions... Y. however. and if IIail > 0.J in the initial space. An operator that is its own adjoint is said to be self-adjoint or Hermitian.3 Projections In this unit we collect some useful facts about subspaces of Dirac or Hilbert space. that a negative norm simply represents a negative number of systems and is no more mysterious than a negative bank balance. (These two terms are given different meanings for infinite-dimensional IN. A mapping t of matrices with the properties (7) is called an anti-automorphism of the algebra of matrices. the positive square root Jllall is called the length of a. 1943) suggested the contrary. the contraction at a = Iiall is called the norm of a. (1) with a possible unimportant complex factor A which can be normalized to unity. does not seem to have developed into a usable theory.J and tJ are metrical concepts. and the orthogonality relation is symmetric. ±1). . When we fix an adjoint operation. The polar subspace to J is the set ¢J of all final vectors of IN t precluded by every IN vector of J. J. If a is any vector and at is its adjoint. the conjugate transpose of (the matrix representing) T.) An orthonormal basis is one where M is a diagonal matrix of the form M = Diag(±I. [Xy]t = ytxt (2) [X + zy]t = xt + zCyt . These two criteria for orthogonality are equivalent. Tt is represented by TTC. this seems to say that some initial actions reduce the total number of trials. In an orthonormal .2.

The concept of Hermitian form is projective. and is minimal among the selective acts with this property... and ¢>I = 0. The transition probability is still P = SIT. the number of quanta in a sequence of experimental trials with initial action a. If a is normalized to unity. Then we may use the inner product to normalize our vectors... The necessary and sufficient condition for an operator U to be unitary is uu t = UtU = 1 . we may normalize w twx at a = M N = T to the number of trials T if w t wa t a > 0.2 Adjoints and Metrics 119 reference basis any Hermitian operator is represented by a matrix that is its own transposed conjugate. In a transition experiment wa.. does not have as immediate an experimental meaning as the bimodal transition amplitude. Suppose the metric is positive (definite). If the adjoint is ~ndefinite then some vectors cannot . Several normalizations have some use. (4) is called a projection operator or projector. In finite dimensional spaces any isometry is unitary. Evidently the inner product.5 w t a x at w = S is the average number of successes. Thanks to the correspondence between initial vectors and final vectors provided by the adjoint operation.. In an orthonormal basis a diagonal matrix is normal. An operator that preserves norms 111/111 is called an isometry. This selects without discernible change every photon from <E-a.. A Hermitian idempotent operator P. p2 = pt = P. the contraction wa of an initial vector with a final vector may also be expressed as a function of the two initial vectors (J = tw and a. (¢>A) with ¢>A = 1/IA-I for A> 1. Number normalization sets ata = N. then the operator aa t is a projector. Commuting Hermitian operators have Hermitian products. Hermitian operators have Hermitian sums but not necessarily Hermitian products. This is useful when we seek to deal with properties of one quantum at a time. Then according to the Born-Malus statistical formula of 4. (3) An operator that commutes with its adjoint is said to be normal. eliminating the arbitrary real multiplier they contain. If an isometry has an inverse it is called unitary (or orthogonal for real Hilbert spaces).4. In an infinite dimensional space V with basis fA. It is also called the inner product of the two final vectors wand ta. A E N. This function of w t and a is called their inner product. We can use the adjoint operation to construct an operator or propagator <E-a-< := aa t out of an initial vector <E-a = a (now normalized to unity). mapping the whole space V into a proper subspace. A unitary operator represents a change from one orthonormal basis to another. refering to two homomodal acts. Hermitian operators and unitary operators are normal. while that of Hermitian operator is metric. a typical non-invertible isometry is the creation operator that sends (1/IA) . Normalization to unity sets at a = 1 arbitrarily.

4 Quantum Coordinates As in the classical case. := ata (5) for the projector on the non-null initial vector a.120 4. 4.j3 + 'Y of a component along a and a component 'Y orthogonal to a . a quantum coordinate or variable is how we compress a multichannel spectral analysis into the same algebra that we use for single-channel Malusian experiments. o The propagator for a closed window is the zero matrix O. we may take the major axis to be of unit size. with a line segment and a circle as opposite extremes. If a polarization initial vector 'lj. or circular after this curve. elliptical. E IN is multiplied by an arbitrary phase factor eilJ than as varies the real part of the vector eilJ'lj.2. [J] is defined by the conditions that it fix every vector in J and annulI every vector in 1. If a E J is a variable vector ranging over an orthogonal basis for J then N t [J] = ' " = aa . Quantum Jumps be normalized to unity and one may use the more general definition aat PDf. is 'lj. and designated here by [J]. Lata (6) k=1 We have the following special propagators: o The propagator for an open shutter or window is the unit matrix [IN] = (8B A) =1. the electric vector at a point of the wave was supposed to trace such a curve in the course of time. More generally. that of the optical bench. is named linear. One may give a Poincare-invariant characterization of a polarizer.t. The polarization described by 'lj. the projector upon 'lj. Now that the space IN has a metric we e e can say that this curve is an ellipse. Since an overall complex factor does not affect the process that a vector represents. . Then we associate a unique projector with J..J. There remains a two-parameter family of elliptical polarizations. The passage of time provides such a factor with = wt. called the projector on J. with arbitrary eccentricity and with major diameter along any direction in the initial plane IN. In the old electromagnetic wave theory of light. The above theory of polarization is nonrelativistic in that it holds in one rest frame only. (taken in a particular Cartesian coordinate system in the plane IN) traces a closed curve in IN. and upon t'lj.'lj. with its law of transformation (see Chapter 11 if necessary) and its occlusion relation. let J be any subspace of IN free of null vectors. o The propagator for a polarizer whose polarizing direction is along the unit vector 'lj. the scale and starting point of the ellipse are irrelevant. Any vector j3 then resolves uniquely into a sum j3 = PDf.

(1) v' This is the spectral resolution of v. where a Hilbert space is postulated at the start. In particular if v is unitary.2.5 Interpretations of Coordinates We will not say that in a polarization process P we "observe" the binary coordinate P. We omit the proof of the following well-known t then Theorem.4. N Nt = Nt N. If an operator N commutes with its adjoint. Spectral theorem for finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces.2 (9)]: v = L [v =} V']V ' . Once we have an adjoint in the quantum theory we can define projectors and use exactly the formula (l) to associate spectral resolutions with operators. We may abbreviate [v =} v'] as [v']. This is Von Neumann's quantum theory.2 Adjoints and Metrics 121 In Chapter 3 we resolved every classical variable v into a sum of mutually orthogonal projectors [v =} v'] times eigenvalues v' [3. If t is positive. We first give an adjoint t in advance and resolve only those operators that in some sense suit t. 4. and we reserve it for classical physics. Each polarization operation may change any oblique polarization coordinate. That is. an operator has a spectral resolution if and only if it is normal.2. Each projector [v'] in the spectral resolution (1) represents a selective act. We now characterize coordinates algebraically. A projector is an idempotent Hermitian operator P p 2 = pt = P. hermitian or anti-hermitian with respect to v is normal with respect to t and t is adapted to v. A (complex-valued) coordinate v is a family of mutually orthogonal selective acts written [v =} v'] each associated with a complex number v'. All systems that it will select are said to have the final value v =} v'. The difference from the classical coordinates is "merely" that now the matrices v and [v'] are no longer diagonal in general. then N is called normal and the adjoint operation t is said to be adapted to N. Definition. and now the initial and final values may differ. It changes the system in a way that we cannot control and that we . We present two kinds of quantum theories. E OP f: Projectors still represent selective acts. Definition. The term "observe" too strongly suggests non-intervention. Definition. the normal operators and the coordinates are the same operators. metric and projective. All systems that it has selected are said to have the initial value v =} v'. In this unit we discuss only the metric theory.

an ideal final determination of a variable cannot disturb or affect that value at all. or (in a quantum-relativity analogy) the idea of an event simply occurring "now". as long as we rememember that these are circumlocutions for an action that has been or will be carried out. it .122 4. The variable X = IX) (X I = <::-. not the state of being. This corresponds to the classical assumption that states have selective acts. and the variable P = IP) (PI has eigenvalue 1 for the final process. E IN. We usually agree that unless anything to the contrary is said. In quantum theory we assume that for every initial vector 'lj. The probability of this transition is 112. According to the quantum theory itself. This would suggest that the commutator variable ~ = X P .1 x 1 = O. consider a polarization experiment composed of initial act IX) (we normalize to unity) for polarization along the x axis. To say. and to "have the value" 1 for P on the basis of the final data. followed by an oblique final vector (PI at 7r /4 to the x axis. We must say as much about this act as matters for earlier or later dual acts.X -< has eigenvalue 1 for the initial process. t represents an ideal physical operation. The concept of determination or control explicitly allows for the active intervention by the subject. It seems to convey our action better to say that in the polarization process we determine or control a binary coordinate. Suppose that it actually occurs in one experiment under study. or what amounts to the same thing. we might say (to the confusion of all involved) that the quantum has both properties in this experiment. that a quantum variable simply "has a value" (as one does in classical physics) without a mode does not describe an action well and can lead to confusion in quantum physics. we imply an initial action. We can do this. Remember: what exists is the action. The essential point here is that the projections X and P do not commute. In general we must renounce the idea of a variable simply "having a value" exactly as we abandon the idea of a system having a state of being. a selective act for the value p = 1. not that we observe or measure it. To be still more precise we must also state of each sharp determination whether it is initial. Indeed. it might (if we were careless) be said to "have the value" 1 for X on the grounds of the initial data. an earlier selective act. however. the binary coordinate p = 'lj. meaning that the act by which we determine it is initial or final respectively. A spectral projection [A =} A'] of a classical variable A corresponds roughly in meaning to the subset [A =} N] of a state space S where the variable A has a certain value N. medial or final. for example. Quantum Jumps do not intend by what we usually call observation. If we regard X and P as modeless properties or predicates. But actually ~ has no 0 eigenvalue. It is not that we "create" a value by controlling the variable. Furthermore. ® 'lj. it is often helpful to speak of even a quantum system as having some state and even a quantum coordinate as having some value. by saying that the value is initial or final. Then while the quantum was in flight between the initial and final acts. although it may disturb other variables. and includes observation as a special limiting case. For example. What matters is the act we carry out.P X has the value 1 x I .

To describe an allowed quantum transition. and conversely. we must shift the external interface to include that action and apply quantum theory to the new enlarged system and reduced episystem. 4. This happens whenever the initial vector is an eigenvector of one quantity and the final vector of the other. But in fact many different initial polarizations will actuate a given final analyzer. . a transition from sharp initial-position x to sharp finalmomentum p might be mistakenly thought to violate the Heisenberg uncertainty relation Llx Llp > Ii /2. We first give some physical operators on a linear non-metric space IN. present quantum theory cannot describe what goes on during a determination on the system under study. as with X and P.6 Projective Coordinates Now we take the projective approach. and we do not have our own sharp description. Even when it is impossible to control initial values for two given noncommuting variables at once. or final values for both. Then the action of our instruments on an atom is no longer treated as a determination but as a dynamical evolution of the composite system of instrument and atom. The operator representing a variable with more than two values encodes a description of the variable. since that is when the system interacts with us of the episystem.2 Adjoints and Metrics 123 would raise inappropriate doubts about dynamical locality if we say that a value in the remote past is created by our action today. We return to this topic after we have formulated the dynamics it requires. as in the polarization experiment that we have studied here. We call an operator R resolvable if it is diagonal in some basis. which dealt with single-channel and two-orthogonal-channel external operations only. but it does not at all represent what actually goes on in the multichannel analysis for that variable. To analyze the determination process that we have left unanalyzed until now. Such a process is outside the theory we have developed so far. This approach is the one that is appropriate for our action-based quantum theory. medial or final. Definition.2. Giving a value of a variable insufficiently specifies the determining action. Finally. not necessarily orthonormal. we must give both ends of the experiment. If we ignore the external modal distinction. where the * or t space is constructed from the dynamics. The standard representation of a variable by an operator must be regarded as a best-possible compromise within this severe limitation. The process that a variable expresses is a multichannel analysis and the associated black box should have one inlet for the quantum and a plurality of signal lights as outlets. In Newtonian mechanics one end of a ballistic experiment fixes the other in that the (sharp) initial and final operations uniquely determine each other for allowed transitions. one for each channel. and specifies it completely. and give the adjoints that make them resolvable. we can control an initial value for one and a final value for the other. which may still be initial.4.

the subspace of all vectors 7/J E V for which (L . .Ad· . n E N. Quantum Jumps Every operator L (on a finite-dimensional vector space V) has a minimal polynomial P(x). the entire space V is the direct sum of all the principal spaces of L. (x . Proposition. If N = 1 the spectral value is an eigenvalue._ = 1 (the unit matrix) in the basis that It follows from the spectral theorem that R has a spectral resolution relative to that adjoint. .. for some positive integer N and for some nonzero vector 7/J. 2. Now we consider a general operator L on a finite-dimensional complex vector space V . Definition. A spectral value of L is a complex number A such that L . If R is resolvable then there is a positive adjoint t adapted to R: (2) Proof The metric that takes the form M diagonalizes R defines such an adjoint.A)-I is called the resolvent of L. 4. Proof Omitted. L is resolvable distinct linear monomials: if and only if its minimal polynomial is a product of P(x) = (x .124 4. A number A is a spectral value of L if and only if. Proposition. For any linear operator L. One calls an operator N nilpotent if some power vanishes: N n = 0. By the Jordan D x D nilpotent matrix N D we mean the superdiagonal D x D matrix fOil ~' for D = 1. The operator-valued function of A expressed by (L . . Proposition. 3. . For each A.AD) .A has no inverse. (1) Proof Omitted. defined as the polynomial of least degree with leading coefficient 1 such that P(L) = O. 010 001 000 0100 0010 0001 ' 0000 (3) . (L .A)-I7/J is undefined is called the principal space of L associated with A. By the spectrum of L we mean the set of all its spectral values.A)N 7/J =O.

. Proposition. Nilpotent operators naturally give rise to indefinite metrics in the following way. we start from an adjoint and discover the operators that suit it. a Hilbert space . Let L be any linear operator. Proposition. In it ID is the D x D unit matrix. This leads to the standard case. L(2). Jordan normal form. L± = L±Rrm + L±N .4. L is resolvable if and only if all the block sizes Dm = 1.. and D(m) E N is the associated dimension. Here we start from an operator and discover the adjoints adapted to it. . for each m. In the spectral theorem. This is a special case of the following general result. Inverse spectral theorem. Am is a spectral value of L..L(n» (4) In this each L(m) is a D(m) x D(m) sub-matrix or block of the upper triangular form (5) and is a restriction of L to one of its principle spaces. We consider only the finite-dimensional case. Here. L = L+ + L±R + L±N =Res L + Nil L . If t is non-singular t must therefore be indefinite. and B(D. A) = AID + ND is a "block" of size D with diagonal elements A and. If N respects an adjoint t and its norm II·· ·11. ND is the Jordan D x D nilpotent matrix. There then exists a positive definite t adapted to L. • The following thoughts on the general non-Hilbert case and indefinite metrics I owe mainly to Heinrich Saller and Bourbaki..2 Adjoints and Metrics 125 We state the following well-known normal form for arbitrary (finite-dimensional) matrices. Every operator L has an adapted adjoint t such that the following unique decompositions hold: v = V+ EB V± t=t+EBt± L = L+ EB L± . then the norm of any such vector n must be zero. Any nilpotent operator N maps some non-zero vector n into the zero vector O. . (6) (7) (8) where • (6) is a direct sum decomposition of V into subspaces V+ and V± with respective adjoints t+ and t ± .a superdiagonal of I's. There exists a basis B in which L has the near-diagonal Jordan normal form L = Diag(L(1).

L± does not admit a further decomposition of the form (6) with the above properties. We call Res L := L+ + L±R the resolvable part of L.126 4. Then the (definite. We apply these concepts to dynamical evolution in 12. where peN) is any polynomial in N with complex coefficients. Definition.• We emphasize that the three terms L = L+ + L±R + L±N (unit factors implicit) of the decomposition (8) are uniquely determined by L and mutually annihilate each other in all pairs. L+ is resolvable and if L± f 0 then L± is not. We call V+ the definite space proper to Land V± the indefinite space proper to L. and Nil L == L±N the nilpotent part of L. . Hilbert) space V+ determined by L is the direct sum of all the subspaces associated with 1 x 1 blocks of L if any. Nevertheless there is still an adjoint adapted to L. The adjoint t± on V± defined by the transition metric (9) is the direct sum of adjoints on the other blocks of L. L± is an operator on V±. More generally. any metric of the form (10) is also N -adapted. The nilpotent operator L±N is the direct sum of the super-triangular parts of all the blocks of L. If L is a single n x n block in Jordan normal form then one metric adapted to L is the skew-diagonal n x n unit matrix Io1l ~' 001 010 100 0001 0010 0100 ' 1000 (9) of size n = n m . The indefinite t space V± is the direct sum of the remaining subspaces. Proof If the operator L is a block of size n > 1. L+ is a normal operator on ~ with respect to t'. The resolvable operator L+ is the direct sum of the 1 x 1 blocks of L. The resolvable operator L±R is the direct sum of the diagonal parts of the n x n blocks of L with n > 1. The signature of Z is 0 or 1 as n is even or odd. The unique adjoint t + on V+ is the direct sum of the complex conjugations C on the 1 x 1 blocks. L±R is resolvable and L±N == Nil L is nilpotent Res L is resolvable and Nil L is nilpotent. The irresolvable operator L± is the direct sum of the remaining blocks. besides the trivial one with V+ = {O}. Quantum Jumps • t+ is a definite adjoint on V+ and t ± • • • • • • is an indefinite adjoint on V±.7. then no positive definite adjoint is adapted to L.2.

and unnaturally limits our speech. but it might be more appropriate in some physical circumstances to correspond this classical predicate with the quantum predicate defined by the subspace of tensors 'l1f~ E FINt 00P . That is.2.7 Non-numerical Coordinates We have learned how to speak of numerical properties of quantum entities as we do of classical objects: the energy of an electron. This introduces an extraneous and arbitrary element. the operator representing "the head of the arrow" (as a map S from arrows to arrowheads) according to (2) is the operator E on FIN 0 OP that projects on the subspace of kets 'l1fB A E FIN 0 OP = FIN 0 FIN 0 IN symmetric in the two raised indices. for example..4. that maps each water molecule to its oxygen atom. u'].2 Adjoints and Metrics 127 Here is an important basic example.E formed from the symmetrizer S of the preceding paragraph.3 (1) by identities or projection operators [u ::. (1) v' This goes with a generalized eigenvalue principle: We may express the statement that the variable u of the entity v takes on the value u' after the selective act Iv'). the numbering.2. for example. For example. u'] 0 [v ::.. In the algebra of Pauli matrices M2.. We assume that the projection operators [u =? u'] annul each other: [u =? u'][u =? u"] = 0 if u' ::f u".2. There is an operator. The indefinite space V± must have dimension at least 2 and signature 1 or O. by the generalized spectral sum U= L [u ::. (2) For example. we represent the function U that associates a selective act [u ::. is a partial function from dogs to tails. for example. u'] for the dependent variable. The definite space V+ may have any dimension. with each selective act [v =? v'] on the system €. We can show this by numbering the objects and using the spectral resolution 4. 4. in Minkowski spacetime the definite space of any boost has dimension 2 and the indefinite space has dimension 2 and signature o. the nilpotent L = 0"+ := 0"1 + i0"2 has the adapted metric M = 0"1 and is hermitian with respect to the indefinite adjoint t ± := CT0"1. For example. Alternatively.3 (1) of numerical coordinates. generally in another vector space.. the statement that "H is not the head of the arrow A" can be rendered by the antisymmetrizer 1 . This correspondence from classical to quantum language is but one of several possible translations. v'] . we may replace the numbers v' in the spectral resolution 4. by the generalized eigenvalue equation Ulv') = [u']lv') . Now we can translate this "of' into quantum kinematics. all with different meanings. perhaps on some other entity. In classical thought we can also speak of object-valued properties: the tail of the dog.

1 Frames By a frame we mean the collection of all actions. 4.3. 4. accessible to one experimenter. To meet the usual terminology we call C a frame for the operator algebra Op E. We construct a final vector frame dually. which may express inequivalent. a frame of the operation semigroup A is a category F C A that is maximal among all such categorical sub-seroigroups of A. information. The correspondence from classical language to quantum is not one-to-one. Classical transformations relate experimenters who assign different names to equivalent actions. When we represent the operator algebra as the algebra of linear operators of a vector space. Any maximal commutative subalgebra C C Op E consisting of normal operators defines a semigroup frame F. Thus a classical transformation is like a bilingual dictionary that has a unique equivalent in each of its two languages for every word in the other. Definition. Quantum frames have a deeper meaning than the classical ones of classical mechanics and special and general relativity. Quantum Jumps for which the contraction \liB! = O. indeed incompatible. If C is a commutative sub-semigroup of A we designate by F = Cat C the maximal category whose identities belong to C. which makes them a category. The generalization to arbitrary semigroups is clear: The actions of one experimenter are to be consistent with classical kinematics. By aframe of an operation semigroup we mean a maximal categorical sub-semigroup. We have defined frames for a vector space in Chapter 2. the one whose identities are represented by projectors in C. then an orthogonal vector basis defines an initial vector frame.128 4. which survive only as extremely special cases or degenerate limiting cases. That is. express equivalent information. These various kinds of frame of a quantum system determine each other uniquely. . Quantum transformations relate incomplete but still sharp determinations.3 Transformation Theory Here we take up the dramatic extension of relativity that the quantum theory made necessary. In simple cases this is a frame of A. both selective and transformative. being complete. and the transformations between quantum frames are more radical than classical coordinate transformations. Classical transformations relate two determinations of the system that.

x. respectively) and * is a definite adjoint operation on A. central operators define selection principles of ultimate strength. Quantum transformations are thus more like the relations of ordinary life than are classical transformations. Central elements violate and generalize quantum kinematics QO-I. +. K) is an algebra (or module. We call this the general quantum principle. Here we restate the classical and quantum kinematics in operator language before giving the generalization. They occur in theories between the extremes of quantum and classical. "common". but with all elements of the operator algebra. In quantum kinematics.3. By a normal * algebra (or sub-*-algebra) we mean a * algebra (or sub-*algebra) in the above sense consisting of normal operators. Since they commute with every possible evolution. We continue to designate the quantum adjoint by t. it asserts that every system is quantum. In the form we have stated the quantum kinematics.3 Transformation Theory 129 Quantum transformations proper relate ideal experimenters who generically choose to perform incompatible actions. *) where (A. Explicitly put. These quantities are then central (commute with every element of the algebra). all do. for its adjoint operation t the direct sum tl EB h of the two adjoint operations.4. Definition. We call this the special quantum principle. The direct sum A = AI EB A2 of K algebras is defined to have for its vector space (A. In ordinary practice we apply quantum kinematics to a single system under study. K. We frame this definition only for finite-dimensional A. Usually a classical system is a physical condensation of the underlying quantum system. A quantum transformation is like a bilingual dictionary that lists several possible translations for each word. x. A * algebra (or * module) over a field (or ring) K is a structure (A. Evidently there are many intermediate possibilities. +. and the like). our hypothesis is: Every apparently classical system will under higher resolution turn out to be One aspect of a quantum system. It has been proposed that there are some quantities that commute not only with the actual time evolution operator of the isolated system. +. however. and for its product b x a = ba the direct sum of the two products: . . with their probabilities ("rare". They change not merely our description but our conception of nature.2 Operator Kinematics. We cannot carry out actions represented by superpositions of initial eigenvectors with different eigenvalues of a central quantity. The simplest language that expresses all of these theories in a uniform way is the algebra of operators. Quantum and Classical In classical kinematics no action vectors have proper superpositions. K) the direct sum AI EB A2 of the two vector spaces. like those which define selection rules. We therefore require the adjoint operator t B of a sub-*-algebra B C A to agree on B with the adjoint form t of the algebra A. which are also called superselection rules. 4.

we define a physical object (such as energymomentum) by representing it relative to one observer. so that al a2 =0 for all ai E Ai' An algebra is called reducible if it is a nontrivial direct sum. When the transformation is linear.2 and is either 101 or 102. Quantum Kinematics. There is one frame F. The quantum kinematics operates with but one algebra.3. In each case the operator algebra A of the physical system is irreducible. and so far there is no indication that it is wrong. real or complex depending on the linear coefficients. In matrix representation. and by transformations to all other bases. the quantum entity is called a quantum tensor. There are many frames. Typical quantum entities are the action vectors and operators we have already encountered. Thus 101 EB 102 is a kind of ordered disjunction of the possibilities 101 and 102. The photon itself is an entity not to be identified with any of its action vectors. q2) = [~ ~] . defined by a fixed subalgebra B ~ A. Any maximal normal subalgebra G algebra G(E) of some experimenter E and conversely.3 Quantum Entity In nonquantum transformation theory. Then. Any maximal normal subalgebra G ~ A commuting with B is the coordinate algebra G(E) of some experimenter E and conversely. Correspondingly. 4. (bl EB ~)(al EB a2) . the variable itself is not identified with one point . one of variables and one of transformations.= blal EB b2a2. In this framework the quantum kinematics is clearly the simplest. whose coordinate subalgebra G(F) = ~ A is a distinguished maximal commutative normal subalgebra. generally by a matrix of some shape. Classical Kinematics. and irreducible otherwise. any operator q of a may be put in the form q = Diag(ql . We adhere to it throughout. ~ A is the coordinate The classical and the general kinematics thus involve two algebras. and telling how to transform it to all others. If AI and A2 are the operator algebras of two systems 101 and 102 respectively then the direct sum algebra Al EBA2 is the operator algebra of a system designated by 10 = 101 EB 102. depending on the value of n. we may define a quantum entity by its representation in one basis.130 4. G General Kinematics.= Al EBA2' t . Quantum Jumps (1) A.= tl EB h. In the theory of random variables. without their coherent superpositions. The quantum and classical kinematics now appear as the opposite ends of a broad range of general kinematics. The sum system 10 has a variable n = 1. and these are tensors.

If we agree that entities exist when they can act and be acted upon. It is thus a historical process that may occur in the development from one physical theory to another. however. and so can we. first brought out in the quantum theory. (Thinking is an action. hidden axioms in the classical concept of existence. I think. There are. In that technical sense. and the quantum kinematics takes the existence of the system under study as a given. quanta can come into existence and leave it. We have to take these into account if we answer in the light of quantum theory. and an invariant one under change of basis. not a physical concept within one physical theory. therefore I exist. In the past when we quantized an entity we replaced this commutative algebra by a noncommutative operator algebra. but quantum theory allows for their existence.4 Quantizing By a quantization we mean a rule for converting a classical theory (one that neglects quantum relativity) into a quantum one (one that takes quantum relativity into account). however. We have called what can exist in this sense objects. A classical theory is simply wrong.4. Pascual Jordan created a new kind of nonassociative co~mutative algebra of the observable . Similarly. and it is not somehow more fundamental than the quantum theory that it precedes. If we stipulate that to exist an entity must have a state of being then electrons exist no more than I. and strictly speaking there are none. 4. A correct theory is not intrinsically tied to some incorrect one. A quantization is a way of correcting one error in an incorrect theory. / / / / There have been imaginative attempts to resolve this incongruity. the unit operator on its initial space.) To be sure. and just wonder about "photon". One commonly provides any classical entity with a commutative algebra optimistically called its algebra of "observables" following Heisenberg. The photon is then a quantum entity. in that we think we know what "exist" means. then electrons exist and so do I. This process seems to mix categories incongruously. what represents the quantum is not one vector but its whole space and its dual space.4 Quantizing 131 of the sample space but with the whole space itself. protons. Do photons exist? Ditto electrons. We may identify the photon with the selective act for photons. since only normal operators are observable. All of the commutative classical algebra consists entirely of "observables" or variables and almost none of the quantum algebra does. In one. also regarded as an algebra of observables. and the other well-established quanta of today. not a physical one. When we ask this question we are probably naive. it is a meta-physical process. even a quantum tensor.

Quantization is re-relativization.'- (p + qf . A quantum operator is an element of IN I8i FIN. to quantize is to replace an associative Jordan algebra of coordinates by a non associative one. the art of restoring the original correct physics to a blurred classical picture. we based our study on the quantum operators. We asked what classical structure corresponds to the quantum operator algebra. The operations + and J define a Jordan algebra. which then passes for absolute. One approach to quantization is to base physics on a Jordan algebra of coordinates. The transition from a quantum theory to a classical theory loses two essential features that we must restore when we re-quantize: 4. . however. Quantization is re-quantization. It discards almost all the selective acts. not the classical observables. To restore the quantum theory we must re-relativize the absolute frame. both described by diagrams of the form ~. but associative in the classical theory and non-associative in the quantum theory. The Jordan product is commutative in both the classical and quantum theories. Seeing that quantum operators and classical observables do not exactly correspond. which do not. When we quantize we replace the classical semi group of arrows by a quantum semigroup. He noted that the class of cooordinates is closed under addition and under the operation pJq . We have formulated both classical and quantum semigroups of such arrows. Frame relativity is the core of the quantum theory. regarded as an elementary action.p2 _ q2 -'-----'---=---"'- 2 (1-) now called the Jordan product. In the Jordan algebra theory. describing an impulsive change from a to b. and the classical analog of an operator is an arrow b~ a from one state a to another b.1 Re-relativizing Classical physics objectivizes the quantum system. renouncing not commutativity but associativity. In practice. We did not ask what quantum structure corresponds to the classical observable algebra. The addition operation for non-associative Jordan coordinates is far from immediate experience. quantum physics still works best with associative operator algebras. which represent the operation semigroup. Both quantum and classical theories can use the same non-commutative matrix algebra MN of N x N matrices for their operator algebras. and founded quantization on that. the Jordan algebra. Quantum Jumps operators alone. Therefore: The operation semi group is the definitive physical structure.4. but so is that for non-commutative quantum operations in the linear algebra theory.132 4. In the classical theory one maximal commutative frame subalgebra. Therefore it describes an annihilation-creation action sharply. keeping only some that commute with each other and fit into one frame.

however. Generally the coordinates of one experimenter do not commute with those of another.4. The observables of anyone experimenter commute. and set theory.2 Rephasing All classical relations among classical action vectors of the absolute frame only hold projectively. since they are proper to different experimenters. The commutative subalgebra C = (EC(E) consisting of coordinates common to all experimenters may be as small as the real or complex numbers.4. nor is there physical need for them to do so. if the classical algebra is constructed from macroscopic observation of a limited number of variables. It is the relativization of the coordinate algebra. there is a continuous function of h that associates structural constants C~r(h) of an algebra A(h) with each value of h. In this relativization. with A(O) the "classical" algebra and A(h) the actual quantum algebra when h assumes its physical value. We call any such combination of rephasing and re-relativization. they do not make up an algebra. to be sure. noncommutative coordinates appear. . any maximal commutative subalgebra of normal operators is somebody's frame. finding more or less familiar classical correspondents. Canonical quantization is a special case. The classical physics dephases the quantum physics. We re-quantize a variety of classical structures in this way. appropriate to some dynamical theories. we must first supply the forgotten complex factors. We also de-quantize such quantum structures as Fermi-Dirac assemblies and Bose-Einstein assemblies. quantization is not exactly the passage from the commutative to the noncommutative. Because these changes approach 0 as h --> 0. logic. If it is larger its nontrivial elements are what we have called central or supers election operators. Before we can transform them to any another frame. contains any coordinate determined by any experimenter. In the quantum theory. In quantum physics. These can be corrected as part of the rephasing. which in general affect both magnitude and phase. Thus quantum physics is a square root of classical.4 Quantizing 133 the absolute frame. The category of quantum entities f is the opposite category to that of operator algebras Op €. their separate phases are lost. including dynamical theories. In combining the separate external acts into the product 'ljJ'ljJ t. E) of A . quantum or no. geometrical spaces. Quantum theory deals with acts of creation and annihilation 'ljJ and 'ljJ t while classical theory deals only with "the object itself'. and MaxwellBoltzmann statistics. Since the same algebra A may describe a quantum entity and an classical entity. 4. there may be errors of order h in its multiplication table. To go back to 'ljJ from 'ljJ'ljJt we must re-phase. In addition. groups. Such a function C~r(h) is called a deformation of A(O) into A(h). a re-quantization. different experimenters E may coordinate or frame the same operator algebra with different maximal commutative subalgebras Coord(f . which we may represent by a quadratic selective act 'ljJ'ljJt.

Strictly speaking.the operator algebra A and a frame subalgebra C c A . This omits the relativistic aspect of quantization. The quantum theory relativizes C to the experimenter as special relativity relativizes space X to the observer. common to all experimenters and defining a framed algebra. To quantize is not merely to make non-commutative. In the classical theory there is an absolute frame C within the operator algebra A of a classical system. This is part of the quantum-relativity analogy. however. and almost none of its elements are observables (coordinates). They are what goes on. The product of two coordinates that do not commute involves a composition of determinations proper to different experimental frames.3 Quantization and Non-Commutativity In mathematics any process that replaces commutative algebras by noncommutative algebras is apt to be called a quantization. Therefore to speak of the algebra of observables is misleading. Quantum Jumps 4.s complicated actions. The product of operations in the experimental sense of concatenation is associative. not the coordinates. In quantum thought every such subalgebra C C A belongs to some experimenter E: C = C(E). Therefore we have not founded our theory on coordinates at all. the frame is relative. Thus quantization does not mean replacing the commutative algebra C by the non-commutative one A. The classical correspondent of an operator is an arrow. . between the relativizations that lead to quantum theory and to special relativity. Each experimenter has one. The classical structure corresponding to the operator algebra A is the arrow semigroup. Such a product is generally not a determination. In the quantum theory. we can infer only projective associativity of the product of operators from our experience of the associativity of operations.also occur in the quantum theory. In classical thought. We regard them a. not absolute. We adhere to an operational formulation and therefore to linear associative algebras.4. Operations are closer to experience and more plausible as fundamental entities than coordinates. and represent the coordinates that the experimenter E can determine. The two algebras A and C have different kinds of interpretations. The algebra all the observables generate is A itself. The operators of C(E) are generated by the operations proper to the experimenter E. Quantization means making C relative. But while the mathematical urge to generalize from the commutative to the noncommutative is fruitful and legitimate. one maximal commutative subalgebra C c A is singled out from an infinity of others to be the absolute coordinate algebra. Each experimenter E defines such a frame C(E) in the operator algebra A of the quantum system. it is not the best description of quantization in physics. Question for study. All the elements of the classical algebraic structure . The totality of coordinates or "observables" of all experimenters combined is not an algebra. since usually no one experimenter finds it in her repertory. then we must start from the arrows of the classical theory.134 4. If we wish to arrive at the operators of quantum theory by quantizing something. The operators in A with initial and final identities in C(E) represent operations proper to E . The classical arrows commute no more than quantum arrows do.

This still leaves an undetermined complex phase factor eiq. except in the two cases already discussed. in T. We use the Born-Malus principle (2) to normalize the propagator T too in such a way that for any experiment of the wTa form absorb f- analyze f- propagate f- polarize f- emit (3) with normalized initial vector la) and final vector (wi. (1) The quantum generalization of Malus' law is called Born's statistical principle: Born-Malus Statistical Formula. of non-associative. Since (wla) is real in the theory of linear polarizations. defined so that for T trials. of forbidden or assured transitions. (2) is not independent of the quantum kinematical principles QO-l. but it is already needed for circular polarization. according to Malus P = cos 2 .5 Born-Malus Law In each run of the same polarization experiment with the same apparatus.4. where . We derive (2) in Chapter 10. (2) This is why one calls the contraction (wla) the transition amplitude. and for any normalized initial vector la) and final vector (wi. if any. the absolute value sign is unneeded there.6. The count is always o or 1. For any quantum system. We recall that for photon polarization. but we cannot predict which. projectively associative algebras? 4. The quantum kinematics QO-l incorporates the special case of probability P = O.6. In the most general case we may still ask the transition probability P of a count on a future run. the cumulative count almost always approaches PT.0 . we emit a photon at one end and mayor may not count it at the other.Oi is the angle from the initial to the final polarizing direction. the transition probability is P= l(wlaW. the transition probability is P = l(wlTlaW .0 = 00 . (4) .5 Born-Malus Law 135 When can we supply phases so that a projectively associative bilinear product is truly associative? Is projective associativity enough for physics? What is the new physical content. as T ~ 00.

we formalize what we mean by "variable" and "value" and" OR" and" IS ". This makes it all the more desirable not to give up more than necessary. and XOR Some logical assumptions that work well for classical systems must be given up for quantum. We construct below the quantum logical operations corresponding to the classical ones already discussed in 3. But to give these statements meaning we must relate them to experience. This may seem to follow from doubting that X always IS. In classical theory (Chapter 3) we recognized binary variables as symmetric idempotent variables. In order to avoid the language traps that cluster about these questions. We regard them as extensions of the classical operations to a larger domain.2.6 Quantum Logic In this unit we develop three forms of elementary quantum logic which we associate with the names of Von Neumann. Let A and B be any binary variables. and compare their utility for physics. for quantum systems. POR. and we assume that each such matrix represents a variable. We use a quantum adjoint operation t to define quantum binary variables in the corresponding way. For example. More generally. and Clifford. For example. we assume that every self-adjoint matrix p = pt of the photon polarization represents a real variable of the photon.6. or doubting its having a state. it merely lacks a state.4. and retain the classical symbols and names for them. which is 1 (or TRUE) for x-polarized light and o (or FALSE) for y-polarized light.2 Quantum OR. Quantum Jumps 4. in that even for quanta. we can say that Aristotle was right. each binary variable of the photon polarization is represented by an idempotent self-adjoint matrix A =(ABA) = A 2 = At. in the same sense. For parallelism with 3. We turn now to quantum corrections to the classical logic of binary variables. X OR NOT X is always TRUE. The photon "has" all these properties p. Grassmann.2.1 Quantum Binary Variables Binary variables represent predicates or classes.4.136 4. .2. each in at least two modes. This means we must give these X's modes in a consistent manner. The following concepts are all defined relative to one definite adjoint operation t. In the end.4 we must consider a quantum system € = €(N) whose initial vector space is N . in that for every such A we can specify experiments to determine the initial and final values of A. that it always has a value. 4. in a way that respects what we did for classical systems in 3. C. the existence of oblique polarization may cause one to doubt that the horizontal polarization variable X. among other things. and X AND NOT X is always FALSE. is always 0 OR 1. 4.6.

M (2) where 1 designates the unit matrix.. M as their infimum with respect to the order (1): (3) M' n M := inf(M'. C] [[X:::.: P(~(a U (3». and M = P(f3). TRUE. n . Peirce. as in any Boolean subalgebra. .M= 1.S. forming now Proj = Proj(€) . [X:::. (Take the adjoint of the third member of (1). As Boole did for classical systems (see 1. M'] AND [X:::.2. What happens to each of the logical concepts of 3. M) This is the unique binary variable C such that for all binary variables X. (4) C reduces to the product M'M of 3.4 (8) whenever M' and M commute. o IMPLIES.4. u.M of a projector M remains as in 3. we identify predicates with selective acts. Dually.1 as in 3. or idempotent Hermitian matrices or projectors M. M] == [M' ~ M] == [M M' = M'] . Call their totality Proj = Proj(€).4 as we quantize? o FALSE. [X ~ C] [[X ~ M'] AND [X ~ MJ] . The diagonal binary matrices M of 3..2. Following Von Neumann and C.2. (6) If as before M' = Pea) and M = P(f3) and we write ~O' for the linear closure or span of any set of vectors 0'. M) (5) This is the unique binary variable C such that for all binary variables X. o AND. If M' = Pea) is the projector on a subspace a.1). We still define quantum implication by the eigenmatrix condition 3. M]] . o OR. When [M' ~ M]. States are generalized to projectors of trace 1. o Sharp selective acts.1). Classes are generalized to arbitrary projectors on the initial or final vector space.4 (7) . then M' U M ::. We can still express AND as a product. one therefore defines the conjunction of two predicates (projectors) M'. the disjunction of two projectors M'. but Proj itself is not closed under matrix multiplication.4 form a commutative sub-semigroup of Proj.: The negation .6 Quantum Logic l37 For definiteness we consider only medial acts. .. We take these to be the projectors 0. This partially orders Proj. but now the product is infinitely iterated: M' n M = M' M M' M M' M .) o NOT =. M is their supremum: M' U M := sup(M'.4 (5): (1) [M' :::.2.2. £.In quantum theory the product of predicates is not always a predicate (see 1. and a n f3 is the intersection in the classical sense. the variables M' and M commute.4. o Crisp selective acts. with 0 as bottom and 1 as top.2. then M' n M = Pea n (3).

138
o

4. Quantum Jumps
XOR, U .

The XOR of two projectors is
(M U M') = MUM' - M n M' .

(7)

This agrees with the classical XOR of 3.2.4 (10) when M and M' are basic
projectors (Boolean matrices).
o POR = V. This is the disjoint disjunction or union. As for the classical concept
of 3.2.4, the partial- OR combination of two binary variables is defined only if
their intersection is empty and it then agrees with OR:

M V M' := MUM'

if M M' = 0

(8)

(and = 0 if M n M' ::f. 0).
o PAND = I\. Dual to the disjoint disjunction is the exhaustive conjunction. The
partial AND is defined for two classes when their union is full and then agrees
with AND:
M /\ M' := M n M' if MUM' = 1 .
(9)

(and = 0 if MuM' ::f. 1).
This logical interpretation of matrix algebra lies at the root of the Von Neumann quantum logic. Within its context it is almost forced upon one by its classical
roots. Its most striking departure from the classical logic is the breakdown of distributivity, which is the expression in these logical terms of the non-commutativity
of projectors. That all these logical operations remain commutative might arouse
a suspicion that we are not done quantizing.
4.6.3 Quantum Cooperations
We represent a quantum ensemble by a quantum cooperation, paralleling the
classical theory of 3.1.3.
Definition. A cooperator is a tensor in the linear space Coop E dual to the algebra Op E. A quantum cooperation is a sharp external action that is projectively
represented by a cooperator.
If v is a quantum variable, and E is an assembly of N isomorphic quantum
systems, we define an average value for v over all N members of E and write
this average as AVE v or simply Avv = ~E v/N.
One way to determine the final value of Av v is to determine v for each member
of E and average all the results. This is far from an ideal measurement of Av v
because it determines so many other quantities as well. We have assumed that
there is also an ideal measurement of Avv that disturbs the ensemble as little as
possible. But an ideal final determination of the average will give the same result
as the non-ideal average of final determinations when the assembly results from a
sharp initial determination of the average, so \ye can often neglect this difference.

4.7 Indefinite Quantum Kinematics

139

In any case Av is thus a map from one-system variables to E variables. We
assume a positive adjoint t. Then Av = AVE has the following properties for all
E:

Av is linear: For any variables v and w, and any complex coefficients ·a
and b,
Av(av + bw) = aAvv + bAvw.
(1)

Av is positive: For all variables v,
(2)

Av is normalized:
Av 1 = 1 .

(3)

In the limit N --> 00, Avv and Avw commute for all v and w, and we suppose
that Avv approaches a complex number depending only on E and v, obeying (1)(3). We assume that any complex function of a variable v obeying (1)-(3) is the
assembly average AVE of v over some assembly E. This optimism is dual to that
which assumes that every operator represents a feasible action.
For any Av there exists a cooperator E that represents the ensemble in the
sense that
Avv =Tr(ET v) = E. v .
(4)

E is the statistical cooperator of the ensemble.
Sometimes it is convenient to represent the cooperator E by an operator, its
transpose p = ET. Then the average over the ensemble E is given by the trace
formula
(5)
Avv = Tr(pv).
The operator p is called the statistical operator of the ensemble. It is always a
diagonal matrix for classical systems. When we mix ensembles we form convex
linear combinations of their cooperators and of their statistical operators.

4.7 Indefinite Quantum Kinematics
Up to this point we have supposed that the adjoint t is positive, that the frame
G of each experimenter is a maximal subalgebra of OP IN, and that the vectors
representing the acts proper to any experimenter span the entire initial space. We
now weaken these assumptions and introduce indefinite adjoints.
We suppose that each experimenter E represents her or his sharp initial acts by
rays in a subspace IN(E) of the entire initial space, called the initial space proper
to E, and that the restriction of t to IN(E) is positive. The frame subalgebra G(E)
is a maximal subalgebra of OP IN(E), not of OP IN. The basis rays proper to each
experimenter E span only E's proper initial space.

140

4. Quantum Jumps

This strengthens the analogy between the quantum experimenter and the inertial
observer in special relativity. In both, only vectors of positive norm can play
the privileged role of a proper vector. In both, vectors of negative norm do not
themselves represent possible actions but are nonetheless necessary to expres,s
relations between proper actions of different experimenters.
To reduce a general quantum theory to a classical one, we must first choose a
proper subspace IN(E) of IN, and then a frame C within the algebra Op IN(E).
In general there are positive as well as negative vectors orthogonal to C. Within
IN the adjoint t is generally indefinite and there is no general probability concept.
Within each IN(E), however, the adjoint is positive and the Born-Malus probability
theory holds. Within C all selective acts commute and deterministic Boolean logic
and its associated probability theory hold.

4.8 Simple Quantum Systems
In this unit we quantize the simple classical systems of 3.4.

4.8.1 Bit
The quantum correspondent of the flip-flop of the previous chapter is called the
fermionic oscillator. It uses a two-dimensional complex initial space IN(E) like
the classical flip-flop, but now every vector of IN(E) is allowed. The space IN(E)
is isomorphic to the initial space of a photon polarization. The variable 0'3 remains
a complete commuting sequence, and its eigenvectors are the flip-flop states 1 and
1. In addition there are an infinity of new variables, all expressible linearly in
terms of the four

IiOl

I=~,

!oil

O'I=~'

io=il

0'2=~'

IlOl

0'3=~.

(I)

The group of the state space of the classical flip-flop is the symmetric group
8 2 on two things, but that of the space v of the quantum flip-flop is SU2 • Although
each variable of the quantum flip-flop is still discrete and at most two-valued, there
are now a continuous infinity of such variables, enjoying the group SU2 .
This blend of the discrete and the continuous is typical of quantum theories
and impossible in classical theories.

4.8.2 Bin
We now consider the metric ·quantum theory of the bin. The initial space IN is the
complex Hilbert space H of dimension ~o. All the formulae of the classical bin,
3.4.3, apply to the quantum one; we simply f9rget the N frame.

4.8 Simple Quantum Systems

141

We will recover the classical harmonic oscillator as a classical limit of the
quantum bin. This is not the historic order of discovery. The discrete ladder originally arose as the quantum theory of a linear harmonic oscillator. Here we approach
the theory from the quantum domain rather than the classical.
We summarize the algebraic relation between the ladder and the oscillator here,
leaving the explanation of the dynamical concepts to later. The linear harmonic
oscillator of mass m and natural frequency w has three hermitian operators of
position x, momentum p and Hamiltonian H related by the canonical commutation
relation
(1)
[P,x] = -in
and the structural relation
(2)

By proper choice of units we set
x to the linear combination
~:=

n = m = w = 1. We change variables from p and

p+ix

V2 '

~

t _ p - ix

---,

V2

(3)

and recover the equations 3.4.3 (1)-(6) with

H=n+4·

(4)

Thus the linear harmonic oscillator may be regarded as a bin in a different representation.
Where the classical oscillator could have energy 0, for x = p = 0, (3) shows
that the minimum value of His 4 (in units of nw), attained in the eigenmode 10)
of n with eigenvalue O. The mode 10) is the ground or fundamental (initial) mode
of the oscillator.
4.8.3 Projective Quantum Bin
In a quantum theory the adjoint is conditioned upon the dynamics. In the metric
theory of the previous unit, however, we chose a definite metric at the outset, prior
to any dynamics, in the traditional manner.
We now formulate a projective theory of the bin, assuming no adjoint. Naturally, the resulting theory has a larger invariance group.
We assume an t{o-dimensionallinear space IN of initial vectors in what follows.
Definition. A creator is an operator e on IN for which there exists a vector 10)
(called the vacuum mode for e) whose successive images In) := enlO) (n =
0,1,2" , ,) form an independent basis B(e) for IN.
Proposition. Let e be a creator, B = B(e) = {In)} its associated basis, and
B- 1 := {(nl} the reciprocal basis to B. Then in these bases e has the standard
representation

142

4. Quantum Jumps

c = /1)(0/ + /2)(1/ + /3)(2/ + ....

(1)

Definition. The canonical conjugate annihilator to the creator c is given in the
basis B associated with c by

c~ := /0)(1/ + 2/1)(2/ + 3/2) + ... (3/··· .

(2)

We have defined c~ so that it satisfies the canonical commutation relation
c~c = cc~ + 1

(3)

However c~ is actually the adjoint of c with respect to an adjoint operator
.

1

.

1

.

U:= (0/ ® (0/ + ,(1/ ® (1/ + 2' (2/ ® (2/ + ....

(4)

1.
.
The topology we use to verify the convergence of the sum (2) is defined by the
projective equivalence class of the adjoint form U.
The generalization to D bins, with invariance under the linear group GL(D),
is straightforward. A creator vector c = (c n ), n = 1, . .. , D has a vacuum mode
/0) whose images

(5)

form a basis for IN. Using the reciprocal basis we define a canonical conjugate
annihilator vector c~ = (c~) similar to (2) that obeys the canonical commutation
relations
c~ncm = cmc~n

cncm = cmcn ,

+ 8mn ,

(6)

c~nc~m =c~mc~n .

These operator vectors and their relations are invariant under the linear group
GL(D) acting on c as a contravariant vector and c~ as a covariant vector. This is
why we use the reciprocal basis, not an adjoint basis.
To be sure, there is again an adjoint form U, analogous to (4), such that c~ is the
U-adjoint of c. But now there are many such adjoints, depending on the basis, and
choosing one reduces the GL(D) invariance to an orthogonal OeD) invariance,
since the equation
(7)
is not a tensor equation.
Nonetheless the topology on IN defined by any of these adjoints " is invariant
under GL(D). We adopt this topology for the projective quantum theory of the
bin even though we do not adopt the adjoint U. In this topology the sum (2) and
its analogue for D bins both converge.

4.8 Simple Quantum Systems

143

4.8.4 Indeterminacy Principle
Classically the harmonic oscillator of 4.8.2 can have energy H =? 0, when it
sits at the origin. The energy term 112 in the quantum energy 4.8.2 (4) is called
the zero-point energy of the oscillator, and represents the residual energy of the
quantum fluctuations described by the zero-point vector 10). Before the advent of
special relativity, a constant term in the energy or Hamiltonian was considered
meaningless, devoid of physical effect. Now we recognize that it contributes to
the mass of the system.
Let Av X designate the average over a given ensemble E of any quantity X.
The dispersion ~X of X in the ensemble E is the non-negative quantity defined
by
(1)

It vanishes if and only if X is sharp in the ensemble. If the ensemble is sharp
with initial vector 'I/J and 'l/Jt'I/J = 1 then Av X = 'l/J t X 'I/J.
The canonical commutation relation 4.8.2 (1) ensures that the product of the
dispersions of p and x is bounded below:

Theorem.
(2)

This is the Heisenberg indeterminacy relation. It made it possible to understand
the baffling noncommutativity of quantum matrices: The matrices do not commute
when the quantum variables are incompatible. In consequence of the canonical
commutation relations, we can produce quanta with x as sharp as we like, or
quanta with p as sharp as we like, but not quanta with both.
Proof Without loss of generality we translate x and p so that Av x = Av p =? 0,
preserving the canonical commutation relations 4.6.5 (7). Then (~X)2 = Av(X2)
and (/:lp)2 = Av(p2).
Now the product of the norms of two vectors in a Hilbert space is not less
than the norm (= absolute value squared) of their contraction. (This is the Schwarz
inequality.) In the second line of the following equation we apply the Schwarz
inequality to the vectors x'I/J and p'I/J:

AV(X2) Av(y2) = 'l/Jt x2'I/J x 'l/J t p2'I/J

IIx'I/J II x IIp'I/Jll :::: l'l/J t xp'I/J12
:::: IIm['l/Jtxp'I/JW = !1'I/J(xp - px)'l/J12 = ~ . •

=

(3)
The zero-point energy has many physical consequences. It accounts for the
stability of the atom against collapse, and thus for the existence of matter. For a
mode of oscillation of a field in a volume, the size of the zero-point energy varies
with the volume. For example, if the oscillator is a mode of the electric field
between two conducting planes of a capacitor, then the zero-point energy varies
with the distance between the planes, giving rise to a vacuum force of attraction
between the capacitor plates. This is called the Casimir effect.

144

4. Quantum Jumps

4.8.5 Hydrogen Atom
In the simplest theory of the hydrogen atom the nucleus is fixed at the origin
due to its great mass and only the electron moves. Its algebra is generated by
x = (Xl, X 2, x 3 ) and P = (PI, P2, P3) with the canonical commutation relations
.~ d
[p., x i] -_ -tnui

(1)

o

and its Hamiltonian (see 12.2.7) is the energy in the non-relativistic sense, which
omits the rest energy:
(2)

In one early triumph, quantum theory explained why the electron did not
fall into the nucleus but remained at a finite average radius a with finite energy
E = K + V (= kinetic plus potential energy). In principle we see this from the
eigenvectors of H, which are Laguerre functions. Instead we use the indeterminacy
principle for a quick rough estimate of the average radius a and the energy E .
If the electron position is determined with dispersion D.xi ~ a, then there must
be a dispersion ilPi ~ h / a. Since Av Pi = 0 = Av xi in the fundamental mode,
we have roughly
1

Av-

r

By (2) the total energy is then

~

1

-.

a

(3)

h2
e2
-- - -- .
(4)
2
2ma
47rtoa
This explains why a is not O. As a -+ 0 the increase in kinetic energy of zeropoint motion Av K implied by the indeterminacy principle outweighs the decrease
of potential energy Av V. As a result it takes work to reduce a further when a
is small. As a -+ 00, however, the potential energy dominates. It takes work to
increase a further when a is large.
Therefore there is a minimum in E at some value of a. We find this minimum
by setting dE / da = O. At the minimum, the two terms in (4) differ merely by a
factor of ~, and

E = Av K - Av V

~

27rtoh2

a~--­

me2
me4

(5)

E~----.

47rtoh2

The estimates of (5) agree with those of the more exact computation of the spectrum of H, in which the fundamental mode is found to be
'l/J(x)

e- rj2a

= -r- .

(6)

4.8 Simple Quantum Systems

145

4.8.6 Photon and Ghost
We construct a photon from the photon polarization already presented by providing
transformation laws under the basic transformations of special relativity, quantum
theory and gauge theory. The elementary special relativity we use here is summarized in Chapter 11. The following treatment is a one-mode simplification of
the theory of Becchi, Rouet & Stora (1972) and Tyutin (1975), generally referred
to as BRST theory, and Kugo & Ijima (1975). Good places for further study are
Henneaux & Teitelboim (1992) and Kaku (1993).
To give the two-component polarization initial vector 'I/J = ('l/JA) a transformation law under the Lorentz group we suppose that 'I/J is actually a 4-vector lying
within the two-dimensional initial plane I. I is the proper initial space for the
optical bench being considered. We further adjoin a description of the photon's
motion along the optical bench by a spacetime covector km , the propagation covector, which also defines the color and energy of the photon for each experimenter.
The photon travels at the speed of light, so k m is null:
(1)

To make a four-dimensional coordinate system we supplement the two transverse vectors el and e2 by a timelike vector eo and a longitudinal vector e3,
choosing e3 along the initial optical bench and eo as the rest-frame timelike unit
vector. We use the Minkowski spacetime index JL = 0, 1,2,3 to enumerate the
four modes. The original modes described by the basis vectors el and e2 are
called transverse modes. The two new modes eo and e3, introduced to represent
acts of other experimenters in a relativistically invariant way, are called the scalar
and longitudinal mode respectively. They are not needed to represent polarization
actions of the initial experimenter, but are used to express those of other experimenters in a relativistic way. The most general polarization vector now has the
form
(2)

Here the two transverse modes are effective and have definite norms while the
scalar and longitudinal modes are virtual and have indefinite norms.
By a null photon mode we mean a linear combination of longitudinal and
transverse photon modes forming a null vector, which is then necessarily parallel
to the null vector k.
To eliminate one of the virtual modes we suppose that the photon polarization
remains transverse in the Lorentz invariant sense that
(3)

This is called a gauge condition on 'I/J. As in the full theory, it does not follow from
the equations of motion, but is consistent with them and eliminates no effective
modes. In the original frame with transverse el and e2, this says that the scalar
and longitudinal components of 'I/J cancel:

146

4. Quantum Jumps
(4)

To eliminate the remaining virtual mode, we recognize that any translation of
'ljJ along the 4-vector (K)M, the Minkowski dual of the covariant momentum vector
K, of the form
.
(5)

where a is a complex group parameter, respects all physical variables and the
subsidiary condition (3). This means we have a non-unique representation of the
physical polarization act, with a redundant variable. The unique representative of
a polarization act is now the straight line in 'ljJ space defined by (5).
The translation (5) is a gauge transformation, so called because in a pioneering
theory Weyl used such a transformation to represent a spacetime-dependent change
in the length standard, the mechanic's gauge block. Nowadays we call gauge
transformation any transformation depending upon an arbitrary spacetime function
a(x) that respects the dynamics. The parameter a of (5) is one Fourier component
of such a function, and (5) is the restriction to one photon of a gauge transformation
of the full electromagnetic system.
In a fuller theory of the electromagnetic field, the vector 'ljJ for one mode
comes from the electromagnetic vector potential A(x) describing all the modes
of the electromagnetic field, with spacetime variable x. Physical properties of the
system, such as the electromagnetic field FI-'v =0l-'Av - ovAl-" are invariant under
the gauge transformation
A(x)

t-+

A(x) + 0l-'a(x) .

(6)

We should give experimental meaning to the potential AI-' at any point. To
do this we cover spacetime by curves xm = xl-'(yO, yl , y2, y3), all intersecting at
exactly one reference point X shown schematically at infinity in Figure 1. We shall
imagine interferometric measurements of the kind studied by Aharanov and Bohm,
in which the test quanta follow these curves, which we therefore call guides. We
call the reference point ground. The three parameters yl,2,3 fix a guide and the
remaining parameter yO traverses it.
We arbitrarily set the component of AI-' along the guides equal to zero (or
anything we like) everywhere. The remaining components have physical meaning
and are actually measured. To measure the component of AI-' in an arbitrary direction dxl-' at a point x, we measure the flux through a loop consisting of the curve
segment dxl-' at X, and the guides joining the ends X and X + dx of this segment
to ground. We do this by an interference experiment that gives the phase change
for a quantum carried around the loop starting and ending at ground.
More generally, we may resolve the vector potential into a Fourier series (or
into other orthogonal functions) and use a different system of guides for each
component of AI-'" In this way, for example, we can accommodate the Lorentz
gauge condition within this framework.
A gauge transformation reroutes the guides. Like a coordinate transformation,
it acts on the episystem, not the system.

4.8 Simple Quantum Systems

147

Fig.4.8.6-1. Determining the elec-

x+ax

...
x

00

I I

+

00

tromagnetic vector potential. The
parallel arrows represent a congruence of guides connecting every
spacetime point to ground, here
taken to be at infinity. The interference experiment determining
AI'(x)dxl' includes the segment
dxl' and the darkened guides.

I I

Generally speaking, in elementary quantum theory we assume that any operator
can be interpreted as an act on either the system or the episystem, as we wish. For
example, arotation matrix can represent turning a crystal system in one direction or
turning the laboratory reference system about the crystal in the opposite direction.
Following custom, we these two kinds of acts active and passive. The experimenter
is the agent in the active case and the recipient in the passive case.
In actuality, however, the episystem is far more complex than the system,
and there are many more passive acts in our repertory than active ones. Gauge
transformations are passive acts with no active counterpart.
To have a finite theory of one mode, rather than a continuous spectrum, one
puts the field in a torus (a box with periodic boundary conditions). Then 'I/J is
expressed as

(7)
the positive-frequency part of the Fourier transform of the vector potential A evaluated at the mode wave-vector k. N = N(k) normalizes A so that for transverse
'I/J, the transition metric MAS is the 2 x 2 unit matrix. In the theory of the entire
field, (3) follows from the gauge condition
(8)

called the Lorenz condition, and (5) from identification modulo the gauge transformation (6). The gauge condition defines a sub-object and the gauge identification
a quotient object, categorically speaking. Each reduces the number of modes by
I, for a total reduction by 2.
. Here the gauge condition (4) reduces the number of physical variables in 'I/J
from 4 to 3, and the gauge invariance (5) reduces it from 3 to 2, the physical
multiplicity for polarization.
The initial vectors /Om have adjoint final vectors etr, with contractions
etr, en

= Omn ,

for

m, n

= 1, 2

.

(9)

148

4. Quantum Jumps

We must extend the adjoint t from the two transverse modes to all four basis
vectors fJ-L' J1- = 0, 1,2,3. One Lorentz-invariant metric, first used by Gupta and
Bleuler, that reduces to 8mn when we restrict it to the transverse plane is

etev = -gJ-LV'

m,n = 0, 1,2,3

(10)

where 9 J-LV = Diag( 1, -1, -1, -1) is the Minkowskian spacetime metric form in
the basis ew This implies that the effective vectors em (m = 1,2) have positive
norm, while the ineffective vectors eo, e3 have norms ±1.
The Gupta-Bleuler choice of transition metric (10) established a direct connection between the spacetime and transition metrics. This may be a significant step
toward the unification of the quantum theory with spacetime theory. We should
expect that a still more fundamental theory will reverse the deductive flow, and
go from the transition metric to the spacetime metric. (All is quantum.)
The gauge transformation (5) seems to add the same vector h;M . Ct to all initial
vectors 'IjJ. That would be a nonlinear (inhomogeneous) transformation, incompatible with the quantum superposition principle. To fit the gauge transformation (5)
into the quantum scheme one introduces yet another initial mode e5, so that a
gauge transformation can be a linear transformation in the five-dimensional initial
space of the vector W = ea wa = ('IjJ) EEl (e51]). Here Ct = 0,1,2,3,5 labels the four
photon modes with amplitudes wJ-L = 'ljJJ-L and the new mode e5 with amplitude
w5 = 1]. The new mode is called a ghost because it occurs in no physical process.
It has an anomalous spin-statistics relation, we see later. We omit the index value
Ct = 4 because some authors use X4 for ixo.
We then replace the infinitesimal gauge transformation (5) by the transformation
r : W f-+ W + I\;M . 1]Ct .
(11)
with group parameter Ct. This r can for suitable Ct eliminate a null photon mode
while fixing the ghost and physical or transverse photon modes. We rewrite this
as
(12)

with infinitesimal generator n that is called the gauge generator, and a gauge
group parameter Ct. For the nonce, W = 'IjJ EEl 1] has five components and n is the
5 x 5 matrix defined by:

n : 'ljJJ-L

f-+

kJ-L • 1] ,

1]

f-+

0,

(13)

IOkl

n=~

vyhere 0 is the 4 x 4 O-matrix of the Lorentz algebra, ot is a row-vector of four
zeroes, and 0 is the O-scalar. It is important that n is nilpotent:
(14)

Now let us seek to extend the adjoint form t from the four- dimensional to
the five-dimensional initial space. We demand that t be invariant under Lorentz

spin-a. and two corresponding ghost modes. the ineffective timelike and longitudinal photons. The transformation (17) is called a BRST transformation. This indefinite kinematics uses a 6-dimensional space IN to describe only two independent effective initial modes. Each experimenter uses two dimensions to describe proper initial acts and reserves the remaining four to describe the acts of other experimenters and relations among them. spacetime and gauge transformations connecting them. 1/J5. for then the unresolvable operator n would not b. Now tes cannot be a multiple of e 5 .8 Simple Quantum Systems 149 transformations and gauge transformations (12). . It remains only to define te5. They could be described with two dimensions by anyone experimenter. The indefinite modes labeled 5 and 6 are called Faddeev-Popov ghost modes. We require ret another mode e6 for t to mix with es.6.e Hermitian. The adjoint is t = MeT. The extended infinitesimal gauge transformation n : 1/J 1---4 k . Here 0 is a 4 x 4 a matrix. The full metric form is now M = -g EI1 0") (15) where 9 is the Minkowski metric form for the modes metric form 0") := I~ bI of 4.and 0") is the indefinite (16) 1/J 1---4 1/J/1. is too great to be represented by 2 x 2 matrices. and agree with the Minkowski adjoint on the first four basis vector e/1. (17) o ka n = at a a at a a with n now a 6 x 6 matrix. The extended input space of the vectors III supports hermitian nilpotent ghost creation and annihilation operators rt and fJ with (18) Among physical particles. and calls for additional dimensions. which is to be independent of the four basic covectors ell-.+ an1/J is defined by 1/J5 1---4 a . e/1. the term ghost is reserved for unphysical particles with the wrong spin-statistics connection. and at is a row of four zeroes. The extended initial space now has six dimensions: the two effective transverse photons.4 (9).4. but the totality of different experimenters. The function of the ghost is to connect physically equivalent descriptions of the photon by its creation and annihilation. a is a column of four zeroes. We may arbitrarily call e5 the top or full vector of the ghost and e6 the bottom or null vector. Ineffectual basis vectors pair up. 1/J6 1---4 a .of the extended initial space. bosonic relation. scalar. particles have the even. with all the quantum.

differs from the classical logic. Quantum Jumps The ghost is the simplest way to make a quantum theory that preserves the full symmetry we see among experimenters. The medial space is an algebra. the most general variable is expressed in terms of such predicates by the spectral theorem. and ensembles by elements of Coop := FIN ® IN.y with infinitely many degrees of freedom per unit volume. but there is also a starkly functional gain. but a quantum logic admits many.150 4. In quantum physics as in classical. for all experimenters taken together. As in classical physics. essential for the quantum theories of classes and probability. not evident in this one-photon example. but appearing in the full field theor. changing from spacetime point to point. These affect all modes in a classical way. medial and final operations are represented by elements of the three linear spaces IN. Because the ghost theory preserves the physical symmetries at every stage of the theory. whose product 8 represents doing acts serially. Then we extend these to variable (AC) transformations. the renunciation of the absolute frame in the semigroup of actions. All the acts proper to an experimenter are represented by positive vectors. second and third kinds. Negative vectors cannot be carried out in individual experimental trials but represent relations among positive vectors. and FIN. initial. Op := IN ® FIN. variable and quantum gauge transformations are usually called gauge transformations of the first. 4. Constant. but the totality of all these predicates. respectively. First we encounter constant transformations. One should wish to do this on principle if only because the symmetries are beautiful. where we encounter meaningless divergent expressions for physical quantities that we know to be finite. Now we deal with quantum gauge transformations where the parameter a is an odd (Grassmann. • We have classified quantities as constant. Coordinates proper to different frames or experimenters need not commute. Gauge parameters have also gone through these three stages of development. Ensembles are represented . one can use it to replace divergent expressions by finite constants without violating these symmetries. The algebra product builds in a linear time ordering. Each experimenter E defines a frame C(E) of commuting operators within A. Within each frame is a predicate logic isomorphic to that of classical logic.9 Summary Quantization is frame relativization. One essential difference between classical and quantum logic is that a classical logic admits only one negation or adjoint. random and quantum. fermionic) variable. The operators of OP = IN ® FIN form an algebra of propagators. which effect only the zero-frequency (DC) component of the photon 'IjJ.

while not necessary to express the initial acts of anyone experimenter. spacetime and gauge transformations relating each experimenter to others. Indefinite ghost modes. If the operator is to preserve the norm. As the true method of knowledge is experiment the true faculty of knowing must be the faculty which experiences. If L is not resolvable then its adapted metric M cannot be definite. with averages Av v = Tr(pv). William Blake .9 Summary 151 by cooperators E. The most general operator L has a unique decomposition L = Res L+Nil L into a resolvable (that is. are useful to express quantum. diagonalizable) part Res L and a nilpotent part Nil L. or equivalently by statistical initial and final operators p. any vector it annihilates must have norm O.4. A nilpotent operator necessarily annihilates some non-zero vector.

We sample the thought of only a few of them in this chapter. the logics of possibility. and during the night the idea of Cartesian coordinates . not entirely reducible to states of being. David Bohm. Krishnamurti. As we push toward the praxist pole. • The ontic logic that one nowadays calls Aristotelian was the smaller part of Aristotle's logical works. we encounter the deep footprints of Aristotle. Philosophers in general form a diffuse distribution between ontism and praxism. on his travels. and that continued into this century as a debate in print between the young Bohr and the older Einstein. This opposition is related to that between ontic and praxic philosophies. Werner Heisenberg. in a competition of world views that was already old when the young biologist-philosopher Aristotle contended against the older idealist-philosopher Plato. Non-Objective Physics In this chapter we examine a number of theories with and without objects that appear in any inquiry after the roots and future outgrowths of quantum theory.) Much the larger part of Aristotle's logical writings concerns the modal logic of variable entities. while Aristotle and Bohr held mathematical theories to be secondary to experiment as a source of knowledge. and indispensable ingredients of scientific thought. Gregory Bateson. Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. among many others. The quantum theory is a late contestant. J. if not the last. Patterson.1 Descartes' Mathesis The classical concepts of state and law hit the natural philosopher Rene Descartes (1596-1650) like a revelation when he came down with a fever in the city of VIm. and Alfred North Whitehead. Charles Sanders Peirce. For Plato and Einstein. the world was a mathematical structure. the birthplace of Einstein. Niels Bohr. Aristotle was a confirmed nonAristotelean. From his sickbed during the day (the story goes) Descartes watched the tip of a swaying branch through the lattice of his bedroom window. Roberto Unger. founded on pure number and form. (lowe this insight to R. He took change or becoming and possibility to be basic concepts in their own right. 5. selectively elaborated and disseminated during the Middle Ages so that it overshadowed the bulk of his logical work.s.

Their locations were supposed to determine their velocities and thus their futures. in that it accounted both for the matter of spacetime and the forces acting on that matter. Descartes proposed that SPACE was a plenum completely filled with a material fluid. To completely describe the universe it sufficed to locate the points of this fluid at one instant by a mapping SPACE --t SPACE. the first physicist. by identifying image with reality. Descartes said that the elements of matter are not the particles of this fluid themselves but vortices in it. Non-Objective Physics came to him. filled it with "water". apparently subject to instantaneous interactions across SPACE. namely SPACE. carried by the same fluid. Descartes' fluid is thus a forerunner of what was later called a unitary field theory by Einstein. some Cartesian critics found that Newton injected consciousness into physics. the visionary poet-engraver William Blake would later call it) assumes that everything in nature has a complete name. He wrote that he asked himself each morning whether he had awakened from his sleeping dream. between symbols and actuality. Furthermore. totally unchanged by our knowing them. Earlier Descartes seems to have been on the edge of breakdown. Cartesian rationalism (mysticism. who kept Cartesian SPACE and TIME but populated SPACE with separated "atoms" in the void. the triumph of Newton was also one for Descartes. the Stoics with pneuma (wind. Descartes' epiphany made the world an object in the sense of Chapter 1. for Newtonian mechanics. Descartes' hydraulic cosmology had much fame but little practical use and soon gave way to the particulate mechanics ofIsaac Newton. if not Newton himself. Every physical assertion was to be expressed in terms of the location of points in SPACE and TIME. a mapping SPACE x TIME --t SPACE. between numerical.154 5. that mathematical processes can completely simulate the course of natural processes. and what we call today a unified field theory. By introducing concepts like mass and force that did not reduce to space and time into his mechanics. just as some critics today claim that quantum theory does. together with the conviction that these coordinates extend to an exact correspondence. Evidently Descartes' theory incorporates a classical kinematics. supported the Cartesian doctrines that . Newton violated the ground rules of the Cartesian project. amounting to a mystical union. Since the word "force" was used in psychology before mechanics. A universal mathesis required a universal language. Its dependent field variable had the same range as its independent space variable. Since mathematical entities are conceived to be objects of the most objective kind. much as Thales. He conceived of his insight as the basis of a universal mathesis or wisdom. breath. or did he only dream that he was awake? Cartesian rationalism is a way to cope with such a reality crisis. Nevertheless. Specifically. and contemporary physics with "field". its state variable as a function of time is the position field of the fluid at one instant. and physical quantities. spirit). that symbolic mathematical structures exist in exact correspondence with their physical referents. geometrical. and Descartes proposed to use the analytic geometry of three-dimensional SPACE and one-dimensional TIME manifolds as that language.

Plato and Descartes live. o The specific Cartesian thesis that the universal mathematical language was analytic geometry. the top monad being God. but there are indefinitely many such representations. We can tell the actuality from the dream. o The stronger Cartesian thesis that nature can be identified with some fixed mathematical system. Nature is not isomorphic to our mathematical representation because according to quantum theory itself. that the system has a state. and is now dead or nearly so. In the late 19th century.1 Descartes' Mathesis 155 mathematical and physical entities were identical. depends on the fortunes of history. and the Naturphilosophen disdained the particulate theory of matter on philosophical grounds. Some took exception to the theories of Newton. all mutually incompatible. But the quest for a simple theory continues today. His younger contemporary Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz did not for long accept an absolute SPACE and TIME or "atoms in the void" but filled his universe completely with a hierarchy of living dynamical entities he called monads or entelechies (a term of Aristotle for something like souls). shortly before Einstein showed that Brownian motion was fairly direct evidence for atomic impacts. o The broadest Cartesian thesis. and says almost nothing about that part. lasted only until Newton augmented the dimensions of length and time by mass and force. or sharp. has endured relatively unscathed. or the cosmic computer. Whether we call that entity the vacuum. We return to Leibniz in 9. Physics was dominated by the Cartesian epistemology until the quantum theory. Descartes' vision has thus been subjected to a certain triage by history. physics wakes from Descartes' nightmare. In quantum theory. a comprehensive mathematical language. and that classical kinematics held.3. the ether. and is implicit in all our attempts at comprehensive physical theories. that a theory of nature requires a mathesis. describing a congruence of curves filling Eucidean space and parametrized by time. concepts then apparently outside geometry and chronometry.5. and at its end we may well find all the forces and quanta of nature to be aspects of one entity. . worked until the quantum theory vindicated Aristotle. though attacked by Leibniz and others. the energeticists. Closed systems have descriptions that are as complete as possible. And in the late 19th century Kelvin proposed a new hydraulic vortex theory of matter to replace the particulate theory. They declared that atoms were not only unobserved but unobservable in principle. our theory is doubly incomplete: It describes but a small part of nature. Ernst Mach. again.

The highest development of the continuum model of light in Newton's day was the wave theory of Christian Huyghens. as Leibniz put it. Some reject the quantum epistemology and still pursue such classical theories today. that moved as "atoms" in the void. 5. For a century after Newton. might be that of quantum physics. Bacon's motto. . The classical concept of light-corpuscle is ancient in both East and West. yet somehow exhibit partial reflection and interference like waves.2. for whom matter and light were both disturbances in the unified fluid field that fills the universe. nowadays we call the units of light photons. many before him had believed that light and matter are both composed of "atoms in the void". o the interference colors of thin films and peacock feathers. using "atom" in its old sense of indivisible unit of matter. But Newton seems to have been the first to undertake to reconcile the particulate theory of light with such conspicuously wavelike behavior of light as o the interference patterns called Newton's rings. and his guide waves were density waves in a hot crystal of tachyons. How does a photon know which way to go? This is a crucial problem for a theorist too. We recall these phenomena briefly now. Newton's corpuscular theory of light was not yet a quantum theory but only a guide-wave theory. one refracted and one reflected. Francis Bacon posited the atomic nature of light and the kinetic theory of heat in his Novum Organum (1608-1621).2 Newton's Aether Newton's attempt to reconcile the wave and particle aspects of light makes him the first quantum physicist as well as the founder of classical mechanics.1 Partial Reflection and Interference In partial reflection a beam of light strikes a polished transparent surface and splits into two beams. light was considered to be composed of particles. Some photons veer and others bounce. Before Newton. one from each point of the original wave front. Non-Objective Physics 5. dissect nature. who propagated a wave front by drawing the envelope of an infinite family of spherical wavelets. We reserve the term "quantum theory" proper for theories with non-commuting selective acts. o the partial transmission of obliquely polarized light by polarizing crystals. o partial reflection by shiny surfaces. which we now call photons. o the polarization of light by Iceland spar. and o the polarization of light by partial reflection. "Dissicare natura". the dominant physical model for light propagation was the hydraulic one of Descartes. To be sure.156 5. with no apparent reason beyond the fundamental indeterminacy of quantum physics.

when his guide waves hit a glass surface. and since a density wave in a medium travels substantially slower than the atoms of the medium. though he suggested that wave theorists should associate it with wavelength. Newton's etherons support density waves as air molecules support sound. and the photons themselves had no inherent wave character. Let us call Newton's ether-particles etherons. How can light-particles make interference patterns? In his mechanics Newton refused to postulate invisible entities just to account for gravity. In the Principia Newton described empty space as a "sensorium". the upper plate is replaced by a weak planoconvex lens and the hair is then unnecessary. who needed the ether to account for quantum interference. to support his guide waves. and these ether waves in their turn somehow determine what Newton's photons do. Guide waves are transverse ether waves. Newton gave his photons the usual properties of particles. The fringes are then concentric rings about the point of contact. . The quantum theory obviates Newton's tachyons and hot tachyonic crystalline ether. It would not have done so for Newton. he proposed that space was filled with particles bound to equilibrium positions as in a solid. "Non fingo hypothesis". and mass. By reflected light we see a pattern of light and dark fringes that strongly suggests wave interference. making red waves longer than blue ones. velocity. color and polarization (to use the modern term). By counting the fringes and measuring the diameter of the hair we arrive at a wavelength for light. For example. they were supposed to induce synchronous cycles of opacity and transparency. The interference of guide waves makes Newton's rings. Einstein's theory of relativity is sometimes thought to eliminate the ether from physics. He associated color with photon size. so that photons pass through the surface in fits and starts.5. This refusal was the main content of his declaration.2 Newton's Aether 157 In one light-interference experiment. Newton knew that his etherons must travel faster than light. In the version called Newton's rings. the interference of light was a by-product of the interference of guide waves. and two special internal properties besides. Presumably the occupants of space are the thoughts of this nervous system. that is. This hot crystalline medium he called ether (actually "aether"). since he did not name them. To constitute the ether Newton inferred still other particles besides photons. two flat glass plates touch at one edge and are separated by a hair at the other. a central nervous system. Ether waves have to go as fast as light in order to guide light. To account for partial reflection and interference he posited that at least at critical moments each photon is controlled by otherwise invisible waves that accompany all photons everywhere. For Newton. and vibrating about their equilibria with speeds faster than light. In Opticks. The phenomenon of Newton's rings is a critical problem for Newton's particulate theory of light. He was not so frugal in his optics. not propagation. People call such hypothetical waves guide waves or pilot waves today. making red photons bigger than blue ones. Hypothetical faster-than-light particles are called "tachyons" now and are still sometimes discussed as a speculative alternative to the quantum theory. such as position.

If all the photons in the ordinary ray are the same. One ray. and that the first crystal has sorted them into two homogeneous rays. with guide waves. and by Bartholinus. Next to the ordinary image is the extraordinary one. The hypothesis of coasts accounted well enough for the two extreme cases of parallel and perpendicular polarizations. a birefringent calcium carbonate crystal. Yet the crystal does not simply split every beam passing through it into two beams. this accords with Snell's law of refraction. rather like those of flat arrow heads or fletches. It is first encountered in the phenomenon of double refraction or birefringence of certain crystals. by passing the light through two similar crystals in series with parallel orientations. the extraordinary image turns about the ordinary one. Non-Objective Physics 5. two rays generally emerge. Only one ray emerges. It is not a property of the light but of the crystal. and supposed that birefringent crystals like Iceland spar have an invisible laminar structure that acts on these coasts.2. is the straight extension of the incident ray. as a picket fence might act on the fletches of arrows passing through its interstices. When a light ray enters a suitably cut and polished slice of Iceland spar normal to its surface. called ordinary. and returns to a normal direction as it leaves. Newton shows. Newton and Malus for their experiments with polarization. emerging on a parallel but displaced line. The difference between these two rays resides in their photons as well as in the crystal. and accounted for it in a similar way. ordinary and extraordinary. Iceland spar. at the surface of the second. The other ray refracts as it enters the crystal normally. just as his famous prism had already sorted them by color. was used by the Vikings to navigate by the sun on cloudy days. a polarizer and an analyzer. To account for polarization. This way of sorting photons we now call polarization. how can some be refracted and others not when they strike the second crystal? How does a photon know which beam to go into? Newton recognized that this paradoxical effect belongs to the same family as partial reflection. Then the ordinary ray from the first crystal is not split by the second. If the angle of incidence is 0. The displacement vector of the extraordinary ray is fixed in the crystal and turns with it. Newton thus shows that the original beam is composed of two kinds of photons relative to the plate. Then ° . and if we rotate the crystal on the page. ordinary and extraordinary. but we are nearly blind to it without special glasses.158 5. When we read print through a birefringent crystal we see double due to this birefringence. This ray is called extraordinary since it violates Snell's law of refraction at both faces of the crystal.2 Polarization Polarization guides the entire development of quantum theory. A crucial problem arises when the analyzer is rotated relative to the polarizer through some intermediate or oblique angle about their common beam axis. Then a beam of ordinary photons from polarizer again splits into two polarized beams. Newton gave his photons distinct "coasts" or sides. and that again the ordinary one. similarly for an extraordinary ray. the angle of refraction must be too.

proved its corpuscularity. Newton must have supposed that his ether waves would diffract. 5. and produces parallel light propagating in the direction k/ k of the optica) axis of the lens. Newton inferred the ether to be solid. and so they too must be polarized. For the ether waves themselves to be polarized. one uses quantum 'IjJ vectors today but accepts the indeterminacy. and the associated wave number kx (rate of phase with respect to x). Nevertheless he asserted that light does not diffract ("bend into the shadow"). which led him to explore the physics of light. when the ether is abandoned. Thomas Young (1723-1829). The important variables are a position coordinate x along the grating that tells us which slit the photon traverses. It was mysterious to Newton and his contemporaries how the planets could glide with so little hindrance through the crystalline ether. On his return from Napoleon's invasion of Egypt. So did some later quantum theorists.5. This problem of infinite mobility in a solid medium persists through the 19th century until the advent of special relativity. with the slit at the focal point of the lens. The mobility of a particle in a medium is the mean velocity of the particle per unit applied force. as sound waves in air do. physicist and linguist who also proposed the three-color-receptor theory of human color vision and deciphered the Rosetta Stone.2. We may produce a beam characterized by a well-defined wave vector k = (k x . especially Einstein. In every case where Newton used aethereal guide waves to resolve an apparent indeterminacy in photon behavior. so his own guide-wave theory left open the possibility that light beams would diffract as well. and the +z-axis is the propagation direction. de Broglie and Bohm. k z ) (with kx = ky = 0) by a refractive prism that selects the wavenumber k. showed this in 1801. The coordinate y is parallel to the slit. they have to be transverse. This solid ether then has to be much stiffer than diamond to support such fast transverse waves.3 Diffraction Light does diffract. in the sense that zero force is required to maintain a finite velocity. Since gases and fluids do not propagate transverse waves and solids do. His most famous experiment is the diffraction of light by pinholes. Young studied eye diseases. ky. interference and polarization and the supposed absence of diffraction. the French physician. As a preliminary to Young's two-slit experiment. Newton imagined beams of particles behaving like waves because they were controlled by waves. and this alone. We shine a bright light from a distant lamp through a slit in a sheet of paper onto a screen. and that this. followed by a distant slit-and-Iens combination. The ether is a medium with infinite mobility.2 Newton's Aether 159 the guide waves themselves must split into two beams in the crystal. which increases the useful light intensity by parallelizing the diverging light. It toppled the tower of speCUlation that Newton had erected in order to account for partial reflection. which tells us something about the direction and wavelength of the light. rather than longitudinal. we first do a one-slit diffraction experiment. .

4 Quantum Principle The physicist-engineer Etienne-Louis Malus (1775-1812) formulated the prototype of many modern quantum experiments. We consider only one transmitted ray. parallel to. the image stops shrinking and begins to blur and spread ou. Young's evidence was too strong for even the most ardent supporters of the particle theory of light to resist for long. which produces a negative image. a phenomenon Newton asserted did not take place. 5. namely the points in the dark fringes . we expect the two-slit pattern to look just like a double-exposure photograph of the two one-slit patterns. Malus still adhered to Newton's theory of light. the flow diagram of the Malus experiment is absorb f-- analyze f-- polarize f-- emit (1) On each polarizing filter we may engrave a line giving the direction fixed in the polarizer called its polarization direction.160 5. but rarely when both are. combined with interference. on the screen. Opening a second channel to such a point closes the quantum flow. so that they project two overlapping bright images on the screen. If we then shrink the slit. by placing photographic film directly on the screen. This is quantum reinforcement. At the center of the pattern. Malus let light pass through two wafers of Iceland spar in sequence. we project a bright line. A photon now has two ways to reach the overlap region.t. If Newton himself rested his particle theory on the absence of light diffraction. but not in either of the oneslit prints. We photograph the images formed with each slit open by itself and with both open. and two polarizing filters. through one slit or the other. But when the slit gets small enough. This means that there are points that photons reach frequently when either slit is open. one and one comes out four. in his 1811 study of polarized light. the polarizer and analyzer. The photon beam diffracts at the slit. No one had isolated a photon. He wrote of "luminous molecules" or "molecules of light" where we say "photons". at first the image may shrink too. Mal~s found that to give the fraction of . similar. In the diagrammatic language of Chapter 4. We open a second slit. Although Young had already argued in favor of light waves. so to speak. with well-defined initial and final acts and a transition probability between them. Because light is a stream of photons. and then making a positive print. there are too many photons. dark fringes appear in the overlap region of the two-slit print. and close enough to the first. then given all the evidence we have already mentioned for waves. and omitting propagation through air. Young's experiment is a still more striking instance of light diffraction. with two diffuse lines. with a size inversely proportional to the size of the slit. an image of the slit. constructive interference. Photons were out for the century. Non-Objective Physics If the slit is neither too small nor too large.2. Instead. It is as if we added one and one and found zero. This is quantum interference. the evidence of diffraction was the last straw.

Po can depend only on the difference b. From symmetry considerations we know that the transition probabilities Pe. Malus' Law is statistical. (2) Po(b.. In general. for his Iceland spar . say. These exceptional cases are the only determinate ones. like the Betches of an arrow. Nowadays we call these the transition probabilities for this experiment. if 1. in the experimental spirit of Francis Bacon and modern quantum physics. One cannot tell from his papers whether Malus actually did all the experiments he described and induced his law empirically. assured. Malus' Law is (3) It follows from the conditions (2) (and. for each arrangement of the two crystals. in contrast to the laws of Newton. and Malus gives the odds.B = B2 . Instead of entangling himself like Newton with hypothetical tachyons.B + ~) = Pe(b. and thus as precisely determined as possible.. of the second crystal. Malus preserves the integrity and unity of the quantum. the assumption that P is represented by its Fourier series). Malus dealt simply with probabilities. He gave the fractions Po and Pe of the photons from the ordinary ray of the first Iceland spar crystal that pass into the ordinary and extraordinary beam. Here. Malus does not explain the division of intensities by the division of a wave between two channels. Thus Po ( b. Newton would assign a state decribed by the polarization angle B. Malus's Law embodies the quantum principle. But almost never (when B = 0 or 7r /2) does Malus tell us what one photon will do.B! between the initial and final polarization angles. Newton inferred that the photon comes out of a polarizer carrying the same angle B as the polarization of the polarizer..B) . respectively. for polarization. This persistent unity is called the quantum principle.. Newton tells us exactly what each planet does. or deduced his law from such plausible but unstated assumptions. and must have period 7r in b. which is imagined as the orientation of the "coasts" or sides of the photon. he gave no data points.5. If he could he would tell us what each photon and ether particle does. it suffices to know the initial and final orientation directions.2 Newton's Aether 161 the light from a polarizer that passes through an analyzer. If one of them is zero the transition is called forbidden.B) + Pe(b. quantum theories do not tell us what we will find in each experiment. Newton's theory attributed to each quantum a state variable which changes discontinuously during our experiments with the quantum.B. Each quantum goes into one channel or the other.. It is plausible that the two final beams are interchanged by a 7r /2 rotation of the second crystal and that all the initial beam is partitioned between the two final beams.B) = 1 . no matter what angle it carried in. even when the initial and final actions are sharp. as Newton proposed.. The angle B of the photon state must therefore make a curious jump within the polarizer if the photon is transmitted (in the ordinary ray.

and by extraordinary refraction in the case of birefringent crystals. which today seem as quaint as the gears and idlers of Maxwell's first theories of electricity and magnetism: a heavy. Even Maxwell began his study of electricity amd magnetism by making elaborate mechanical models for the electric and magnetic fields out of strings of gears and idlers. Midway through Maxwell's work he abandoned machinelike models and translated Faraday's visualization directly into the system of differential equations for the electric and magnetic fields that we call Maxwell's equations. Non-Objective Physics polarizers) and a different one if it is not (and so goes into the extraordinary ray). and imagined instead a continuous stringy elastic medium whose strings tend to shorten and thicken. the typical field variables being the local density and pressure of a Cartesian fluid of particles. so that they transmit attractive tensions along themselves and repulsive compressions in the two normal directions. interference.162 5. In the century following Young's experiment. scattering. the rotation of polarization by electrified or magnetized materials . Faraday above all discontinued this practice. and guide waves. They would describe light completely by giving the value of electric and magnetic vectors E and B at each point of space and instant of time. partial reflection. that a changing electric field produces a magnetic field in much the same way as an electric current does. in Einstein's 1905 work on the photelectric effect. When physics came back to photons. polarization. The action vector of quantum kinematics may be regarded as the living descendant of Newton's guide-wave. Since changing magnetic fields in turn produce electric fields. The wave theory of light gave a simple microscopic account of polarization: The polarization direction is the direction of the electric field at every point of the polarized light beam. In the process he discovered. complicated machine hauled in to do mechanically something that is actually rather simple but simply not mechanical. on grounds of mathematical consistency. Those who reason this way today call this jump the collapse or reduction of the wave function. Variables so distributed over space and time are said to describe a field. culminating in the quite specific physical picture and mathematical theory of Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. there is a closed cycle that permits the propagation of interconverting electric and magnetic field patterns far from the charges that produce them. it was without Newton's ether. From the time of Newton to Faraday. The component of electric field orthogonal to that direction is removed from the transmitted beam by absorption in the case of plastic polarizers. etherons. after a century-long oxbow meander through the wave theory of light.the triumphs of the electromagnetic wave theory of light were unending. fields were understood to be made up of discrete particles or similar mechanical objects. This propagation of field-forms Maxwell identified with light waves. Diffraction. The resulting theory fit one measurement after another of the optical properties of material media. the oddly-named phenomenon of displacement current. the theory of light waves developed vigorously. optical activity. but it is not really a wave in ordinary time . the phenomenon of Faraday induction.

or material. in that it may be expressed through Fourier analysis as an infinite set of linear harmonic oscillators with an infinitely descending spectrum of wavelengths that fit into the box edge a whole number of times. Nonetheless. Planck first fit the data to a remarkably simple empirical formula. The parameter h must have the units of energy x time or action. a physical constant which first appeared in the 1900 theory of Max Planck (1858-1947) concerning the heat capacity and spectral distribution of the light in a cavity at some uniform temperature. His integer n is the first quantum number. .3 Planck's Constants Even before the photoelectric effect provided direct evidence for the quantum of light. He arbitrarily supposed that the energy of each oscillator of (radian) frequency w can have only the discrete values 0. The heat capacity C of the cavity is thus a sum with one term k for each possible mode of oscillation. depending on the oscillator frequency: E=nhw (1) (the Planck energy-frequency relation). the existence of the photon was foreshadowed by the quantum of action h. depending just on the temperature of the oven and not on the details of its history.. the light in a cavity or oven is rather like a vibrating string with its overtones. he introduced a cut-off. and how this energy is distributed among the possible wave frequencies. according to thermodynamic theory. Planck recognized the continuum with its infinity of complexions as the cause of this infinity. independent of its mass. 5. The thermodynamics of Boltzmann. Planck set out to compute how much energy is stored on the average in the heat waves in an oven in thermal equilibrium. He then asked these questions of Maxwell's field theory of light. then gave each oscillator a constant (isovolumic) heat capacity k. this sum diverges: C = 00. Some called this universal constant k "Planck's constant" at first.5. containing a new physical constant h. and the answers had been found to be remarkably universal. Newton's guide wave and his polarization jumps recur in the formative work on quantum theory of Einstein and de Broglie in the early twentieth century and ev{(n today in the work of those reluctant to accept quantum kinematics as basic. hw. it was Planck who named it Boltzmann's constant. Planck at first presented h = 2rrh as a mathematical device for regularizing a divergent integral. but only statistically. or state of motion. structure. Since there are an infinity of modes in any cavity.3 Planck's Constants 163 and space when more than one quantum is involved. But in fact he had .. In order to count complexions of the field. so that one should let h -+ 0 at the end of .the calculation. According to Maxwell. 2hw. as applied by Planck. He put these questions because in 1900 they had just been answered experimentally. and it does not guide in the deterministic sense that Newton intended. stiffness.

o not contribute much to the heat capacity.67x 10.3. Each of these dominated an evolutionary advance of physics. not for h ---> O.11 Nm 2 kg Planck's constant: h = 1. For Planck. h must be a new universal physical constant. (1) 5. and they now permeate modern physics. this is because at temperature T each oscillator would ordinarily have available to it the mean thermal energy kT. One says they are "frozen". as the emblems of four basic domains: 5. Non-Objective Physics already encountered a non-zero constant h with the dimensions of action when he fitted the experimental energy-frequency distribution to an empirical formula. Oscillators with higher frequencies are not appreciably excited and d.2 c is for Special Relativity This constant entered physics when Maxwell integrated the physics of electricity and magnetism. In view of the universality of the black-body spectrum. The heat capacity of an oven is finite because at any temperature the frozen oscillators do not contribute to it. which seem to reveal the ultimate fabric of the universe.05 X X 10.00 X 108 mls G=6.34 Is. Intuitively speaking.1 k is for Thermodynamics This constant entered physics when the theories of mechanics and heat were integrated.164 5. It then occurs in the relation between dispersions of energy E and of inverse temperature j3 = 1IT of a system in thermal equilibrium with a heat reservoir. This incorporates the relativistic paradox that two observers in relative motion will nevertheless measure the same lightspeed tix tit -=c . (1) . the deepest truths in physics were expressed by the universal physical constants. Some fundamental constants of physics today are: Boltzmann's constant: k = 1.23 11K (2) 10.3. Planck showed that at any temperature T there is a threshold frequency w = kT th. Boltzmann's constant k gives the entropy that must be created to record one bit (= binary digit) of information irreversibly. The lightspeed constant c is the distance a photon travels in unit time.38 Maxwell's constant: Newton's constant: c = 3. and this is unlikely to produce even one quantum of excitation of an oscillator with frequency w if the quantum energy hw » kT. Planck found that his theoretical spectral distribution of energy agreed with the experimental data for a special small but finite value of h. resulting from thermal fluctuations: IlEIlj3 = k.

and is always expressed as a pure number times Planck's constant. and c. Rather.4 h is for Quantum Theory The quantum constant n is the energy of a quantum of unit radian frequency. The gravitational constant G relates energy and time. related by (2) It is therefore as meaningless to speak about physically converting mass into energy as miles into meters. which thus sets the scale of the non-objectivity of the physics. and interactions such as electromagnetism and nuclear forces. Their four constants make a complete system of natural units. into one with two systems of measurement. the dispersions of the two being reciprocally related by (1) a form of the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle. in which they all take the value 1.3. .5. time. Here 8 is not a statistical dispersion like the D.3. Physical theories of specific systems.3 Planck's Constants 165 when they divide the distance traversed 8x by the elapsed time t for a free photon. By non-objective physics we mean a physics without objects. The commutator between any coordinate and its canonical conjugate has the dimensions of action. to estimate the domain of experiment that would require the next physics. This leads directly to (1) 5. In our semi group language. such as atoms or crystals. and the duration t of the interaction. called Planck units.3. Then the system under study has coordinates or variables that do not commute. There is also a natural unit of n. All n-Iess physics is classical. The constant c also unites the previously independent concepts of energy and mass. kilograms and joules. this is the physics of a system whose action semi group is not a category. It then measures the complementarity between the energy transfer E during any interaction.3 G is for Gravity This constant entered physics when Newton integrated terrestrial and celestial mechanics. The age t and the energy E of a black hole are related roughly by the condition that the escape velocity for a test body at a radius ct should be the lightspeed c. fit into them like fables into dialects. and energy from G. one converts rest energy into kinetic energy. 5. Planck formed a scale length.5 Planck Units These four theories have great scope. 5.' s in the preceding formula and the next but indicates an exact difference between one final and one initial value.

3 x 10 s j![j = 2.35 m (1) -44 V[Gh -. hand c remain constant. Thermodynamics figures much less in the present work. frequency and mass of the proton) by a factor of about 1020 • This makes it hard to believe that gravity is important in the internal structure of the particles.. 00 to recover pre-relativistic mechanics and h ---. Physics has still to make at least one more grand integration. To be sure. Similarly to take the limit c ---. It is found from the measured value of the fine. The Planck length. that is. of course.structure constant e2 _=e2 = (2) he 137. 00 actually means to consider a sequence of experiments with velocity scaling parameter V ---. energy and entropy (here rationalized. the pure number representing the electron charge in Planck units is independent of G.0 (for example) we actually consider a sequence of experiments in which the action scale A ---. We let e ---. Nor have we a satisfactory understanding of the non-gravitational forces.8 kg 10. The central problem of physics today is to reconcile the concepts of quanta and gravity. 0 such that the dimensionless ratio clV ---. When we let h ---.38 X X 10. and the present work is oriented towards it. 0.5 = 5. Non-Objective Physics entropy Sp. such as an ensemble of quanta produced by a sharp initial action.6 X Tp = Mp = 10. 00. a thermostatistical theory of charged quanta. however. We shall mainly study systems at the absolute zero of temperature.166 5. Indeed.5 Sp = k = 1. The length and time are too small and the mass is too great (compared to the natural wavelength. than it did in the history of quantum theory. 00. . where for the action scale one takes any convenient parameter with the dimensions of action = energy x time setting the scale of all the controllable actions of the experiment. but this does not change the physics a bit. 0 to recover classical mechanics. There is as yet no satisfactory synthesis of G physics and eh k physics. The most conspicuous feature of Planck units is how far they are from particle units. This project is now under intensive study in many centers. time. stripped of factors of 27l') are related to MKS units as follows: Lp [Gh = V~ = 1.04 There has been much progress in fusing the physics of k and e and h into what one may call eh k physics. In these sequences of experiments. so that the dimensionless ratio hi A ---.23 JIK . we can always choose units to make the numerical value of (say) h as small or large as we like. To speak of a constant (like h or c) approaching 0 in this way is a useful though strictly meaningless oxymoron.

No matter what the intensity of the light waves. in the photelectric and Compton effects. Its kinetic energy E is what is left over. Then W is the maximum work electrons must do to escape the metal. when light of frequency w strikes a clean alkali metal surface in vacuum. On the one hand. two decades before the quantum theory. . each light frequency stimulating especially those oscillators that are in resonance with it. that light.W. exhibits both wavelike and particle-like behaviors. we may give light a wavelength by diffraction from gratings or crystals. in both the ultraviolet (1905) and the X-ray (1909) spectral regions. For the cavity radiation formula. relative to infinity. The constant h is Planck's action quantum (rationalized with a factor of 1/27r). the first physicist to squarely face the quantum paradox (as in Newton's rings) was Albert Einstein (1879-1955).5 (1). and why the cavity energy isa multiple of hw in the Planck cut-off prescription 5.5. with slowly increasing amplitudes. There the light field is expected to act as a gentle oscillatory driving force that drives the electrons to oscillate about their equilibrium position at the minimum in their potential wells. that the emitted electrons had while they were bound in the metal. The photon of Francis Bacon and Isaac Newton resurfaced in modern physics after a century-long burial when Einstein used it to explain both why the electron energy depends linearly on the light frequency in the photelectric equation (1). the electron gives up a part W of this energy in escaping from the metal. we see particles of light and determine their energy and momentum in collisions with electrons. each of energy hw . pointed out explicitly.4 Einstein's Quantum 5.4 Einstein's Quantum 167 5. as Newton had posited two centuries earlier. On the other hand. For example. This also explained the photoelectric equation. electrons come off having a continuous distribution of kinetic energies with an upper limit Emax(w) that increases linearly with wand is nearly independent of the intensity. electrons should come out with whatever . The Einstein photoelectric equation is mysterious in a field theory of light.1 Photoelectric Effect After Newton.W is the minimum potential energy. and that the cavity containing light of frequency w actually contains a whole number n of photons. he supposed that each photon carries the energy quantum hw. and . (1) The empirical constant W depends on the metal and is called the work function of the metal. or by interference experiments like Newton's rings. who. This side of the story was almost missing for Newton. leading to the empirical photelectric equation Emax = hw . When a photon carrying energy hw is absorbed and gives its energy to an electron in a single act.4. using the laws of two-body collisions.

We explain this concept briefly. He felt that a unified theory is a monster that is made by stitching together parts of other theories. in 1909. . consistent with the speed of light and with no perceptible delay depending on light intensity. the time required to build up the resonant oscillations to the point of escape. . Such a singularity is therefore called fixed . A solution of a linear differential equation describing a field in spacetime can have a singularity only at spacetime points where the coefficients of the equation do. For example. lumps. The delay. A singularity is a breakdown of the theory and an indication that it has reached the edge of its domain of validity. and supposed that these guide the singularities of singular solutions in a way that has never been clarified. the radial equations for the hydro genic atom wavefunctions have singularities only at r = 0 and r = 00 . Today we say "unified" but Einstein's term was "unitary". 5.2 Unified Fields At the same time. Einstein (1909) associated the wave aspects of light with the nonsingular wavelike solutions of the field equations. Einstein hypothesized a unified field theory of light. like singularities. He supposed that the unpredictable quantum jumps were the result of instabilities in the field equations that made the solutions highly sensitive to initial data.4. Then it occurs on a manifold of spacetime points in which the coefficients of the equation are regular. and that the unstable interaction in which the weak waves guide the strong lumps is what gives rise to the quantum paradox. and wished to avoid them. He proposed that there exists only the one "unitary" field supporting both weak waves and strong lumps. This promptness even led field-theorists to speculate that the law of conservation of energy was being violated. He hypothesized that photons are actually small regions of strong field. Einstein held that physical solutions should ultimately be singularity-free. Einstein's first depicted such lumps as wandering singularities. But since then his word "unitary" has been preempted by quantum theory for something else. How else could arbitrarily weak light fields promptly produce such energetic photoelectrons? Worse: The energy of the photoelectron is not fixed by the binding energy but increases linearly with the frequency of the light. should decrease with increasing light intensity. A singularity in a parametric family of solutions to a differential equation is called wandering or movable if its location depends on the values of the arbitrary parameters in the solution. Such a unified field theory of light was proposed again by Louis de Broglie. Singularities in a provisional theory indicate where large but finite peaks would occur in a better theory. Linear differential equations have fixed singularities and it seems that all nonlinear ones have wandering singularities. Non-Objective Physics energy it takes to break their bonds. and presented it at the first physics conference he ever attended.168 5. Instead the observed photoelectric emission is prompt. clots or knots in the same field that supports the guide waves of light.

for which there is documentary support. but their underlying nonlinear field is subject to quantum laws. All the effects Newton discussed in his Opticks are either wavelike (such as polarization and interference) or neutral to the wave-particle contest (such as straight line propagation at short wavelengths). Einstein adduced clear experimental demonstrations for both particle and wave effects. however. he gave strong arguments for his superluminal ether vibrations: partial reflection. There are strong reasons based on causality for doubting that quantum indeterminacy arises from such classical instabilities. such as wind over water. But Newton cited no valid experimental evidence for his wave-particle duality. Newton may have believed that Galilean relativity forbids a background ether in which waves m.ay propagate. but they used markedly different classical theories. The sole evidence he offered for photons was his claim that light does not diffract ("bend into the shadow"). Today we could take . Solitonic water waves were already known in Einstein'. Experiment forced the wave-particle duality upon Einstein and eventually upon the rest of us. polarization. The kind of instability that Einstein considered is studied today in nonlinear dynamics.4. It is considered likely that protons and neutrons are solitons.5. The photoelectric effect calls for photons. a claim suspect from the start in his own guide-wave theory. Newton started from light particles and assumed a hot tachyonic crystalline ether to explain the wave aspect of light. But there remains a curious. An early draft of Newton's Principia Mathematica had not three laws of motion but no less than six. Roger Penrose (1989) suggests the following scenario. and the fourth law was the Galilean principle of the relativity of motion. Einstein started from wave fields and assumed that nonlinearities could explain the particle aspect.4 Einstein's Quantum 169 While no such theory has ever coped with the phenomena of atomic systems. Neither the particlebased theory of Newton nor the wave-based conception of Einstein can compete with the quantum synthesis and we consider them no further here. unexplained and noteworthy difference between Newton's and Einstein's access to the quantum paradox. 5.3 How Did Newton Know? Both Newton and Einstein attempted to reconcile particle-like and wave-like aspects of light in one classical theory. and we do not suppose that photons are such solitons today. and interference for waves.s time. Solitons do not seem to be guided by weak waves as Einstein and de Broglie require. The particle-like solutions are called solitons. exactly the same phenomena that modern physicists explain with the superposition principle of quantum theory two centuries later. To be sure. unified fields having both wave-like and particle-like solutions remarkably similar to the conceptions of Einstein and de Broglie indeed exist. In Einstein's time it was known from the unstable buckling of mechanical systems (such as a column under vertical load) and the unstable wave growth in some fluid flows. and interference. But he gave only flimsy grounds for his photons.

This plausible reconstruction of Newton's thought does meet a problem: Later Newton himself invokes an "aether" to explain some of the properties of photons. Suppose a light wave were set up in the ether by atomic motions in a signal fire a kilometer away. not light waves. his wave theory could not account for this biological analogue of the photoelectric effect. From Newton's rings Newton knew that the effective wavelength>.and especially nightly . The Schrodinger equation is the most familiar wave equation that obeys Galilean relativity.evidence for particulate photons that might have influenced him. One can hardly fault even Newton for not knowing about equations like Schrodinger's.6 m or less in diameter. Newton might well have tolerated some dissonances among his theories. Our optic lens. . unless it is concentrated into particle-like packets. If light were a wave we could not see stars at night. reconcentrates it by a factor of at most A/>. of about 10. That we see stars at night is strong evidence for light particles. The argument that Einstein gave for ultraviolet and X-ray photons based on the photoelectric effect is also an argument for visible-light photons based on vision. though we do not find it in his writing. by a factor ~ (109 )2 = 1018 in intensity. From the expansion of the gases of combustion Newton knew that fire is no more than'" 102 times hotter than our own body.2 ~ 10-4 /10. One must suppose that in the face of such conflicting evidence. From watching oil spread on water.14 « 1. with an area A ~ 10. By the time it spreads out to our eyes the wave attenuates greatly.4 m. of light (or of his guide waves) is also small.4 m2 . This is one of many examples where a classical wave theory and a quantum theory agree on average intensities. Newton knew that atoms are very small. This feeble incident energy should therefore be lost in the thermal background of our body heat. Non-Objective Physics special pains to make sure that the ether defines no observable rest frame. One can account for Newton's thought more consistently though more speculatively by noticing some ordinary daily . Though Young's medical interest in the human eye stimulated his work in light interference.170 5. Einstein founded his contributions both to Brownian motion and quantum theory on his fluctuation theory. The light wave intensity in the eye is still reduced below the intensity at the source by a factor of about 104 /10 18 = 10. about 10. It is such strong and persistent evidence for photons that it may have influenced Newton's thinking. but the quantum theory can allow much greater fluctuations from the average.8 = 104 .

which is a natural proving ground for quantum theories The central mystery of such an atom is its stability. We state it briefly: BO B1 B2 The atom has allowed orbits characterized by energy values E J . except when it makes discontinuous transitions or quantum jumps between these states. . and before Bohr's theory. After all. where the angular momentum of one electron is not a constant of motion. While a planet is allowed by Newtonian mechanics to move in any of a continuous infinity of periodic orbits. B 1 is called the quantum principle. The Bohr quantum principle declares that atoms emit or absorb entire quanta of light in all such transitions. Bohr recognized that some new effect arises in atoms because of their smallness on a scale set by Planck's constant.4 En" between these allowed orbits accompanied by the emission of a single photon carrying the excess energy tlE = En" En" or by the absorption of a photon supplying the energy deficit. Transition rates between Bohr orbits are seen experimentally to be small compared to the theoretical frequencies Wi of the orbits themselves. with the Einstein relation E = nw between quantum energy and light frequency . it asserts the indivisible or quantum nature of the photon. F =const/(41l'r 2). in Bohr's 1913 theory an atom is postulated to move in one of a discrete series of such orbits. In a first approximation Sommerfeld neglected these . an electron is bound to the nucleus and a planet is bound to the sun by a force with same dependence on orbit radius. more accurate and more consistent quantum theory. The quantization rule B3 is inconsistent with ordinary mechanics in atoms with more than one electron. E 2 . According to the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell. who set out to understand the characteristic spectral lines emitted by atoms of each chemicals species as consequences of atomic structure.. The optical frequency w of the photon is related to its energy E by It makes transitions En' E=nw. . B3 The allowed orbits are those in which the angular momentum J of an electron is a whole multiple of n: J=nn .. Bohr's quantization rule and correspondence principle then defined the stable states and estimated the transition rates. The distinction that electrons repel one another while planets attract each other is not important for hydrogen. but a plausible generalization of the idea of Bohr orbit to such atoms was provided by Arnold Sommerfeld. Although Bohr's old quantum theory was superceded by the simpler. After the discovery of the nucleus. and only then.5. it is historically important and still heuristically useful.5 Bohr's Atom A primitive form of quantum kinematics arose in the old quantum theory of Bohr. the electrons as they accelerate around the nucleus should radiate away their energy and the resulting radiation damping should spiral them into the nucleus in a short time. now called Bohr orbits or states.5 Bohr's Atom 171 5. the atom was represented as a miniature solar system.

some planets experience primary forces binding them to the sun. Louis de Broglie significantly furthered the unification of physics. In the limit T ~ 00. Sommerfeld transferred the action variables from celestial to atomic mechanics in order to define the Bohr orbits. They are therefore called adiabatic invariants. Einstein had associated particles with light waves.pz are replaced by three corresponding angular momentum variables J i called action variables because they have the units of momentum x length =energy x time =action =angular momentum. In celestial mechanics. To deal successfully with such complex dynamical systems. proposing that electrons too were somehow associated with a wave. y. The ground state is stable because in that orbit the energy quantum number takes on its minimum value. and consider a series of imaginary planetary systems with increasing values of T.Py. These astronomical variables are particularly useful in the presence of a secular perturbation. celestial mechanicians describe them in coordinates called action-angle variables. For example. The Bohr orbits of an atom are those in which its action variables are integer multiples of Planck's constant: (2) In Bohr's quantum theory. 03 which turn at nearly constant angular velocities dO i Wi = dt' i = 1.2. and de Broglie universalized this association.. in the sense that D.172 5. Non-Objective Physics transitions and introduced c. z by certain angular variables 01 . since the processes called adiabatic in thermodynamics are modeled by slowly changing forces in mechanics. The fact that instead of slowly changing the orbit over many cycles the electromagnetic force induces abrupt quantum transitions once in many cycles remains a mysterious postulate within the Bohr theory. the action variables remain constant during the perturbation. the electromagnetic interaction responsible for radiation is treated as a secular perturbation to the orbital motion of the electrons about the nucleus. and weaker forces that change slowly over many cycles of the primary motion. called therefore secular (that is. O2 . pertaining to centuries) perturbations. the earth is not only drawn by the sun but also feels a gentler tug from Jupiter. From . We need not give the exact coordinate transformation from Cartesian coordinates and momenta to action-angle variables. the action variables are exact constants of the motion. This pronounced insensitivity to secular perturbations is the most important property of the action variables. varying more slowly than the sun's attraction in strength and direction over the years.3. One replaces the three space variables x.ertain action-angle coordinates originally developed for planetary orbits.Ji is of order 1IT. Suppose that the perturbation increases from 0 to its peak value in some scale time T. (1) The three linear momenta Px. Suffice it for now to say that in the absence of the secular perturbations.

Bohr recognized that his quantum principle raised serious philosophical and specifically epistemological questions.1 Correspondence Principle The quantization rule gave the wavelengths of the atomic spectrum but not the intensities. In that case. Emulating Einstein. took a still more radical approach. As though to be fair. including the average radiated power. which implies that there is a fundamental difference in detail between this classical theory and experiment. The Bohr correspondence principle enabled one to estimate the rate at which transitions occur between Bohr orbits. The statistical mechanics governing the relation of small systems to large ones and the emergence of classical theories from quantum is still far from worked out. whom Bohr inspired with the epistemological problem. Dirac pointed out that the resulting quantum theory also had a radically new kind of relativity. still apply to the quantum atom in the limit of large quantum numbers. . This formed the constellation of concepts that we call the Copenhagen theory or C. ni -> 00 (or h -> 0). The good macroscopic results of classical mechanics are close approximations to equally good macroscopic results of quantum mechanics.5. not the macroscopic. and what use is it? Bohr then favored a wave-based theory of the particle behavior. some expositions say that quantum theory does not work as well in the large as classical does. There already existed a classical theory of the rate of radiation by a charged particle in an elliptical orbit. 5. he proposed to discard all theoretical entities of atomic physics except those that were in principal "observable". but the most fundamental problems of quantum theory still lie in the direction of the microscopic.6 Post-quantum Theories 173 Einstein's energy-frequency relation E = hw and special relativity. 5. Bohr told us that despite the quantum principle. There seems to be no experimental support for this opinion. de Broglie inferred a momentum-wavenumber relation p = hk. what kind of knowledge is it that one can have about an atom. it is not possible to determine any property of an atom without seriously altering the atom. Heisenberg. and thus the spectral intensities. but one quantum is sufficient to cause an atomic transition. (2) makes the orbit perimeter a whole multiple of the wavelength. Bohr's theory of transitions is itself transitional. One must exchange at least one quantum in an observation. certain classical time-averages. He then recovered the quantization rule (2) of Bohr and Sommerfeld as a resonance condition for waves qInning around the nucleus.6 Post-quantum Theories Classical physics does not work as well in the small as quantum does. which we follow and extend in this work. If atomic interactions are mediated by quanta rather than fields.5.

and the quantum physicist is. Moreover. are impossible in classical physics (as well as quantum) on the grounds of the second law of thermodynamics. described by a state space of M points in the classical case. M transitions a ----7 a are assured and the remaining M2 . zero-duration transition experiments on a system of multiplicity M. and thus extracts entropy. and not conversely. . Bohr called a quantum theory "complete". or an initial vector space of M dimensions in the quantum case. (To be sure. If the system is the universe. • Quantum theory and classical are both incomplete.M transitions a ----7 (3 'f a are forbidden. Quantum theory claims even less completeness. The classical theory is a limiting case of the quantum. The cosmic experimenter cannot completely determine the entropy reservoir where this entropy is dumped. they both decide the same number M2 of statements. namely that no more informative theory exists. though still a subset of measure O. Then they both declare that of the M2 transitions a ----7 (3 associated with one frame. Thus for given multiplicity M and now taking all frames into account. within a given frame of a given multiplicity M. including the experimenter. Classical mechanics cannot claim to give a complete theory even of an isolated system. that of complementarity (as relativity provides the limitation of finite signal speed) . The more accurate theory is quantum. But sharp experiments completely determining the coordinates of the universe. quantum kinematics can describe infinitely many more statements about the individual system than the classical can. Some say that quantum theory fails in the large because by stipulating a system cut it excludes in principle a complete theory of the entire universe. while classical physicists spoke freely of such a "system of the world". Non-Objective Physics The relation between quantum and classical is asymmetric. Consider instantaneous. However the classical physicist is not aware that there is more than one frame possible. Von Neumann's term "maximal" is better for that sense.174 5.) Quantum theory has also been described as not making assertions about individual systems but only about statistical ensembles. in the strict sense of completeness. in that it does not claim to determine future experience from the initial data. Thus classical physics already forbade a complete knowledge of the universe. and never reduces the number of possibilities for the system. Quantum physics merely provides another limitation to that knowledge. but in characteristically different ways. namely the transitions whose initial or final vector is outside the given frame. but he used the term in another sense. In fact quantum and classical theory both make statements about individual experiments and systems. episystem and system all together. then its dynamical evolution is a 1-1 mapping of past states to present states. and can also decide infinitely many of these. because it does not provide the initial data for its own differential equations. Any sharp determination of a system reduces the number of possibilities for the system from many to one. and classical theory is an approximation to quantum that is sometimes useful.

) The "merely" suggests that such critics implicitly want quantum theory to go beyond all experience. One might say that the aim of physics is to account for the patterns of actions that occur. while the "lassical cannot. so that no inter-systemic interactions are possible by definition. but infinitely less so than classical theory. • Again. and Liouville's equation for classical mechanics roughly corresponds to and is as linear as Schrodinger's equation for quantum mechanics. some critics of quantum theory consider quantum theory deficient in that it "merely allows one to compute the results of experiments". Any nonlinear theory is expressible by linear equations if we go up one level of aggregation. In making this comparison we have assumed that the quantum kinematics of superposition is fundamentally correct. relative to physical experience. he chose experience as his prime category. But a theory that can cope with all possible experiments can likely cope with all possible experiences. that assume. with less experimental basis. and choose action as prime category. when physicists imagined that they could decide all the transitions of a system. • Occasionally it is suggested that quantum theory is inadequate for classical experience because it is linear while classical mechanics is not. William James explained that since the aim of his philosophy was to account for experience. and the possibilities of experience. and Newton's equations of motion to . let us remember that they could do so only because they could not imagine all the transitions that we can today. Ontic misinterpretations of quantum theory. Actually the quantum (Heisenberg) equations of motion that correspond to Newton's classical ones are just as non-linear. however. but the quantum theory can at least express them. and examined the old theory from the viewpoint of the new. (Some languages even use the same word for both experience and experiment. This is to counterbalance many discussions of the new theory from the viewpoint of the old. That linearity merely expresses that on the level in question we deal with just one system. q) to the quantum ket 'ljJ instead of operators p . and puts a serious constraint on theory. generally violate Bohr's correspondence principle. Neither can decide the undecidable transitions of the system.5. quantum theory is incomplete.6 Post-quantum Theories 175 In short. we need not see a conflict between these choices . trial. that the classical ontic kinematics of non-superposition is fundamentally correct. This misunderstanding results from giving ontic status to action vectors. danger. to ensembles and their distributions. Perhaps experience. They correspond the classical state (p. which even in English are linked by the Greek root "peira-". It is doubtful that we need to do this. to be more than empirical. are all. experiment. Before we fall into nostalgia for the good old days.and q. If we think of experience as consisting of actions. (Again that root!) This is an important philosophical decision.

Schrodinger discovered Schrodinger's equation but his theory omitted the quantum principle. S. The theory C. The quantum concepts of non-commuting variables and tensor products do not enter the theory S. The theory S yielded a certain series of resonant frequencies Wn of the 'I/J field. 5. in the absence of such a collapse they misread the quantum kinematics to predict some partial transition.6.1 Theory S When SchrOdinger discovered his equation for the hydrogen 'I/J function.1 (1) instead of Heisenberg's. and correctly infers that the observed spectrum consists of differences W n ' . finds the same frequencies Wn (times h) for the energy levels of hydrogen.3 and 12. Some people believe that the definiteness of experience . This S theory could not go beyond the one-electron theory. This comes up again in 5. Nothing in the theory ever converts the multiplicity of possibilities into the single final process that actually occurs. The 'I/J of a helium atom's two electrons is not a more complicated function of one spacetime point. which should depend on a single quantum number n.is a problem for quantum theory. Despite the quantum principle. He regarded the time-dependent SchrOdinger equation 8'I/J = -iH'I/J 8t (1) merely as the analogue for the 'I/J field of Maxwell's equation for the electromagnetic field. One of these may actually happen. the initial vector 0: "collapses" to the final vector W t.4. but a function of two space points (electron positions) and a time.roblems of quantum physics.4.6. It simply described how the 'I/J field varied in spacetime. Therefore these frequencies should have appeared in the hydrogen spectrum of the theory S. .6. Peirce and William James called the "suchness" of things . The light radiated by a vibrating charge field would have the same frequency as the vibration. The timeindependent SchrOdinger equation described stationary oscillations of the 'I/J field.176 5. Some say that Schrodinger and Heisenberg both discovered quantum mechanics. An initial vector admits many possible final vectors. on the other hand. which declares that the transition either goes entirely or not at all.Wn between the terms of this sequence and so depends on two quantum nunbers .what philosophers like C. This depends on a rather fuzzy notion of what quantum mechanics is about. he thought of 'I/J as a physical field. Some imagine or postulate that in the course of an experiment wo: that actually goes. Non-Objective Physics Schrodinger's equation 5. generally arising from an attachment to the ontic metaphysics. We next consider briefly some non-quantum pseudo-solutions to these pseudop.. with the same ontological status as the electric or gravitational fields. includes the quantum principle. as in a field theory. This (Rydberg-Ritz) combination principle fits naturally into Heisenberg's theory but not Schrodinger's.

= h /p of the quantum. a fact that accords with common sense but seems to have no classical counterpart. because we can make their de Broglie wavelength greater than their actual size. This is just as predicted by the quantum theory. and waits. "Observation" in particular. To see quantum interference we must pass the quantum through slits of dimensions comparable to the de Broglie wavelength >. Due to the natural decay of the nucleus. This is the temperature at which a cat could undergo a superposition of two selective acts for position.6. which would be an infinite-valued variable. In this thought-experiment. The classical theory . It is not something the system "has". Since such a cat violates common sense. the interference terms average out to zero. a status quo. however. that is.can itself be lethal. None of them could be called "the polarization vector of the photon". in an incoherent one. rather than refuting it. one couples the cat to a nucleus by an infernal machine that would kill the cat if the nucleus decayed. Not one uncontrolled particle of air or light must reach it during the superposition experiment. which the nucleuse-cat coupling correlates with dead and living cat. One then prepares the nucleus-plus-cat with a definitely undecayed nucleus. and may be expressed in terms of the binary variables aa t. Estimate the temperature at which a cat could be said to have a de Broglie wavelength comparable to its diameter. The true quantum variables of (say) a photon polarization were defined and enumerated in 4. however. an initial vector is not the kind of entity that can evolve. That such superpositions of everyday actions are far outside our individual and collective experience. for all initial vectors a. A cat that has been sharply prepared has entropy 0 and is therefore at the absolute zero of temperature. which is enormous relative to its de Broglie wavelength under any conditions we can attain so far. agrees with quantum theory. It is not clear that one would regard such a cat as alive. let alone collapse. In addition the cat must be maintained as a closed system. In fact an initial vector or ket is not a state variable of the system. as in classical mechanics. We can do this for photons and for molecules. We do not see quantum superposition or interference with tables and chairs but only with atomic particles.6 Post-quantum Theories 177 This confusion of indeterminacy with indefiniteness can result from imagining that the initial vector is a state variable of the quantum system. Like a spacetime point. Schrodinger intended this as a reductio ad absurdum of the quantum theory. It partially represents a certain interaction between system and episystem. it would make sense to ask how it evolves during a measurement and to feel frustration when the theory refuses to answer. maximal control . but not for furniture. from assuming classical kinematics CO-I when quantum kinematics QO-l applies. this prepares the nucleus in a superposition of decayed and undecayed. To see interference requires a coherent superposition. If a system had a state. the quantum theory must be wrong for macroscopic objects.5. Schrodinger once suggested a thought experiment that he thought would produce a cat in a superposition of the states of being alive and being dead. They are all at most two-valued variables.

" [Von Neumann (1955). Von Neumann's formulation N of the principles of quantum theory may be paraphrased as follows: NO Nl N2 An ensemble reSUlting from a sharp filtering operation is represented by some unit vector 'l/J. To be sure. In N this projector represents the effect of the filter On an ensemble of trials of the same quantum experiment. When each system of such an ensemble evolves without external intervention. and on the other hand. the states are only a theoretical construction. N represents a filter operation mathematically by a projection operator.6. Paragraph 3. this is always accomplished through the introduction of the auxiliary concept 'state'. but operationally. . how to go from the present state to the results of future measurements. but the physical theory must then tell us On the one hand. The ensemble may be potential rather than actual. Von Neumann's theory N may be regarded as a variant of the Copenhagen theory in which the initial action is represented as an act of selection from an ensemble even when it is a preparation action of the most general kind: "More precisely. Chapter IV. the ensemble remains sharp and its vector 'l/J evolves according to Schrodinger's Equation.178 5. The elements of the ensemble need not. by pointing to its elements.2 Theory N For Von Neumann (1932) a vector represents a sharp ensemble. be actually at hand like so many chests in a warehouse. generalizing the classical selective act of Boole. 5.] N takes as basic not transition experiments or external actions (as we do) but internal filter operations. we must allow experience to reshape our common sense. not on an individual trial. however. to which he assigns no representation. by stating how its elements are to be generated when desired. When a filtering operation associated with a vector 'l/JI is followed by One associated with a vector 'l/J2. Von Neumann too denies general meaning to the question "What is the 'l/J of this quantum?" Only infinite sharp ("pure") ensembles have a 'l/J vector. page 337. Non-Objective Physics and the quantum both violate common sense. The sub-ensemble of those which pass through the resultant initial action is represented by the vector'l/J2. and in general it is defined not ostensively. then each system of the ensemble from the first filter passes the second filter with probability I'l/JJ : 'l/J112. and the problem of physics is to furnish relations between the results of past and future measurements. how to make from past measurements inferences about the present state. only the results of measurement are actually available. not individuals.

which is not deterministic in that it does not single out one allowed final vector for each inital vector. the semantic ensemble. and associates vectors with such ensembles. But this is unfair. quotation marks and all. 5.3 Theory 0 The "orthodox" quantum theory. not two. Von Neumann also proposed a lattice quantum theory . Perhaps N simply makes this ensemble explicit and uses it. an ensemble is already implicitly associated with each word in ordinary language. which we ordinarily leave implicit. Its elements correspond to the projection operators of a Hilbert space. Our version of C provides separate initial and final vectors. criticized it sharply.c. Then the inference from past to future measurements is accomplished by the preclusion relation of quantum kinematics.6. W2 Between measurements. 0 is a caricature of the quantum theory that was widely accepted as a faithful portrait. but contradicting them: WO WI Each isolated quantum system has a state vector 7jJ. the inference from past measurements to "state" is deterministic while that from "state" to future measurements is statistical.5. During a measurement described by a projector P. not with individual quanta. It might be said against N that its preoccupation with ensembles leaves us with no way to describe an individual when we encounter it. Von Neumann does not explicitly develop the duality that is prominent in Dirac's formalism and basic on ours. each connected uniquely and deterministically to an external action by the semantics. there was a significant difference in their conclusions about quantum theory. While Wigner and Von Neumann have been closely associated for most of their lives. while Wigner considered it to be a step towards a physics of consciousness. as it is called in writings of Wigner. We call this theory 0. N gives physical meaning to one kind of vector. and its basic operations are the infimum U and supremum cap of two projection operators in the order defined by the inclusion of subspaces. In N. 0 is based on three principles WO-2 corresponding to (QO-2) and (NO-2). We take this up in Chapter 6. and in any case attributed it to Von Neumann. the state vector undergoes an indeterministic discontinuous evolution 7jJ ~ P7jJ with probability (7jJIPI7jJ) . . appeared in the 1940's.6 Post-quantum Theories 179 N deals with ensembles of quanta. Wigner presented it as a reductio ad absurdum of quantum theory. the state vector undergoes a deterministic continuous time-dependent evolution 7jJ ~ U(t)7jJ according to the Schrodinger equation. Von Neumann presented quantum theory as a probably irreversible revolution in logic and set theory. such as the semantic ensembles already mentioned.

5). which attributes none to them. Since the theory C attributes no state to one atom. One writes down an initial vector. from which SchrOdinger constructed his own equation. "reduced". Podolsky & Rosen. this is the projection postulate WI above. another aspect of the Copenhagen theory. There are no isolated systems in physics. . The theory 0 takes the vector to be an attribute of an individual system. The classical correspondent of the theory 0 would take a characteristic function S(x. in which the ket describes an initial action of the episystem on the system. Here the "orthodox" theory 0 contradicts the Copenhagen theory C. the interaction of any system with any electron in the experimenter entangles the system and the electron swiftly. As Wigner noted. or "projected" to a new one ¢ when we observe the transition 'lj. in contradiction to the Bohr corre-· spondence principle. Non-Objective Physics This is a fair description of how we calculate anyone transition amplitude in quantum theory. According to 0. this attempt at objectification fails whenever we have to move our attention to a more embracing system. In practice. "collapsed". The error is only in the interpretation. however. propagates it according to the Schrodinger equation. --> ¢.'s that quantum mechanics uses so succcessfully can have physical existence. Many . not Heisenberg's. not the system. and the state of this object is 'lj. and projects it on the final vector. Nevertheless the "orthodox" ontic theory 0 soon replaced the more praxic C and N theories as "the" quantum theory for many people. it has no place for such a projection postulate. and is learned from an inspection of the episystem. Until the mid-1940's there were important discussions of the theory C.p) .. While Bohr is generally said to have won this battle. This same applies to the measurement "problem" (12. Its object is the wavefunction or state vector. This is no problem for C. and Bohr points out their error. in which EPR present the theory 0 and call it the Copenhagen theory. he seems to have lost the war. namely its "state". leaving implicit and therefore unchallenged the assumption that every theory must have an object. Since then most quantum texts have followed EPR in presenting the indefensible theory 9 and calling it the Copenhagen theory. (The classical equation that corresponds closest to SchrOdinger's is Hamilton's equation for the characteristic function S(x. in contradiction to classical mechanics itself. according to quantum theory itself. No projection or reduction takes place in real one-system time.) The N theory too attributes no state vector or projection process to an individual quantum system. None of the 'lj. Instead it has both initial and final vectors freely chosen by us in the episystem. According to 0 the quantum correspondent of Newton's equations of motion is Schrodinger's equation. culminating in the famous printed debate between Bohr and Einstein.180 5.p) to be the state of the individual mechanical system.1. Its projection postulate concerns an entire ensemble that is first prepared in one way and then tested in another. an individual system has its state 'lj. o sets out to provide the object that the non-objective theory C lacks.

If 'IjJ were an object of the system. our shift of attention to a larger system could not make it disappear and so invalidate WOo The material interpretation that Sand 0 give to 'IjJ is inconsistent with the way one actually transforms 'IjJ when we shift the system cut. multiplied by different vectors for n. let alone evolve or collapse. Even in 0. and is read off the episystem. To create these problems one regards the action vector 'IjJ as a physical object of the system.6 Post-quantum Theories 181 physicists now study the pseudoproblems of 0 instead of the genuine problems ofC. these pseudo-problems become serious only in discussions where there is a shift of external interface from one system to a larger one. de Broglie's guide waves. and "the influence of consciousness upon matter". a state variable. When we shift the systemic interface additional problems arise: A quantum system a by itself. including Wigner. A physical quantum does not actually possess a definite 'IjJ in 0 unless it is the sole object of attention. 0 (like the theories of Newton'. and several different vectors 'IjJ for a may appear in different terms of 'IjJ'. although with extra paradoxes of non-locality. Thus Bohr and Heisenberg had no "collapse" or "measurement problem" in their theory. o posits a collapse of 'IjJ during determinations that is so paradoxically nonlocal that none who present the 0 theory find it acceptable.5. present in an individual experiment.s tachyonic guide waves. not sample time. Einstein's nonlinear field. Where we represent sharp external actions by vectors. after we have formulated quantum dynamics in sufficiently general terms. Heisenberg nor Von Neumann consider an action vector to exist within a system of one quantum taken by itself. and Bohm's quantum potential) attributed the same mode of being to the 'IjJ vector as to the state of an object. Some spend years in vain efforts to explain the pseudo-process WI of 0 in classical terms. An action vector is (or signifies) an initial or a final action. not the system. according to a dynamical law. Neither Bohr. Some results and signs of such confusion are references to "the measurement problem". For a fixed isolated closed system. "the problem of the state-vector projection" or "collapse" during an individual measurement. When the same a is regarded as part of a larger quantum system a' = a + n. 0 says. There is therefore now some confusion about what the "Copenhagen theory" actually is. then only the grand total a' is said to "have a state" 'IjJ'. and the vector 'IjJ is simply called "the state of the quantum" without an operational meaning for this term. 0 represents them by changes of vectors. Schrodinger's substantial 'IjJ. These concepts occur in 0 but not in C or N. and lets 'IjJ evolve in real time.1. It is a confusion in syntax and level of discourse to say that an initial vector is changed by an action when it merely signifies the action. at least between observations. like an optical illusion.5. however. "has a state" 'IjJ. We return to measurement theory in 12. Let the student beware. Wigner considers the question of what happens to 'IjJ when we measure the quantum to be . as in the theory of measurement. The classical kind of existence that Sand 0 attribute to a definite 'IjJ turns out to be dependent upon the fixation of the experimenter's attention. 0 reproduces the results of C. as in 0 but not in C.

Hugh Everett III (1957) suggested the "all-body" 'ljJ of the entire . Some of the problems with 0 noted by Wigner are not results of its classical epistemology but reflect genuine difficulties in the Copenhagen theory too. which forbids us to feign such hypotheses as non-observable vectors undergoing non-observable collapses. On the other hand. for one quantum particle it gives a Cartesian space-time account and even for many quanta it admits the deeply-ingrained question. Even there. 0 refers to an isolated system. however. "What is the state of the system?". Therefore we do not accept WO. Problems of quantum theory cannot be written off as physically meaningless merely because they are expressed in the language of O.4 Theory e There has been at least one more surrogate state in the post-quantum era. not an individual. to maintain correspondence with the quantum theory. but is represented or named by. the 'ljJ vector. the ensemble being defined by an initial action. and is distributed over a space of 3N dimensions for N quanta. Except during a measurement itself.182 5. The real problems of convergence and relativistic covariance to which we address ourselves in Act 4 were posed by Wigner earlier. 5. and that the present quantum theory is unfinished because it does not describe this operation of consciousness in sufficient detail. In classical mechanics we are accustomed to speak of a dynamic evolution of variables and distribution functions. Similarly. we may say that a phase-space point does not undergo the act of determination but merely names it. not dissolved by epistemological analysis. but we imply by the usual terms "observation" or "measurement" that the classical act of determination has no effect on the system while it establishes a correlation between system and episystem variables. and then WO and W2 hold and WI describes an identity mapping leaving the state fixed. as he insisted. It is the essence of the statistical interpretation of quantum theory that 'ljJ is a statistical concept. we suppose that an external action establishing a correlation between episystem and system variables does not act upon. even 0 no longer provides a space-time account at all when one deals with many quanta. Then the 'ljJ depends on the variables of all the quanta. Non-Objective Physics a meaningful question which is simply in a domain where present-day quantum theory breaks down. And the spacetime picture of one quantum given by 0 violates relativistic causality. and must. There is at most one isolated system. It is less radical and requires less self-discipline than Bohr's pitiless use of Ockham's razor. WI and W2 lose their meaning. the universe. be solved by new physics. and since the entity to which they refer does not exist.6. Recognizing the limitations of the one-body 'ljJ of theory S and the N-body 'ljJ of theory 0. thus comforting those who have deeply internalized the classical kinematics before coming to the quantum. associated with an ensemble. There we may think of phase space points as orthonormal state vectors. o gives the same numerical results as C for what can actually be measured on any fixed system. Some of them survive translation into C and N. He considers that consciousness carries out the WI operation.

but scholarly compendia of interpretations of quantum theory written since (say) 1970 give every interpretation of'IjJ but this. This theory we call E. we will not find them. had never encountered the Copenhagen theory C itself but only the objectivized form O. 5. Naturally there can be no principle corresponding to Cl or Nl. There is something like a collective repression going on in physics and its philosophy. as though Bohr and Heisenberg had not provided one. If quantum theory is fundamentally right. generally seek a hypothetical ontic alternative theory that would account for the same phenomena as C. If we believe that quantum theory is about objects rather than actions. I believe. That would be normal. Those who seek an "interpretation of quantum theory".6 Post-quantum Theories 183 universe (including the experimenter) as a surrogate state. This is in keeping with the ontic tradition which likewise gave little attention to operational definitions. then we will put fundamental objects into our theories rather than fundamental actions and look for them in our experiments. not C. has impeded the development of theoretical physics. but in fact gives the theory O. have ontic theories increasingly taken its place? The problem I pose is not that Heisenberg's theory is contested. and is useless as a physical theory if it is taken strictly. The exposition of the existing quantum theory given by Everett (1957) also purports to describe the Copenhagen theory for contrast. At any rate E is explicitly formulated as a response to 0. It is the opposite: Despite its great success.5. . Some take E seriously.6. Thus the theory is not provided with operational meaning. This gap between quantum physics practice and its philosophical formulation. and retains the ontic metaphysics of O. If we reject the basic ideas of quantum theory. Now one finds proposed alternatives to quantum theory but rarely the quantum theory C itself. Dirac and Von Neumann (among others) in their own ways said the same for "state-vectors" or kets 'IjJ. naively identifying theory with experience. Heisenberg's theory is hardly mentioned at all today. There can only be a dynamical principle corresponding to C2 or N2. The action-based semantics of C is often ignored so completely today that is as if C has not been published at all. healthy physics. after an initial acceptance of non-objective physics. and Heisenberg. At the start it was explained that operators stand for actions. E seems to be a last-ditch ontism in the face of quantum experience. since there is no experimenter left to determine the system. a graduate student at the time. and take quantum theory for a problem to be solved rather than a possible solution to be used. It is possible that Everett. Believing implicitly in basic states of being makes one resist or misinterpret quantum theory.5 Why So Many Theories? Why have the elementary unifying conclusions of the quantum theory not been thoroughly disseminated and absorbed after all these decades. we can hardly expect to succeed in applying it to radically new domains like general relativity. as have those of special and general relativity? Why.

as there is said to be an innate human grammar. I propose tentatively that this discord between quantum practice and discourse came about and still grows because the quantum evolution is so much more radical than any previous one in physics. If there is an innate human physics. Aage Petersen. Nothing like this has happened with special and general relativity. The line between the animate and the inanimate seems clear to us from childhood. including special relativity. and quanta do not fit neatly on either side of the line. then quantum theory transgresses against it even more deeply than special relativity. Physics concerns what we can say about nature. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. whch are understood today in much the relativistic spirit in which they were conceived. quoting Niels Bohr . and continue to evolve in that direction. Non-Objective Physics The analogous state of affairs in relativity would be for most texts to return to absolute time and space and Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction.184 5.

which deals exclusively with the incidence relations among certain preferred classes. The rays of projective geometry correspond to the initial acts of quantum theory. the classification system of quantum physics resembles that of projective geometry.1-2 we give operational meaning to the linear substructure of quantum kinematics. that is more appropriate for quantum theory. This first part of the chapter is a non-constructive uniqueness proof. "Geometry is cross-classification. called points.too.. which we ignore when we use the vectors to represent external actions. Is it not possible to formulate a quantum theory entirely in terms of experimentally meaningful entities? For this we must give these phases empirical meanings where possible and eliminate them where not. due to Artin. internal operations by operators on these vectors. Thus the initial vectors of quantum kinematics are projective coordinates for the initial actions. and as the term "ray" makes clear. This was recognized by Von Neumann (1929) and developed further by Birkhoff & Von Neumann (1936). and logical operations by the linear algebraic operations of + and x. • .. we can make the same transition in quantum physics. We describe also a group-theoretic formulation of the coordinatization of geometry. This is an important clue to the origin of amplitudes. Here we pursue the same strategy. . By imitating how abstract synthetic projective geometry gives rise to coordinate analytic projective geometry. The phase of an initial vector is meaningless. planes.. In 6. Why is the complex vector space so basic for kinematics in nature? What physical combination of actions does the + stand for? Whence the imaginary i? The sum of two vectors depends on their phases. We show that the selection rules uniquely determine the coefficient ring and vector space of a quantum theory and that in the definite case the assured transitions determine the Hilbert space (up to isomorphism. In 6. and this is particularly true of projective geometry. always). and the incidence relation corresponds to the occlusion relation.6." said the philosopher Whitehead. For certainly logic is crossclassification. lines.3-5 we show how to construct the coefficent ring and the Hilbert space from the forbidden and assured transitions. Why Vectors? Quantum kinematics represents initial and final actions on any physical system by vectors. This is a quantum-relativity analogue of the theorem of special relativity that the causal order relation determines the Minkowski spacetime geometry.

like the operator one. The postulates include modal symmetry (the existence of a *-operation which makes the semigroup a *-semigroup. drawing special inferences from general laws. The qualitative (coordinate-free) and quantitative (coordinate. For formulating and solving physical problems and theories. characterized by its dimension and number field. Analogously. restricting ourselves to the finite-dimensional case and to the frame of one experimenter with a definite adjoint. not synthetic. n. From a pragmatic point of view the synthetic theory is baroque. . It gives an operational foundation for the quantum initial space that is less dependent on the concept of probability and so may ultimately be better suited for a world with an indefinite transition metric. one may speak of synthetic and analytic quantum theory. Why Vectors? We start from experimental selection rules j2I as sole fundamental operational concept and end up with a vector space. somewhat closer to experiment. the most useful quantum logics are analytic.186 6. rather than merely a new dynamics. For working with nature. so it. however. The synthetic theory facilitates this experience if only because traditional logic was synthetic.based) formulations of geometry are traditionally called synthetic and analytic geometry. which likewise has no simple experimental meaning. which has no simple experimental meaning. Semigroup quantum theory is an alternative synthetic formulation. and yet characterizes the highly quantitative quantum kinematics uniquely. rather than arguing about her. is operational. The synthetic theory has typically been based on the union or disjoint union of two actions of the same mode. so it is convenient. is to appreciate more fully that what we are creating is indeed a new kind of logic. Actions of one mode couple experimentally with those of the other to form complete experiments. the analytic apparatus works smoothly and the synthetic creaks and groans. We inherit from Euclid and Plato a tradition that the analytic is less fundamental than the synthetic. The analytic quantum kinematics is based on initial vector addition. A new logic is easier to recognize as indeed a logic when it wears its synthetic clothing. This provides an axiomatic theory of elementary definite quantum logic that is coordinate. and is dual to the co-semigroup of experiments upon the system. Yet no-one has ever discovered a useful quantum theory of a physical system by synthetic methods. that a theory of logic or geometry should proceed like a lawyer arguing before a judge. and then for the adjoint operation to determine a Hilbert space. in this we explore the synthetic.free and purely qualitative. Neither the analytic nor the synthetic formulation of quantum theory is directly related to experience in a way that immediately convinces one of its validity. The semigroup theory is one projective representation away from the Heisenberg operator algebra. It takes as basic the semigroup of operations on the quantum system. We give conditions for the occlusion relation j2I to determine a linear space. in the language of linear spaces and operators. One reason to struggle through the cumbersome synthetic approach of this chapter. All have been constructed analytically. In the previous and later chapters we develope the analytic theory.

and the relation of quantum theory to projective geometry was useful to Dirac and Von Neumann during their development of the quantum theory. 6. Two quantum kinematics QO-l with isomorphic occlusion relations 0 have the same coefficient fields K and vector spaces IN up to a semilinear isomorphism.. Our results transfer immediately to semigroup quantum theory if we define the occlusion relation as the relation BA = 0 between operations A and B. We see that the the forbidden transitions alone (the cases of probability 0) determine the vector space with its field. then there is a semilinear isomorphism (V. We sketch it here. and a quantitative one based on number. In the classical theory the semigroup is a category and states are its objects. We take up the forbidden transitions here. Its length just shows how inefficient qualitative methods can be. Fundamental Theorem of Quantum Kinematics. Two rich and useful languages represent the same domain of geometry: a qualitative one based on order. K 2 ) in the manner of QO-l. That is. We exhibited it in Chapter 4. The action semigroup of a fully quantum theory is full. But the construction of the quantitative language from the qualitative one still takes a fair-sized volume. by initial spaces (~. K) . What does the quantum theorist gain in exchange for renouncing objects? We raised this question in Chapter 1. The main result of this section is a strengthening of the theorem of Wigner that the transition probabilities of a quantum system determine its Hilbert space and coefficient field. Weak Form.1 Fundamental Theorem (Weak Form) This is classic material. K') that respects 0. The tension between these two views of geometry has driven much beautiful mathematics of the last two centuries. The mathematical counterpart of this work is the correspondence between synthetic and analytic geometry.1 Fundamental Theorem (Weak Form) 187 We do not pursue a general semigroup logic in this volume. effectuated by semigroup elements /3 themselves. The construction of the qualitative language from the quantitative is swift. . and its recapitulation will take several lines of text in this chapter. with apologies (and references) to projective geometers. Or: if one occlusion relation 0 is represented twice. K 1) and (Vi. and why we use coordinates in the first place. and between abstract projective geometry and vector spaces. This is one of several remarkable conceptual simplifications of the quantum theory. One reward is a remarkable unification of symmetry operations and dynamical operations. Theorem. By contrast. all its automorphisms are inner automorphisms a ~ /3a/3-1. none of the automorphisms of a classical action semigroup are inner. It is a corollary of the fundamental theorem of quantum kinematics.t (V'. and the assured transitions (cases of probability 1) determine the inner product and the intermediate probabilities.6.

(1) We use this notation also if one of A or Q is a single element and the other is a class of elements. ordered by inclusion) by PG V. Why Vectors? We use this theorem whenever we find a symmetry of a quantum system.1Q] =Def (Va E A)(Vw E Q)Wj. then the projective geometry PG V is disconnected and has N + 1 connected components. and 0 could mean "chases".188 6. transcending quantum kinematics. Proof The vector space is determined up to isomorphism by the field K and the dimension N. where IN a and FIN a are a vector space and its dual. The rays in V constitute PGo V. N. the set {O} with 0 E V. We dub members of IN a "initial elements". used to represent external actions indeed.3. . and so an arbitrary subclass of the Cartesian product FIN a x IN a. deriving from the work of Evariste Galois. Here these so-called initial and final elements need not be actions.. This is how we arrive at quantum cpncepts of momentum and angular momentum.1 V. or 1Hl. those of FIN a "final elements". 1.4. . The elements in PG V of projective dimension n constitute the subset PGn V.2 Galois Lattices and Galois Connection We begin with considerations of great generality. let IN a and FIN a be any two classes whatever.1a . 6. Later we specialize to quantum kinematics. also designated by PV. For brevity we call a sharp action a point in what follows. also called a Grassmann manifold. namely the Grassmann manifolds PGn V for n = -1. and the field K in 6. and read w0a as "w occludes a". We show how the occlusion relation j. C. Definition. for example.. one stipulates that the bottom element of PG V. and j. We follow a path laid down in projective geometry. We introduce no structural postulates. disjoint or not. and let 0 be any relation between them. If A and Q are classes of initial and final elements respectively. rotation or time-reversal. We designate the projective geometry of the vector space V (the lattice of all subspaces of V. Since a point has dimension 0. This convention overides types and the apostrophe notation. If K is lR.0. has dimension -1 and constitutes PG. In plane projective geometry the standard instance of 0 is the incidence relation l(P) =0 between the point p and the line l defined by its equation l(x) =0 . They could be cats and dogs. such as translation. we define [Aj. In this unit. We extend the occlusion relation from individual elements to classes thus. as in "Wj.1 is the occlusion relation w(a) = O. in order to infer that some linear or antilinear operator implements this symmetry.1 determines the dimension N in 6. .1A".

In the main interpetation of ~ as occlusion. o In projective geometry. final elements to be continuous functions. A final element belongs to the occluder of A if and only if it occludes every element of A.6. and the duality relation is yet again w(a) = O. The occluder of a unit class is the class of all elements occluding its element. 00 ={al O~a}. This general concept of closure has several important closure concepts of mathematics and physics as special cases. The class of final elements that occlude some (as opposed to every) initial element in A is generally distinct from and much larger than 0A. Then the ~-closure of a set is called its linear closure or span. The closure or ~-closure of an initial class A is A0 := 0A0 := (0A)0 . the final elements w are certain polynomials. . the occluder of A (relative to the given relation ~) is the class 0A of all final elements w that occlude A. take the initial and final elements to be fiats of the geometry. and dually for final classes: 0A ={wl w~A). o o In topology. In projective geometry 0A is called the dual of A. hence the name "closure". The closure symbols 0A0 and 000 must be associated differently to have meaning. and w~a to mean that a is incident on w. again. so we use the term "occluder". of initial elements. Then the closure is the topological closure. the initial elements a are complex numbers. In this sense. but since the meaningful association is unique we omit parentheses. We have no use for it here. and take w~a to mean. If A is any class. and just those. Dually. that w(a) = O.2 Galois Lattices and Galois Connection 189 Definition. final elements to be dual vectors (linear functions). Then the closure is called the projective closure or span. In the original application of Galois. (2) Caution. 0A0 contains any element that is occluded by every element occluding all of A. take initial elements to be points of a space. take initial elements to be vectors. the closure of a final class 0 is the double occluder 0 0 := 000 := 0(00). Definition. an initial element in 0A0 cannot be separated from those in A by the final elements in FIN a. Smaller classes occlude more: (3) [A :2 B] ~ [0B :2 0A] . and take w~a to mean that w(a) = O. but here that could be confused with tA. For a few examples: o In vector spaces. It is evident that the occluder operation 0 reverses inclusion relations. (4) the double occluder of A.

(7) Proof 00A0 :2 0A follows by substituting 0A for A in (3). Now we see how actions define things or entities.• Definition. . are called proper superpositions. the closure of a class includes the class itself. In general. 0D0=D. classes of entities are generally in one of two modes. And dually for D. A class of initial elements A or final ones D is called closed when it is its own closure. (5) In classical kinematics. The span of two elements always includes them.• Thus superpositions can be recognized without benefit of vectors or vector addition. Any superposition of two initial elements is occluded by any final element which occludes the two. and the occluder is the complement . Like actions. We identify a class A of entities defined by the relation 9) between actions. Every closure is closed. however. so that is has the double-0 property 0A0=A . any set A of external elements represents a physical property or class. therefore. but also the predicates. In classical kinematics this is no restriction. initial and final. In classical kinematics the span of a set is the set itself and there are no proper superpositions. if any. one obeying A = 0A0. (6) In general. by setting A = 0A0 and B = A. There the law of double negation holds in the form 0A0=A. for there every class is 9)-closed. directly from the empirical occlusion relation. since there are two different modes of vectors and their subspaces. (8) Proposition. In the topology interpretation. with a closed class A of actions. 0D0:2 D . To parallel the quantum language in words. we have to modalize not only the copulative verb. This is the trivial assertion that each element of A precludes whatever occludes every element of A: 0A0 :2 A. the proper superpositions of a class are its boundary points. Why Vectors? In any case. we have only the following weaker "triple 0 identity": Proposition. a superposition of a class A of elements is any element in the 9)-closure 0A0.190 6. w9)a means that W f a. The other elements of the span. Proof Clear.1 A in the state space. The converse inclusion follows from (3) and (2).

We call an action sharp if it covers the bottom. we shall use the term multiplicity. The lattice supremum or join operation U is the span. Proposition.6. dimension in vector spaces. the lattice infimum or meet operation n is the ordinary set-theoretic meet. form a lattice. cardinality in set theory. will have multiplicity 1. ordered by inclusion. We write 10 for the bottom element of the initial lattice jO for the top element of the initial lattice 10 for the bottom element of the final lattice j 0 for the top element of the final lattice. and modulus in lattice theory. the multiplicity of a class will reduce to the number of elements in it. The projective dimension is always 1 less than the vector dimension. it only indicates the mode. in a classical algebra of classes.3 Multiplicity We now define the dimension of an initial space entirely in terms of its occlusion relation j2!. This 0 symbol does not yet stand for an index. represented by a ray. a sharp action. .3 Multiplicity 191 We may indicate the mode of a class by using semiparenthetical symbols like "(n" for final classes and "A)" for initial. The initial classes. interchanges Proof Straightforward . We call the above lattices the initial lattice and the final lattice of the j2!-relation. The mapping (10) defined by U and n).• This anti-isomorphism is called the Galois connection between the two lattices. So do the final classes. We reserve the angle brackets "(X" and "Y)" for sharp classes (and the undefined "classes" 0 = (0 = 0)). Proposition.• Definition. For example. Any occlusion relation whatever gives rise to a lattice of initial classes. and designate them by (9) respectively. This generalizes such familiar concepts as spectroscopic degeneracy. and a dual lattice of final classes . In quantum kinematics. n = (JA is a lattice anti-isomorphism (reverses order. To avoid confusion. Proof Straightforward. In the theory of Birkhoff and Von Neumann 1936 the lattice property is a postulate. The occlusion theory obviates this postulate. 0 for the null set and 1 for points. Points of the projective geometry are rays of the vector space. 6.

it suffices to show that in the quantum kinematics. (1) in V. The ray of I". of K in bijective correspondence first with the vector I". V and V' are isomorphic. which we also designate by I"')' and finally with the ray of I".) := 10) + 100) x ". 0A0 may include A properly. Why Vectors? The multiplicity of the (diffuse) action represented by the entire space V = NC will be N.4 Logic-based Arithmetic Here we see how the occlusion relation ~ determines the vector space V with its coefficient field K. and the occlusion relation is the null relation wen) = 0.13). it is readily computed that the ~-multiplicity of a span is the vector dimension of the associated subspace.192 6. Then we put each number ". . The vector space V and its coefficient field K determine an occlusion relation ~. ~-multiplicity reduces to vector dimension.. and so forth. Thus for any duality relation ~. Then we can argue that if some other vector space (V'. 6. and any span A of multiplicity greater than 1 includes an infinite number of points. First we show that the occlusion ~ determines the field K up to an isomorphism. 1.. we give the sharp actions (those which cover the bottom action in the ~-lattice) ~-multiplicity 1. In quantum kinematics these are the actions represented by rays in the initial vector space.). . In quantum kinematics. Suppose that the occlusion relation ~ is represented with a field K and initial space V. these are the points (called "atoms" in lattice theory) of the kinematics. For this purpose we first choose two independent vectors (representing distinct actions) which we designate by 10) and 100) E V because their rays will represent the number 0 and the ideal point at 00 of the field K . The span of two points which is not a single point is a line (an action of multiplicity two).00] . the final space is its dual.. (J. ]. Thus to prove that the occlusion relation determines the vector dimension N. We represent the number "line" K by puncturing a line Ko E PG) V (deleting 00). This proves the result: The occlusion relation ~ determines the dimension. The \?l-multiplicity of an action A is the least number of points of the \?l-lattice that ~-span A. . Definition.) is [4 The line in PG) V on which we represent K is Ko := [0. (2) . within isomorphism. Here we shall reconstruct the pair (V. by [a. We designate the span of (= least subspace containing) vectors In). K) from ~ itself. and then with the corresponding initial action. When the initial space is the initial vector space of quantum kinematics. K') represents the same (or isomorphic) occlusion relation \?l.

convert this into a construction by straight-edge alone. We shall represent numbers in K by the actions and rays in Ko\[oo] := [0.6. and logical addition. The ray [1] will represent the unit element 1 of K. We next define the field operation + on Ko \ 00. 1\ of 4. For unity we shall use the nilpotent operations V. 6. the point at infinity. n.2 in our construction instead of the usual idempotent ones U. The ray [0] will represent the 0 of K. the ray ["'] traverses the subspace [0. Our guide is again projective geometry. [00'].) One uses parallel transport to carry the tail of the second interval to the head of the first. Just as Euclidean geometry may be regarded as a theory of constructions using the straight-edge and compasses. First we choose two reference points [0] and [1]. They define the x-axis K whose points represent the coefficient field 8-8.1 Quantum-Logical Addition First we recall how to add two directed intervals on a common baseline in Euclidean geometry (Figure 1. a circular continuu that closes on itself after a rotation of 7r.-----. We may call the results Euclidean addition.00] \ [00] .00] form the projective circle pi. [00"] or to the crooked line at infinity I. that is.4. A \B is the set consisting of those elements of A not in B. projective geometry is the theory of constructions using the straight-edge alone.00] with the ray [00] itself deleted. To construct an isomorph of lR.6. The ray [00] will represent no number of K.-E) e. In the real case K = lR.I ~ --I \ \ \ \ \ \ \ 1 1 1 \ \ K' ~ r----~V \ \ \ A' Q' \ \ \ \ \ Fig.4 Logic-based Arithmetic 193 As '" varies over K. . and finally read off this construction a formula for the sum in terms of the AND and OR operations defined by 0. 6. projective addition. the rays of [0. We shall construct the sum in Euclidean plane geometry by means of the straight-edge and compass. Pay no attention to the points marked [00]. they first enter in the projective interpretation of this figure. respectively. for example.1-1. from pi we must open the circle into a line by deleting one point.4. Then the interval from the tail of the first to the translated head of the second is the sum. (3) The slash \ is set subtraction. How to Add.

[00' E 0] .82] := 0' 1\ K' A := [0'] V [. from K' back to K beginning at [a].6] [00"] := A 1\ I A' := [. We think of 0 as the y-axis. Any point [x] on this line except [00] is the ray of a unique vector of the form 10) + loo)x. [. To carry out the construction of Figure 1 projectively. it is straightforward to see that h] is the ray of the vector 10) + (a.8] on K to [. We imagine that Figure 1 is drawn on a great plain in Kansas and make a perpective drawing of it on a vertical easel.8'] V [00"] [J. [00"] E A] on one line at infinity I. It follows that the endpoint [.8].L] := A' 1\ K\ The last equation defines the point h] as the intersection of the two lines A' and K\ .x E C and biuniquely defines the number a. The Euclidean sum a + . [00'].8)loo) associated with the . the line at infinity. meet at points at infinity [00]. in addition to (and distinct from) the points already chosen for the Euclidean construction. like railroad tracks.8 .8 is the intersection A' 1\ K. on K' by parallels 0 through [0] and 0' through .6] V [00'] [. defining an auxiliary line K' parallel to K.8]'. =a. Then we choose a third point [0]' not on the line K.8. We transfer [. we must choose [00] E K. We read the following incidence relations from Figure 1: K\ := [0] V [00] (1) o := [1]. Since the ray h] is indeed that of the vector [0] + (a. • Next we eliminate the dependence on the Euclidean concept of parallelism and define projective multiplication.8].194 6. using another pair of parallels A through [0'] and A' through [. If we chase through these constructions in coordinates.B)loo) . so that we may speak simply of adding their endpoints [a].] indeed represents the arithmetic product. V [1] K' := [0] V [1]' 1:= [00] V [00'] 0' := [.6] E K. [00"]. Then we transfer the interval [0].[. We choose the intervals to be added to start at [0]. on the horizon 1= [00 V 00' V 00"]. Now we see the three parallel line-pairs. Why Vectors? K. • Now we forget geometry and read these equations as quantum-logical equations.

Then we choose another point [I'] not on their line. which we read off Figure 1. [[3'] rv [1]. The point [IL] is the desired product. . projective multiplication.0[31L. as in Figure 1. Then the vertex IL of the second triangle corresponds to the desired product IL = a[3.6.4. [[3'] E K2 . and quantum-logical multiplication. We transfer the pair 1 : [3 from K\ to K2 by parallels 0. How to Multiply. 6. [a].Ola rv L.. To make the similar triangles.4 Logic-based Arithmetic 195 numerical coefficient a[3 E K.we again use parallel transport. [1] = [1 Il E il arbitrarily.2 Quantum-Logical MUltiplication In an analogous manner we define Euclidean multiplication. Then we transfer the pair [I']. We choose distinct points [0]. defining the pair [1']. Fig. L. [IL] E KIl by parallels A and A'. defining a KIl axis in Figure 1.0' .. • Again we form the projective diagram by forming a perspective view of the Eqclidean diagram and adjoining the points and line at infinity . [f3] . and form the K2 axis.. we have recovered the numerical addition operation entirely in terms of the occlusion relation ~ ..4. In Euclidean geometry we multiply with similar triangles: If IL = a x [3 then 1 : a :: [3 : IL.2-1. To form IL it is enough to create two similar triangles. • Finally we define logical multiplication by the following incidence equations (1). 6..

It follows that the occlusion relation determines the scalars up to a field isomorphism. we may verify by detailed computation using coordinates that the constructions shown in these diagram indeed multiply and add scalars as claimed.6] V [00'] [. This is why the result is called weak. Now we provide coordinate-free postulates for the occlusion relation that imply the existence of such a vector representation. We write w for a general final action and a for a general initial action.6'] := n' V K' A := [0'] V [a] [00"] := A 1\ I A' := [. we have the weak form of the fundamental theorem of quantum kinematics. rather than the orthocomplemented lattice of selective actions of Von Neumann and Birkhoff (1936). then the vector spaces. First we establish that the fields are isomorphic. the strong form of the fundamental theorem. Therefore we now forget the analytic formulation of quantum kinematics and turn to its synthetic characterization. Why Vectors? K\ := [0] V [00] (1) I := [00] V [00'] K2 := [0)' V [00] n := [0] V [0'] n' := [. Combining this with the dimension of the previous section.6'] V [00"] [{] := A' 1\ K The proof of the fundamental theorem is now straightforward._ 6. We start from the initial and final actions and a reversal operation. On the other.5 Fundamental Theorem (Strong Form) In the preceding section we assumed at the start that the occlusion relation was represented in a vector space according to quantum kinematics. Definition. The transition semigroup of a system with initial space IN is the semigroup consisting of the set of operations Tran(E) = IN E U FIN E U 0 U 1 with the serial product defined by . Henceforth in this chapter action shall mean sharp action unless otherwise stated. these constructions use only the occlusion relation.196 6. We take sharp actions as fundamental (in keeping with the principle of maximal astonishment) and represent crisp actions as classes of sharp ones. On the one hand.

6. not by what it includes but by what it precludes or occludes.wliSo: . Both the transition semigroup and the operation semigroup are subsemigroups of the action semigroup of the system.1 Occlusion Postulate O. One consists of external actions. Strong Form.5. we have to identify a class not by its inside but by its outside. There exist initial actions 0: and final actions w.5. If Postulate 1 is not satisfied by some preliminary collection of actions. Now we consider the inverse problem. 6. we may satisfy it by redefining an external action to be an equivalence class modulo the equivalence relation in (1). .1 (1). Because we are basing our theory on the occlusion relation and Postulate 1.1 (9). We define the occluder of a class of actions also as in 6.2 Identification Postulate 1. Thus 1 means allowed here and 0 means forbidden.1 (2). Moreover if there is a concept of assured transition as well as forbidden so that IN is a * space.5. = We extend the occlusion relation from individual acts to classes as in 6. Initial actions are equal if and only if they occlude the same final actions: 0: = 0:' :=: 00: = 00:' . what it is not. Evidently the transition semigroup and the occlusion relation are the same mathematical object in different clothes. and the Galois connection 0: Lr(liS) t--t Lp(liS) as in 6. Theorem.1-6 below is (isomorphic to) the transition * semigroup of of a unique * space over a * field. to characterize synthetically the transition semigroups that are represented analytically by vector spaces over arbitrary fields. Fundamental Theorem of Quantum Kinematics. with 0:r::J A = {O} A 0' wand a binary occlusion relation wliSo: wo: =0 between them. (1) and dually. The * operator of the * space is represented by a positive Hermitian symmetric sesquilinear form MAE on IN. (1) =0 if wliSo:. A * semigroup obeying the postulates 6. that is. We call their elements initial and final (action) classes.w0 0: 6. the other internal or medial actions. with unit element 1 and zero element 0 and with the default value 0 for all the reversed-order products: 0: 0 W = O. then its * naturally induces a * on Tran € . We define the initial and final (Galois) lattices Lr(liS) and Lp(liS) as in 6.1 (10).5 Fundamental Theorem (Strong Form) 197 = 1 if -.

For the sake of later locality. We write ta for the adjoint of the initial action a. In a more relativistic theory one drops definiteness. By an adjoint (operation) t is meant any mapping from actions to actions with the following properties: Al tt = id (1) A2) The adjoint of an initial action is a final one.4 Modularity The mUltiplicity of a lattice element has already been defined. In the classical case. starting from the bottom and working up. We commit several such redundancies to make our postulates obviously self-dual. and dually wt for the adjoint of final action w. 6. We now designate the mUltiplicity of a by laland assume that it satisfies the following postulate. For all initial (or final) action classes a and (3.198 6. A mapping obeying Al is called an involution or involutory. where each initial action precludes every final action but one. where an initial action precludes almost no final actions. One is that they both cover their meet.3 Adjoint Definition. An involutory antiautomorphism obeying A4 is called definite. There exists an adjoint. and the other is that . in which case it is called a modulus: Postulate 3. la U (31 + la n (31 = lal + 1(31· (1) Because of the Galois connection it is redundant to assert this postulate both for initial and final modes. the relation o admits infinitely many adjoints. 6. Why Vectors? This is enough to express the relation of quantum superposition. the adjoint is uniquely determined by the properties AI-4. and conversely.5. In quantum kinematics. One obeying A2 and A3 is called an antiautomorphism of the occlusion relation. Postulate 2. In classical kinematics there are two equivalent ways to verify that two classes differ by one element. A3) The adjoint transposes preclusion: A4) No action precludes or occludes its adjoint. A of actions a and (3 is an action in the Galois lattice element a U (3 . we do not single out one adjoint as an element of kinematic structure. but demand only that one exist.5.

If we wish to treat a system with only two modes. Baer's proof modernizes the classical projective geometric one. to determine a coordinate system.5 Irreducibility Postulate 4. Every two initial (or final) actions have a proper superposition. 6. In a general lattice these conditions are inequivalent. If this postulate were not true we could arrange to make it true by restricting ourselves to one term in this decomposition. In quantum kinematics they are equivalent.5. which one calls the .4. the proof is still lengthy. Their equivalence is equivalent to modularity. 6. von Staudt chose a maximal independent set of points.5 Fundamental Theorem (Strong Form) 199 their join covers them both. Much of this result is from 19th century projective geometry. The given occlusion relation III is the occlusion relation defined by V.5. 6. with one basis vector for each poipt. The new element is the complex conjugation of K. we can lend it some of our own. say another spin 112. an involutory nonsingular antiautomorphism (complex conjugation). say N in number. The modulus of the system is finite and at least 3. and admit a decomposition into irreducible disjoint alternatives.6 Desarguesian Postulate Postulate 5.7 Proofs Birkhoff and Von Neumann (1936) noted that essentially these postulates imply the existence of a (possibly non-commutative) field K. and a finite-dimensional Hilbert space V over K.6. which require a projective plane (which has modulus 3) containing the projective number line (which has modulus 2. and one more besides. such that the lattice of initial actions is the projective geometry of V. If we omitted it.5. enables us to carry out the projective arithmetic operations of 6. This postulate. In the classical proof. The modulus of a class is a measure of its a priori probability and enters essentially into the definition of thermodynamic entropy. A proof of the fundamental theorem of projective geometry in its strong form is given by Baer (1952) and Artin (1957) by two quite different methods.) This is a weak assumption. the system might possess superselection operators. This asserts that the system has at least three independent modes of action. This implies the postulate of projective geometry that there are at least three points on every line. which implies the Desargues postulate of projective geometry. . like a spin 112. To drop modularity would threaten the second law of thermodynamics. After a century of polishing.

This has the virtue of making the two field operations + and x more transparent. Let us first do this in coordinates. For the purpose of quantum physics. (3 E IN f I A(a)A({3) =A(a + (3) A(O) = 1 . supposing that the system f obeys quantum kinematics with initial linear space IN f of dimension D. using parallel projection along N coordinate hyperplanes. and A('ljJ)a = a + 'ljJ is to hold for certain vector(s) a though it cannot hold in general. as follows. Artin presents the field K as a symmetry group of an abelian symmetry group of the geometry. He emphasizes symmetry groups in just the spirit of the mathematician Galois and the quantum physicist Wigner. A('ljJ) is to be defined on every vector. we must define a linear operator A('ljJ) that "adds 'ljJ" to something. the system can be represented by this ring as well as by its algebra or linear space. the sum of the basis vectors. We give the principal diagonal the structure of a field by the projective arithmetic operations of 6. whose physical significance we return to later. The distributivity of x over + is exactly the fact that automorphisms respect the + ofG. and then transcribe the result synthetically from the linear space to the action semigroup. basis 13k and reciprocal basis 13 k . to determine what Dirac later called the principal vector of that coordinate system. If a. Now let G be any abelian group. Va. We require A : IN f ~ Op f to be a group isomorphism from the additive group of kets of f into the multiplicative group of operators of f . To give physical meaning to ket addition. (1) (I') . An initial vector 'ljJ defines an element of an additive group G of initial vectors.4. The group R = Aut(G) of automorphisms of G is a pre-ring with two natural operations x and + defined as follows. The choice of the principal point fixes the relative phases of the basis vectors. the coefficients being central ("superselection") elements in the ring. while the ring multiplication is the group operation of the automorphism group of the underlying group. which is quantum superposition. derives from the group operation of the underlying group. Then we represent every point of the lattice by N points on the principal diagonal. Thus the ring addition +.200 6. proving that these operations define a field is the lengthy part of the proof. These rings in turn seem to come from free abelian groups. To pursue Artin's line of thought further we must give the abelian symmetry group G associated with the additive group of the kets of the quantum system. a + a' is the composition of maps of G acting "in parallel" by the + operation of G applied to their values. The operators of this form make up the image A' (IN f) = G . These projections are the coordinates of the point. Why Vectors? principal point. Every linear space or algebra is also a ring. a' E R then o o a x a' is the composition of maps of G acting in series by concatenation.

. k.6.A(a)]2 = 1 so we change variables by A(a) == 1 + n(a) and find that (2) n(a + b) = n(a)n(j3) + n(a)n(j3) . l = 1. whose vectors define elements of G.O. Sequestering the first and second degree parts of (2) we see that n(a) is linear in a and nilquadratic: n(a)n(j3) = O. We do this by adjoining one orthogonal basis vector 130 which we call the vacuum ket. to define the addition of kets of a system to we suppose that to is a subsystem of a system to' of modulus Mult to' = Mult to + 1 . A nilquadratic basis is then nk = 13k 0 130. Thus if we wish to give meaning to kets and their addition for a system to of multiplicity D we must imbed a in a system to' of multiplicity at least D + 1 . 1') if and only if the nk are a linearly independent system of D mutually annulling operators. Define nk := n(j3k). defining a subspace A(O) IN to C IN to in which (1) holds. k 1. The standard matrix representation for A(a) is then o N(a) = o o (4) The effect of A(a) is then to shift the vacuum basis ket by a and to leave the other basis vectors fixed . . We take G to be the group of automorphisms of IN to' that leave IN to pointwise fixed. The fiduciary vector 130 plays the role in Artin's construction that the principal diagonal played in the classical construction. . We cannot satisfy (1) and (1 '). This is essentially the abelian group G of Artin. We call a sequence of independent operators nk obeying (3) a nilquadratic basis. There are at most D . nknl = 0._ .5 Fundamental Theorem (Strong Form) 201 (1) implies that [1 . we must synthetically characterize the ray transformations induced by the group (4): They are just the automorphisms that leave pointwise fixed a distinguished subspace of maximal dimension. then. synthetically but not trivially. with one additional "vacuum" dimension. A has the desired properties (1. complementary to the vacuum ray. We therefore drop the condition (1') A(O) = 1 and note that by (1) A(0)2 = A(O) is idempotent. "vacuum shifts". In the synthetic approach. Then a ket is a vacuum shift and ket addition is the serial product of vacuum shifts. D (3) and A(a) = 1 + nkak . These matrices form a multiplicative group G isomorphic to the additive group of kets of to • Before we eliminate the coordinates and proceed synthetically.1 operators in a nilquadratic basis in D dimensions.. This is the subspace of actual interest. These "vacuum shifts" can be shown to commute.

By contrast. A bouquet defines a class of flowers extensionally. In the laboratory one can define a class extensionally in quantum physics much as in classical. The generator F of any symmetry of the Hamiltonian commutes with it and is therefore a constant of the motion. dt t=O I and by differentiating (1) we see that G = -Gt is anti-Hermitian. the Hermitian operator in G formed from the generator G of the time-translation group T(t) is called the Hamiltonian H of the system. They are described by one many-electron ket. But the gold electrons are not described in C. C uses the whole projective geometry lattice to characterize a linear space.7 Critique of the Lattice Logic Von Neumann's lattice quantum logic C raised problems. 6. One must go outside a classical system for its symmetries. An atom of gold defines a class of electrons extensionally. Extensionality. physical quantities not only serve as algebraic generators in quantum theory. It is conventional to multiply G by in to form a Hermitian operator. or a change of some coordinate) then we can choose T(t) to be unitary. but suffice to generate all continuous symmetries. no (non-trivial) automorphism of the arrow semi group of a classical system can be inner. when the points and copoints and 0 would suffice. The most important special case is the passage of time. If T is a symmetry of some operator then G commutes with that operator.6 Generators In consequence of the fundamental theorem of quantum kinematics (6. Redundancy. Since most elements of the lattice are unsharp. Why Vectors? 6. and is then represented by a linear or antilinear transformation of the space. TTt = 1 = TtT (1) The rate of change of T at t = 0 is called the (infinitesimal) generator of the group T(t): G'= dT(t) (2) . many pointed by Von Neumann: Non-modality. If T(t) is a one-parameter symmetry group (t need not be the time but can be an angle of rotation. since no classical arrow has an inverse. namely the electrons in the atom. When this is a symmetry group. not by a .202 6.5) every symmetry transformation of the system induces one of its linear space. due to their non-commutativity. Its elements are all invariant under t . dF/ dt = 0 . More generally. C violates the principle of maximal astonishment. including the passage of time. C does not exhibit the initial-final modal symmetry t that dominates quantum physics. namely the class of flowers in the bouquet.

the projective geometry of the one-electron space IN. it does not contain a class consisting of two classes. and is isomorphic to a projective geometry. The elements of the lattice logic are global. and opening the road to the higher-order quantum logic of Chapter 14. Physics already uses a higher-order class calculus. while quantum theory itself is local. The logic £ cannot describe its own reasoning. so it lacks almost all extensionally defined classes. is the projective group of the vector space. that is. Self-reference. It thus has direct experimental meaning. Its group. Heuristic value. The quantum logic of this chapter is founded on this relation alone. describing the system throughout space at one instant. nor has it been useful for applying existing theories. In the next chapters we provide for extensionality and self-reference and re-approach the problems of relativity. Whitehead . In Chapter 16 we tackle the problem of local Lorentz invariance and locality. 6. The initial and final actions of a quantum system are modal. It treats the system with quantum logic but it works with classical logic. In this chapter we resolved problems of modality and redundancy and improved operationality somewhat with the occlusion theory. which leads us out of algebra into multi-algebra.S Summary The projective geometry of a vector space is the theory of the incidence relations among its flats and corresponds to the quantum theory of the selection rule or occlusion relation between final and initial acts. By Chapter lOwe reach a more truly quantum class algebra of some utility enveloping the projective geometry. The lattice logic has led to no progress with the most fundamental problems of quantum physics today. can describe simple products but not their superpositions. Geometry is cross-classification. £. free of meaningless phases.6. including all extensionally defined classes. Alfred N. the collection of transformations of the vector space that respects the occlusion relation. a second-order class. Locality. sharp and operational.8 Summary 203 one-electron projection operator. For example. The projection concept is Lorentz invariant (Lorentz transformations are unitary) but not local.

Act 2 Many .

We have developed several kinds of combinatorical structures. We may think of these ways to combine objects as functors from the category of variable or random objects to itself. we have developed an intuitive classical combinatorics. when we unite two sets with each other.as we have done so far . Leibniz called the theory of combination ars combinatoria. . 1. For example. stores of goods. we may meaningfully say that an individual is an element or member of a set. prides of lions. to form composite quantum entities from simpler ones. but it does when we combine two sequences into one. we expect that the order of the two does not matter. which we regard as the result of applying the functor Set to a. Similarly. For example. From experience with such combinations as families of people. though the classical ancestor of one famous quantum combinatorics was never noteworthy in its own right. Many Quanta As atomists we compose our structures from ultimate uncomposed elements. If a is any random object. Every mode of composition considered in classical combinatorics has a quantum correspondent. . This calls for a richer kinematical theory than we have presented so far. and combinatorics is an aspect of set theory. guiding us whenever we classify or enumerate. We shall use much the same combinatorics both for actualities and possibilities. In this chapter we enumerate the main quantum methods of aggregation and link them to their classical antecedents. one of infinitely many possible sequences. called "units" here to avoid confusion with the divisible atoms of modern atomic physics. then a random set of a's is another random object Set a. nowadays we speak of combinatorics. Furthermore we have internalized certain algebra-like laws for these combinatoric relations. and every mode of quantum combinatorics that we need arises as a straightfoward quantum relativization of some classical correspondent.7. In quantum physics too we use combinatory functors. constellations of stars.. the random sequence of a's is the result of a sequence-forming functor Seq.but must also tell how they combine into a compound object. and we can form sequences of other objects as well. and both for classical and quantum systems. with a definite order. An atomist must not only tell about the units . 2. or that one set is the union of two others. and classes of numbers. For example. The classical combinatorics transplants amazingly well to the quantum domain. when we count we arrange the integers in a sequence 0. A combination of objects is also called a set. ..

For example. The laws of quantum membership differ fundamentally from those of classical membership. o Mathematics expresses these classical assumptions and their consequences in the combinatorics chapter of elementary algebra courses and most explicitly in classical set theory. This has become a completely routine procedure. To be consistent with our semigroup approach we should replace the language of sets by one of semigroups. with conjunctions such as "and" and "or". When classical physics treats such collections formally. not the set. o In physics these assumptions appear when we discuss collections of many particles. and with the copulative verb "is". Many Quanta 7. We call two entities in an assembly equivalent if it is possible to exchange them without changing any physical variable of the assembly. we nowadays call the entire combinatoric theory of an entity its statistics. mathematics. By extension. In physics one sometimes takes other modes of assembly to be more fundamental than the set or combination. and their combinatorics is then handled by set theory. such as fields. always provided these properties actually define a photon. and we may carry it out at our convenience. in which each element is associated with operations of creation. The way in which we count the distinct modes of an assembly of a's is called the statistics of a. In "pure" set theory we imagine making the entire mathematical universe from the null set 1 and the iterated operations of union and unitization. we describe the . selection and annihilation. Traditionally the sequence. molecules and solids. What is sometimes called a combination in a first course may be renamed a set in a later one. but I will respect the older usage of Leibniz that reserves that term for the case where there is only one entity. and gets physically wrong results. and physics in various forms: o Natural languages express some of these classical assumptions about pluralities with the grammatical plural number. In this unit we study the classical statistics and prepare them for quantization. We can distinguish equivalent entities. but we cannot attach permanent proper names like "Photon 1" and "Photon 2" to them. because to do so would break the symmetry. We can determine that we have two things in such an assembly. Equivalence is a kind of symmetry.208 7. In statistical physics we often average over all accessible states or modes of the system. such as atoms. as with the numbers 2 x 3 and 6. or the evening star and the morning star. but only by their accidental properties. We combine such mathematical objects using the same operations.1 Classical Combinatorics Combinatorics is built into natural language. Equivalent particles are often called "identical". or of many spacetime events. it uses classical set theory. has been the starting point for physical combinatorics. Mathematical objects are usually expressed as sets. like "the photon of greater energy" and "the photon of such-and-such momentum".

Ser 0:.. We must therefore generalize the classical mathematical concept of a constant set of constant elements in two directions: o from sets to other modes of assembly. o "With order respected" emphasizes that neither of the above mutually dual options are taken. set contains any state at most once with order ignored. Let S be the state space of one object and let P be the population of objects. To define them we will need the following terminology. o "With order ignorable" means subject to the condition of pointwise invariant under II. In this context a sequence is called a Maxwell-Boltzmann assembly. sequence. Then we quantize them by relativizing their frames. Then the main classical assemblies can be described thus: A o A o A o A o sequence contains any state any number of times with order respected. Set 0: of any unit 0: by givng their operation semigroups (or operator algebras) OpSeqo:. In addition the units we assemble in physics are ultimately quantum. The quantum and classical assemblies have the same operator algebras. The most important such assemblies are the sequence. Then for any assembly state space T: o "With order ignored" means with identification modulo II. Sib 0:.that is. sib.9. we extend it from classical objects to quantum entities .7. indexing the planets with a label n = 1. series contains any state any number of times with order ignored. and o from classical constant elements to quantum variable elements. We quantize combinatorics . absolute coordinate subalgebra while a quantum assembly has many relative ones. ···. sib contains any state any number of times with order ignorable. producing the quotient object with state space T /11.1 Classical Combinatorics 209 planetary Solar System as a. We are specially concerned with assemblies of equivalent classical atoms of some kind 0:. but a classical assembly has a single. with non-commuting properties. of nine points in a common 6-dimensional phase space. . by formulas that are identical for classical and quantum entities. Below we define these classical concepts of set. . series. series and sequence algebraically. OpSeto: in terms of OPo:. the single-unit semigroup (or operator algebra).. not merely a set. We define assemblies Seq 0:. sib and set. producing the subobject with state space T\II. . This also develops our quantization muscle for later. Let II = II(P) be the symmetric group interchanging the objects of the population.by quantum relativization.

are extremes of a spectrum of such partially quantum systems with superselection operators. This is imbedded by inclusion in the direct sum. Many Quanta We then note the following correspondences: A quantum set is a Fermi-Dirac or antisymmetric assembly. embracing both as special cases. For a fully classical system. with all 0' s identified. a vector space of dimension N = ZD that we write as Z ® IND. a and (3. In a more general kinematics than either classical or quantum. with the quantum and classical kinematics. after the connection between spin and statistics. Let Z x IN D designate the union of Z vector spaces IN of dimension D each. the sib. (Pauli called this odd statistics. 7. In the rest of this unit we compile the main classical assembly modes.210 7. from a vector space IN (as for quantum entities) to a union of Z vector spaces IN 1 U . Z = 1. o All these assemblies but the series obey quantum kinematics defined by initial vector spaces with the quantum kinematics QO-l (unlimited superposition). and all the intermediate statistics.) o A quantum sequence is a Maxwell-Boltzmann assembly. We should write it now as Space a x' . o A quantum series is an incoherent mixture of all possible statistics including the set. The series requires us to generalize the concept of initial space significantly. of dimension DimIN = N. Z = N. The collection of ordered pairs a x b for a E Space a and b E Space (3 is the Cartesian product Space a x Space (3 of Space a with Space (3. That direct sum would not describe the series. which we write as a x b. (Pauli called this even statistics. We may regard an ordered pair of elements a and b as a noncommutative associative free unital product of the two. = a x (3 composed of only two units. and Coop a for the cooperator algebra of a.. Coord a for the (commutative) coordinate algebra of a. and there is only one vector space in the sum. Since no sum is defined for vectors of different spaces. and there are N one-dimensional vector spaces in the sum. one for each state. OP a for the operator algebra of a. the union of vector spaces is not a vector space.) o A quantum sib is a Bose-Einstein or symmetric assembly.. we represent initial acts in a union of vector spaces instead of a direct sum. We write S = Space a for the state space of an entity named a.1 Ordered Pairs of Units We can illustrate the main combinatorial ideas with a compound system designated by . The main question is: What modes of assembly does nature use? We take this up later.1. D = 1. We explicitly avoid closing the union under addition to form a direct sum vector space. For one fully quantum system. prior to quantizing them in the next. Thus the (fully) quantum and classical concepts of a system. D = N. We first combine states and then operators. U IN z.

and designated here. In general. If a is any operator of the object 0:. then the combination 1=0: X f3 has Hamiltonian H'Y = Ho: + HfJ. They are called distinguishable. and use the sign x in two ways depending on context.. in general designated by a ® 1.: OP(. We extend any operator (5) b of object f3 similarly: b('IjJ x ¢) = 'IjJ x (b¢) . N distinguishable systems O:n = 0:). to combine distinguishable classical systems we form Cartesian products of their state spaces and tensor products of their algebras of operators and coordinates. then if U = S x T we say that 0: and f3 do not interact. . The objects 0: and f3 in such a composite are not equivalent. (6) If the three systems 0:. Op f3. also by a.0:2. In general we define the interaction Hamiltonian Ho:fJ of the combination I by . This extension of a acts on a product state 'IjJ x ¢ of I according to the definition a('IjJ x ¢) = (a'IjJ) x ¢. The coordinate algebras of these systems also combine by the tensor product: Coord I := [C f . x Space 0: N (2) of their N disjoint state spaces in the arbitrarily chosen fixed order of the index n.Space I] := IC Space I := (Space I)' = [Space 0: x Space f3]' = Space 0:' ® Space f3' = Coord 0: ® Coord f3 . and a f/.. where the units are distinguishable. X O:N (1) with Space I given by a Cartesian product Space I = Space 0:) x Space 0:2 x . We write 0: x f3 for the hypothetical entity having Space 0: x Space f3 for its state space. If 0: and f3 have Hamiltonians H 0: and H fJ separately and do not interact.) = Op(o:) ® Op(f3) . .. in an arbitrary but fixed order.7. T and U respectively.1 Classical Combinatorics 211 Space f3 but we usually drop the apostrophe....O:N have a unique assembly 1= 0:) X 0:2 X . (4) In brief. then there is a natural extension of a from 0: to the composite system 1=0: X f3. f3 and I = 0: X f3 have propagators S. The Cartesian products Space 0: x Space f3 and Space f3 x Space 0: are naturally i~omorphic as sets. Similarly operators of 0: and (3) f3 combine by tensor product into operators of .

Ser. It follows that the coordinates and Hamiltonians of . 7. In the general case we write 'W for any mode of assembly. . 8. We say that the order of 0::\ and 0::2 is ignored in this kind of assembly.(0::\. .212 7. = 0::\ x o::2/II .0::2) indistinguishable when the isomorphic states 0::\ x 0::2 and 0::2 x 0::\ are identified to form one state of . r r . We designate the resulting assembly of o::'s by 'Wo::. and we write it as . a script form of n. is the quotient space of 0::\ x 0::2 modulo II = 8 2. Space. These assemblies are all defined by various kinds of symmetrized product. Let 8 = Space. operators Op 'Wo::. For noninteracting classical systems 'Ye add Hamiltonians when we tensor-multiply operator algebras. to be specified later. = Ser2 0::.ence. Here we relate these two ways of expressing symmetry. and construct its associated spaces of states Space 'Wo::. be a state space and a group of mappings 8 -. by taking a union over all values of N. the symmetric group on {0::\. = OPo:: 0 OPo::\II.. We will let 'W take on such values as 'W = Seq.: (1) Space. 8 will be a sequence space 8 = Space Seq 0:: and is the symmetric group II on the objects of the sequ. 7. of units.1.3 Symmetry and Duality Sets and sibs have symmetries that may be expressed either in their initial spaces (by a quotient) or their operator algebras (by a subset). For statistical applications we also give the number of states of each assembly as a function of the number M of unit states and the number N of units.2. may be represented by operators in Op 0:: 0 Op 0:: that are invariant under II: OP. In our first examples. The assembly with state space (1) is called a series of two o::'s. = .1. We first define each assembly operation 'W for a constant number N = 0. and then extend it to a variable number. Sib and Set. coordinates Coord 'Wo::. (2) We generalize this algebra construction below to all physically important kinds of assembly. also called a grand assembly.2 Unordered Pairs of Units We call two classical objects 0::\ and 0::2 in an assembly. This 'W is an operation (functor) that converts one-unit structures to corresponding many-unit structures. cooperators Coop 'Wo:: and ordinates ORD 'Wo::. 1. Many Quanta (7) (suppressing unit-operator factors as usual).0::2}. hence the symbol 'W.

and we say that G fixes (or respects) p. . we define the assembly roc¥ by giving its operator algebra OP roc¥. and the transform of a function I E S' under the group element. The subset T ~ S consisting of all the fixed points of S under r is written T = S\r (read: "S fixed under r" or simply "s under r"). (1) r p is called the orbit of p under r. 1fT = Sir then T' = S'\r. If T = For example.7. hence invariant under r. _ Proof. We write the value of a function I E S' at a state s as Is.' = [Space c¥ x Space (3 III]' = [Space c¥ x Space (3l'\II = [Space c¥' 0 Space (3']\II (3) consisting of symmetric tensors of the tensor product IC Space c¥ 01C Space (3. its state space Space roc¥ with the number of states I Space roc¥l. the second is proven similarly. This is an equivalence relation.2 below. the coordinate algebra is Coord. 1fT = S\r then T' = s'/r .)s = f(. G acts naturally and dually on the functions in S'. Proposition. thanks to this duality. and its coordinate algebra Coord roc¥. (2) sir then T' = (sir). the value of v at p.s) . = Space. The subset construction and the quotient construction are dual in the following sense. consists of all the functions I E S' that are constant on r -orbits. as I" defining it by by (f. Another example is shown in 7. for indistinguishable objects with isomorphic state spaces Space c¥ +-> Space (3.1 Classical Combinatorics For any pES we write under elements of r: r 213 p ("the r's of p")for the set of all images of p r p = bpi pEr} . The set S and its coordinate algebra S' are mutually dual in the sense that any point pES and any coordinate v E S' combine to give an invariant complex number v(P) = v • p. For each assembly operation ro. This proves the first assertion.3. We now enumerate several natural ways ro to assemble equivalent classical units. Two points in the same orbit of Sunder r are said to be equivalent modulo r. If G p = {p} then p is called a fixed point of Sunder r. When a group r acts on a space S. The set of all the orbits in Sunder G is called the quotient of S by r and written Sir ("S over r").

This defines ORD Seq a. the dual space K Space Seq a over the ring of coefficients K signifies the space of functions f : Space Seq a ---> K. (3) The ordinates of Seq a are in 1-1 natural correspondence with the ordered polynomials in the states of a. and are naturally isomorphic in this classical theory. The leading term 1 stands for the unit set 1 = SO ={0} whose sole element is the null set 0. The traditional way to present classical kinematical theories is by their state spaces. We write the vector space and algebra of all contravariant tensors over a vector space V as TV.. not the state space. which is the dual space to IN Seq a . First. with zero systems.1. and final modes by basis vectors in K Space Seq a. The second dual K K Space Seq a is the space of formal linear combinations of a-sequence states. to represent initial modes of Seq a by (basis) vectors in K K Space Seq a. Then the sequence operator-algebra is OpSeqa = Op[TINa]. The number of sequence states of N elements with M states each is evidently ISpace Seq al =MN . we recall 3. We now construct the operator algebra Op Seq a of the sequence.214 7. The operator algebra Op Seq a is the space of formal linear combinations of arrows over Space Seq a.. As for any classical system a. The part of classical kinematics that survives after quantization is the operator or arrow algebra. which space we designate therefore by IN Seq a. arbitrarily. Now we can give the statistics for the sequence. The units in a sequence are isomorphic but distinguishable and not equivalent. A sequence may contain any state any number of times and the order of the states matters. and we write w = Seq for the assembly operation (a functor) that forms sequences (of any length) from individuals. (4) . and is naturally isomorphic to the tensor product K K Space Seq a ®K Space Seq a.3 . Both linear spaces are born with natural bases provided by the states of Space a themselves.1. We agree. Many Quanta 7.4 Sequence In physics the commonsense assembly of equivalent units is the sequence. We see that there is an isomorphism permitting the identification of initial vectors of a sequence of objects with contravariant tensors over the initial space of one object: (2) IN Seq a = T IN a . = (1) N=O 1 where S := Space a. The sequence Seq a of a's is defined to have the state space N UII S 00 Space Seq a := 1 U S U (S x S) U .

7. For each state s E Space a. Only the basis elements Is) of IN a are interpreted in the classical theory. (5) This states that we can export a unit in state t from the end of a sequence only if the last unit imported to the sequence was in state t. associativity and distributivity). Now we have removed that limitation and have initial actions with a nontrivial product. and the sequence stateis an eigenstate of N(s) with eigenvalue N(s) = 1 if the last unit is in state s. and deletes it. The final operator (sl is a formal differentiation d/ds with respect to a final s. we define the one-unit initial creation action Is) of Seq a as the function Is): Space Seq a ~ SpaceSeqa of (left) multiplication by the state s E Spacea. The formal complex linear combinations of these one-unit initial operations Is) is the complex vector space IN a. but we did not define a product for such operations. being undefined. and the denominator designates the ideal generated by the given expressions. subject to (3) (and the usual algebra postulates of unity. The initial and final operations are originally mappings Space Seq a ~ Space Seq a. and otherwise. The algebra Op a may be identified with the algebra of linear operators Op a = [IN a <. The sequence operator algebra Op Seq a is the algebra of operators (linear combinations of arrows) on Space Seq a. When the initial creation action Is) acts on a sequence of states it adds one unit in state s at the left end of the sequence. we introduced an initial action that prepares or selects the object. If L: is any sequence state. There are no nontrivial commutation relations in Space Seq a.] (6) where ALG designates the identities defining an algebra over C. The number operator N(s) := Is)(sl for s E S refers only to the last unit in the sequence. In our study of individual quanta or classical objects. This limited the system to a single object.1 Classical Cornbinatorics 215 The operation of combining two sequences into one by concatenation is a semigroup product on the state space Space Seq a. They obey ° It)(sl = 8! . that different orders are isomorphic but somehow still different. (s IL: is defined to be L: without its last (leftmost) state if that state is s. We similarly define a final action (sl: Space Seq a ~ Space Seq a that annihilates one final object of the sequence. OP Seq a is (isomorphic to) the algebra generated by the external operators It) and (sl.IN a]. We all these operators the initial and final operators and continue to write them as Is) and (sl. We write Space Seq a for the semigroup of sequences of a states multiplied by concatenation. thus becoming operators in Op Seq a. We may set that product to be trivially 0. and ("undefined") otherwise. They extend naturally to mappings: IN Seq a ~ IN Seq a. This expresses the implicit assumption that the order in which units are imported matters. . (sl verifies after the fact that the last element of the sequence is s. according to the recursion ° Op Se a:= OP = C U IN U IN' U Op 0' Op U Op +' Op q ALGU[(sI0It)-8.

the union of them all is an infinite group II applicable to sequences a of any finite length. . We construct the state space and operator algebra of the series from those of the sequence. the permutations of the elements of a among themselves form the permutation group or symmetric group SN = IIN. and the order of units is ignored. That is. In this unit we construct and decompose Ser a. We may call II the grand permutation group.. then G changes each element but respects their order. (1) A state of a series is an equivalence class of sequence states. It acts naturally on any sequence state space. with N! elements. The operator algebra of the series is reducible. from which the name is taken. 7. To form the operator algebra of the series. a product of N elements. If we take a sequence of given constant length. so that T7r = 7rT.5 Series A series is a sequence with order ignored. Coord Seq a is (isomorphic to) the algebra generated by the one-unit coordinates Coord a with the sequential tensor product ® and the usual sum: Coord Seq a = Alg®(Coorda). (7) The coordinated algebra of the sequence is (Op Seq a. Since each IIM is included in all IIN with M < N. (2) .216 7. Proposition. Call an operation T on a general sequence Seq a symmetric if T is invariant under grand permutations 7r of the units of Seq a. N). may contain any kind of unit any number of times. Two groups act naturally on the sequence state space: the symmetric group (=permutation group) II of the units in the sequence. . To form the state space of the series. These two noncommutative groups commute with each other: trg = g7r for all 7r E II and 9 E G. the orbit of a single sequence state under II: Space Ser a := Space Seq a III . a series of equivalent units. To discuss symmetry we extend the concept of permutations from a constant sequence of constant length to a variable sequence of indefinite or variable length. while II respects each element but changes their order. We define a series operator as a symmetric sequence operator: OP Ser a := (Op Seq a)\II := {q E Op Seq al'v'7r E III7rq = q7r} .1.. we keep only the symmetric operators. We decompose it into irreducible parts by the method of Young tableaux. we identify sequence-states modulo permutations. Coord Seq a). and the symmetric group G on the states of one typical unit. Many Quanta The sequence coordinate algebra Coord Seq a is (we recall) spanned by the sequence state projections Is) (sl =: lsi for all s E Space Seq a. like an arithmetic series. If a is the specific N-sequence (1.

one in the second.. Using S+ we may also write (4) as Coord Sera = S+[Coord Seq a]' . and none in the fifth or higher states. with commutative product. none in the third. three in the fourth.I)! permutations of .. To count the states of the series. (6) The apostrophe reminds us that S+ acts on the elements of [Coord Seq a].. is in 1-1 correspondence with the formal polynomials in the states of a. It stands for a functor (namely. For example the row 00 I a II 000 I (7) represents a series with two objects in the first state. AN} for the corresponding series state. ORD Ser a. The order of the symbols within braces does not matter: {12} = {21}. so that IIII is the number of active elements in the group and also the number of terms in the sum. A complex coordinate of a sequence is a function f(a) of a sequence state a. Think of any state as a partition of a sequence of N objects into M classes. taking the quotient modulo II) that acts on the state space and whose dual acts on the operator algebra. This is an average over the grand permutation group II. It is then a symmetric function of its arguments: Coord Ser a = Coord Seq a \II . AN modulo II. IIIIl}! := N! l}!. One way to form a symmetric function of a sequence of N objects is to average any function over all N! permutations p of the N objects. we write {AI' .2.1 symbols is (M + N . where the mth class consists of the objects in the mth state. It defines a function of a series if its value is unchanged by permutations in II.1 Classical Combinatorics 217 We write Sera = Seq a/II (3) as an abbreviation for (1) and (2). We designate a symmetrizing operator on sequence cooperators I()CSpace Seq a by (5) Here 7r acts on formal linear combinations l}! of sequence states in the natural way.3 and indicates the proof of the general case. AN is a sequence state.. The number of permutations of such a sequence of M + N . If Al .7.. The N! permutations of the stars among themselves and the (M .1 bars representing partitions between them. the equivalence class of Al . and for any l}! of length N. number the states of a from 1 to M anyhow. Such a partition is biuniquely described by a row of N a's representing objects and M . the ordinate algebra of Ser a. (4) This is a special case of the duality principle of 7.I)!.

Each y biuniquely determines .218 7. we represent series coordinates by sequence coordinates invariant under permutations. then it does so for all time. every sequence state 0' is equivalent mod II to a block-ordered sequence 0' and determines a Young .{11} is forbiddden. Many Quanta the bars among themselves do not change the state of the assembly. we permute its elements so that equal states are adjacent and states with greater frequency of appearance preceed those with lesser. and the following is convenient and standard. Yo' gives the pattern of equalities and inequalities among the states in the sequence 0'. a' E Space Ser a. No symmetric operator maps (11) to (12). . Therefore the number of states of a series of N units with M states is I SpaceSeral = (M +N -I)! (M _ 1)!N! . but the transition {12} (. In fact Op Ser a differs significantly from the operator algebras associated with quantum kinematics. Proof Since T commutes with all the permutations 1r E II. 1rT =T1r. To enumerate these classes we wish to label them with a complete coordinate. Given any sequence state 0' = s\ . By a block in a sequence we mean a maximal subsequence of consecutive equal states. (8) Just as we represent series by sequences modulo permutations.pattern y =Yo'. Sera violates quantum kinematics in the form given in Chapter 4. A series state 0' has a nontrivial orbit A' 0' under the algebra A = Op Ser a of series time-evolution operators T. Then if two units in the sequence are in the same state initially. It is not the algebra of linear operators on any vector space. We call y the block or Young pattern of 0' and of A' 0'. To put this more concretely: Proposition. We call a sequence with these properties block-ordered. they are in the same state finally. The operators of Ser a are symmetric operators of Seq a. They are not defined as linear combinations of ordered pairs 10')'(0'1 for 0'. writing y = Yo'. This orbit is called the symmetry class of 0'. This can be done in several ways. SN. If a sequence state lsi := Is)(sl obeys the eigenvalue equations (10) 1rlsl = lsi = Isl1r at one time.• For example the sequence states (12) and (11) define series states {12} and {11}. And two states in a sequence are the same if and only if (12) holds for the permutation p that exchanges the two units . The resulting sequence of block lengths y biuniquely determines the orbit A' a. (9) the permutations are constants of the motion. Suppose the time-evolution operator T of a sequence of units is symmetric.. That is. In all previous theories we have assumed every state could evolve into every other.

The terms in (13) are invariant under symmetric operators and hence under the dynamical evolution if the units are indistinguishable. (This is but the classical analogue of the true Young tableau of quantum combinatorics. Evidently USpace Seq a\y Space Sera = USpace Sera\y Space Seq a = (13) yP y where y ranges over all patterns.. which appears later.7. The patterns in (11) have been ordered first by increasing N = L: Ni (shown only for N ~ 4). Each "0" in (11) stands for an indistinguishable object. and so is the orbit coordinate we sought. A Young pattern filled with states consistent with its symmetry class is called a tableau. objects in the same row are in the same state and objects in different rows are in different states. " where Ni is the number of objects in the ith row of the pattern. and every series state has this form. a "horizontal" subgroup H = H(y) consisting of all permutations that respect the row of each unit.) Each tableau T defines many sequence states and but one series state. Each Young pattern y is associated with two subgroups of IT.) Young patterns form the following infinite sequence: G (11) ~B rn[J[o o[ 0 D[]g~[oooo[ For a state in the symmetry class y. and then for each value of N lexicographically by the word N J N2 . and a "vertical" subgroup V = Y(y) consisting of all permutations that respect . also written T. (This is an example of a non-numerical coordinate.. The total number of objects in a tableau is (12) Every pattern y = Ya in (11) is defined in a biunique way by a nonincreasing sequence of block lengths N J 2: N2 2: .1 Classical Combinatorics 219 a symmetry class. and X\y is the subset of X with the block pattern y. '.

6 Sib The Young patterns y+ of one row define a sequence of not only indistinguishable but also equal units. We therefore take these up for a classical object. We have decomposed the state space Space Ser a into orbits y under the algebra of symmetric operators. The symmetry operators form a spectral resolution: (15) SySy' = 0 Sy [y :I y'] [y =y']. Each irreducible sub algebra has the isomorphism Ay +----+ SyA'Sy OP Ser a = EByAy . It projects each sequence to a series in the symmetry class y. We shall also require the antisymmetrizing operator S_ associated with the pattern y_ of a single column. here called a sib.. All the units in a classical sib have the same state. The corresponding quantum assembly is called a Bose-Einstein or symmetric assembly..5(5) is the special case of (14) for the pattern y = y+ of a single row.220 7. Then SpaceSiba = {nm. The same methods decompose the subalgebra Op Ser a = Op Seq alII = A \II into its irreducible subalgebras A y . We average over these subgroups to define a symmetry operator for each pattern y designated by Sy.1. s =: sN (2) .. defined by patterns of symmetry and antisymmetry. an element of cCP: (14) The symmetry operator Sy: Coop Seq a ----t Coop Seq a is the identity operator on the symmetry class y and annihilates every element of every other symmetry class. (16) The two terms in (14) and (15) that will be of most importance in the quantum theory are the patterns y+ of one row and y_ of one column.1. The symmetrizing operator S+ of 7. AN and let [Am = An] be the diagonal subset of Space Seq a where Am = An. . (1) Every (classical!) sib state t has the form t = ssss . The sib formed from the object a is written Sib a. 7. Let a = AI . defined by patterns of equality and inequality. Many Quanta the column of each unit.n[Am = An]}.

or as Pa and called the power object. The set is at the opposite end of the scale.. Where a series is a sequence whose order is ignored (see Equation 7. M. and is written P8 or 2s . Contrast (1) with Equation 7. leaving room for no other statistics. (1) defines a set of N units (of the same kind as) a.1.n[Am 'f Ann lIT .2... We count states of the set. The power set P 8 of any set 8 is not merely a set but a Boolean algebra.1. M. the second any of the remaining M .3 (2)).1.7. The sib algebra Op Sib a is a proper subalgebra of the irreducible algebra A_ on the vector space of symmetric initial vectors defined in the previous unit. The first unit can have anyone of M states.7 Set We write the variable set formed from a variable object a as Set a (for "a set of a's"). The graph of its partial order is a hypercube in 181 dimensions.. and so forth. called intermediate statistics or parastatistics.1.6 (1) for a sib. Seta may also be written as 2'" and called the exponential object. Therefore the number of states of a set of N indistinguishable units with M states each is ISpace Setal = M' N~ if N:::. N=O. This defines a series of indistinguishable but not equal units. (3) 7. Space Set a is called the power set or exponential of 8 = Space a. o otherwise (2) . and its elements are naturally ordered. and the even case has even statistics while the odd case has odd statistics. and the order of states in a set is ignored. The number of states in a classical sib of N objects with M states is ISib81 = M. closed under natural operations of nand u. with state space Space Set a = {nm. It is defined thus: A sib has a Young pattern y+ of one row. Any state 8 E 8 may occur at most once in a set of states. so that the states in a set are all different.3. namely by inclusion. .1 Classical Combinatorics 221 where only the state 8 and the number N of its repetitions may vary from one t to another. the last object having any of M . X AN of the partly diagonal set [Am = An].N + 1 states if N :::. No two units in a set of N a's have the same state. with a pattern of one column y_. a sib is a sequence whose order is ignorable. (1) Here [Am 'f An] designates the complement in Al x . The spin multiplicity 28 + 1 must be either even or odd. t E Space a and all M. The quantum connection between spin and statistics implies that the intermediate statistics do not occur. A basis for Op Sib a consists of the arrows t N ~ 8 M for all 8. Between the extremes of set and sib are many less important kinds of series we do not take up.

A set of a states now determines a sequence of a states in the principal sector.. functions on Set S may be identified with antisymmetric functions on Seq S. The elements of a set of a's are all different though indistinguishable. To be sure. which we shall call standard. one combined the operator algebras of the parts of a composite system by tensor product to form the operator algebra of the composite..l) 7r 7r T (3) 7rEII where (-lY is the sign of the permutation 7r. the principal sector of Space Seq a .222 7. Proof.6. Introduce an arbitrary order 81 < 82 < . Many Quanta Set a is the only assembly among those we have considered that is finite for finite a.. Just as functions on Ser S may be identfied with symmetric functions on Seq S. Because the semigroup Space Set a is commutative. Ser S and Sib Shave 00 states but Set S has 2M states.7 (5» Therefore the ionization . The binding energy of the first electron in this Coulomb potential is proportional to Z2 e4 instead of e 4 as in hydrogen (4. o Statistics. This instantaneous action at a distance violates basic principles of relativity. Any element of S may occur at most once in an element of Space Set a . No two objects in a set have the same state. but protons and electrons also interact by emitting and absorbing photons. a function on Space Set a is biuniquely determined by its values in the principal sector of S.. that of the fundamental mode. this implies that we may import all the electrons with the same energy. If the unit has M states. The proton p and the electron e in a hydrogen atom are supposed to interact through a two-particle interaction Hamiltonian Hpe. 7. < 8M for the M points of S = Space a. An atom with a nucleus N of charge +Z (in units of the proton charge) and Z electrons e is supposed to have the initial space IN N (® IN e)~ . just as in classical mechanics.. and these in tum biuniquely determine an antisymmetric function on S . the grand assemblies Seq S. Call the subset of Space Seq a consisting of sequences whose factor states are multiplied in standard order. The quantum assembly corresponding to Seta is called a Fermi-Dirac assembly of a's. Space Set a contains the null set ! and the full set 1 = Space a of Space a. positive for even 7r and negative for odd 7r.• We may form a function on Space Set a from any function on Space Seq a as a sign-weighted average over the symmetric group II defined by the antisymmetrizing operator ill! "u_ := 1 '""' L. this works for the Coulomb electrostatic interaction. This led to immediate problems: o Special relativity. In the approximation where the electrons move in the central potential of the static nucleus and do not interact with each other. and the order of elements does not matter.2 Quantum Combinatorics In the first days of quantum mechanics.-( .

we give the assembly tva by giving its operator algebra Op tva. l. and the second. then identify sequences modulo permutations to form the series. however. Fermions form sets and have fractional (half-integer) angular momentum. with corrections for electron-electron repulsion. Since the ionization energy of hydrogen is 13. its cooperator algebra Coop tva. The quantum theory has one complication that the classical does not. The algebraic representation of the Cartesian product of state spaces is the tensor product of operator algebras.2 Quantum Combinatorics 223 energy of the atom should vary with Z roughly as Z2. The classical combinatorics has only incoherent superposition. In particular. Then equalities among classical unitic states in a tableau become symmetries of the quantum initial vector. m. and its initial space IN tva. Bosons form sibs and have integer angular momenta (in units of h). with Z = 1. and incoherent. including the sib and set. We turn now to the theory of such quantum assemblies. in which they do not. The last electron always sees something like a hydrogen atom. to construct the operator algebra of a sequence of indisinguishable quantum units we first construct that of a sequence of distinguishable units. not tensor products . that no two electrons in an atom have the same quantum numbers n. was a boson. Its systems admit both coherent combination. The first electron in uranium has n = 1 and binding energy proportional to Z2. Turning from electrons to the other particles. and reduce the series by symmetry conditions to its invariant sectors. We discuss only the coherent quantum combinations in this chapter. To form a quantum theory from a pre-quantum one. The first quantum discovered. we represent the pre-quantum one algebraically ("algebraicize") and then replace the absolute frame algebra by a relative one ("relativize"). an electron assembly is not a sequence of electrons. we find exactly two species of indistinguishable quanta in nature. that of uranium (Z = 92) should be about 105 eV. As a result their assemblies have different statistical properties. Neither of them pair by @ or assemble in sequences. seems to use graded commutators a @ b ± b @ a (commutators or anticommutators). The ionization energy of all atoms is empirically of order closer to ZO than Z2. with vector superposition. the electron. For each assembly operation tv. without superposition. but it follows from the exclusion principle that successive electrons have greater n and are found on the average at greater and greater radii. and classical inequalities become antisymmetries. the photon. The exclusion principle in turn was soon recognized to be a consequence of a more general antisymmetry principle: The 1/J vector of an electron assembly is anti symmetric in the electrons. and is not much more strongly bound than the hydrogen electron. and so the language originally adopted for quantum combinatorics was tensor algebra.7. We again express symmetry conditions by Young patterns. was a fermion. but a set of electrons. in which states may repeat.4 eV. Nature. and they are said to have Einstein-Bose or Fermi-Dirac statistics respectively. In fact it is of order 10 eV. called bosons and fermions. This was explained by the Pauli exclusion principle. In combinatorial parlance.

and the slash \ means that only operators invariant under permutations on either side are kept.2. have components of different types.1.5(5) stands on both sides of an arbitrary operator q E Op Seq 0:: and the result is an operator q' of Ser 0::. It follows that if a unit 0:: has initial vector space IN = IN 0:: then the quantum sequence Seq 0:: has initial vector space 00 IN Seq 0:: := I EB IN EB(IN 0 IN) EB··· = EB(0IN)N = TIN.2 Quantum Series A series is a sequence modulo permutations. We mention in advance that these tensors have high and low indices. so that we may not write a high index directly over a low one. Many Quanta b 0 a. and the next term IN = IN 0:: is the initial vector space of the unit 0::. We start with the tensor language out of tradition but soon change to Grassmann algebra. the image of the mapping OP Seq 0:: ~ Op Sero:: : q t--+ q' = S+qS+. In general our tensors are inhomogeneous. and has the operator algebra Op TIN. The multiplicity of a sequence of N indistinguishable units of mUltiplicity Mis (2) 7. The order of the factors matters and a one-unit initial vector may occur any number of times. The pattern of indices is called the tensor type.2.1 Quantum Sequence The relation 7. The leading term N = 0 represents the null set of units and the one-dimensional space K of the probability amplitudes. (1) N=O the contravariant tensors over IN = IN 0::. This has the same algebraic consequences (we have stipulated) in the quantum theory as in the classical: If a unit 0:: has operator algebra A = Op 0::. I1i is the group of permutations of the units acting on the initial (right-hand) side of the operators of Op Seq 0::. and the order of all the indices matters. The variant of tensor algebra that we use is defined below. q is a series operator and 'IjJ is any sequence initial vector then we require that . (2) Here the symmetrizing operator S+ of Equation 7.4 (4) between the operator algebras of the unit a and the classical sequence or Maxwell-Boltzmann assembly Seq 0:: holds for the quantum theory too. IIo is the same group acting on the final side the operators of Op Seq 0::. 7. a series Ser 0:: of these units has the operator algebra (1) Op Ser 0:: = OP Seq 0:: \IIi x IIo .1. and plain and starred indices.224 7. If 7f is a permutation.

The series operators are the sequence operators with two-sided symmetry. = q'lj. . than the classical one. The algebra (1) is not the full operator algebra of a vector space. The dual expression of the subobject invariant under exchange is the quotient object modulo exchange. as we do in the classical kinematics. then X 2 = 1 = X t. which allows us only to add their operators. but (D + 1)/(2D) for a quantum pair of equivalent systems. being a symmetric tensor in the tensor product space Space Seq a. a priori. We continue to write this relation between two objects a and f3 in a sequence as [a = f3].t = 'lj.2 (8). Therefore the quantum sib has the quotient operator algebra Op Sib a = Op Seq a/II. ¢. We call this relation symmetry. We retain this definition for the quantum sib: a quantum sib is a quantum sequence invariant under all permutations. = q7r'lj. t ¢ + 'lj.3 Quantum Sib One concept of equality is invariance under exchange.2 Quantum Combinatorics 7rq'lj. in classical kinematics. It reduces to the diagonal relation. which would allow us to add their vectors. The classical sib had Nth power states sN. but add their algebras. 225 (3) corresponding to Equation 7.2. The algebra of the sib is defined by the algebraic relations ¢'lj. If X is the operator that exchanges two equivalent systems in their tensor product. ¢'lj.t'lj. We defined a classical sib as a sequence with ignorable order.(g))N of an initial vector for units is an initial vector for sibs.3. it should not surprise us that they are the same in a superposition of such powers. The cooperators of a series (of equivalent units) form the dual linear space to the operators. t . where D is the multiplicity of one of the systems. the relation of equality-in-allproperties. We may ascribe initial vectors to it. 7.7. The a priori probability of this relation is only 1/ D classically. the Nth power ¢ = ('lj. The most general sib initial vector. t = 'lj. but some of them lack superpositions. is a superposition of these power vectors. In this sum we do not add the vector spaces. Since it is intuitively clear that all the units are the same in a power initial vector. (2) . or symmetry. But the quantum symmetry relation is less informative and more probable. (1) The quantum sib is called a Bose-Einstein or symmetric assembly. or: 7rq = q = q7r . but the direct sum of a number of such algebras. or a sequence invariant under all permutations.¢. = 'lj. ¢ . It follows that ~+ := (1 + X) /2 is a projection operator. Similarly. for a classical pair of equivalent systems.t¢t . It therefore represents a quantum relation between the two entities. The series is not a fully quantum system.

Classically. the infinitesimal differential calculus. We take them up in tum. Therefore the quantum property [at f. and represent the annihilator associated with each basic covector 'I/J t E B Inv by the partial differential operator with respect to the complex variable 'I/J: (3) One writes (improperly) as if the partial derivative with respect to one variable did not also depend on the choices of all the other variables to be held constant. the orthocomplement operation.L".4 Quantum Set We defined a classical set in terms of a sequence. This seems more likely than the converse. We liken annihilation to differentiation. a2] has the complementary probability (D . Recall that if A is any I-unit property.) One may fulfill the sib relations with familiar differential operators.2. "distinct" here means "not equal". while 'I/J t ¢ stands for the operator product. which we compute thus: The quantum for" NOT" is ". o Distinct. Therefore [at f. Which raises the question. The only set pr.226 7. Or as Feynman said. All the concepts that appear in this definition make sense for quantum units as well. and represent each basis vector ¢ in an orthonormal basis B of IN with reciprocal basis BInv by multiplication with an independent complex variable ¢. which is basic for quantum physics? Likely the finite algebraic law (2) is actually more fundamental than. then to represent NOT A we require the adjoint operation t or the metric on IN. or equivalently. a series of pairwise distinct units. Since the quantum relation [at = a2] has probability (D + l)D /2.I)D /2. Then (2) becomes a consequence of the laws for partial differentiation. and gives rise to. The orthocomplement in IN 0 IN of the symmetric subspace [at = a2] is the anti symmetric subspace. The classical illusion of an absolute negation began to form. ¢ designates the value of the final vector 'I/J t on the initial vector ¢. He just counts. "God doesn't do calculus.operties whose orthocomplements are uniquely . The quantum property corresponding to equality [at = a2] of the pair at x a2 is symmetry and represented by the subspace of symmetric tensors. Something noteworthy happened here as we went from individual systems to pairs. in which 'I/J t . Many Quanta between creators ¢ and annihilators ¢ t. but (3) is actually invariant under the symmetry group GL(lN). It is a sequence of distinct units with order ignored.. the quantum relation [at f. We liken the creation of quanta to the creation of factors in a monomial. a2] is the orthocomplement of symmetry." 7. a2] is the subspace of antisymmetric tensors in IN 0 IN.

and the series is a quotient object of the sequence. The set is a subobject of the series. in which case they anticommute. To define the product of two initial vectors 'ljJ and ¢. ¢t'ljJt = _'ljJt¢t . It means "sequence modulo II". where III and <P are operators in the operator sub-algebra generated by creators only. Two homogeneous tensors in Space Set = Space Set a commute unless both have odd grade. either of sets or sibs. o "Series" has already been defined. associative. we first write them as 'ljJ = III 1 and ¢ = <P 1. Since the uniqueness of the orthocomplement expresses pithily the entire difference between quantum and classical. ¢'ljJ= -'ljJ¢. They support a natural. there are a host of orthocomplements that do not depend on the one-system adjoint operation. useful. There is a dual second product 1\ corresponding to PAND. We discuss the resulting set double-algebra in a later chapter. Both vector spaces IN Set and IN Sib are natural algebras.2 Quantum Combinatorics 227 determined independently of the choice of the adjoint are the null and universal properties 0 and 1. We then define the progressive product ¢ V 'ljJ by the operator product <Pili := <P 0 Ill: (2) This product generalize the usual commutative concept of POR from classical sets to quantum. independently of the one-system metric. IN Set finite. we see a classical logic begin to emerge from the quantum as we pass from individuals to assemblies. distributive product. This uniquely defines III and <P. independently of the IN metric. (3) . The operator algebra Op Seta of the set with the operator product <Pili := <P01l1 is the tensor algebra on IN a EB FIN a modulo the equivalence defined by the algebraic equations ¢'ljJ t = _'ljJ t ¢ + 'ljJ t ¢ . For pairs. given only that the two-system adjoint is induced naturally by a one-system adjoint.7. however. We express this dependence of commutation on grade by saying that the tensors of Space Set grade-commute or supercommute. Thus the initial space for Set a is the subspace of antisymmetric tensors in the space of contravariant tensors over IN: IN Set a = E_ T IN a (1) Dim IN Seta = 2N . The set is simpler than the sib in that if IN a is finite-dimensional then: IN Sib has infinite dimension. For still larger assemblies. the set is the other. whether quantum or classical. The orthocomplement of the symmetric subspace of IN i8l IN is uniquely the anti symmetric subspace. all the symmetry classes of tensors are mutually orthogonal in the many-system metric. The sib was one extreme Young tableau in the decomposition of the series.

2 (2). Any evolutionary . [an = w· a [aHa'] = [w Hw'] =0 . with the epithet "Grassmann" to remind us that it obeys (3). Let us bracket a bra w or keta to indicate the (D + 1) x (D + 1) matrix obtained by replacing part of the (D + 1) x (D + 1) O-matrix by the bra or ket as shown in 3. (6) The elements of the classical power set Space Set a may be regarded as vertices of a hypercube.3.5 (1).5 (1) we showed how to identify initial and final vectors of a system € of multiplicity n by (D + 1) x (D + 1) matrices (actually tensors). Then IN Set a has a basis vector for each vertex of the hypercube 2 B . Many Quanta between first-degree creators cp and annihilators cpt. [a]] = {[w]. the singleton system trivially obeys both the boson and fermion commutation relations because there are never two systems to interchange. Even though we represented them at first by vectors.1.3 Singleton We have seen that the various statistics correspond to various commutation relations between creators and annihilators of quanta. and also the exclusion principle 'ljJV'IjJ=o. associative and unital law for V. not the sib relations 7. Likewise the quantum IN Set a may be considered a quantum hypercube. Let us verify that the initial and final acts of a single system fit into this framework. (1) (2) That is.228 7. Then we verify that [[w]. Let B be a basis for IN a. Therefore it is customary to write the annihilator associated with each covector 'IjJ t as: (4) and call it a Grassmann derivative or a derivative with respect to the Grassmann variable 'IjJ. with one dimension for each element of Space a. In 3. and let us imbed the power set 2B in the real vector space IR B = B' as the vectors with binary coordinates 0 or 1. and the Grassmann V-multiplication table for IN Set a is the vector addition table of 2B provided with signs. which we represented by differential operators. 7. We write 'IjJ for a generic basis element of IN a: I := IN Set a := 1U'IjJ U I V I ~~ x' I U I + I (5) where the equations EQ express the linearity. they are also operators of creation and annihilation. These relations differ only in some signs from the commutation relations for Op Sib a. For later developments it is useful to present Set a recursively.1.

a condensation (say into paper). Thus mathematics itself presupposes a working acquaintance with sequences. Why do we start with tensors if extensors are more basic? It seems to stem from the nature of communication.5 Summary Assemblies of a unit a have initial spaces that are tensor spaces over the initial vector space of a subject to symmetry conditions described by Young diagrams. while it is at least conceivable that Fermi-Dirac statistics is fundamental. not tensors. Tensors describe quanta obeying Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. The tensor product is a linearization of the sequence concept. The initial space of a quantum set is an anti symmetric tensor algebra. If. We designate the singleton formed from the system f by Sin f.7. namely of symbols. And whence these classical sequences? For all we know. Electrons occur in sets. They have been linked into a persistent pattern of fermions that is unaffected by an interchange of the basic fermions. best described by extensors. We should not take this custom for granted. even prior to set theory. not merely a set of them. that between! and 1. This makes it natural to build other concepts on a tensor foundation. Our symbols are not fermions themselves but changes in a pattern of linkages among equivalent fermions. Now one of the the media on which we write is spacetime. In much of this chapter we have still started with the language of tensors.4 Why Tensors? We have framed all our statistics in the language of tensors. . 7.5 Summary 229 law for the singleton creation and annihilation operators has to be linear because all higher degree products vanish by (2). 7. as when we communicate by electromagnetic signals. When we write or speak we produce a sequence of symbols. this expresses the Pauli exclusion principle and the Fermi-Dirac statistics. the medium (say paper) supporting these sequences of symbols is made of fermions. ordinary tensors can condense out of extensors. then spacetime too might be a condensation of fermionic constituents described by extensors. How does Fermi-Dirac statistics at the microscopic level give rise to Maxwell-Boltzmann at the macriscopic surface? It seems that the underlying fermions have undergone a phase transition. We explore this possibility in Act 4. When we represent a Grassmann algebra with antisymmetric tensors we actually conceal Grassmann's main symmetry. so to speak. We distort the theory by squeezing it into this un symmetric container. which which we represent as the number 1 and the Levi-Civita tensor f. not of the set concept. not tensors. and there are none.

that is to say.230 7. We forget that we have still to make a study of "and". We often think that when we have finished our study of one we know all about two. because "two" is "one and one". with all possible Young tableaux. The initial space of a quantum sib is a symmetric tensor algebra. Secondary physics is the study of "and" . with Young tableaux of one column or one row. The series is a partially quantum system with restricted superposition. photons come in sibs. The set and the sib are the extreme cases. This expresses the Bose-Einstein statistics. Arthur Stanley Eddington . Its initial space decomposes into tensors over IN of all symmetry classes. of organization. Many Quanta Contrariwise.

A language that cannot lie cannot inform. Commonly quantum theory is presented as a theory founded on probabilities. This classical probabilistic principle encounters less objection because it is considered derivative from dynamics via ergodic theory. Taking it seriously would make language impossible. Probability is a poor man's set theory. who needs it?) This is the idea underlying ergodic theory. Nevertheless some took Born's probability formula 4. Any word is already associated with a class of possibilities. Quantum Probability and Improbability In this chapter we take up the quantum theory of probability. Einstein took this as sufficient reason to disqualify quantum theory from consideration as a fundamental theory. Probability statements seem to be statements about non-existent infinite ensembles of systems. For example. A probability statement about one system is equivalent to a crisp statement of special form about an infinite set of similar systems. and physics should deal with realities. The Born-Malus statistical principle (1) is derivative to the same extent. objected that a probabilistic law cannot be fundamental. Moreover there are important probabilistic principles in classical mechanics too. (And if it is not measurable and predictable.5 (2).8. Others. This is likely how Born first conceived it. An adequate theory of sets of quanta includes a theory of probability as a tiny part. We will derive it in due course from more primitive concepts as a quantum law of large numbers. Indeed. So strong a reality principle is impractical. it is a variable of the assembly. Words must cover not only actualities but also possibilities that may never materialize. not the actual system under study. Aristotle already emphasized that the modality of the possible was indispensable for science. and insofar as its value is predictable. in statistical mechanics the apriori probability of an event is taken to be proportional to the volume of phase space in which it occurs. it must be predicted by the dynamical theory of the assembly. namely a statement about averages over that set. a semantic ensemble. (1) as a fundamental principle. . to some extent. ensembles of possibilities. including Einstein. individual events. perhaps on the grounds that probabilities refer to non-existent or virtual collections. Quantum theory is a theory of individual events as much as classical theory. Insofar as the value of a probability can be determined by experiments on an assembly of objects.

In 8. then in the limit N ~ 00. Since we can measure P. if the trials are well separated so that the overlap of the wavefunctions can be ignored. It means that if we perform N experiments on the system E. consider an experiment with normalized initial vector la). the eigenvalue principle must determine its value. The sharp actions we have considered so far are idealizations. the run can be regarded as a single experiment on a composite system EN made up of. (ala) = 1. In practice we often can measure P as closely as we wish by doing enough experiments. with an N-quantum initial act .N replicas of E. 8. There are always disturbances of sharpness in the episystem. Again [a] = la) ® (al . If P has no experimental meaning then we do not need it anyway. Quantum Probability and Improbability Probability becomes a useful and measurable quantity when a statement of probability about one system is interpreted as a statement of practical certainty about a large set of similar systems.232 8. We derive it using the eigenvalue principle and quantum combinatorics in 8. The result is known as the quantum law of large numbers. such as the thermal motion of its parts. which are closer to what we actually carry out. since we never actually approach infinity. (2) (1) is the special case of (2) with Q = [w]. When we say that an event has a certain probability P.1 Quantum Law of Large Numbers We recall the results for sharp actions that we wish to derive in this section. the frequency ratio of transitions to the total number of trials is given by (1). we imply that if in T trials of an experiment there are S successes. but this doubt is common to quantum and classical physics and we put it aside for now. Consider a quantum system Eo Let [a] be the projector on a normalized initial vector la) = (a A ) and [w] on the normalized final vector (wi = (wIA).2 we describe diffuse external actions. each composed of one initial action la) and one final action (wi.1. Then the average value of Q is Av Q = (aIQla) = Tr(Q[aD . and multichannel final action that determines some coordinate Q of the quantum system. There is room to doubt that such a statement has strict physical meaning. At the same time. Thus the Malus-Born probability formula P = l(wla)1 2 cannot be an independent postulate of quantum theory. The MalusBorn transition probability of an ideal single-channel experiment is (1) More generally. then the ratio S IT ~ P as T ~ 00.

we regard the three space coordinates of Venus as three space coordinates of the solar system as well. writing (3) simply as [w]n = [whn] . We ordinarily drop factors of unity in classical physics. counting from the right. Let us simplify the writing. We do the same in quantum physics. (5') The fraction of the N subsystems having the property [w] is then the physical variable 1 F[w] = N ~)W]n =: ~V[W]n. nevertheless. although the domains of these mappings change with the system.1 Quantum Law of Large Numbers 233 N IA) = 10:) 010:) 0:" 010:) [Nfactors] = (Q9 10:) =: (010:)N (3) a simple tensor product in the initial space IN(EN) = ®~ IN(E) = (0 IN E)N of EN . with an error term. and take the limit of t:. evaluate their variance ~. we form an infinite assembly and evaluate the variance ~ for that assembly.. discovering the strong law of large numbers.. and hence are equal or othogonal. This happens (for finite N) only when [w] and [0:] commute. as we show below.. as N ---+ 00. Here the road forks into a weak path and a strong. On the strong path. Then [w] := Iw) 0 (wi = (WBWA) is a projector and represents a one-quantum property that we also designate by [w]. IA) is very close to an eigenvector of F with a certain eigenvalue f. with no error term .. Let us assume that 10:) and (wi are unit vectors. For example. (6) n Let us measure how far the initial vector IA) departs from being an eigenvector of F[w] with eigenvalue f by the variance (7) ~ vanishes if and only if IA) is an eigenvector of F with eigenvalue f. 0 l[n+l] 0 [whn] 0 l[n-l]'" 0 1[1] (5) where the subscript [m] indicates an operator belonging to the mth system E in the sequence. For large N. discovering the weak law of large numbers. 0 (wi [N factors] = (0(wl)N (4) a simple product in the final space (0(wl)N. Similarly the final act of the composite experiment is (01 = (wi 0 (w10 . The (initial or final) predicate or binary variable of EN that holds just when the n-th element of the sequence has the property [w] is the operator [w]n := I[N] 0 . On the weak path we form finite ensembles of systems E.8.. and identify coordinates of a subsystem with those of the assembly. And dually for [0:]. even if [w] and [0:] do not commute.

with F = F[w]. It follows that lim ~ N--->CXl = (o:lF[w]lo:f - 2f(0:1F10:) + f2 (2) This limit vanishes if and only if f = Prob[w the Born-Malus law. With this value for f +-. 0 and final vector (wi f. The weakest such use that enables us to compute a probability seems to be the following. we strengthen QO-l by appending the following codicils: QO' For each initial vector 10:) f.1. Q 1 does not tell us what physical consequences this nearly has. then (wlo:) ~ 0 c Prob[(wl +--10:)] ~ 0 . and the second from the N(N . Ql' If In) be a sequence of unit vectors with In) ~ 10:) as n ~ 00.1 Weak Law of Large Numbers First we take the weak path. using [w]2 = [w]. Quantum Probability and Improbability 8. There seems to be an unavoidable use of infinity in the very concept of probability.234 8. We form a sequence of N systems with the repeated action 10:) and count transitions with repeated final action (wi. no finite sequence of trials of an experiment should be able to yield an exact estimate of the transition probability for the experiment. (1) We obtain the first term in the bottom line from the N diagonal terms in F2. (3) becomes 1 N f (1-f).10:)]. More formally put. and (wi is a final vector. and large but finite N) A is nearly parallel to one eigenvector of F[w] and therefore nearly orthogonal to all the others. 0 there is a definite transition probability Prob[ (wi +-.2f(AIFIA) + f2 1 N-l = N(o:l[w]lo:) + ~(0:1[w]10:)2 . Indeed. For any N E N. (wi. in either classical or quantum physics.0:] = (o:l[w]lo:) =Tr([w][o:]) and for any N the variance ~= ~ .1) off-diagonal terms. the variance in the transition fraction F is ~ = (AI(F - fflA) = (AIF2IA) . (4) If A were an exact eigenvector of F then quantum kinematics Ql would predict that a determination of F will yield the eigenvalue f. The transition from an initial vector 10:) to a final one that annuls 10:) is forbidden (Ql). Nearly is not exactly.2f(0:1[w] 10:) + f2. we must suppose that the transition to one that nearly annuls 10:) is nearly forbidden. But all we have shown is that (for all 10:) .

8. 8. We may understand mixtures as superpositions with random phases. .1. and the probability of F = f. (2) in the product initial space We pass over the topology of this space.2 Strong Law of Large Numbers For the strong law of large numbers we form the unit initial vector IA) = 10:) 0 10:) 0 .2 Mixed Operations 235 It follows from Ql' that for long sequences the probability of the event F # f approaches O.1 Superpositions and Mixtures Superpositions always superpose sharp operations on the same quantum. Consider a superposition (1) and suppose that the phase (2) varies randomly from experiment to experiment with uniform weight over the unIt circle. Then for any value of 10:) # 0.2 Mixed Operations In classical physics and quantum. quantum superposition. (1) IN°O =IN 0 IN 0 . Then the average value of <P is at the center of the circle: Av<p The average projector is given by =O. (3) . 8. when we mix initial acts statistically. the Born-Malus principle was not necessary to complete quantum kinematics. 8. .. . In sum. necessary for the discussion of limits and the definition of the operator <P =Av Pn when n ranges over the infinite domain Z. we add their probability distributions. They arise when we express an action vector of one frame in terms of a basis of another frame. for example. In quantum theory there is also the new process of adding amplitudes or initial vectors.2. approaches unity. the Born-Malus law. Here we discuss when to add amplitudes and when to add probabilities. but follows from QO-l in the presence of rather weak continuity assumptions about events with probability approaching O. IA) is an exact eigenvector of F with eigenvalue f.

. for example by spinning a roulette wheel. Or we may randomly choose one of the sources to act. . When a system is open. Two initial vectors with a different number of quanta are always orthogonal. One photon is enough to produce orthogonality. We may use the transition metric M to form their projectors (1) normalized so that Tr[a] = 1. First we describe the statistical operator for a diffuse initial act. we can never know exactly and with complete certainty which sharp initial mode la') we carry out. = Av['l1A] = AV[aBaA + j3Bj3A + if!j3BaA + ~aBj3A] = aBaA + j3Bj3A. Illumination can produce incoherence.. The projector [a] lacks the meaningless phase of the ket la) . as they are in classical physics.2. due to unavoidable thermal and seismic disturbances in the episystem. to each of certain initial actions la) . We describe such a mixture by a single quantum tensor. p= L p(a)[a] . Its matrix representative is often called a density matrix. (2) This is called the (initial) statistical operator for the experiment. Consider an orthonormal basis of initial vectors la) =(a A) . when we push a button to "create" a system. from which we select one system. It is possible (and common) to describe a diffuse initial action by an operator. There are several ways in which these probabilities can arise.236 8. then all initial vectors that we enact are effectively orthogonal to each other. as when it is under inspection. ).2 Diffuse Initial Actions In actual life. (~ is the complex conjugate of if!. 8.) The cross terms between a and j3 drop out of the phase average. This too effectively eliminates quantum interference. Or we may mix together the data from sequences of trials using all the sources. If the quantum flux is great enough.2. that we can at least attribute a probability pea) (a = 1. final acts. Two initial vectors with a random relative phase are effectively orthogonal. We may mix the output quanta of distinct sharp sources all acting at once and form a beam. Quantum Probability and Improbability (4) pB A. We suppose. In the next sections we apply such mixing to initial acts. There is a dual final statistical operator . it gains or loses quanta. and to coherent combinations of the two. as opposed to theory. We add two orthogonal projectors to describe their incoherent superposition or mixture. as next best. erasing all labels indicating which source was used in each trial. a weighted average of projectors.

2 by p = Mlp].8. We shall not use statistical operators here because they are non-modal. By (3) all initial statistical tensors Ip] share the properties Ip] =Ip]H > 0. . Like the statistical operator p. We cannot tell from the projector [a] or the operator P whether it represents an initial. Ip] is independent of the arbitrary phases in the kets la). but (2) gratuitously discards it. First we represent a sharp initial action by the sesquilinear contravariant tensor (3) where the dot stands for complex conjugation of the ket. final or medial act. Unlike the statistical operator. The initial vector la) carried this modal information. Ip] is related to the statistical operator p of 8. (7) Tr (MlpJ) = 1 . We frequently use the initial statistical tensor or operator as metaphor for the action it describes.2 Mixed Operations 237 [Giles (1968. Tr(MaD = 1 . (5) where H = CT is the complex conjugate transpose operation on sesquilinear tensors and M is the transition metric M = (MBA) . If we push a button and no quantum is emitted. the concept of statistical tensor is still meaningful up to a multiplier in projective quantum theory. We describe the general diffuse initial act by the sesquilinear tensor (6) called the initial statistical actor (or tensor) for the experiment. 1970)]. Therefore we represent a diffuse initial action by a Hermitian contravariant tensor a BA rather than by a Hermitian operator aAB (a mixed tensor). The trace is unity because we suppose that we have enumerated all possibilities. as its bracket symbol indicates. so their probabilities p(a) sum to unity. In adition. and has components (6') in an arbitrary frame IA) . Ip] preserves the modal information.2. The components of la] are (4) The tensor la] is Hermitian and normalized to unity: la] = la]H . We need this information to make a language for quantum actions. we say we have created the vacuum. while the statistical operator p is meaningful only in metric quantum theory.

a single mixed tensor E ~r BA. We may describe an external experimental act E composed of an initial act Ip] and a final act [rl by their tensor product.238 8. both diffuse. with no coherence between initial and final acts.3 Diffuse Final Actions In a dual way to 8. obtaining (8) AvQ = Tr(QMlp])/TrMlp]. the usual case. 8._ . We then describe a diffuse final act that produces a count with probability r(n:) when a quantum enters from initial channel In:} by the tensor (2) The form [rl statistically characterizes the final operation and is called the final statistical actor (or tensor).2.r'tor' pBA (1) We can use E to compute transition probabilities in the presence of a sharp medial action M = (M B A) (say a filter) .1) =1 . we must average Av Q over the possible initial actions. Then the probability of a transition (r ~ p) from the diffuse initial act Ip] to the diffuse final act [r I is (3) prober ~ p) = [rip] := rBApBA . with complex conjugate operator Me := (M BA) according to (2) E has four vector indices and describes the external act statistically. To estimate Av Q for a diffuse initial mode Ip] . consider a multichannel operation in which a quantity Q is determined.2. Now suppose that both initial and final actions of a two-stage experiment are diffuse. which has two vector indices and describes .2. Thus it generalizes the concept of cooperator. such as a spectroscopic analysis.I = (MBA) . consisting of internal and external acts.2. we first represent a sharp final act (wi by a statistical form (covariant tensor) [wi = (WBA) = (wi (wi = [wl H . 8. (1) using the inverse metric M. with diffuse initial action and sharp final actions. Quantum Probability and Improbability To express average values in terms of statistical tensors. Tr([wIM.4 Diffuse Medial Actions Now we consider three-stage experiments..

. We touch on this topic to indicate that we may violate the letter of the Copenhagen theory. Since each M in (2) is a cooperator. due to unavoidable thermal and seismic disturbances in the episystem. The statistical formulas of the preceding section are valid. In the most general case. (3) in which the product Me M is replaced by an average of such products. which do not necessarily have the product form 8.tatistical external (or experimental) tensor. with I is a system for the episystem II.rBA D/::. without violating its spirit.4 (1). We call any tensor E of this type used to compute transition probabilities in this way a s. Then the transition probability for arbitrary external act E is given by a generalization of (2): Prob(1' +-. E is a double cooperator. 8. . That is. II. resulting from the quantum nature of the episystem.ey +-. or coherent. We call it the statistical internal (or dynamicai) tensor. for more general external statistical tensors E. These external correlations may be incoherent.r BA .8. we can produce quantum correlations between initial and final acts with a hierarchy of systems I. and even the diffuse external acts we have considered so far have been simple products 1'/::.. however. and 1+11 is the system to III as episystem. as when II initially imports an electron E into I from an atom A in II and finally exports the electron to the same A.4 (1)]. in the way that a statistical form generalizes an initial vector. the sharp cooperators we have considered so far have been simple products (wi ® In).2 Mixed Operations 239 the external acts sharply. where the atom itself results from a sharp initial act Al ® 0 1 + A2 ® O2 performed by III upon II. Then the statistical cooperator is not a product but a sum of products. there are correlations between the initial and final acts.2. For example. to assign probabilities ey(J-L) to each of a family of medial acts M(J-L).2.. invariant under separate phase changes of initial and final vectors. however. III.5 Coherent Cooperators The initial and final acts have been statistically independent so far. We may be able. which insisted on the classical nature of the episystem. Generally we carry out a medial act ey without knowing exactly what it is.2. (4) The mixed tensor D is dual to the statistical experimental tensor E and statistically describes dynamical evolutions that are not sharply defined.p) = E • D := E/::.r ® pBA of an initial statistical tensor Ip] and a final one [eyl [8.

and one that is projectively abelian.PI . Q) = ei(Qp-Pq) . P) := ei(Qp-Pq)IO. momentum p and position q). Since the exponent in (1) is antihermitian. The term Pq translates the canonically conjugate variable p by the amount P. is a moving coherent state It) = IQ(t). 0) (1) where U(P.3 Classical Limit 8.O) = ~e-q2/2. The coherent states IQ. we cannot determine momentum and position conjointly. further developed and applied by Glauber. One way is to search for particle-like wave-functions in the quantum theory itself. Q) is a unitary operator and 10. Qd = <PU(P2 + Q2. The search for solitons led Schr6dinger to the following concept of coherent state. Solutions of a partial differential equation that behave like extended particles and propagate without spreading are called solitary waves or. stiffness k. Q2) . To express this transformation entirely in the q frame: the term Qp translates a wavefunction by Q and the term Pq modulates it harmonically with wavenumber P. and others. P) form a complete but dependent set with the special property that the solution It) to the Schr6dinger equation with a coherent state as its initial value. According to classical mechanics we can. There are several ways to bridge this contradiction.PI . Sudarshan. We choose units with m = k = h = 1.Q2. Q)IO.1}! = I}!(P2. since the work of Kruskal and others in the 1960' s. the exponential is a unitary operator.Q2.P).QI). The term Qp in the exponent translates the variable q by the amount Q. Quantum Probability and Improbability 8. there exist phase factors <P = <P(P2. solitons. Then the coherent states are defined by IQ. Due to the non-commutativity of p and q the operators U do not form a group. PI + Qd = I}!U(PI .240 8. However they form a projective group. P(t») (4) . preserving normalization. Klauder. (3) 1°) = IQ.1 Coherent States According to quantum theory. 0) = U(P.QI) such that U(P2. y27r (2) U(P. The prototype coherent state belongs to a linear harmonic oscillator (of mass m. Q2)U(PI . That is. QI)U(P2.0) is the ground mode of the linear harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian: H = ~p2 + ~l 2 2 (qIO. Von Neumann.3.

The main point is that the P. P) as its eigenvectors and the parameters P (or Q) as corresponding eigenvalues.Q)2 + iPq] (8) P is the modulating wavenumber and Q is the center. (5) Coherent states are not orthogonal. P(O) = P . . The inner product between distinct coherent states IP + t1P. To be sure. which are regarded as negligible for high quantum numbers and large action. The term "coherent state" is apropriate even though quantum systems do not have states. Q parameters of the coherent state change according to the classical equations of motion when the mode develops according to Schrodinger's equation. and so there is no variable having the coherent states IQ. one settles for equality up to higher order terms in h. so that for macroscopic position and momentum differences. but in practice we apply coherent states to such large populations of quanta that we can determine a one-quantum ket from a small part which we then discard. This falls off rapidly with the differences t1P. In the p frame the wave function has center P and modulating wavenumber -Q. because the quantum modes called coherent provide a quantum origin for classical statelike behavior. The parameters P and Q are not eigenvalues of any quantum variables.8. They cannot be identified with the results of exact measurements. hardly changing the whole. The wave functions of coherent states IQ. P) is called the form factor for these coherent states and is given by in units with a = 1 . On the other hand. P) in the q frame of basis vectors Iq) are harmonically modulated Gaussian wave packets (qIP. Q) rv exp [. a t1Q» a .!(q . We now examine how coherent states aid us to understand the classical limit. For the harmonic oscilator this is exact. an initial vector for one quantum is not a state in a classical sense. t1Q. coherent states can be nearly orthogonal. t1P h » -.3 Classical Limit 241 where the functions pet) and Q(t) are just the time-dependent coordinates of an classical free particle with initial position and momentum Q(O) = Q. (7) the coherent states are practically orthogonal. In the general case. Q + t1Q) and IQ.

which depends on that order.242 8. p'). The question before us is whether certain actual laboratory actions commute. To cover the classical concept with the quantum. labeled by a lattice of points [x'. Actual macroscopic measurements are not even sharp. This would seem excessively anthropocentric. and so cannot be exactly determined. The non-commutativity of Lorentz boosts sets in only for sufficiently great speeds. no matter how massive the body. and impossible to disprove experimentally by its very formulation. p'] in phase space. so that x and p have discrete spectra and commute and so are commensurable. p') and the eigenvalues of x and p assigned to them depend on the arbitrary ordering of the coherent states. in that they wipe out all prior measurements. pI) and the eigenvalues x'. Quantum Probability and Improbability 8. p') of the last of the coherent states entering into it. There is no reason to believe that these operators exactly describe any actual measurement. Since they do not commute exactly. Von Neumann constructed commuting "macroscopic" approximants x' and p' to x and p. If we can actually observe that two boosts . In classical physics it is imagined that all measurements commute. The principle (MI) need not apply to actual determinations on any finite scale.2 Macroscopic Measurement There is a great gap between the ideal measurements of quantum and classical physics. With these orthonormal eigenvectors lx'. They certainly do not commute. Yet until Heisenberg one believed that the x's and p'S of physical bodies could be co-determined as nearly as anyone desired. The ideal initial acts of quantum physics are totally destructive as well as creative. Each of the resulting vectors he labelled with the coordinate and momentum parameters (x'. Then he gave these modes an arbitrary order. are unbounded. and orthonormalized them by the standard (Gramm-Schmidt) orthonormalization process. As part of a definition of "macroscopic measurement" this is unarguable. To reconcile the principle (1) with this classical experience. p').3. Let us write it as lx'. He could then claim that classical physicists had all along been measuring x' and p' when they thought they were measuring x and p. and have no eigenvectors. The eigenvectors lx'. but as a definition it cannot tell us anything about any actual laboratory experiments. by Von Neuman's criterion they are incommensurable. A quantum-relativity analogue would be the hypothetical principle (LI) Low-velocity boosts commute exactly. p' he then defined the approximants x and p to x and p. Von Neumann (1932) took as a basic principle: (MI) Macroscopic measurements are measurements of commuting quantum operators. The exact quantum operators x and p of a body are partial maps of Hilbert space IN -> IN. with discrete spectra whose eigenvectors he regarded as "macroscopic states". To construct x' and p' he showed that there existed a complete independent subset of the coherent states lx'.

3. but not exactly. For example. -+ 00: (2) We may nevertheless identify the physical measurements of the momentum and position of a macroscopic body just with inexact measurements of its centroid variables P and Q. From the viewpoint of the theory C. Then the right-hand side of (2) becomes negligible. there is no physical evidence that our usual macroscopic measurements commute exactly (as Von Neumann assumed). For large masses their commutator is approximately zero compared to their product. After all. almost all the area of the unit sphere in the * space D . and they obey Newton's equations closely enough for practical purposes. while important. It does not exactly describe actuality. by definition. The observed coordinates P and Q for a macroscopic body are centroid variables asociated with an assembly of N quanta over which we sum or average: (1) The centroid variables do not exactly commute in the limit N [Q. the principle (Ml) is similarly anthropocentric. In the limit M -+ 00 the action scale S -+ 00 and so h -+ O. then according to (Ll) we are not yet in the domain of low velocities. The boundary between macroscopic and quantum. More exactly. There are macroscopic variables which are not sums of one-body variables like P and Q.P] = ih . 8. C is on the equator. and equally impossible to disprove experimentally. a Hamiltonian might include nearest neighbor interactions. as long as the number of coupled particles n is bounded as N -+ 00. We call this geometrical phenomenon the "equatorial bulge in Hilbert space". The important operators are still x and p. A classical mechanical particle may then be regarded as a convenient limit of a coherent state of quantum mechanics as N -+ 00. in the limit as the dimension D -+ 00. We assume here that quantum dynamics is more accurate than classical. Quantum physics does not need a fundamental qualitative distinction between macroscopic and microscopic measurements any more than spacetime physics needs one between low speeds and high speeds. One may approach the classical limit through the law of large numbers. .3 Equatorial Bulge Almost all the area of the unit sphere in Hilbert space H = 00 . However the commutators of n-particle variables are still negligible in the classical limit h -+ 0. relative to any fixed polar axis.8. m -+ 0 in such a way that M = Nm remains finite. C is as close to the equator as we wish.3 Classical Limit 243 do not commute. involving a dozen or so coupled quanta. is as vague as that between low velocity and high velocity.

But by (2) lim P = O. together with all the variables that can be formed from them. and effectively orthogonal projectors commute effectively. w m = for m > 1. If the probability distributions of the random coordinates am are invariant under the unitary group of H. Orthogonal projections commute. then the average transition probability is 1 (2) AvP= D' Proof We have 00 00 1 = LwThw m = LaTham. the probability pee) offinding a random vector a within an angle e of the equator 0'1 = approaches 1 as D----> 00. independent of D. we may rotate w to be the unit vector w = 11) with WI = 1. their projectors are almost always arbitrarily close to commuting.244 8. It is highly improbable to see noncommutativity among typical variables of macroscopic systems. We have mentioned that illumination produces incoherence. If lim p( e) = 1 . Proposition. . . ° Proof Choose w = 11) along the 1 axis and use the previous result. Without changing the distribution of am. If we combine N systems of multiplicity M.• Therefore two directions chosen at random in infinite-dimensional Hilbert space are almost always arbitrarily close to being orthogonal. "'. then the limit average transition probability lim P ~ w sin e. In any vector space of high enough dimension. m=O (3) m=O am = a Th = (am)c. For any angle e > 0.• ° Proposition. Their projectors are then orthogonal. with cosn = IWAaAI. we pointed out. due to the equatorial bulge in Hilbert space. and as predicates are almost always arbitrarily close to obeying Boolean logical laws. Thus the projectors for illuminated systems commute effectively. Since the D quantities la m l2 for m = 1. D all have the same mean value and sum to unity. almost every pair of vectors is as close to orthogonal as desired. Consider two unit vectors wand a independently chosen at random in a Hilbert space H of dimension D. Therefore w = 0 .w. we need a vector space IN of dimension D = M N to describe the composite. The gain or loss of a single quantum of light or matter from one mode makes the two initial vectors orthogonal. Quantum Probability and Improbability Classical commutativity emerges for sufficiently complex quantum systems because of this equatorial bulge in Hilbert space. Let (1) be the transition probability for a ----> w. and their projectors. however. are as close to commuting as desired. In that configuration P = 0'1. each has mean value liD . Let the angle between a and w be n.

and the (Q. called the quantum natural number. in that we generate the metrical structure algebraically rather than postulate the Hilbert space.3 Classical Limit 245 8. Here we prepare to leave Hilbert space behind as fixed arena for quantum physics. The operator algebra OP qv is then generated by the successor operation L and its adjoint Lt. In the n frame the ground mode 10) has the representation 8(n. a quantum entity having a complete coordinate n with spectrum N. P) as a transfonn of the ground mode 10) by the unitary operator (4) In the classical limit Ii ---t 0. The ground-mode projection [0] is represented by the discrete delta function operator 8(u t ) = 8(n) = 1 [n = 0] or 0 [n f. P) plane becomes the phase space. We may generate IN much as Peano did the classical natural numbers N. P) becomes a Dirac delta function 8(Q' .4 Coherent Plane Usually coherent states are fonnulated for a continuum. We do this more and more as we proceed. consider an entity we can call the quantum natural number qv.Q)8(P' . In this example the metrical structure we generate still turns out to be Hilbert. We start the construction from a classical random natural number c v . by starting with one origin vector 10) and a free successor operator i: (1) taking each In) to be linearly independent of the preceding ones. For the simplest example. later it does not.8. the cotangent space of the Q axis. which moves on a line lR . For any complex number Z = Q + iP. 0). beginning with this toy model. We have seen the coherent states of the linear harmonic oscillator. We introduce Hennitian and anti-Hennitian parts of L : (3) Now we regard IN as the initial vector space of a quantum entity. Then the Q axis becomes the coordinate space of the classical harmonic oscillator.P). the form factor (Q'. we define the coherent state IQ. (2) This is not a restriction on L but on the adjoint operation.3. We prepare to take a classical limit by introducing coherent states. P' IQ.0). Its initial vector space IN = Nil is the formal linearization of the natural numbers. We also use coherent modes to simulate a continuum with an underlying discrete or quantum structure. . We then define an adjoint t by the condition that Lt L = u t + 1 . for example.

G of generators of G. Quantum Probability and Improbability Thus a discrete system. o Stage 8: Let G be a finite monoid with product o.5 The 6qsc Process Four distinct variables appear during the toy construction of 8. In physical application. with identity element 1.. a quantum number with initial space Nil. leaving the generators implicit. o The quantum variable qv. (1) n. o The coherent or semiclassical variable sv. r) a monoid with generators. Generalizing. gives rise to a quantum theory that in the classical limit has a continuum sample space. "'( E generator set uniquely. p}]N . and the coherent transformations represent dynamical evolutions resulting from single-excitation Hamiltonians only. Heuristically speaking. semiclassical. their o-products are multiple excitations. with sample space N. of r.4: o The discrete variable 6 v . which we call the 8qsc process. No proper subset of r has the property 1.2. s.3. with sample space N. 8. a random real number. The graph represents the . and c (for discrete. We also require a set r S.3. For irredundancy."g' for every monoid relation "'(g = g' (g. G to be a generating set for G when 1. we can construct a c Lie group from a finite semigroup and some auxiliary structure by a similar sequence of four stages. No proper submonoid of G includes rand 2. we define a subset r S. the random natural number. the coherent states and the classical limit will make physical sense only as the result of a condensation that creates large number N of replicas of the system with the same mode. g' E G. In this way we define a graph on the monoid. and classical). When we write a coherent state IQ. a classical entity with sample space ]R and singular form factor. a semi-quantum entity with extended form factor on R o The classical variable c v .246 8. We regard the generators as nearest neighbors of the identity. For brevity we sometimes designate the pair by G alone and call it simply a monoid (or group. Without loss of generality we assume the semi group is a monoid. The unifying idea is to use finite generators of the monoid as infinitesimal generators of the coherent group. with a labelled arrow g-. q. called 8. We call the pair (G.. P} we should actually have in mind a large tensor product [0IQ. if G is a group). the plane ]R2. the generating elements r create single excitations. The monoid elements represent operations on a system and the generators represent elementary operations.. quantum.

• .4 the projective representation of L and Lt is related to operators q and a. by o Stage s: Let P = R'(r) be the R-image of the generators r of G. the generators r and the representation R). r) defines the quantum structure.3 Classical Limit 247 A monoid with generators is the discrete or 8 structure from which we begin the 8qsc process. Finally these operators must be given experimental interpretation. For example: In 8. r consisted of L alone. here it appears as an arbitrary choice. Then the projective representation R of the monoid with generators (G. A consists of all invertible elements of the algebra P". We may interpret q as the coordinate of a physical oscillator and -ifia as the momentum. infinitesimal generators of the coherent group . This turns on superposition. The points of the coherent manifold are now states of a hypothetical classical entity cEo The generators of G become tangent vector fields to the coherent manifold. We interpret the space D . JR) of the finite monoid G in the real D x D matrix algebra M(D. The linear closure p" is a natural algebra with the operator product and a natural Lie algebra with the commutator product. A is a Lie group with the Lie algebra P". Ultimately t comes from the dynamics.3. The set of the rays of the coherent states is called the coherent manifold. JR). We call A the (real) coherent group of G (with the generator set r and the representation R). The inner product between these coherent vectors defined by the t of the representation space is called the form factor (Z'IZ) between coherent states.3. we choose an irreducible finite-dimensional projective representation R : G ----> M(D.8. Let A be the maximal Lie subgroup of P". For example: In 8. The R representatives of the generators r define quantum coordinates (operators) of E(R). and the graph had the structure 0~1~2~3~··· (2) o Stage q: To construct a quantum theory for the discrete one. in such a way that the form factor approaches its singular 8function limit. o Stage c: We take the classical limit by letting a suitable action scale parameter ----> 00 so that fi ----> 00 .4. JR on which R acts as the initial space IN E(R) of a hypothetical quantum system E(R). We then form coherent states from a coherent group by choosing one vector 10) in the representation space IN to serve as a reference (vacuum or origin) vector. We must also specify the adjoint t :IN ----> FIN. Then the vectors IZ) E LG(G)' 10) in the orbit of the reference vector under the representation of the coherent group are called coherent vectors (or modes or kets) of G (relative to the origin 10) .

Quantum Probability and Improbability About the interpretations of these four structures: The q structure is the fundamental physical structure. As long as non-commuting variables remain. On the other hand. It is related to the q in somewhat the way that a Feynman diagram is related to a quantum experiment or a root diagram to a symmetry of a quantum system. The question being raised here is not whether there are hidden variables but whether there is a hidden state. He considered extensions of the existing theory that keep its dynamical variables and append others. The c structure is the classical limit of the s structure. The 8 structure is a symbolic system. however. His hypothetical . adjoining new "hidden parameters" will not make the theory complete. Q will recognize to be diffuse. It corresponds to one frame of the q structure. and search for a contradiction. Q cannot consider such actions to be (ideal) m~asurements at all. and possibly other experiences as well? We stipulate that Q has access to new observations (non-disturbing external acts) that decide the transitions that were undecided within the quantum physics of Q. the spins of all electrons and the momenta of all neutrinos were hidden for some time. being mixtures of new external actions for different states. not a physical system. we hypothesize that Q attains access to some state variable s. in which the indeterminacy too is neglected and the form factor is singular.4 Hidden States We have imbedded a classical theory within a quantum as a degenerate limit. in which complementarity is neglected but some indeterminacy remains. Then the initial and final actions that Q thought to be sharp. The s structure is a semiclassical approximation to a q structure. that distinguishes the vertically polarized photons that stop in an oblique analyzer from those that go through. The hypothesis is "enough hidden variables". however. Naturally Q cannot accept Q's noncommuting variables into Q 's classical theory as variables.248 8. Sometimes this hypothesis is called "hidden variables". without invalidating quantum kinematics. There might even be variables that are forever hidden from us. 8. due to the coarseness of our determinations today. some variables are undoubtedly still hidden from us. One should also consider the possibility of the reverse imbedding. That is. The actual question of interest. For example. This rather trivial truth is the core content of Von Neumann's "hidden variables theorem". Even Q sees that her measurements generally change the quantum. Can a deterministic classical physics (call it Q for short) cover the experiences summarized by a quantum physics Q. as represented by the finite form factor. hidden from Q. Von Neumann (1932) pointed out that incompleteness is intrinsic to quantum theory. The state space of this possibly composite hypothetical hidden state s we call S. without casting any doubt on the correctness of quantum dynamics itself. goes outside quantum theory.

but actually we are under external compulsions that account for the quantum probabilities. a final act (wi that Q deems sharp.M. They say that we only think that we have free and independent choices of our initial and final actions. (1985) This independence is crucial. in J. to be sure. Again there should be a convex linear injection T = N'(T) kinking these final statistical operators. But we can spare a paragraph for why serious scientists would entertain such hypotheses. let the Q statistical initial operator be some hypothetical diagonal matrix of probabilities pt s = in the operator algebra [8 +. In the same way. Kalckar. Dirac. Q's statistor will be a possibly non-diagonal projection operator on a single vector la) = (aM). Similarly. ed. one can consistently maintain that we live on a flat earth. let us still suppose that Q and Q at least agree on whether a system has been produced or not. Then in . Q must consider diffuse.8. the injection N must be convex linear. It is exclusively the numbers which characterize these acts offree choice which can be taken as initial numbers for a calculation in the quantum theory. We may write the injective correspondence from Q's initial statistors to Q 's as p = N(p). Q and Q will in general describe one and the same experimental act by two different statistors (statistical operators). Let us stipulate for now that the the initial and final acts of the experiment (wi +. with final statistical operator T = Iw) 0 (wi. or in a flat spacetime. by making suitable compensating assumptions. one that includes position in its commutative frame subalgebra. P. when Q's initial statistical operator is the non-diagonal p = a0a t . with a final operator statistical T. As a result. especially since we seek just the relations among our possible actions. Call a local frame for a local system. We cannot afford to spend much time on such possibilities.A. We recall that a near-non-Iocality is built into quantum kinematics. on what do Q and Q agree? For the sake of discussion. as are all distributions in the absolute frame of a classical theory. not how things "really are". and whether an action has occurred.8]" of the state variable s. If they differ on what is a measurement. We must allow Q to claim that what Q calls a measurement of a variable is not that kind of action at all.4 Hidden States 249 measurements do not change the system. even though they disagree on the descriptions. Q 's statistor will be diagonal in the state s. Specifically. Since Q and Q agree on probabilities.la) are two independent random events: The perturbations which an observer inflicts on a system in order to observe it are directly subject to his control and are acts of his free will. Call a local system one that has position x among its variables. It is therefore the hypothesis that some contemporary alternatives to the quantum theory must reject in order to avoid the conclusions that flow from it.

Tr(xy) =. that Q and Q agree on the square relation between initial acts: If P = N(p) and P' =N(p'). He assumed.. almost every frame of a local system is non-local. on the contrary. Therefore Q and Q give the same transition probability P in two forms that we equate to obtain P = Tr(Tp) = Tr(TP).. obeying (4) Using the spectral theorem and the transition probabilities (1). and only non-local systems have non-local frames. Tr(XY) . Y. then a classical kinematics with hidden state covers the quantum one. Proposition. . which necessarily commute. and conceivably some day we might find the hidden state. . by diagonal operators X. we recall. The only way that classical thought can account for such non-locality of the frame is by non-locality of the system.250 8. namely. There is no injection N of the statistical operators of a quantum system into those of a classical system that respects the transition probabilities. In his consideration of the hidden variable question mentioned above. Thus the root conflict is between the incorrect assumption. which we write as T ® P and T ® P. (1) This form for the transition probability has nothing to do with quantum theory. N' must respect the selection laws: [Tr(TP) =0] . N' exist.. The peculiarity of classical theory is that it permits only diagonal statistors.. Quantum Probability and Improbability classical theory every frame for a local system is local. The problem transcends locality. combined with the correct perception that quantum t . Since Q and Q disagree on what are measurements. Tr(xyz) = Tr(XY Z) . The alleged correspondence N replaces all the operators x. Assuming independence. the functions N. In quantum theory. (5) . with Tr(x) = Tr(X) . that a theory must be ontic. Proof Relative to the adjoint t the sharp statistical operators T and p are projectors. . If such functions N. Von Neumann also assumed effectively that the functions N... N' respect certain multiplication relations as well as the transition probability. (3) This assumption seems inappropriate in our formulation. it is one of reality. and on what are variables.. . then [p' =/] == [p' =p2] .. Q can compute Tr(xy) for any hermitian operators x and y. In particular. It holds for classical physics as well. conscious or not. Q and Q describe these external acts by product statistors.y is not ontic. (2) Here == is bi-implication. y. It is enough if Q and Q agree on what are actions. why should they agree on product variables? However it is easy to eliminate this assumption while preserving the essential point of Von Neumann's proof.

their cones intersect. In the resulting Q theory.Tr([(3][a]) . Von Neumann's theorem was not sufficiently constructive to suggest practical experimental tests. Therefore its restriction to the sharp projections also does.8. ')') ~ 8(a. We take the range of values of this hidden variable associated with any initial vector a (or final vector w) to be an open circular cone of rays with apex opening angle 7f /2 at the origin and center on the ray of a (or w). which Q cannot resolve but Q can. [(3])2 := ! Tr ([(3] . a) 8(a. The transition probability P = Tr([(3][a]) gives rise to a metric 8 8([a].4 Hidden States But in general Tr(xyz) (5) . John Bell formulated a theoretical consequence of hidden variables that had a dramatic experimental test. Q will see an unanalyzable unit. Being the square root of a sum of squares of differences of coordinates. (7) 8(a.8]". But if the Q theory is indeed richer than the Q. This contradicts Proposition. Q thus defeats the uncertainly relation between complementary variables. but by tensor products. Proposition.• 'f Tr(yxz). = (6) Proof We must show that 8 ~ 0.• When the angle between a and (3 is less than 7f /2. (3) + 8«(3. their cones are disjoint and the transition a ---> w = (3t is forbidden by both Q and Q . Where Q sees a system with locally interacting parts. ')') . The spaces of rays for a composite quantum system and its parts are not related in this way at all. It therefore satisfies (7). Then when a and (3 are 7f /2 apart. Q can wait until the random rays in the two cones coincide and then create a quantum in the state s. we have trouble analyzing any system into parts.[(1) 2 = 1 . There is an injection N of the statistical operators of any quantum system into those of a classical system that respects the selection rules. 251 while Tr(XY Z) = Tr(Y X Z). which would appear as a correct description of nature. 8 is a Euclidean metric on the real linear space of [8 t . [(3]) on sharp quantum initial acts [a]. it would have to be accepted despite this fusion. however. The normal Q rule for such an analysis is that the state space of the whole is a Cartesian product of the state space of the parts. We may imagine s as fluctuating randomly over this cone at a very high rate. Thus Q and Q agree on the selection rules ¢ . for example. (3) = 8«(3. The apex angles may be computed in any adjoint t. The following elegant formulation and generalization of Bell's theorem is due to Daniel Fivel (1991). as long as it is held fixed in the discussion. • . [(3] defined by !8([a]. Proof We take the hidden state s to be a ray in the initial space IN of Q. Then the transition is certain.

Tr(Ar) . the quantum transition improbability is a metric upon the Q images of Q's allegedly sharp initial acts. Proposition. and that passes through a for 8 = 0: . Q says that 8(" a) = 0(8) while Q (if he existed) would have to say that 82(" a) = 0(8).aJ is the square of a metric on the space of sharp initial actions.la) not to go.(0) = a.P for the transition (. o Q says that the transition improbability is a metric itself. (lOa) and (lOb» are obvious. B)2/2 for the transition A obeys --> (9) B is a metric on the diffuse initial acts A.. in virtue of (1).8 that is a geodesic in the 8 metric. This statement nicely expresses the absence of quantum superposition and is violated in the quantum theory. (lOc) P~ 0.la).81 +.• (11) (11) says that interposing an act of selection B must reduce the flow from A to r. B) = deB.Tr(AB) =Tr [(A . Thus while Q and Q can account for the same selection rules. Quantum Probability and Improbability The right-hand side of (6) also has a simple experimental meaning. We call P the transition improbability for (. (lOc) follows from the principle Tr(AB) Tr(Br) ::. Proof. Then for 8 --> 0. that is. (10) and (11) are mutually contradictory. peA. Imagine a path. Proof.B)2 (8) which indeed agrees with (6). A) (lOa) (lOb) peA. =. .(8) that passes through both a and . r) ~ dCA. Q must agree with Q on this transition improbability.81 +. B) := 8(A. It is the probability P = 1 . We see a critical difference between the quantum and classical probabilities: o Q says that the transition improbability is the square of a metric. r) . however.. In particular. . B) + deB. they cannot agree on transition probabilities. B. as in quantum experiments. According to classical probability theory the transition improbability peA.8 +.252 8. Thus in consequence of quantum theory the transition improbability P[. There the transition improbability is not a metric but the square of a metric. Proposition. Using classical probability theory.B)2]/2 = 48(A. with d-arclength 8 as parameter. Q expresses it by 1 . as hypothesized. .

4 Hidden States 253 Bell's inequality (seen here in Fivel's form) is one of many relations among transition probabilities that would be true if improbability were a metric and is false because improbability is the square of a metric. That would follow only if one uses classical kinematics instead of the more fertile quantum kinematics. It has the advantage of being testable and has stimulated courageous tests of its validity. the experimental results being in pretty good agreement with the quantum theory. and these are still important aids to scientific discovery. The Atoms of Democritus And Newtons Particles of Light Are sands upon the Red sea shore Where Israels tents do shine so bright William Blake . assume a classical ontic kinematics with hidden state. and conclude from the very success of quantum theory that there is distant action in nature. Since there is no evidence for a breakdown of quantum kinematics or local dynamics. such as the theory W.8. The violations of Bell's inequality do not at all suggest that there must be some action-at-a-distance operating in nature. assuming that quanta propagate and interact locally. At the same time we should be aware that many expositions of Bell's theorem. we shall continue to develop them here. Bell's inequality has been found to be significantly violated. including those of Bell.

a natural outgrowth of the experience of some lawfulness in nature and the desire for more. word) governing all acts. o The disagreements between Einstein and Bohr. The Search for Pangloss In this chapter we present several early attempts at comprehensive languages and theories. which gave supremacy to God's will and God's intellect respectively. Some of these survive in the modern world view. o The tension in the philosopher Schopenhauer between the world as will and as representation. to imagine that we ourselves can hope to understand or control nature completely. which precedes existence for stones. o The dualism of Descartes' mind and matter. some died. and between Plato and Aristotle. Is the universe completely describable and its future determined? Or is our future undetermined and in particular still shaped by our acts? This conceptual conflict between ontic and praxic world views has existed since history began and before.9. insofar as these all concern the relative merits of theory and experiment as source of physical knowledge. Then it takes one short step to identify with the Logos. and existence. and some deserve our attention now. If one abstracts from such unpredictables as lightning and love. one arrives at a pre-Socratic belief in a supreme Logos (law. Whence the curious concept of deterministic natural law? Presumably it developed from the experience that sometimes similar acts have dependably similar consequences. which precedes essence for people. often in one mind. between Newton and Leibniz. Some examples of this division are: o The clash between Camus' concepts of essence. o The schism in the Renaissance Catholic church between Scotism and Thomism. .

In one usage of the term.independent.1 Aristotle Since part of our work is to escape from the ontic concept of a proposition. All men are mortal. For example: Socrates is a man. Aristotle's Organon dealt less with the internal structure of propositions than with triads of propositions called syllogisms. A proposition contains no free variables (variables whose value is unassigned) and is thus context. Non-discursive thought does not predicate anything of anything. . an unambiguous declarative sentence. Aristotle took an important step toward modern logical algebras by introducing propositional variables A. In parallel. For example. Such a sentence is called propositional. Aristotle described it by various words all referring to contact or touch.256 9. . The sentences "Water under one atmosphere of pressure freezes at 0 "1+1=3. or no tense at all. E.. Thus propositions have internal structure. Like each simple declarative sentence. nor make any assertion. B. the propositional sentence "Socrates is mortal" has "Socrates" (the name. which is peculiar to humans and carried out by the intellect. each simple proposition has a subject and a predicate. the proposition that Socrates is mortal has Socrates (the man. one that asserts something definite. He called his logic the Organon (Tool). the universal affirmative. not the man) as subject symbol and "mortal" as predicate symbol." (1) (2) are regarded as stating propositions.. He held that logic governed discursive thought. we should trace it to its origins.C. The Search for Pangloss 9. The word "is" is rendered in todays symbolic logic by the symbol E and is supposed to have an eternal-present tense. as in "No men are mortal".). as in "All men are mortal". Two propositions may imply each other and still be distinct. The proposition asserts the predicate about the subject. Two such sentences define the same proposition if they are synonymous. and his logic is founded on the concept of the proposition. constants for that proposition. one that is meaningful and either true or false without further specification. (3) Socrates is mortal. Discursive thought consists of propositions. and logic as a tool used to construct knowledge from observation. and is defined by. A syllogism is a reasoning from two propositions called minor and major premises to a third called the conclusion.." c. as distinguished from non-discursive. not the name) as subject and being mortal as predicate. Four kinds of major premise enter into syllogisms: A. which is shared with animals and carried out by the soul. a proposition is an abstraction from. the universal negative. The abstract idea of a proposition had already been established in much its present form by the time of Aristotle (384-322 B. regarding observation rather than theory as the prime source of knowledge.

Having overcome the Euclidean preference for general statements over sharp. such that Nx P(x) := the number of x's such that P(x) . This is usually implicit. NOT (A AND NOT (5) A) Commutative.. Q. the A proposition "All X are Y" was considered to be false until about a century ago. The universal quantifier V is the analog in logic of an iterated product I1 in arithmetic. idempotent.. N produces a number while "land 3 produce propositions. (4) Applied to a predicate. An example of Celarent: .. "For all x. whose values are the individuals entering into the proposition.9.. The fullest way to describe how many is to say how many. OR and NOT. An entity P(x) which associates a proposition with each value of the variable entity x is called a propositional function or predicate. Like any mapping. the universal quantifier "Ix transforms the predicate P(x) into the proposition "Ix P(x). apparently remained implicit until the 1800's. Similarly the existential quantifier 3x transforms a predicate P(x) into a proposition 3x P(x) . of the syllogism Barbara. . . a predicate has a domain. called quantifiers because they tell "how many". as in "Some men are mortal". Today we use symbols "land 3. "For some x. EAE.1 Aristotle 257 I. He also gave some of their logical properties: A OR NOT A. y.. which may readily be defined in terms of N. Medieval scholars named the patterns AAA. one forms a proposition out of variables x. which we discuss later.. Celarent. . associative and distributive laws of AND and OR. we may take as basic neither an existential nor a universal but a numerical quantifier N. or by quantification. The numbervalued operator defined by (4) is called the occupation number for the predicate P and sometimes written N p. For example. . We convert a predicate into a proposition by substituting a value for the variable. the vowels giving the quantifiers. and predicates P. Aristotle's basic logical connectives were AND. which is read.. to express some of these ideas. It is the analogue in logic of an iterated sum L: in arithmetic. We may think of a predicate as a proposition with a variable object.. which is analogous to summing over a variable instead of substituting a value for it. the particular negative. and nowadays true. P(x)". which are properties asserted of the individual. the individuals on which it is defined. . and 0. P(x)". as in "Some men are not mortal". The implicit meaning of "Ix is "For all x in the domain". the particular affirmative. To express these ideas formally today. Quantum physics has a numerical quantifier N and uses it more than the propositional ones "land 3. If no X exist.

or "July 4. An entelechy is "that which makes the potential actual". then on Wednesday we find creatures with vestigial tails and incipient legs. Like him. But it is also true that his modal logic deals with more difficult questions. which was false yesterday and is true as I write. as exemplified by the propositions "1 + 1 = 2".E No mortals are gods. Propositional logic is more elemental than syllogistic logic. Nevertheless the syllogistic logic of Aristotle's Organon dominated logic for two millenia. was rooted in common sense and ordinary language and survives in them today. is not Aristotelian so much as Platonic and Stoic. astronomy. we still speak of the sun rising. We still do not have a fully satisfactory theory of change. Aristotle's typical propositions were tensed and temporal. he held. a pupil of Aristotle. and "entelechy" is often defined simply as "soul".". The Search for Pangloss E A . In his modal logic. Science without the concept of the possible is impossible. . Air and Fire. 1776 is the date of the signing of the Declaration of Independence". They could change from true to false with time. All men are mortal. Aristotle's logic. which he called dialectical. If we find tadpoles in the marshes on Monday and frogs on Friday. as an elaborate closed system of rules for forming valid syllogisms and recognizing invalid ones. The human soul seems to have been the entelechy of the human body. and was part of a search for eternity and timeless Being that characterized some Greek geometry. He proposed an ultimate unit (or more closely. Water.No men are gods. neither tadpoles nor .frogs but somehow both. The concept of eternal truth which dominates logic today. monad) of nature that he called an entelechy. as opposed to eternal entities such as numbers. Aristotle had one logic for constant things and a different logic. Most by far of his writings on logic deal with the modal logic of possibility and necessity. in . He built the central spheres from four elements or essences. When Heisenberg characterized the quantum 7/J vector as an "objective potentiality" he referred to Aristotle's modalities. He arranged the universe in concentric spheres with the Earth as center.258 9.". On such grounds. with a Fifth Element or Quintessence for the immutable heavenly spheres. Aristotle held that when a thing changes from having a property to not having it. and much of his science. The validity of Barbara is the transitive law for class inclusion. and philosophy. for entities that are subject to change in time. It has been described as an accident of subsequent history that his non-modal logic were promulgated more than his modal logic and displaced them in medieval thought. and the concept was still cloudier before the differential calculus of Newton and Leibniz. Aristotle transmitted a cosmology and an ontology as well as a logic. and was formulated later by Theophrastus. regarded as complete and unimprovable. there must be a transitional phase during which it both has and does not have the property. Earth. Aristotle showed that Barbara and Celarent implied all the valid forms. like "It is sunny". Aristotle required language and logic to deal with both potentiality and actuality.

(6) happens to be a part of classical logic that survives in quantum kinematics. corresponds to Hegel's world spirit (Geist). Since Hegel's dialectic displaced Aristotle's. Aristotle's beloved phenomena were but crude expressions of perfect eternal forms. In India a dialogue with Aristotle's logic and cosmology continued for several centuries after his death. granted appropriate transformations in the meanings of its terms. and was soon politicized and corrupted. temporal rather than eternal. and deals with doing rather than being. such as monads or quanta. Although (6) holds in formal quantum kinematics. the Newton-Leibniz controversy and the Einstein-Bohr debate. his dissertation was on the orbits of the planets. But then there is a remarkable discontinuity. are central to this work. In each of these conflicts the older thinker proposed an ideal mathematical universe. Ideas. Newton's and Heisenberg's. and "synthesis". Aristotle's A. For Plato. accessible not to ordinary eyes but to philosophical vision. Millenia later. while Aristotle studied biology and regarded knowledge drawn from such experimental study as prior to that resulting from theory. in which he claimed to construct the universe from pure number. Hegel seems to put the synthesis after the thesis and antithesis instead of between.9. actualizing potentialities. and they correspond roughly to the two logics of Aristotle. there is a transition probability from 1/J to both A and NOT A. acknowledges the limitation of our knowledge by the system cut. At first Aristotle's thought and Hegel's correspond well enough: Aristotle's world soul (entelechy). Two radically different theories of change. and the younger intruded vitalistic or spontaneous elements transcending such a description. Buddhist logicians projected their theory of human karma . Thus Plato's favorite method was one of theoretical argumentation and speculation. The picture of dynamical evolution given by quantum mechanics represents the change from A at one time to NOT A at a later as a continuous rotation from a 1/J vector associated with A to one associated with NOT A.1 Aristotle 259 his modal logic Aristotle renounces the law NOT (A AND NOT A). making free choices. This still goes on. sometimes quantum physicists sound as non-Aristotelean as Aristotle when we say informally that while it is changing the quantum is neither A nor NOT A and yet both. in flagrant disregard of the physical and biological changes that Aristotle's dialectic described. (6) that he propounds in his syllogistic logic. and when we point out that quantum kinematics is modal rather than absolute. often called Aristotelean. Perhaps Hegel discarded Aristotle's account of change because he studied Newtonian mechanics. "antithesis". and the transition between them correspond to Hegel's "thesis". Plato was some forty years older than Aristotle and may have been one of his teachers. NOT A. which I will call classical. classical and modal. we will avoid the term "dialectic". The Plato-Aristotle conflict prefigured the Descartes-Newton conflict. During the change. the philosopher Hegel (1770-1831) redefined Aristotle's term "dialectic" and rather spoiled it for us.

who weighs Kalamic atomicity against Aristotelean continuity. but too high in pitch for human ears.2 Llull and Bruno The medieval Majorcan troubador. connected only by the will of God. using single letters for the principal logical particles: A for AND. the medieval Islamic Scholastics who produced the encyclopedic Mutakallimun. called Ars Magna. To other faiths. writer. transmitted across space. They conceived that sensory perception arises from such microscopic interactions. and the like. Everything that the imagination can conceive the intellect admits as possible. The "God of Spinoza" to which Einstein once expressed adherence. ultimately opting for Aristotle. the Great Art. philosopher. N for NOT. Ramon Uull (1235-1316) (also Lull. Lully. and formed theologically incontestable propositions about God by rearranging these letters. however. Uull wrote his operational and predicate symbols on several wheels and then turned the wheels to generate accepted propositions about God. God annihilates each point of the world at every instant and recreates it point by point according to His will at the next. and Shiva the destroyer. He added operational symbols to the Aristotle's propositional variables. "The existence of the infinite is in every respect impossible. Hindu logicians too described sensory perception as a special case of interaction. as we have seen. the divine clock-maker.260 9.6). To deny the mathematical exactness of physical laws was seen by such theists as cutting our connection to divine will and giving way to atheism. Ars Magna is an anagram of "anagrams". Lullius) claimed a more powerful logic than Aristotle's. and likewise for the universe. goodness and charity). resembling the ten sephirot of the Tree of Life of the Caballah. in much the me- . It must hum as it turns. 9. For many post-Newtonian theists. He took one step closer to a logical algebra than Aristotle. What exists with constant properties only follows the dictate of habit." [Quoted by Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides) (1963). This habit-forming universe reappears in the thought of Peirce (see 9. A wheel cannot turn smoothly in such a discrete space and time. and founder of the Catalan literary language. describing the world as a pattern of mutual annihilations and dependent originations combining determinacy and novelty. For the Kalam. Rather. The Search for Pangloss into the microcosm. space and time consisted of discrete separate points. some occupied by atoms of matter and some not. set up the initial conditions and the laws of mechanics and then stepped back. a microscopic reenactment of the drama of Brahma the creator. relegating divine action to the infinitely remote past and future was itself atheistic. He combined these with a fixed set of letters standing for constant "dignities" of God (predicates such as power.] Thus an atom of matter does not actually go from one atom of space to another in the course of time. and are annihilated at the perceiver. in which light units are created at the source. Vishnu the transmitter. the laws of mechanics were regarded as an essentially intellectual chain of causation connecting us to the original creative act of divine will.

relativistic quantum spin theory (Chapter 11) convincingly constitutes the spacetime quaternity. (1) To reconstitute the quaternity of the Aristotelian elements from these dichotomies. and would still have had to account for its male triplet and female singlet. Uull believed the universe to have a fundamentally binary logical structure. earning beatification. in the eyes of some contemporaries. Uull inferred that the Holy Trinity must be part of a Holy Quaternity. (3) This too seemed absurd to contemporaries. Had he stuck to his principles he would then have had to factor the Holy Quaternity into Divine Dualities. conceivably the first. with its space triplet and time singlet. Earth = Not Hot x Not Wet. his statue looms darkly over the airport road at Palma de Majorca. and attempted to fit all of Scholastic science and theology into a binary frame. but also suggest that he sensed the vast potential of mechanical computation. Later. a heresy close to Manichean. Wet or Not Wet. and returned to the Trinity. In any case he made a small completely artificial algebraic logical language. from the dichotomy of spin-up and spin-down.9. he tried his Great Art in North Africa and was martyred in the square by a pious mob. tradition holds. such as it was. Because 3 is not a power of 2. Uull (like Thomas Aquinas) set out to provide infallible logical arguments for Christianity. Jonathan Swift's parody of the Royal Academy of Science. . and so arrived by elimination at Air = Hot x Wet. seriously compromising his system. Larger than life. His plan was to convert Islam and make the Mediterranan safe for Christianity. Instead he was part of the flow of Arabic culture through Majorca and France into a receptive Europe. Hot or Not Hot. (2) Water = Not Hot x Wet. he made the more-or-Iess plausible identications Fire = Hot x Not Wet. and adjoined the Virgin Mary.2 Uull and Bruno 261 chanical way that Gulliver finds on the flying island of Laputa ("the whore"). Instead he capitulated to the Vatican. where he competed with Thomas Aquinas for funds from the same grant officer. Uull's wheels constitute a primitive logical engine with a minute memory and a piddling processor. At an advanced age. Thus he took as more fundamental than the four elements of Aristotle the two independent Stoic dichotomies. His wild claims for their truth-finding power were already mocked by scholars in his own time.

promised. Eventually. and the Inquisition burned Bruno at the stake. rather than in the heavens. combinatoric art. A purely formal part. differing from the sun in appearance only because of their greater distance. Brown in A Midsummer-Night's Dream. was a gifted mathematician. and denied the center altogether. "Let us calculate". Today we call this syntax. he had no more success than LIull. and sit down to arrive together at irrefutable truth by mathematical methods. Leibniz first arithmeticized logic. and did not actually deliver a universal mathematics of nature. If he too hoped to convert them. In his search for the rational calculus. whom he studied and quoted. Calculus ratiocinator. proclaiming the relativity of position. governing how the language is used to communicate about nature. Bruno voluntarily put himself into the hands of his religious enemies. kinematics. generating formulae that are not merely meaningful but true. Leibniz described an open semantics. telling us how to arrange symbols into meaningful formulae. The court records of his trial are still sealed. not the great. prophesied a great day when philosophers. He represented atomic propositions by prime numbers and conjunctions of propositions by products of their numbers. a prominent popularizer of Copernican and post-Copernican cosmology and of pantheism. and the rules of deduction. the . Bruno extrapolated from Copernicus. claimed that his lifework was to promulgate Llull's Great Art.3 Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716). rational calculus. Thus he did not accept the goal of a final theory of everything. He walks among us today as Dr. as optimistic as LIull and Bruno. Leibniz anticipated. one that grew with experience. Characteristica universalis. A deductive part. and the stars to be suns. Leibniz. like his hero LIull. He divided his theory into at least three parts in a way that we still use today: • • • Ars combinatoria. representing each proposition by its Leibniz number. instead of disputing endlessly. including logic. and logic. The Pope stayed Catholic. would say "Calculemus". and he provided a clearer scheme for such a universal theory than LIull. We call this semantics. universal principles of characterization.262 9. and in elemental vital units he called minima or monads. who only shifted the center of the universe. Like LIull. even of religion. We call this logistics and count as logistical such postulates as the principles of dynamics. however. each possibly with its own planets and people. Aristotle and Copernicus to the contrary notwithstanding. set theory. (He was by no means the first). distributed throughout the present universe. In Leibniz's system. much as the logician Kurt G6del later did. attempted. 9. He conceived celestial space to be infinite and homogeneous. The Search for Pangloss Giordano Bruno (1548?-1600). He vested creative power in the small. If the Leibniz number of B is a factor of the Leibniz number of A then A implies B.

"Pangloss" being Voltaire's Greek version of Leibniz's Latin name for his universal philosophical language. and the universal true predicate by the number 1. That is. The elementary monad was at the bottom. the world. consisting of everything that exists. Some. and at its top was God. which seems to incorporate a new kind of relativity. Each human soul was a monad in the middle of this hierarchy. the Monad of Monads. Pangloss of Candide. the unit. set theory. as each cell of an animal carries a chromosomal map of the whole organism. Leibniz avoided Bruno's pantheist heresy. Now acting on the world is no problem. communicating not externally with each other but only internally with God. the world is an object (in the sense of Chapter 1) and a state is a possible world.for complementation. We recall that a property of quantum units is defined by (for example) an initial action which prepares or imports units with that property. and Scotists. the All. including the experimenter. He thus straddled the embattled boundary between Thomists. Leibniz vehemently rejected Newton's world of "atoms in a void". "This is the best of all possible worlds". entelechies or monads. monads are completely closed systems. still found logic (specifically modal logic) on Leibniz's concept of the collection of all possible worlds. the null or identically false predicate is represented by the number 0. Leibniz did not rely entirely on continual divine intervention or habit.3 Leibniz 263 operation resembling conjunction is multiplication. Leibniz invented the still commonly used signs c for inclusion and . We may be said to do this whenever we act on any unit of the world. like meditating monks under a vow of silence.9. The subject of the predicate is the operand of this external action. In Leibniz's monadology. and moves in Divinely preordained harmony with them all according to a variational principle of maximum goodness. This kind of absoluteness and unity is not approached in quantum theory. who based the world on divine intellect. In one example of this logic. Omnilingua. . and perhaps Bruno's fiery fate. Each monad then reflects all the others from its own perspective. His monads formed a hierarchy. to define a property of the world operationally we must act on the world. an ancestor of modern symbolic logic. Leibniz thus inspired the ludicrously optimistic Dr. by stipulating that "monads have no windows". each monad had some degree of will and knowledge. and the quantum set theory of this work. This results in a great and attractive unity: All predicates are about one subject. as did the Kalam. however. but gave each monad its own map of the entire universe. like the philosopher Saul Kripke. Similarly. To account for the appearance of interaction and mechanical determinism. His windowless monad seems a conservative version of the transient God-created-and-annihilated atoms of the Kalam. who based it on divine will. and like Bruno proposed to constitute nature of wall-to-wall eternal elementary souls. This elegantly makes every predicate into a predicate about one object. or "prehension" and "apprehension". which could have influenced him through Llull and Bruno. It associates each predicate with a class of possible worlds.

or. such as absolute time. since our intentions or instructions to carry out a later action might be erased by an earlier. The very concept of an absolute universe may be another ontic atavism. is based on sharp external actions. if we imagine that we ourselves carry out such an operation. we return to the original system. To develop a physics within the theory of possible worlds. The logic of possible worlds of Leibniz and Kripke would have to be generalized (and presumably relativized) for present quantum kinematics. this is an assumption of commutativity or integrability. time that between consecutive ones. existing independently of their contents. and avoids both the mortal peril and the conceptual paradox of sharp actions upon ourselves and our environment. Furthermore. an operational philosophy makes fewer such dangerous hypotheses of integrability than any other practical approach. In physics as in life. until they were relativized. have been found to perpetuate important physical errors and block important evolutions. Like the 19th century assumptions underlying absolute time. It also opens the possibility of relativizing the universe. however. it would generally be impossible to carry them out in sequence. the system-cut. flat space. and the evolutions of physics are one-to-one. For such reasons it seems impossible to set up an operational logic of sharp world states. and complete information. even if it were possible to speak of sharp actions upon the world without self-contradiction. determining every particle of its operand and all its memory of the past. The Search for Pangloss Quantum theory today. Now surely it is impossible to act sharply on the world. one hypothecates a vector space of inaccessible world actions. It seems to rest on the expectation that when we move the external interface and then restore it to its original place. It is impossible in principle for us to carry out a sharp external action on the world including ourselves. In order to consistently imagine gaining maximal information about the entire world. as much is lost somewhere. While for Newton space and time were absolute. conserving information. By allowing its operations not to commute. Copenhagen quantum theory accepts this split into system and episystem. Whenever we gain information about the world. all the differing partial views that we obtain with our differing system-cuts may not fit together coherently. The information dump is as crucial for experiments as it is for life. we must allow dynamical evolutions that are not one-to-one mappings of the past to the present. entropy-reducing transformation. That would require a many-to-one. changing our usage of the word "world". which is as it were erased and created anew.264 9. we can actually operate sharply upon but a tiny part of the world. This always cuts the world into a tiny system and a vast episystem. absolute rest. This is the germ of a relational theory . Anyone who tries this should remember that in the past similar inaccessible hypotheticals. and the results of the earlier might be erased by the later. either one must postulate external agencies outside the world. A sharp initial action is radical in the extreme. Leibniz declared that space was the relation between coexisting events. and complete information. A reservoir upon which we concentrate this loss of information may be called an information dump or heat reservoir. the acts of a godlike extracosmic experimenter.

Grassmann. 9. and a year after Hamilton had discovered his quaternions. In homage. like Hamilton. it seems that he saw the parallels between his algebraic operations and those of logic. .1 Extensors Grassmann's 1844 "linear extension theory" is closer to the needs of quantum logic and quantum kinematics than all the subsequent logical systems of the next century. Grassmann constructs a linear space with two unital associative distributive graded-algebra products V and 1\. [[Later (Chapter 14) we imbed this graded algebra of first-order extensors in a larger graded algebra ACT of extensors of all orders.4. In their full strength they serve as quantum kinematical operations that we still call PAND and POR when we wish to emphasize their logical significance. about three years before Boole set up his classical algebra. His primary motive seems to have been to vindicate his father's quest to extend arithmetic from the real number line to higher dimensions. bearing a uniformly distributed additive quantity like mass or charge.4 (2)] when we restrict their action to the rays of one basis for his linear space. they become logical operators of a lattice logic. recognized that multi-dimensional arithmetic is non-commutative.. area. the pioneer non-commutative arithmetic. The actions that we take actions as basic in this work may be regarded as special cases of relations. Restricted less severely. like the special relativistic one that is based on the relation of causal dependence between events. or of Ddimensional extension in general. each with its own unit element.1. Grassmann called his discovery the theory of "extension". Grassmann's graded-double-algebra was also more powerful and far-reaching than the algebras that appeared between his and Clifford's. what Grassmann called an extensive quantity we call an extensor. Deg. A Grassmann double algebra A also has a linear operator called degree. 9. volume. . called progressive and regressive. related to Von Neumanns AND and OR.9.]] The algebraic operations 1\ and V of Grassmann reduce to classical logical concepts of PAND and POR [3. related by a basic dual involution .2.. or "extensive quantity" [Grassmann (1844)]. including those of Boole and Peano.4 Grassmann 265 of time and space. though Grassmann published before Hamilton too (unless Hamilton's jubilant graffito on a Dublin bridge counts as publication). whose spectral resolution is the decompositiol1 of A into homogeneous subspaces . to simple product vectors. Hamilton.4 Grassmann Hermann Grassmann (1809-77) published the core of the quantum-logical algebra in 1844. but still in obedience to the Orion convention. "linear extension". Grassmann and Boole seem to have made their beautiful and closely intertwined theories quite independently of each other.. While he thought of an extensive quantity primarily as a geometric element of length.

LA V .. . Deg is also called a grade. which is dual to Deg..LA 1\ .. followed by complex conjugation. the exterior algebra over IN f. and which has the eigenvalue 9 in the degree-g subspace A g . (5) Commutative property a 1\ b = -b 1\ a . In Chapter 7 we defined Set f for a quantum entity f as a derived quantum entity whose initial space is IN Set f = V IN f. ). This provides an algebraic representation V of the POR operation of set algebra.L(A V B) = . (1) Full class i I\A = A (2) Nilpotent property Nilpotent property aVa=O (3) al\a=O (4) Commutative property a V b = -b Va.LlA=A (9) Complement property 2 . To provide an algebraic representation 1\ of the dual PAND operation. we note the following properties of a real Grassmann double algebra.L!=i Deg! = 0 Deg(aA) = a(1 + Deg)A (12) Degree property 0 Degree property 1 (13) (14) We have not written. It extends the adjoint t: IN f ---7 FIN f already discussed. (6) Associative property A V (B V C) = (A V B) V C (7) Associative property A 1\ (B 1\ C) = (A 1\ B) 1\ C (8) Complement property 1 . (15) where f is the Levi-Civita relative tensor density and has weight -1. for example. and Deg and the defining properties of Codeg. The Search for Pangloss Ag (g = 0... so that :I: has weight 0 and is a true tensor. Codeg. .LB (11) Complement property 4 . The operation :I: is a tensorial mapping :1:: IN Set f ---7 FIN Set f of the form :I: =Af.2. We represented V IN f by the space of anti symmetric tensors over IN a . . When IN f has an adjoint t and the coefficient ring is JR we can increase the correspondence between the quantum and classical sets algebras still further by giving Set f the richer structure of a Grassmann complemented double algebra. .. and JL is the relative scalar IdetMI'/2 and has the compensating weight +1 . While we eschew an axiomatic approach.. in which a lower case variable represents a first-grade extensor: Null class ! vA= A. There is a second grade called the codegree. we give an involutory mapping :1:: IN Setf ---7 FIN Setf.. the expressions of the linearity of V.LB (lO) Complement property 3 . 1..266 9. 1\.L. This amounts to providing a volume element or measure on IN f. :l:7f1 is called the opposite of 7f1. t is the involution t: IN Seta ---7 FIN Seta that lowers each raised tensor index by contraction with the metric M.L(A 1\ B) = .

for the complement operation combines much of Grassmann's intention. complement and opposite. and Euclid's symbol for the orthogonality relation.:j: = id . and only trivially antilinear.. 1.. 9. He designated a complement operator by 1 to suggest both perpendicularity and multiplication by i = . [Kawaguchi (1940) introduced a term "extensor". Grassmann worked over the real field. Grassmann's involution 1. His complement operators were therefore linear.: IN Set E ----> IN Set E. Grassmann's original I. Boole's later sign -. Instead. 1. interchanges V ~ 1\.] Later our set operators will be represented faithfully as linear operators on extensors. Peano provided separate symbols for the two products (though not the two units) and assigned them the symbols V and 1\ that we use today. Then he interpreted w<I> as the other product.. (16) t interchanges IN ~ FIN. Barnabei. He refused to introduce separate mUltiplication signs for his two products. and reverses order.. perhaps in order to heighten the resemblance of extensor algebra to ordinary arithmetic.2 Extensor Terminology Grassmann's formulation of his algebra was lamentably cryptic. an extensor'll of degree M was an M . and Rota (1986) reserved the term for the progressive products of vectors. form a four-group with t 1. and reverses order.4.I-dimensional "extensive quantity". and V ~ I\. :j:.j -1. but this is quite different from Grassmann's elements of extension. which has but one product. .9. Neither Grassmann's symbol 1 or Hodge's symbol * are convenient here because of all their other uses. where the extensor algebra has dimension 2N = 2. The three commuting involutions t. the adjoint. writing 1 for whichever one he needed. Perhaps the assumption prevalent in quantum theory today that the quantum i is a number will ultimately be found to be less fundamental than Grassmann's theory that i is an operator.'11 represented the orthogonal (N . he confined himself to multiplying homogeneous extensors 'II and <I> for which one of the two products was zero. for what today is called a jet. The term "extensor" derives from Grassman's own "extension" (Ausdehnung). Grassmann also refused to introduce two unit elements. :j: interchanges IN ~ FIN. and inherit their products.. probably derived from "extended tensor". regarding complex numbers merely as the case N = 1. This resembles Boole's later practice of writing unions only of classes whose meet was null. and using the ambiguity of the product to compensate for that of the unit..1 dimensional element with an attached coefficient or weight. Our symbol 1. regarded as a complement operation (rotation by 7r /2) in the Grassmann double algebra over a vector space of real dimension 2. For Grassmann. the complement 1. an M . is called the Hodge dual or star in another context. Brini.4 Grassmann 267 The key element of this richer structure is the Grassmann complement operator 1..M)-dimensional element.. the special contravariant tensors which Grassmann called real and which we call simple..

9. consisting of the volume-preserving endomorphisms of In. our series product. the Grassmann products of the null set and the full set of basis vectors. Cartan took the symbol 1\ (originally a kind of conjunction or intersection) and gave it to the product that Peano called V. (1) Later mathematicians seeking generalized logics. Grassmann's difficult writing received so little attention at first that Grassmann quit mathematics for philology. while violations of (1) arise from an incompatibility. usually chose to doubt the law of the excluded middle.5 Boole Shortly after Grassmann's discovery. In Chapter 1 we met Boole's first (idempotent) and second (commutative) law. a kind of disjunction or union [Barnabei et al. so the question did not arise for him. The symmetry group of the operator algebra Op Set f and of Grassmann's double algebra of elements of extension G is the special linear group of In. isomorphic to the double algebra of multivectors. and use the term "Grassmann double algebra" for the algebra Grassman actually invented. This product he identified with the logical operation of AND or intersection of classes. for example. The Search for Pangloss We also write 1 = ! and. To avoid confusion we propose to call the one-product algebra an exterior algebra. supplemented with the two distinct unit symbols ! and i. producing a more successful Sanskrit dictionary. When later one of Grassmann's products entered mainstream mathematics. avoid the term "Grassmann algebra". The writings of Peano and Clifford promulgating Grassmann's visionary thinking appeared after his death. 1-1 = i for the bottom and top unit. sometimes in connection with quantum theory. (1986)].268 9. Our semilinear complement operator is a mild generalization of the usual Hodge star. He also stated a distributive law. (2) The postulate (2) is violated in intuitionistic logic. which in Peano's logic became A n (B U C) = (A n B) u (A n C) . We have returned to Peano's original appropriate notation. an "act of election" to the class. Boole associated each class with a "mental operation". Au(-A)=I. which is linear. but the misnomer stuck. As a result his classes are born with a natural product BA. His first formulation (1847) of his class algebra was more operational and action-based than his later. In fact the law (2) holds in the quantum logic of Birkhoff and Von Neumann (1936). This is rather like using the word" AND" for" OR ". SL(IN). defined by performing their operations consecutively. In it. Violations of (2) usually arise from an infinity. IN Setf. to be performed upon individuals in a more general popUlation. George Boole (1815-864) created a useful algebra of classes and gazed beyond it towards quantum logic. The symmetry group of G-with-complement-operator is SO(IN). Grassmann used the real field. .

Indeed. . Therefore Boole left "u + v" undefined when u and v are not disjoint. Boole's theory of POR falls short of Grassmann~s and Peirce's in that it has no symbol for "undefined" and so fails to close algebraically. With the experimental meanings we have given. (3) and this holds for simple extensors. which correspond to the classes of Von Neumann's logic. The algebraic representative of POR is the progressive product V of Grassmann's double algebra. "u+v representing the undivided subject and u and v the component parts of it" (Boole 1847). For example. On the other hand (2) survives in the elementary quantum logic of Chapters 4 and 6. In the extensor logic developed below. Boole's algebra used an addition-like process. but does not hold for quantum classes in general. Besides the product AB. but only their variability.5 Hoole 269 Some have doubted that quantum propositions are tautologically true-or-false as classical ones are supposed to be. the closest statement to (2) that we can write at all is wV. All variables have multivalued (that is. . Boole never "added" classes that overlapped. This implies that in "u + v". Multivalued in this usage is merely another word for variable.9. This brings together two ideas: that there are more truth values than 0 and 1. and is maintained in Von Neumann's predicate algebra. just as Grassmann's progressive product u V v vanishes then. Their totality is a Boolean algebra that takes the place of the binary Boolean algebra of the two truth values 0 and 1. The "arithmetic sum" that Peirce used later (and that we have called POR) extended Boole's "sum" algebra by one additional ideal element. It is the non-commutativity of the truth values that is peculiar to quantum theory.lw == i. Thus multi valued logic is indeed useful for physical entities. Each Boolean function on the state space of a variable may be considered as a truth value for that variable. The diagonal subset of Proj is the truth-value system for a classical variable entity. 2 things and 2 things make 4 things only if the first 2 and the second 2 are disjoint. variable) truth values. nor their infinite nature. likening his operation to arithmetic addition. but this multivaluedness expresses neither the quantum nature of these entities. which have constant truth values. If the system of truth values has more elements than 0 and 1 it is called multivalued. not their multitude. and that the excluded middle (2) might be wrong. we can test a disjunction Au B by inserting binary numbers 0 (for false) and 1 (for true) for the variables A and B and interpreting U as sup. The system of quantum truth values for a quantum entity t: is just the set of operators Proj to. (2) still holds in known experiments. The two-valued logic is useful for predicates about constant objects. By truth values we mean algebraic elements that can be substituted for the predicates that occur in a compound predicate so that we can tell whether the compound is true by an algebraic calculation. and have formulated quantum logic as a multi valued logic violating (2). u and v are disjoint.

We may then reserve 0 for the undefined. and as a result Boole's algebra looks much like linear algebra. The classes of Boole' s class algebra over a space S of N states may all be uniquely expressed as POR'S of the N distinct states. which we write as x V y. in which the symbol A ~ B means that either A and B are both defined and A = B or at least one of them is undefined (= 0) : Null class ! vA =A..lA = A (12) DeMorgan property I . the null class. (7) A(BC) = (AB)C (8) AvA=O (9) Associative property A V (B V C) = (A V B) V C (10) Distributive property (A V B)C ~ AC V BC . Now the null class.270 9. and are 2N in number. Similarly we write the universal class as To "top" . To do so he would have needed a new symbol. he represents its identity element. "A + B") without first making sure that A and B were disjoint. (11) . or Ef) as Randall & Foulis would. but use instead either "u POR v" or "u V v".. as he would.l(AB) ~ (.l.l(A V B) ~ C-1A)C-1B) (13) DeMorgan property II . We represent the null class by the symbol!. Boole did not express (9) so explicitly. read "bottom" or "bottom unit". that of all left multiplications with all right ones. should not be represented by 0 as in Boole's or Leibniz's logical algebra. such as the symbol 00 introduced later by Peirce for this purpose..i. The class operations AB and A V B have the following properties.lB) (14) Idempotent property Commutative property Associative property Nilpotent property Double negation property The associative properties (8) and (10) are a higher commutativity. Boole's multiplication AB and addition A + B are defined so that they obey the basic identities of ordinary arithmetic.lA) V (. Since Boole represents POR by "+". Like Grassmann and Peirce we take the disjunctive operation POR to be a product. instead of Boole's 1. . 1/1 his later writing.A. Suitably extended this becomes the NOT that we designate by . where + is needed for quantum superposition.. being the identity element for the product x V y. To avoid confusion with other uses of + we shall never write Boole's disjunctive operation as "u + v". (4) Full class 1A=A (5) (6) AA=A AB=BA.. We cannot take his usage of "+" into quantum logic. He simply never wrote or defined A POR B (for him. he dropped the modicum of operationalism already mentioned. The Search for Pangioss Boole introduced a negation operation designated by 1 . He did not give operations for his "+" and NOT as he did for his product AB. by o.

and a forerunner of Einstein's and Heisenberg's operationalism. upon which Heisenberg and Bohr founded their quantum epistemology. but also implausible due to the acausal elements of his system (the tychism discussed below). Synechism is Peirce's belief in a certain form of continuity and the existence of real physical continua. (Peirce was in fact not practical and died in poverty. deed. the wavelength of an atomic spectral line. While Peirce's pragmaticism is primarily a theory of meaning. He thus gives more weight to the deeds of scientists than their words. as Einstein advised later. in the sense of a practice of the scientific community that gives a concept its meaning. namely pragmatism. "pragmatica" meant royal edicts. This is a remarkable conclusion for a 19th century practicing scientist. say). Pragmatism was his first name for a specific philosophical theory of meaning: namely. How can one account for the remarkable "suchness" we find in nature. if things are merely classes of actions? Objects seemed indispensable to Peirce. and synechism. founding scientific theory upon practice.6 Peirce 271 9. "Synechism" is "connectionism" Grecized. Taking pragma as primary makes an object appear as a class of actions (those that produce it. In earlier times. to make meaningful statements with the subject-verb structure. an object arises when many infinite series of such actions converge to a consistent . In particular pragmaticism and quantum epistemology share some family problems.) The term was later borrowed by William James for his related but rather vulgarized philosophy. This created the problem of objects for Peirce.6 Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (sounds like "purse") posited a fundamental randomness and "real potentialities" in about 1900. Tychism is Peirce's belief that the universe is governed by chance (rVXTJ)." Peirce's pragmat(ic)ism.9. Ordinarily there is a certain duality between actions and objects: We combine them in pairs. though shared by other philosophers. Thereupon Peirce coined the term pragmaticism for his theory. tychism. James understood individual practice. it includes an epistemology and so may be compared with the quantum epistemology. and "pragmatism" thus came to mean conceit as well as a concern for practical matters. and was the first to propose a quantum standard of length. Peirce preferred Greek roots to Latin. Peirce's epistemology emphasized the pragma. that the meaning of a statement is defined by the consequences in practice of holding it to be true. and of the operationalism later expounded by the scientist Percy Bridgman. all of which have counterparts in present-day quantum physics. be ready for B. Peirce regarded at least three elements of his thought fundamental enough to coin them into -isms. Where Peirce understood by practice that of a scientific community. Peirce declared that any statement of the form "A is B" is a confused way of expressing a conditional imperative: "If you encounter A. one action and one object. In one of his systems. trusting that no one would steal such an ugly word. is a lineal descendant of Francis Bacon's empiricism.

Objects in the classical sense do not exist except as approximations. During his later years Peirce struggled mightily with the problem of objects. This makes him brother of all quantum physicists. Peirce provides a theory not only of meaning but also of the evolution of meaning. quanta such as photons or electrons. though still worthy of study. Pragmaticism is a theory of meaning based on practice. depending on what we actually do to the photon. It also has an evolutionary aspect. The individuals that do exist. Quantum systems have a being that is relative. Such individuals are called "sharp" or pure cases in quantum theory.influenced Peirce. and never coped with it satisfactorily. Peirce . are not determinate in this sense.. Peirce's epistemology is more deterministic and less stochastic ("tychistic" is Peirce's term) than Bohr's quantum epistemology in one critical respect. and survival. including time and law.. But they built on a foundation of deterministic mechanics and used statistics only to deal with complexity. The unifying theme of Peirce's architecture is his evolutionism. Such determinate individuals are classical objects and likely do not exist in nature. Boltzmann and Gibbs had shown how the law of large numbers could lead to apparently deterministic behavior. not absolute. is a triadic relation between an entity E itself. entity and user when and only when their relation is self-perpetuating in this way. He could not understand why such consistent limits should always exist for random actions. Peirce defines an individual as "determinate in respect to having or wanting each general character . and this seems to me the heart of Peirce's system. and the user U. his belief that everything evolves. There is not as much suchness (or object) in nature as Peirce conceded. it acquires a new user and is apt to be replicated.of large random ensembles. Today such determinate individuals can be removed from Peirce's system. and this family may vary from case to case. What does it mean in practice to say that S means E to U? Peirce solves this problem with the criteria of self-reproduction. Peirce insisted. When a symbol is used successfully. The Search for Pangloss limit. the symbol S. His physicalistic theory of meaning thus fits equally well the communication of symbols and the transmission of genetic information. Given the famous successes of Newtonian mechanics. and their work must have.272 9. Then the U-S-E relation reproduces itself from one U-S-E triad to another. Since there are no objects. ". At best they are determinate in respect to having or wanting a maximal family of general initial characters or of final ones. we do not have to account for their existence but only for their occasionally appearing to exist. three elements become symbol. For Peirce. To be sure. it was either notably perverse or remarkably prophetic for a practicing scientist of the 19th century to insist that all law is fundamentally statistical and that fundamental processes are random. a significantly easier problem. We face Peirce's problem today without the handicap of faith in the existence of objects. Meaning. Sand E. Thus Peirce was not consistently praxist. This raised the question: How is this relation singled out physically from all other triadic relations among U. propagation.

Hence tychism. Thus Boole did not make an algebra in the modern sense but Peirce did. and infer that consciousness must be an essentially quantum process. being machines. His logical 00. which he could explain only by random variation. love and the like. Boole and Peirce constructed the disjunctive operation that they wrote as + to parallel the addition of the number of cases or possibilities. representing the undefined.1 Tychistic Logical Algebra Perhaps because Peirce gave probability such a fundamental role in nature. To accomplish closure under +. There seems to be little evidence for this view.9. His tychism was also a natural consequence of his evolutionism. Let us write Prob(A) for the probability of membership (of some variable entity to) in class A. Similar statements have appeared since the discovery of quantum theory. and which has a special relation to the logic of Fermi-Dirac quanta. This seems more congent. Peirce introduced an ideal element that he designated by 00. He stipulated also that 00 obeys A + 00 = 00 + 00 = 00. Peirce correctly said. The sole difference between Boole's + and Peirce's is that Peirce insisted that A + B always have a symbolic value. with quantum phase correlations across the brain [Umezawa (1993)]. do not. The possibility of a literally friendly but still deterministic machine seemed absurd to Peirce. while 00 asserts nothing about anything. Today these arguments do not seem to lend strength to his conclusion. It is not as unthinkable today. Some today still hold Peirce's view that determinism is incompatible with our inner life. and he set A + B = 00 when A and B are not disjoint. infer a species of tychism from Peirce's synechism..6. But in order for law to be born. Indeed. One may. invoking quantum complementarity to explain free will. Boole and Peirce were led to + or POR by the following probabilistic consideration. We take this up under the heading of synechism below. He also argued for tychism from the existence of variety in nature. What right had Peirce to be so right? Peirce's principal argument for tychism was that we have feelings but deterministic systems. is as important for logic as the zero for arithmetic. In his system the dynamical law was as subject to birth and evolution as anything else. however. and Boole did not. his 00 is Grassmann's 0. The null class 0 asserts too much to have elements. early in his studies he founded an algebraic logic upon it which was a significant improvement of Boole's. one might reason. and so ultimately of probabilities. there must be a prior lawless phase.6 Peirce 273 was quite insistent on exchanging that foundation for a fundamental tychism. Boole and Peirce defined their "+" operation that we call POR so that Prob(A POR B) = Prob(A) + Prob(B) (1) . and is crucial for what we do here . 9.

On the other hand.274 9. the subspace consisting of the vanishing vector 7/J = 0 of quantum logic. It is not truth functional. There is ample reason to treat POR as a product like Grassmann rather than a sum like Peirce. but only a geometric one. The "+" (POR) of Boole and Peirce corresponds (it seems unwittingly) to the progressive product V of extension theory [Grassmann (1844)] . Pierce's operation that I have called POR is generally called the disjoint union today. I} rather than Grassmann's real numbers. then A POR B is undefined for all objects. then A POR B = A u B is the usual disjunction. we cannot. What are usually called Von Neumann integers in set theory were Peirce's earlier. Peirce's law A + 00 = 00 (for all A) corresponds to Grassmann's law A V x = x. in his existential diagrams for example. and so did Peano. Nor did he go on to found a true (higher-order) set calculus or a higher-order logic. Pierce introduced the terms "cenad" and "pleiad" for the null set! and the full set i. Thus Peirce's 00 is Grassmann's 0. HANDS OR LIMBS = LIMBS. founded on the inclusion relation A c B . Peirce and Boole did not seem to have the dual 1\ or PAND corresponding to Grassmann's regressive product 1\. in the theory of classes of fermions (quanta obeying the Pauli exclusion principle). POR is subsumed in Grassmann's algebra. For example. has its own addition A + B. The Search for Pangloss whenever A POR B is defined. quantum theory does. and even has the group property. Specifically. In later work Peirce lapsed from his algebraic logic to a more relational one. Peirce did both. Grassmann did not give a clear logical meaning to his progressive product. For quantum theory.2. besides its two products ("progressive" and "regressive"). then we cannot determine if A POR B is defined for a given object from the truth-values of A and B for that object. if A and B are predicates. like Grassmann's double algebra. They wrote A POR B as A + B. which is solved by x = O. HANDS POR LIMBS = undefined (2) HANDS XOR LIMBS = FEET. and to be undefined otherwise. He defined the OR and AND of Aristotle as the least upper bound and greatest lower bound in this partial order. XOR in Clifford's algebra. Therefore some use it to set up a freer algebra of classes than Boole's or Peirce's. The operation XOR [3. In sum. which we use sometimes in this work. If not. as is done in the lattice theory of Dedekind. . and OR in Peano's class algebra. Therefore. and while Grassmann never found a general logical interpretation for his sum. they defined A POR B to be the same as the union A OR B when the two classes are disjoint. is truth-functional.4 (3)] is always defined. Peirce's logical addition A + B was taken over the binary numbers Z2 = {O. If there is any object for which A and B both hold.

The idea that time too had to be created at the beginning of the world is both ancient and new. which today we call its topology. however. His "germinal nothing" foreshadows the fluctuating quantum vacuum of today. which lack the before-and-after assumed by Peirce. Inclusion he represented by writing one symbol within another. He claimed that all mathematical reasoning is ultimately graphical or diagrammatical. Peirce's first flash is thus more radical than Lemaitre's primordial atom or Tryon's (1973) vacuum fluctuation which assumed a space-time continuum and pre-existent Hamiltonian. These are not operational symbols but serve as variables. he insists that a continuum is not to be exhausted by any collection of discrete points in it. He places his first flash in a pre-existing space. Thome & Wheeler (1973). For example. Peirce's inexhaustibility of the continuum seems to be a stronger. dynamical law evolves as well. He describes "the first stages of development. beginning with a first "flash". He represented the null class by the null region. Peirce represented propositions by regions of the sheet of paper. more paradoxical. It was recognized in classic antiquity that a line is more than its points because it has in addition a principle of connection. One of them later came to be called Venn diagrams (because. Venn "colored in the circles"). His continuum concept. His higher-order logic used higher stacks of paper. Peirce wrote. Peirce went on to express set theory as well as predicate algebra by what he called existential diagrams. and less radical than the pre-geometry of Wheeler (1973) and Misner. has little resemblance to do that of Riemann or modem mathematics. in Peirce's view. as the deepest of his principles.9. That eliminated the constant symbol "1". his theory that there are real physical continua. In Peirce's algebra 0 stands for the null set.nd offered several diagrammatic representations of logic and set theory . Peirce expressed the algebra of classes with no algebraic symbols at all. To express membership without operational signs he used both sides of the sheet of paper.6 Peirce 275 There have been attempts to express logic with a minimum of operational symbols. though "time was not formed". including space. But elsewhere Peirce makes it clear in general terms that all continua. before time existed". He left it to chance to determine where in space the first flash occurs. must have evolved and be evolving. claim.2 Synechism and Quantum Condensation Peirce regarded his synechism. however. The complement he represented by the exterior region. eliminating "e". That completes the list of basic non-symbols of Peirce's diagrammatic form of predicate algebra. 9. a. Peirce's tychism led him also to a cosmogony which has some resemblance to current cosmogonic theories. whose boundaries are drawn as curves. POR he expressed by juxtaposition with no operation sign.6. That eliminated the operational symbol "1-". That eliminated "V". . In current theories space as well as time continua evolve.

but given 'IjJ we can give probabilities for the outcome of every experiment we can do on the helium atom. For this reason superfluidity is called a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. we can then determine the 'IjJ that we could not determine from a single atom. The Search for Pangloss It is false in ordinary set theory. It seems that Peirce's continuum consists of po- tentialities which (unlike his deterministic individuals) have no separate identity but merge continuously into each other. The most paradoxical aspect of Peirce's continuum.276 9. and the quantum potentia of Heisenberg with their continuous quantum superpositions. but suggests a quantum continuum.B. however. I suggest that this link between synechism and tychism is implicit in Peirce's system. . as if 'IjJ were a property of the atom. Perhaps the vector 'IjJ is an indeterminate identity in the still vague sense of Peirce.ontinuum as an instance of "real generality". If many helium atoms are pumped into the same tank and cooled. He presented his c. Lande later took as the foundation of quantum theory. Let us first carry out an operation that produces A and then an operation that tests for B (and here we speak in modern terms). On the one hand this experiment fails to distinguish A from B unambiguously. Given such a tank. It is not meaningful to ask what is "the 'IjJ" of an atom encountered in nature. Quantum aggregates have an inexhaustibility that sounds like that of Peirce's continua: In general. Indeed. with the probability of a positive result increasing to unity as A ---.. then at very low temperature a macroscopic fraction of the atoms are created by the same 'Ij. I would like to infer that it must therefore give positive and negative results more or less at random. Such helium is then called a quantum condensate. by measurements on a small expendable sample of the helium atoms. Thus Peirce's synechism does not apply to any classical mathematical continuum. a deliberate oxymoron. which thus enters raised to a huge power on the order of Avogadro's number. and it exhibits a non-viscous flow called superfluidity that is a macroscopic version of the eternal circulation of electrons around the nucleus of a single atom. at least approximately. Then it is meaningful to ask what the 'IjJ of the aggregate is. We illustrate with the example of liquid helium. Suppose (speaking in Peirce's terms for the moment) that A and B are two elements of a continuum so close that their identities have begun to merge. Even if we are told that the atom has been injected in a way that is described by some vector. On the other it always gives either a positive or negative result. resembles an important phenomenon that occurs in quantum condensation. The'IjJ (up to an overall phase) has become a physical reality through the quantum condensation. there is no experiment we can do on the atom which will tell us what that vector is. Laplacian reductionism breaks down both in quantum theory and in synechism. a property of a quantum aggregate is not a disjunction of conjunctions of properties of its elements. and is nevertheless real. Peirce's concept of a varying degree of identity among different entities resembles the concept that A. although Peirce did not bring it out. There is a certain similarity between these real generalities with merging identities. the "real potentiality". as are properties of classical aggregates. Putting a single helium atom into a box may be described by an initial vector 'IjJ.

beyond our influence. specifically. than it does now. But after correcting for this effect. and they drive the inflationary phase of the big bang in some theories. Thus dynamical laws evolve instead of being imposed from outside. Reading Peirce is a bit like reading Nostradamus. It is easier to interpret his writings as predictions after the fact than before. I tum now to one way in which his thought may still be ahead of ours.3 Nomic Evolution For all the stress that Heraklitos placed on flow. nor to Einstein's conceptual unification of space and time. relativity. Peirce's synechism included an evolution of the law of nature from a primordial lawless state. self-governing universe. his agape. at least in principle. that a quantum condensation process forms the spacetime continuum itself from an underlying network [Finkelstein & Rodriguez (1984)]. This recalls the habit theory of the medieval Kalam. The faith in a fixed complete Law still activates physicists. immanent rather than emmanent. 1955) suggested that the isotropy of the space continuum is itself a macroscopic quantum effect. We propose. The dynamical law may have seemed more complicated in Peirce's time. and of objectlike continua in particular. he seems to have held to one permanent. and permit the emergence of cosmos from chaos. the Logos. In a general way.9. he confronts the central problem of physics today. it seems that Peirce imaginatively anticipated some of the most surprising elements of modem physical cosmology. It has long been accepted that quantum condensations occur in the vacuum. and to their space theory of matter. And in the problem of objects. 9.6. Thus Peirce seems to have included geometry in his evolutionism. but it is generally supposed that the condensation takes place in a pre-existent spacetime continuum. . Weizsacker (1951. and today sounds a bit like Bose-Einstein condensation. to win out over tyche. To permit the evolution of physical law Peirce inferred a universal habit-forming tendency of nature. where Euclid put the laws of geometry. the synthesis of the theories of spacetime and quanta. It puts the dynamical law safely outside the universe. with an evolving law. then what has happened tends to recur. Peirce seems not to have responded to the continuously-evolving physical geometry of Riemann and Clifford. and gauge physics. Peirce instead proposed an autonomous. and autonomy is possible. We develop this idea in Chapter 16. before the simplifications of quantum theory. physical cosmology today seems to support this evolutionism. he clearly considers them as having evolved and even proposes a universal teleological principle. It was therefore natural for Peirce to suppose that it must have evolved from something simpler. Peirce's autonomy is thus rooted in an inheritance of acquired characteristics.6 Peirce 277 Although Peirce does not undertake to follow the evolution of the physical continua of his synechism. a Lamarckian or agapistic evolution. which occurred in his later years. not a Darwinian one. First things happen by chance.

The set operations V and 1\ (which projectively represent the partial logical operations V and 1\) are important for quantum theory because they admit a quantum superposition. or conjunction and disjunction. Peano replaced Boole's POR and Grassmann's progressive and regressive products V and 1\ by a different dual symmetric pair of operations. Nor did Peano give a Grassmann correspondent for his operator i. Peano put the set theory of Boole and Frege and the extension theory of Grassmann side by side in one small work (1888). . Probabilities add under POR.. . Wheeler (1973) proposes that "The only law is the Law of Large Numbers" (which is not a law). by replacing the brace set-notation {O'. or union and intersection. and is therefore a mathematical anomaly. The Peano operator L is the only connective principle for nature that we have. We then express the larger set as a disjoint union of unit sets using the binary operation V. however. an addition operation A + B. and he developed further the parallels that Grassmann discovered between geometry and logic. not under OR. upon which. or OR and AND. (3.X is a function of a variable number of variables A.C. and hence more like Grassmann's theory. .B. C. He thus retreated from Grassmann's carefully constructed isomorphisms between the geometry. It uses the products V and 1\ and the untizing operator L (and Peano's symbols for them) for both geometry and logic. such that V and 1\ both distribute over +. For example. B. and probability theories that were so important for Boole and Peirce.. . LA is the set whose sole element is A.. In that work Peano also made set theory more algebraic. In some ways physics has become more Peircean than Peirce. The common notation {A. X} for the set with elements A. Grassmann had written AB for either product depending on context. but in this respect physics still falls short of his high hopes.. The set algebra presented in a later chapter preserves Grassmann's isomorphism between the algebras of geometry and logic. B.278 9. But as yet physics works with a law which is itself not part of the physical universe. And Nielsen and Ninomiya (1984) propose that the quantum dynamical law is so complicated that it is effectively random .7 Peano Guiseppe Peano was among the first to make sense of Grassmann's obscure notation and exposition. logic. 9. There he introduced our symbols V and 1\ for Grassmann's progressive and regressive products.. for which he introduced the modern symbols U and n ("cup" and "cap") to go with Leibniz's c for IMPLIES. as though to point out their structural parallels. The Peano set operations n and U do not admit such a +. . The Search for Pangioss Today some speculate on an autonomous cosmology rather as Peirce did in the 19th century. } by the unit-set-forming operation L. . he did not dwell. those nowadays variously called join and meet. and deserves careful study... Peano's set LA is a function of one variable A. In the logical part of his work. . however. .X. This is because .

. often represented by adding truth values modulo 2. if A and B are of degree I. and the sum of idempotents cannot be idempotent.4 (3) we defined the operation A XOR B. We write A U B for A XOR B in formulas and for the bilinear product ¢ U 1jJ of a Clifford algebra. which is a rephasing of XOR. If 8 is a state space with points s. Here "topological" and "metrical" are not my anachronisms. E 8 then the Clifford algebra on 8 is the real linear algebra U 8 := U 8" with associated bilinear product 1jJ U ¢ defined by the Clifford commutation relations s U t +t U s where Ost = 1[s = t] or O[s "f t] =20st is the Kronecker delta. In 3. t. Clifford worked over a vector space with a symmetric quadratic form. and the sum of nilpotents can be nilpotent.1jJ. 9. Classes are idempotent (not nilpotent) under Peano's u and n: AuA=AnA=A. and that Clifford algebra expressed metrical relations of distance and angle as well. and sometimes called Boolean addition. . since (1) but if A and B are idempotents then A + B is generally not. Clifford noted that Grassmann's algebra expressed purely topological relations among linear elements. Clifford (1845-79) was inspired by Hamilton's quaternions and Grassmann's extensors to build a richer algebraic theory than Grassmann's. (1') . and hence are anticommuting nilpotents. while for Peano. (1) For logic applications. Specifically. A XOR B consists of those elements which belong to A or B and not to both. they are Clifford's inspired words. for "exclusive OR".2.8 Clifford 279 for Grassmann classes are nilpotent. classes are idempotent. we also define a Clifford algebra over a state space 8 by giving 8" a Euclidean metric and forming the Cliford algebra over 8". being a total operation. to express the sum of a Grassmann product ¢ V 1jJ and a scalar dot product ¢ .9. If V is a vector space with form u.S Clifford William K. though it is not actually Boole's partial addition POR.. then so is A + B. v = 9mn U m V n then the Clifford algebra on V is the real linear algebra U V with associative bilinear product 1jJ U ¢ defined by the Clifford commutation relations u U v +v U u =2u • v . such as the incidence of a line and a plane. AND (2) is dual to OR in the same way that PAND is dual to POR.

. being merely its complement. Just as Au B is "A or B and not both". We may then express A S B by writing A V X == B. can express the partial operation V (== POR) of Grassmann logic. with indeterminate predicate X. They cannot all be translated into one another... (4) neither U nor U. For example.lA) U (.l(A U B) . Peano' s OR. To do this we first restrict our attention to simple A and B (products of vectors). XOR and NOT are not a complete set of truth-value functions .. An B is "both A and B or neither". (2) It follows that A n B == (A n B) u .lB)] . Vw with indeterminate vectors 0:. {3. while U (== XOR) is expressed in terms of Peano's U (== OR) and n (== AND) by and A U B == (A U B) n . (3) The operation An B is functionally independent of Au B. We write A == o:V {3 . then UA stands for the class of all unions of classes in A.280 9. but OR and AND are defined for subspaces and seem to have no natural extension to more general extensors. Every element of the Boolean algebra over a state space of N states may be expressed as a join (U) of some of the N states. being total rather than partial. UA stands for the iterated XOR of all the classes in A. . . not Boole's of AND and POR.. These languages are not equivalent in their expressive power. On the contrary. AND NOT form a complete set of truth-value functions. What one calls Boolean algebra nowadays is Peano's algebra of AND and OR. An B is dependent on Au B. and so XAND. Then we express C == AuB by A == o:V" B == {3V" C == o:V bV.l[(. . If all the classes in A are mutually disjoint then VA == UA == uA . Conversely. which are defined for arbitrary initial vectors. representing consecutive performance. the set logic presented so far seems unable to express the basic operations AND and OR of Boolean algebra.. In the trivial case where A is the null class 1.5. XAND is defined by An B :== . Boole's original operational product. The Search for Pangioss If A is a finite set of classes. This was not necessary for POR and PAND.. XAND therefore is not as useful as AND and PAND.. However we can express suitably curtailed versions of OR in terms of POR. In general. V A == UA == UA is also 1· The dual operation to U (XOR) is an operation n here called XAND. We return to Clifford algebra in 10. a state is included in U A if and only if it is included in an odd number of the classes in A. and VA stands for the iterated POR of all the classes in A.w to say that A is simple and represents a crisp elective act Or class... we continue to designate by BA (and later sometimes by B 0 A).l(A n B) .

When logic evolves from Boole to Von Neumann it renounces distributivity. On Indivisble Lines . There are three important disjunctive operations. XAND and PAND. What is today often called Grassmann algebra discards half of what Grassmann invented and misinterprets what remains.9. What is today called Boolean algebra is not the structure invented by Boole and is not as useful for quantum purposes. XOR (U) and POR (V).9 Summary In the middle of the nineteenth century Grassmann. OR (U). respectively idempotent. from Von Neumann to Grassmann. unipotent and nilpotent. with dual conjunctive operations AND.9 Summary 281 9. Aristotle. interchanging V with I\. commutativity. Peirce and Clifford formulated related algebras that are particularly appropriate for quantum kinematics. Boole. It is clear then from the above arguments that a line does not consist of points.

}. That is. The sets whose elements are not sets are called first-order sets. We see that Grassmann algebra does for quantum systems what set algebra does for classical systems. because V preserves phase information in the quantum theory and U does not. . V X of initial vectors defining a subspace in Hilbert space. Quantum Set Algebra In this chapter we study Set to. The result of quantum relativizing the classical concept of set is the quantum kinematical concept of a Fermi-Dirac assembly. by a progressive product. act algebra. As we extend this algebraic representation. we algebraically represent the classical disjoint union by the progressive product V. and its operator algebra OP Set f . the first-order quantum set of arbitrary degree or grade. We assemble classical elements into sets with the disjoint union. Unitizing first-order sets produces second-order sets. This should not be surprising.. which is isomorphic to the disjoint union.} to build sets. and quantum elements into Fermi-Dirac ensembles with the exterior product. and we write it with the same sign. in Grassmann's original parlance. its initial space IN Set f. For example. we re-express the classical set theory where necessary in order to avoid distorting the quantum theory. defining a subset of the sample space. and that their elements have no sequential order. In classical kinematics any predicate about a (finite) system is a disjoint union s V tV· . and so on. The set algebra founded on D points has only 2D sets. A set algebra has the binary operations of union. We represent this disjoint union algebraically by an exterior product 1/J V ¢ V . . We do not unitize sets in this chapter. since sets and Fermi-Dirac assemblies share the defining properties that an element can occur in them as a factor once or not all. but not more than once. For any set ~ of any cardinality including 0. or their like. or predicate algebra of a finite object or entity. Then by quantum relativization we form a quantum kinematics of sets in which sums of such products also represent sharp initial acts on sets. but not yet the unitizing operator { .. By a set calculus we will mean a set algebra enriched at least with the unitizing operation {.10.. The algebra of this chapter can serve as a first-order set algebra. intersection and complement. . We distinguish a set algebra from a set calculus. {~} is a unit set. . } or an equivalent open-ended order-raising operation enabling us .. Set theory also employs a unitizing operation {. we use the disjoint union V instead of the union U in the pre-quantum theory. Aset algebra can be finite. V u of unit sets..

We must "activate" classical set algebra. and {. In common physical parlance.284 10. both of classical or quantum entities. states are proper elements. and finally the quantum (10. annihilation.creation and set-annihilation. transforming it from a state algebra to an act algebra. What is the order of a state of the system? What is the order of an initial vector? Sets (being first-order or higher) have disjoint unions. and more complex acts of set-transformation. It is not clear that physics should do the same. then their extension to a setoperator algebra. with a brief mention of their geometrical interpretation. Bras and kets correspond to first-order sets. Any initial vector 10:) corresponds not to a classical state s itself. but also still more basic acts of set. But initial vectors have Grassmann products. A set calculus can generate at least ~o sets from any of its sets (say. This act algebra includes set-selecting acts. not of order O. We note a point of order that is significant for what we have already done. They do not have unions. The vectors and their partners have natural interpretations as initial and final acts. and synthesis. in preparation for quantum set algebra. without mentioning it. } = L and an involution :j: of an operator algebra. A set algebra cannot generate all its own sets but must be given some of them at the outset. We give a matrix representation of this "activated" set algebra by operators in a linear algebra of operators on a vector space. Quantum Set Algebra to form infinitely many sets from one. then the classical logical interpretation of this algebra (10. We present the extensor algebras (10. The same applies tofinal vectors.. despite what we have said so far. . +. In Chapter 14 we adjoin the L operator to set algebra and make a higher-order set calculus SET including higher-order sets and predicates. The classical set algebra has an absolute frame subalgebra which the quantum does not. We have been doing first-order set theory since we began this book. and transformation. which will deal only with acts. it relativizes the frame. This quantum set algebra is isomorphic to classical set algebra (as linear algebra). Mathematics seems to Qperate in a universe of sets generated entirely from the null set by a set calculus. To unite states we must first brace them. operators of set creation and annihilation.. from the null set). proper elements (having order 0) do not. which we still call set algebra. raising their order to 1. which represent disjoint unions. Therefore they must already be first-order.6). both quantum and classical. We express all finite operations of creation. but to a unit set {s} of a state.2-3) of Grassmann and Clifford. by means of operations V. Quantization does not deform the algebra.5).

The operations 11). o projective geometry. called the opposite. which is the highest possible degree. o finite classes. otis the involutory anti-automorphism IN Set +-> FIN Set called the adjoint.-L. o 11) and I i). o + is quantum superposition in the quantum theory. interchanging the creation of any set with the creation of its complement. interchanging the creation of any set with the annihilation of the same set and reversing the order of factors. and preface a more formal construction of set algebra.7 how C can emerge as a result of a physical condensation. /\. transforming pluralities into higher-order individuals. o -L is the involutory anti-automorphism IN Set +-> IN Set called the complement. t. where 8 is any basic vector of IN Set Eo Extensor algebra is remarkably expressive. interchanging the creation of any set with the annihilation of its complement. ordinarily one of the fields 1£2. and have discussed in 2. + of the extensor algebra IN Set = IN Set E have the following intuitive meanings. and in the classical is merely a formal (uninterpreted) addition operation. Classical set algebra is quantum set algebra provided with a preferred frame subalgebra. . } is the unitizing operator. the number of states of E. generated by the basic arrows (8 +. :j:(ll) = 11)t = (i I E FIN Set has the degree Itl. :j:.1 Remarks on Set Algebra In this unit we relate the work of this chapter to familiar theories of sets and quanta. We consider integer coefficients 1£ to be adequate for a fundamental physical theory.8) = 8 V 8 t . Usually these various interpretations use a variety of coefficient fields. These remarks are intended for orientation only. E'S o V and /\ are the Grassmann progressive and regressive products... V.1 Remarks on Set Algebra 285 10.10. prerving the order of factors. o simplicial complexes. o :j: is the involutory automorphism IN Set +-> FIN Set. Thus where 11) has degree 0. create the null set and the full set of respectively. o L = { . which are the disjoint union and the exhaustive intersection respectively. IR or C. I i). and o finite sets. representing the partial union POR and the partial intersection PAND. also written 1 and 1~. It can be interpreted as o fermionic kinematics.

Nevertheless the synthetic route seems indispensable. In the rest of this unit we indicate some roads that we do not follow in our search for a deeper quantum theory. 111 POR <I>. Grassmann's progressive product 111 V <I> has the following meanings in roughly historical order: a In classical geometry. a In classical simplicial topology. there have been both synthetic and analytic logics. Aristotle and Euclid are in the synthetic tradition. Beneath Peano's imperfect analogy between geometry and logic lie perfect morphisms among geometry. for it has the most direct grounding in qualitative experience and helps give meaning to the quantitative algebraic concepts. the span or join of two independent subspaces 111 and <I> (Grassmann). logic. We therefore return from Peano toward Boole and Grassmann in adopting the Grassmann product as our fundamental disjunctive operation. the algebraic representation of Boole's POR. We follow it in this chapter. traditionally called synthetic and analytic. which is also nilpotent.2). Thus Peano actually distorted the correspondence he was perhaps the first to note. It has not been carried to the higher-order set algebra. namely projective geometry and finite classes. and simplicial topology.286 10. . a In quantum logic. a In classical logic. but the analytic is the more expressive and efficient of the two. Peano drew an analogy between his disjunction or union U and Grassmann's geometrical progressive product V. Clifford and Peano are mileposts on the analytic road. Both roads run on into quantum theory. The synthetic is coordinatefree axiomatic projective geometry. We may use these options to interpret each structural element of set operator algebra. the simplicial product of two disjoint simplices.7). and finally in the algebra of matrices (10. a In quantum kinematics. Peano dropped Boole's POR for U in creating what one oddly calls Boolean algebra today. and why. Extensor algebra was created by Grassmann as a theory of the flats or subspaces of a linear space. fermionic kinematics. the product of fermion-assembly creators. To make set algebra quite concrete we first present it in the familiar algebra of tensor algebra (10.2). Quantum Set Algebra Grassmann (1844) and Peano (1888) already noted two of these interpretations. the analytic is the coordinate-based extension theory (Ausdehnungslehre) of Grassmann.3.3. The true analogue in logic of Grassmann's progressive product is Boole's original partial disjunction POR. But Peano's U is idempotent (x U x = x) and Grassmann's V is nilpotent (x V x = 0). then recursively (10. For example. Similarly. Works of Boole. For example. Grassmann. There have been two important kinds of theory of subspaces of a linear space. the disjoint union of two classes (Boole). a In quantum set algebra. We have sketched it in Chapter 6 for first-order predicate algebra. and the only one that has led to new physical theories and successful predictions. a disjunctive product of acts upon sets.

which have the greatest symmetry. The unipotent operations require a metric. Von Neumann based his quantum logic on Op € alone. and so one may discard some of them as redundant when working with only a part of the physics. or even as exterior algebras. and o unipotent operations computer gate logic.1 Remarks on Set Algebra 287 We have also to choose whether to base set algebra on o idempotent operations OR and AND (U and n) as in Aristotle's logic. such as the modal distinction between initial and final. Recall that in the most common usage o 'l/JA represents a creation of one quantum.. An adequate physical language must include them both. It enables us to write individual quasibosons as products of many fermions. We therefore begin with the nilpotent operations. The idempotent logical operations. Neither Grassmann's theory of contravariant extensors alone nor Von Neumann's . one for each index. It must therefore have mixed tensors of all these kinds and distinguish among them. However the higher-order set algebra of the next chapter introduces one new bosonic element which may suffice for physics.. but not to write a pair of such quasibosons without fusing their constituents into one. It is even conceivable that all fermions are topological in origin and only bosons are fundamental. XOR and XAND (U and n) as in Clifford algebra and o nilpotent operations POR and PAND (V and /\) as in Grassmann's extension algebra and (for POR) Boole's class algebra (where "= 0" is to be read as "is undefined"). Peano's symbolic logic. It does not describe bosons easily. Euclid's geometry.order physics. not all. An adequate quantum physical language must express all these ideas. but in fact they are merely isomorphic in some of their structure. most commonly studied by quantum logicians. and Dedekind's lattice theory. Composite theories of gauge bosons like de Broglie's two neutrino theory of light and Feynman's four-neutrino theory of gravity have not succeeded. the isomorphisms break. Neither is adequately expressive for physics. ~ represents a creation of a set of quanta. as in kink-type models of spin 112 [Skyrme (1958). Finkelstein & Misner (1959)]. and Grassmann worked with Set € alone.10. A more general algebra would allow for fundamental proper bosons as well. The extensor algebra of Grassmann may be too simple even for first. o ¢A represents an annihilation of one quantum. Mathematical developments associated with quantum logic have generally based themselves on simpler structures than Op Set €. We make this explicit here at the risk of belaboring the obvious. Some of these spaces are isomorphic as linear spaces. o 3ABr . and the most successful theories of today require them. and o U B A represents a propagation of one quantum. and not synonymous. throwaway quantum phases. When we take further physical structure into account.

as aids to intuition. + and K x (multiplication by scalar coefficients in the commutative ring K). middle and final acts upon sets of quanta.288 10. o t acts on a tensor v = (va) E IN SetE by contracting v with a fixed antisymmetric covariant tensor (J. called the Grassmann form: (1) . Quantum Set Algebra theory of operators alone is sufficient to describe our own experimental actions. This will make it a Grassmann double algebra 'f:I. Op Set E = FIN Set E® IN Set E = (1) which includes them both. To construct the exterior algebra IN Set Efor some quantum (or classical) entity E with finite-dimensional initial vector space IN = IN E. so is their tensor product "'Ii(IN EEB FIN E) . Its initial space IN Set E = V IN E is the exterior algebra V IN E and serves as a first-order set algebra. 10. let alone the rest of nature. 10. and specifically for the higher-order theories.2 Tensor Algebra of Sets In this unit we continue to regard extensors as antisymmetric tensors. They are inadequate for the tasks that classical logic and set theory perform in classical physics. The projective quantum theory of Set E is completely defined (up to isomorphism) by the coefficient ring K and the multiplicity DEN of the underlying entity €. We mention two equivalent formulations of t. Extensor algebra performs some of the tasks of first-order logic and set theory. as in Chapters 7 and 9.2. IN E and FIN Set E = 'f:I. The Grassmann product V corresponds to POR and the sum + is quantum superposition. the quantum set Set E. . IN E. the opposite.LEa) of maximal degree D = Mult E over IN E. To analyze and transform first-order sets of quanta of any kind E we define a firstorder quantum entity.1 Opposite We now add a structural element t.. extensor algebra and most theories called "quantum logic" today lack grouping or unitizing or order-raising operations. we closed IN E under V. Moreover. FIN E are Grassmann double algebras. Since tensors in (1) represent initial.. We represent the progressive product as the antisymmetrized tensor product. IN Set E corresponds in function to the power set P Space €Of the state space Space E. Since IN Set E = 'f:I. to the exterior algebra IN Set E = V IN €. The least algebra embracing all these tensors is Op Set E. A metrical quantum theory of Set E is determined by the ring K and the full signature of a metric for IN E. and develop their structure further. The multiplicity of Set E is then 2D. they are both actors and extensors..

1 . Then t reduces the group of IN Set(D. and we select t because it has the largest symmetry group of the three. where by a ~-hole we mean the pleiad less one ~-quantum. vt.. whose values are sequences (of 0 or 1 or . (T I f--> 11) .·... (llf-->IT). the opposite t. We will use three involutory symmetries of Set: the adjoint t.2 Tensor Algebra of Sets 289 Here IL is a fixed scalar density defining a measure. As a form. . being cancelled by 1L. t defines mappings t: IN Set (3) These combine into an involutory mapping Op Set ---> Op Set in which IL does not appear. a determinant of D vectors (first-grade extensors in IN Set). for example. JR).. t has much more symmetry than the other involutions t and -1. otis an involutive automorphism of OP Set = IN Set @ FIN Set. taking K = JR in the first discussion. a real number. We say that (N) annihilates a ~-hole.AD_.l related these fundamental involutions partners to each other. To construct Set we need only one of these. Moreover the group of t is non-compact while in this example that of -1 and t is compact. and is then the Levi-Civita relative tensor. and V. and fo. related by t t -1 = 1.. IN Set € +-> FIN Set € . and converting the relative tensor f to a true tensor./3 vanishes unless 0'. t defines a kind of multiproduct H~I' . (2) 1T)f-->(11. and the complement -1. 11) f--> (T I . JR) to SO(D. If ~ = (~A) is a first degree extensor representing a single € quantum creation. t is represented in its action on FIN Set € by a contraction with the dual contravariant extensor IL -I fo. interchanges IN +-> FIN./3 is a sequence of D distinct indices. vt. Q and /3 are collective extensor indices. JR) c SL(D. For simplicity suppose t definite. giving the volume of the box they fill with their convex linear combinations. We call the spaces V. . JR) to SL(D. JR). We define these below.J) annihilates every kind of € except ~. while the adjoint t and complement reduce GL(D. ~ D]. or D) IN f basis vector indices. then (N) = (~[AI. and interchanges the creation of any set with the annihilation of its complement: t: OpSet€ +-> OpSet€. We arrive at the second of these descriptions from the first by noting that as a +-> FIN Set by D-form. JR) from GL(D.10..

In (2).2. (1) The multi vectors in IN Set { of degree 9 form the vector subspace written IN Set9 . a resolvable linear operator Deg : IN Set -+ IN Set called degree..290 10. ..) as additional structural element. This is called the normal order.. We also have the isomorphism (2) to the algebra of multi vectors over IN {EB FIN (.. IN { 0 'If. Quantum Set Algebra 10. = 7jJ[A)[f) of any contravariant and covariant degrees over the D-dimensional space IN = IN {... with operator product written :=: <::) X. We call this general order. D) =(to. and provided with the D-index Grassmann form t =(tA ... We define an operator Deg on FIN Set dually .. the linear space IN Set ( now has two natural exterior algebra structures with respective products :=: V X and :=: /\ X and corresponding units 11) and 1 n· 10.2. . D . The opposite of the progressive product on FIN Set defines the regressive product on IN Set: (3) Besides the operator product. In (1). all creators come before all annihilators. . 2. Then IN Set has the useful D + I-valued grade. The extensors in FIN Set {t of covariant degree 9 constitute FIN Set9 .2 Degree At first we restrict ourselves to set algebras of finite dimension. I. By an extensor of degree [g / hl or [~l we mean one of contravariant degree 9 and covariant degree h.3 Extensor Structure As we mentioned in 10. creators and annihilators may occur mixed in any order and anticommute with each other. FIN ( (1) may be regarded as the algebra of possibly inhomogeneous tensors of the form 7jJAB .1 (I). antisymmetric in their upper indices and in their lower indices. with the eigenvalues Deg = 0. . These subspaces span IN Set: EB IN Set IN Set = 9 . rt. OP Set { rv 'If. Op Set { also has the linear algebra structure of linear operators on IN Set (. (2) 9 The degree Deg is defined as the linear operator with spectral family IN Set9 and spectral eigenvalue g. .

2 Tensor Algebra of Sets 291 Op Set also has such tensor representations over the partner spaces IN t.L. k obeying i 2 =l = k 2 =ij k = -ikj = -1). Constants Products Involutions Scalars Sum 0 WV<P 'lit detW W+<P 1 1 WI\<P W0<P W·<p 'lit DegW '111. with corresponding Grassmann forms. Moore) with K = 1Hl. and IN. Constants Products Involutions Scalars Sum 0 WV<P 'lit detW W+<P 1 WI\<P 'lit DegW '111.L. The operator algebra of a Fermi-Dirac quantum theory with initial vector space IN defines an extensor algebra when we provide IN with a Grassmann form t. t}. The constructions of Grassmann and Clifford (especially the adjoints and complements of products) require a commutative ring. c. Hilbert space was first discussed (by G. The main such . Complex and quatemionic quantum mechanics use K =C and IHl respectively. IN t . A complete set of concepts of IN Set for the case K = Z is {IN. the quaternion field of numbers a+bi+cj +dk (with arbitrary a. Grassmann's "extensive quantities" are the purely contravariant tensors of OpSetf. also define linear algebra structures. +. Table 1. over IN t. Set is the first-order part of SET. Structural elements of IN Set. and the adjoint and complement are fixed structural elements in the metrical quantum theory. Structural elements of OP Set. 0 t . b. DegtW About the choice of the coefficient ring K: We use the coefficients in K as probability amplitudes. with products written 0 t . j. IN SET will also have the element of structure t and will use it to construct a vector space IN SET inductively. Here we fix a vector space IN at the start. V. and with constant mutually anti-commuting imaginaries i.H. dE R. The three partner representations. The structural elements of Table 1 are not independent. 1 Table2. not the projective. and 0. and I~. Tables I and 2 are check-lists of structural elements of IN Set and Op Set.10. IN t . We take up each entry in these tables in turn in the following units.

f3 tn . we may represent complex and quatemion quantum mechanics within Set(lN. 'lj. FIN Set and OP Set respectively are 10. ¢ E IN € ~ Op Set. and BJ.. Here 0 stands for an IN Set or Grassmann-algebra index. We take K = lR in the rest of this chapter. but in a more finite approach we take K = IE and develop first lR and then C within the IE theory...V¢= -¢V'Ij. K X IN -+ IN.'- tf3n' (2) o B* is the opposite basis. We do this with the index place-marker o. < f3D) for IN. .. with (1) o Bt = (f3t! with < .2. spanning the first-codegree subspace of FIN Set and generating FIN Set by their sums and /\-products. In this unit we define some interrelated bases in four interrelated spaces that we use frequently. Here o B Inv = (f3! < ... which are all Grassmann double algebras with their own top and bottom units.4 Bases Tensor algebra rests on a vector basis. The elements f3n of B span IN Set! (the first-degree subspace of IN Set) and generate IN Set by their sums and v-products... B defines four other partner bases BInv . composed of holes (f3n)*..V'Ij. and IN Set x IN Set -+ IN Set. IN X IN -+ IN. Let B be an arbitrarily ordered basis (f3! < . (3) 'lj.:= (B*)t is the complement basis. where applicable. a sequence of distinct IN € indices in a standard order. Op Set € imbeds K. K) by regarding the complex unit i or the quatemion imaginary units i. and K x IN Set-+ IN Set.Bt.. B*. k as operators in Op Set rather than coefficients in K. IN € and FIN € so that 1) The operator addition +: Op Set EB Op Set -+ OP Set agrees with the scalar and vector additions already given on K x K -+ K. the bottoms of IN Set. Quantum Set Algebra candidates for K are lR (usual for Clifford algebras) and IE (because it is minimalist and locally finite).292 10. ¢ and 'Ij. FIN Set and Op Set. where applicable.=O. With either of these choices for K. o BJ. 10. 2) The product V on OP Set 18) Op Set -+ Op Set agrees with the multiplications by scalars already given on K x K -+ K. (4) To deduce (4) apply (3) to 'Ij. Now we must distinguish between the V-units of IN Set. For example. < f3D) designates the dual or reciprocal basis to B. j. 3) For all 'Ij. 10' and 10o. < f3 tD ) designates the vector-by-vector adjoint basis to B. whose order we designate by "<" and call standard. ± ¢.

D of all the index values in standard order by 0 = (nn)]. Then Op Set includes the V-product of all the basis elements of B U B Inv in the order (31 V (32 V .. ! 0 0 := 1 E K ~ Op Set . = (30 V (30 =: 0 . . Then the normally ordered tensor components of j are given by (4) from which the generally ordered components follow by antisymmetry..5 Products The serial product and contraction are defined on Op Set much as for any operator algebra. 10. The operator jO 0 := [j] is the top operator of Op Set and is the unit of the regressive product 1\ of OP Set. among other products. the serial product of two operators represents them acting in series. The serial product 8 on Set ® Set -+ Set unifies and agrees with the scalarvalued product of covariant vectors with contravariant vectors. We designate the sequence 12· . (1) Then we define the serial product 8 and the contraction T by <I> 8 1lJ = (<I>[r] [B]1lJ[B] [A]) <I> T1lJ = (<I> [A] [B]1lJ[B] [A)) (2) . (3) r henceforth called the standard order. When we define an adjoint t. These top and bottom operators jO 0 and ! 0 0 on Op Set are independent of B.2 Tensor Algebra of Sets 293 We do not need an adjoint to construct B Inv from B. Op Set also includes the V-product of none of the basis elements of B U BInv.. The top operator jO in IN Set also depends on the scale of B. They are affine invariants.. If 1lJ and <I> are operators. and the operator-valued product of operators with operators. to define these products we first take their normal forms 1lJ N = (1lJ[B] [A]). When operators are interpreted as operators upon extensions. This is not the case in Grassmann's theory of extensions. V (31 V (32 V .2. <I>N = (<I>[B] [A]) . the vectorby-vector adjoint Bt agrees with the reciprocal basis B Inv if B is orthonormal but qot in general. A basis carries enough information to define its own reciprocal. and the null sequence by o.. Neither serial product nor contraction require any transition metric. (5) The operator (5) is the bottom operator of Op Set and is the unit of the progressive product V of Op Set. the vector-valued product of operators with vectors.10. which fixes a unit of volume and singles out bases with det B = 1 in that unit.

Lw = w Anti-automorphic: . t. The adjoint also transposes indices from right to left.L E Op Set is any linear operator (but we are still working over the real field!) . the forms det wand wOn do not reduce GL(D. JR). nowadays called a Hodge star) operator .2... There are two natural concepts of Grassmann form on Op Set.L : IN Set ---> IN Set (1) which respects the structural elements already mentioned and is: Nonsingular: Involutory: ... It is sometimes convenient to separate these two functions of t into the transpose T and the metric transform M.L These transform it into other three other products 0 t.294 10.L(w V q> + X) = . The opposite of wOn is the form [tW]on := wg. IN f. The same remark applies to the contraction T.6 Complement A complement (Grassmann's (1866) Ergiinzung. the three transformed products must be r~garded as structural elements on the same footing as the serial product itself.. the matrix element of lowest degree...LX. 10. an adjoint raises or lowers indices using a metric tensor M. Quantum Set Algebra The serial product is not invariant under any of the involutions t.L.. 0.Lw=o-¢=:>w=o (2) . Thus an adjoint on IN Set is a linear mapping t : IN Set ---> FIN Set that is: Nonsingular: tw=O-¢=:>w=O Involutory: Anti-automorphic: ttw=w t (w V q> + X) = tq> V tw + tx Degree-preserving: t: IN Setg ---> FIN Setg (3) • .L ! = Degree-complementing: .L. or .. To preserve the symmetry of Set under these involutions. In tensor terms. .L: IN Setg ---> IN Set D - r.L w + . g • A complement operator interchanges the degree 9 and codegree D . 0 t .. with t = TM.g. mapping each extensor W into (3) This is simply the matrix element of wi3 0: with the highest degrees. The other Grassmann form is induced by the Grassmann form of '/I. Unlike the Grassmann form of the purely contravariant or covariant theory. To preserve symmetry of Set under t we should regard wg as a structural element on the same footing as wOn. One form is the determinant det W of W regarded as a linear transformation of IN Set..L q> 1\ .. This might be called a volumetric form on Op Set. ignoring the Grassmann structure of IN Set.

l=+t . FIN Set and Op Set from four symmetrically related ordered bases: o the direct basis for IN E.3 Recursive Construction We constructed Op Set from tensors in the previous section.= (lA) I(fA) IB Inv IBtc I(F V F) I(F 1\ F) I(F + F) I(RF) . To preserve symmetry we generate the algebras IN Set.1): I .T EQUATIONS (5) .l and an adjoint operator t uniquely define each other by . To emphasize the finite aspects of this construction and to simplify the later transition to infinity dimensions we re-express the construction as a recursion in the notation of 17.1 = (MBA). F EQUATIONS T .= (l A) I(fA) IB IB-L I(I V I) I(I 1\ I) I(I + I)I(RI) .. imbedded in FIN Set E: (2) o the opposite basis for (IN E)t.10.. < (3D). if ¢ is an operator representing injection of some class of quanta.. A complement operator . 1 EQUATIONS F . (1) the reciprocal basis for FIN E. Then the recursion is (in the notation of 17._ (F V I) I(F 1\ I) I(T + T) . imbedded in IN Set E: o the opposite reciprocal basis for (IN E)-L. An adjoint bi-uniquely defines a symmetric form MAB . a metric tensor for the first grade contravariant multi vectors IN Setl. (4) 10.1. The involutory condition implies that the metric M has an inverse M.. then t¢ represents ejection of the same class of quanta.3 Recursive Construction 295 In the logical interpretation. imbedded in IN Set E: B = «(31 o < .

linearity and nilquadratic properties of the two Grassmann products. . FIN Set and Op Set. bracketed as Is) for IN and (sl for FIN. o the definition of the opposite :j: by its action on the basis elements /3A E B : (6) where "&c" stands for all cyclic permutations of its arguments. . are generic set operators of 0 p Set.. 'IjJ . <I>. V /3D . F and T stand for arbitrary basis elements in IN f. . . FIN f. Quantum Set Algebra Here I.4. a residual infinity of the theory. R stands for an arbitrary real number. We present some of the algebraic identities of Set f for comparison with Boole' s logic. For a classical object f.. are any scalars (degree-O set operators). /3i E IN (7) o the top and bottom units of IN Set. \lI.. which are asserted for all values of the variables and for any given .. . . The EQUATIONS of the denominator of these recursions comprise o the equations of (1)-(4).2. and Op Set f. The I and F recursions are each others opposites. subject to 10.. . using the following notations. 7) and 1 =/3) 1 = /3l 0 0 V . 3) are any three contravariant extensors of contravariant degrees gi subject to (9) Then set operators obey the identities (2-13) of Table I. o the duality property of the opposite :j:: (/3) V /32)t = /3l /\ /3J. Xi (i = 1.. . For brevity we omit the partner identities..296 10. associativity. /3. (8) o the unital. ¢ . D = DimlNf < 00. a .1 (5. and the T recursion is its own opposite. I and F may be replaced by arbitrary states s E Space f during the recursion.i is a complement on IN Set and Op Set. E IN are any initial vectors (first-degree contravariant set-operators). /\ .1. . /\ /31 .. Compare these identities of Grassmann with those of Boole in 7.i-operation.

V 'l/JD] V i Grassmann Form 10. despite its infinity. and given the basis B.(1}i V 'I/J) = 1.2. There is no more information in a cofinite index sequence. f3.1}i + 1. hE NVn In> m ~ an = nn+h' n "in the end".(1}i + 11» = 1.1}i V 'I/J Complement Linearity 1. Set identities 'l/JV'I/J=o Nilpotence 1 V'I/J ='I/J V (II> V X) = (I}i V 11» V X Identity I}i I}i V (II> + X) = (I}i V 11» + (I}i + X) Associativity Linearity Xl V (X2 1\ X3) = Xl 1\ (X2 V X3) Weak Distributivity 1.1=i 1.4 Infinite Sets Now we extend our set algebra to the case Dim IN € = No of a countable infinity B of basic independent modes for the system E. o A cofinite index sequence a = (an) is one that agrees with that is. o lal is the length (number of elements) of the sequence a.11> Complement Additivity 1. V'l/JD = det['l/Jl V .1}i 1\ 1. We use the following special notations: o a. 3m.• E Seq n for general index sequences. multiplied in the order in which they appear in a... forming a finite sequence a and the permutation 7r required to bring the concatenation aa to the . f3C1.10.(1}i vII» = 1.11> Product Duality 1. and then by an algebraic recursion. We first deal with this case in tensor language.. is the basic tensor that is the product of those basis vectors f3A E Band (JA E 13 whose indices appear in the sequence a. "(.2.4 Infinite Sets 297 Table 1. including both covariant and contravariant indices in any order. To avoid dealing with infinitely many indices we use the hole method of crystal physics and particle physics. • . o For any index sequence a.1. I}i = I}i Involution 1. Much as we would prefer to remain with finite constructs. We will abbreviate some of these infinite sequences in a finite way using the hole method and discard all the others.. We can describe a cofinite sequence a completely by giving its holes (the index values that it lacks) in their standard order. At first these sequences may be infinite. we need this extension to the countable to deal with higher-order sets in 14.¢ V 'I/J = (t¢('I/J)) Vi Identity Duality Scalar Product 'l/Jl V . than in a finite one.

both of the data is the number of holes in a. o Jr+ for a generic even Jr. = 8t{. Thus 8! is the usual Kronecker delta. (3. The most general tensor We consider can be expressed in terms of those basic tensors (3a. hence even or odd. and o Jr _ for a generic odd Jr. Finite permutations of W are even or odd. The generalized Kronecker delta is defined by 8$ = +1 [a = Jr+(3] -1 +0 [a = Jr_(3] (2) [otherwise] . Infinite permutations (those which are not finite permutations) are neither even nor odd. We designate by S the collection of all semifinite index sequences in standard order. the product of an odd number of pair exchanges of n. o a = [A] designates a finite sequence Al . to the infinite-dimensional.8t{ (summed over S). By a finite permutation of n we mean one that leaves almost all the elements of n fixed.. a and n are finite. and 8~ vanishes unless a and (3 are both finite or both cofinite together.. Two cofinite index sequences a and (3 have the same tails.298 10. We may now export the important constant tensors of Kronecker and LeviCivita from the finite-dimensional. We write o Jr for a generic permutation of the index set n. and if they do then Jr will be a finite permutation. finite-degree tensor algebras that they usually inhabit. for a E S form a basis for Op Set. It is always meaningful (true or false) to assert that they differ by a permutation Jr. We have already encountered the problem of defining when one infinite sequence is an even or odd permutation of another. Az and any tensor written with the collective index [A] is asserted to be skewsymmetric in the indices Al . for which a is semifinite and in the standard order. Then f = 1 = (3a.. The (3a. The Levi-Civita relative tensor f in the tensor space over IN EB IN t may be identified with the tensor 1 given by (6) up to a relative scalar. The number h = la of (2) o A semifinite index sequence a is one that is finite or cofinite. cofinite. we will need to know when the concatenation a(3 is an even or odd permutation of " where a.. . and. Quantum Set Algebra standard order n. the product of an even number of pair exchanges of n. are index sequences and a is finite and (3 and. just as for finite index sequences. A z . We deal with this as follows. For example. infinite-degree algebra Set f. We set fa. There is no problem in determining the parity of one infinite sequence relative to another provided they are both cofinite.

1 (8) and 10. To avoid this we proceed as follows . is finite. = 3 V ~. The operator algebra OP Set has the infinite-parameter group GL(IN). counting the changes in sign.2 (5) as before. This provides us with four infinite-dimensional exterior algebras of finite or cofinite extensors. and set up the recursion 10.2 (1-4). o If ~ is finite and '11 is cofinite.1. If ! is defined and i is not. to express this factor-inclusion. o If they are both cofinite then they must have factors in common. o If '11 is finite of degree M and ~ is cofinite of codegree M'. . and their linear combinations are the semi finite ones. The progressive products of finite numbers of B vectors are well-defined. Under GL(IN). we call them finite initial extensors f. o If they are both finite the product ~ V '11 is already defined. then the factors of ~ and '11 are disjoint if and only if those of ~ are included in those of '111. Bt. The subgroup of GL(IN) with detT = 1 is written as SL(IN).1. elements cofinite initial extensors f 1. We regard the top and bottom initial and final units as independent generators. and 8 defined above are tensors.. factors of ~ to the factors of w. then '11 V ~ is already defined. For a cofinite of codegree P and f3 finite of degree Q we take 8:/3 := (-l)PQ 8~(\ 8~/3 := (-1 )PQ 8JQ . To define ~ V '11 we must simulate carrying each basis vector factor of '11 through the infinitely many factors of ~.1.10. Grassmann's algebra of extensive quantities has the group SL{IN) for finite-dimensional IN. '111. We define ~ V '11 = 31. Similarly we define finite and cofinite final extensors ft and ft. For a and f3 finite. = 00 . the finite extensors are near the bottom and the cofinite ones are near the top. and . we set ~ V '11 =o. which we collectively call semifinite. :j:. We write ~ C '111. then there exists a finite tensor 3 E F such that Y 1.. Dually. Roughly speaking.1 symmetries are broken. For a and f3 cofinite. by omitting equations involving infinite products. in standard order). We define the group GL{IN) to consist of non-singular linear transformations T : IN ~ IN that change only a finite number of the coordinates 'ljJA of the vectors 'ljJ E IN. We introduce the four bases B. If ~ C '111. the t.1. so that '111. we call the regressive products of finite number of B1. This restores the If ~ rt. subject to 10.4 Infinite Sets 299 We will also need 8:/3 . the double algebra of Op Set will be independent of this assumption . We arbitrarily suppose this infinity is even and take the arbitrary sign to be positive. 8~/3 is already defined. We now supply the missing products. Bt. the f. We define the product ~ V '11 on IN Set as follows. The product used to define tops T in 10. Now we express the same algebra recursively.2 (6) is undefined when Dim IN f. . The recursion 10. 8~/3 and 8~/3 vanish. Let '11 and ~ be basic extensors (products of basis vectors in B U B1. Then we define ~ V '11 =o.2 (5) combines these four single-product algebras into two double algebras of initial and final extensors. formally. We change only the denominator EQUATIONS. B1. It is simple to extend the usual concept of determinant from finite matrices to GL(IN).1.

Then to the number of factors in a general cofinite <I> we assign the parity of the codegree of <I>. 8 is a preferred absolute basis in IN. the homogeneous set operators. Quantum Set Algebra about IN Set. consists of the progressive products of arbitrary vectors in IN U FIN. Evidently Basic C Simple C Homogeneous C General. the preferred basis for OP Set. Rays in OP Set will support the quantum predicate algebra. the initial space is IN to = 8" rv DlR. The following special subclasses of set operators arise naturally in this construction: o Bas Op Set. (2) The corresponding projective or ray spaces are written P Bas OP Set C P Sim OP Set C P Homo OP Set C POP Set. The projective space of rays in IN to we write as PIN =PD ·C. o Homo OP Set. Its rays support the Boolean predicate algebra of classical predicate algebra and the external modal distinction. It follows that we must define <I> V 1}! = ( _1)M M' 1}! V <I> . arbitrary linear combinations of basic ones. We designate the dual or reciprocal basis to 8 by 8 t . For a classical system a with a (finite) state space 8 of D states. consists of set operators of sharp degree and codegree. the real D-dimensional vector space space of formal linear combinations of points of 8. (1) We identify the states of 8 with vectors of 8" in the natural way. This is the semi-quantum predicate algebra. (3) 1}! over all 10. o Op Set consists of the general set operators. consists of the progressive products of vectors in 8 U 8 t . we must give its preferred frame. o Sim OP Set. Its rays will support the Von Neumann predicate algebra for an individual quantum. because the arbitrary sign in question occurs squared. (3) .5 Classical. The arbitrarily chosen order of the vectors SA in the basis 8 we call standard order.300 10. and is relativized in the quantum theory. Mixed and Fully Quantum Set Algebras We examine the transition from quantum set algebra to classical. To specialize the set algebra Op Set to to classical systems. We complete the definition of V so that <I> V 1}! is linear in both <I> and of IN Set. a maximal commutative subalgebra of Op Set €. the simple set operators. via a semiquantum intermediary.

if TIA = Raya and TIB = Ray (3 then TI(A V B) = Ray(a V (3) ... We now extend II from monads to g-ads. In extensor logic the multiplicity is exactly the degree. The logical operation A V B on subclasses A. V tm of the corresponding basic vectors in lexical order: IIC := Ray (II{tJ} V ··· V II{tm }) . the ray of the set operator 1 represents the bottom class 1 and the ray of the set operator 1-1 represents the top class r = S: II 1 = Ray(l) . t m } C S be any subclass of S. B of S corresponds to the progressive Grassmann product a V (3 of extensors. For this purpose we first define a projective correspondence II: {S'} --+ P IN (from unit sets of states to rays in IN) by (4) Ray '¢ is the set of all complex multiples of the vector '¢ E IN. The distinction between o means nothing. We introduce the undefined class symbol "0" (omicron) (Peirce'S 00) so that to say that the symbol "A" is undefined we may write A=O.5 Classical. TI r = Ray(1-1) . (6) The set operator 0 represents no class at all.10.. The correspondence II from states in S to rays in IN induces (as follows) a correspondence also called II from subclasses of S to rays in the extensor algebra IN Set. The number of elements in a class is called its multiplicity. (9) (I 0) Only basic set operators have classical logical interpretation. Let tJ. We may express the Grassmann operations on classes in terms of more familiar operations OR and AND . In addition. Mixed and Fully Quantum Set Algebras 301 We now transfer the concepts of logic from S to Set.. (8) The symbol 0 serves as an ideal zero-element for both products V. TI(O) =o. Their sums are uninterpreted in classical logic.. tm E C be the states in C in lexical order.. Representing monads by basis vectors leads naturally to representing g-ads by basic extensors of degree g. 1\ in that for any class A. OvA=O=OI\A. It follows from the defining properties of the progressive product that . . . Let C = {tl. but Now we can say that the class that corresponds to the zero set operator 0 is O. (7) 1 and 0 is now familiar to us: 1 means "nothing". Then IIC is defined as the ray of the Grassmann product tl V . That is. . (5) Evidently (3) is a special case of (5). . The ray II {s} may be called the projective representative of s.

projectively commutative. instead of OR and AND. In the same way the class complement or negation ~A = NOT A = S\A corresponds to the Grassmann complement of 0:: ~A = TI(~o:). The relation between 1\ and n (AND) is similar to that between V and u. the truth value of A U B is a function of the truth value of A and the truth value of B. calling an operation I\-distributive if it distributes over 1\.6) . we lose commutativity as well as distributivity. and then agrees with the intersection. Quantum Set Algebra [A nB = 1] AvB=AuB o (11) [otherwise] . AND and OR are commutative operations. with the lattice operations OR = U. independently of the truth values of A(s) and B(s). (13) The operation A 1\ B is therefore called PAND ("partial AND "). The class operation A 1\ B corresponds to the regressive Grassmann product of the corresponding extensors: A 1\ B = TI(o: 1\ . nor projectively commutative. o For simple extensors. If A and B are predicates. nor projectively commutative. V is nilpotent. The partial operation V is not truth-functional. and AND distributes over OR. V is not a predicate operation at all in the usual sense but a partial predicate operation. We express this by saying that U is truth-functional. Indeed. Here the binary codomain 2 consists of the truth values j for "true" and 1 for "false". (14) This determines the classical logical interpretation of Grassmann's extensor algebra IN Seto and of the identities of 10. So are n and ~. In the quantum logic of classes with operations POR and PAND projectively represented by V and 1\. o For homogeneous extensors. V is not nilpotent. In the semi-quantum logic of Von Neumann. AND = n. We summarize the cases as follows. A V B will be 0 (undefined) for a state s E S.2. if for some state t f s. In classical logic we may represent each predicate A on a state space S by a binary function A: S ----) 2. . It is defined only when its two arguments are exhaustive. (12) It follows that A 1\ B =A n B[A u B = j] or 0 [otherwise] . nor I\-distributive. A(t) and B(t) are both j. o For basic extensors. Therefore A V B is the partial operation POR. the commutativity survives but not the distributivity. o For general extensors (therefore). V is not nilpotent.302 10. but not I\-distributive. In classical logic. projectively commutative and I\-distributive. V is nilpotent. nor I\-distributive.

interpreted. The lattice of the rays of simple extensors is non-Booolean and is often called a quantum logic or a projective geometry. We verify these statements by expressing this logic in set operator language.8 o8~) represents the internal operation that carries the vacuum initial mode into itself. An extensor coefficient 'l!~ is a transition amplitude from the many-quantum initial mode a to the many-quantum final mode {3. but "cenad" has more precedents. in classical operator logic we restrict interpretation to the rays of an orthogonal basis of the operator algebra Op Set.5 Classical. Mixed and Fully Quantum Set Algebras 303 The basic extensors represent classical classes. 0 again means nothing. The ejection of a g-ad is an operator of Op Set~. The propagation of a g-ad. The zero set operator 0 represents the quantum correspondent of Peirce's undefined class. Peirce called the O-ad a "kenad". The simple extensors represent quantum classes in the restricted sense of Von Neumann. reducing to it for appropriate special cases but obeying different laws in general. said to have codegree g. First we express elementary classical class logic in set operator language. SET uses set operators to represent external actions (projectively in the sense of Chapter 1) for possibly composite classical or quantum entities. The homogeneous and general extensors and set operators represent successively more quantum generalizations of Von Neumann's quantum logic. interpeting each element of structure of IN Set as a concept of classical logic. It occludes any initial mode that puts in any quanta. The top extensor It = i = (8~8~) represents the internal operation that carries the plenum initial mode into itself. It occludes any initial mode that fails to put in every kind of quantum. and precludes any final mode that takes any out. The general case is a proper non-commutative extension of Von Neumann's commutative quantum logic. In classical set operator logic we represent the injection of a g-ad (set of 9 elements) by an operator of Op Setg. That is. and counted degree by degree in Table 1. To complete the terminology C. The Von Neumann quantum logic amounts to the restriction of the present quantum kinematics to simple set operators. where "in" and "out" stand for injection and ejection. which corresponds to a Boolean predicate or class of 9 members. Thus a natural way to make a syntax for a quantum predicate algebra is by suspending this restriction .S. projectively closed under V. said to have degree g. In general a set operator of contravariant degree 9 and covariant degree g' represents an internal operation that turns an initial mode of g' quanta into one of 9 quanta and occludes initial modes more or fewer than g' quanta. Operators are named. Operator addition is the quantum superposition whose interpretation was already discussed in Chapters 1 and 3.10. The lattice of the rays of the basic extensors is a Boolean lattice. Classical logic in turn is the further restriction of to basic operators. is an operator of OpSet~. The bottom set operator 1 = ! = (8.

\]! determining length and angle. with group SL(V). The addition operation \]! + ~ that Grassmann was sometimes unable to interpret is our quantum superposition. Its extensors have two pairs of associative products: Grassmann's mutually dual products V and 1\ obeying the postulates of Grassmann's extension algebra. \]! having zero-degree (scalar) values. This first becomes a language when we give the actions for these rays. Operators by degree Operators of degree called represent a 0/0 1/0 0/1 2/0 scalar vector I-form bivector cenad monad in monad out dyad in D D D(D . Quantum Set Algebra Table 1. Clifford unified them into the one Clifford product (1) For Grassmann the square of every vector is zero because every line is incident upon itself: 'IjJ~='IjJ V 'IjJ = O. 10. a Grassmann progressive product ~ V \]! representing area and an inner product ~ t . For Clifford the square of a vector is the norm of the vector: 'ljJ2 ='IjJ U 'IjJ = 1I'ljJ11 . This is presently a difficult problem.6 Clifford Algebra In order to compute quantum transition probabilities we provided the first-degree extensions (or vectors) \]! E IN Set with an adjoint \]!t and an inner product ~t . His progressive product is our POR. except in systems of small dimensionality.304 10. besides the progressive product ~ V \]! having second-degree values. A Clifford algebra over a vector space V properly includes a Grassmann algebra over V within its structure.1)/2 g/O O/g g-vector g-form g-ad in g-ad out DOg DOg gig g-operator g-ad through (DOg)2 D -1/0 D/O covector coscalar co-monad in pleiad in D and have dimension I and supposing that every ray in Set represents an initial action. Confronted with a similar pair of products in geometry.and .

We then take the signature to be the triple (D+. . The products of Clifford and Grassmann were originally defined for pure contravariant skew-symmetric tensors over a vector space V . t) is defined by the equivalent relations (6) and the stipulation that U is associative. Such a basis is called canonical (relative to the given norm). · ·· . Do . The Grassmann products are expressible entirely in terms of Clifford ones.-1) (5) is a diagonal matrix with diagonal elements that are all + 1. and agrees with the usual products of scalars with each other and with vectors of V . ···. +1 . and not conversely. . which we write symbolically as D+ + 0 Do . . Then Clifford's extensor algebra E = U(V. for Clifford's extensor algebra. with a K -valued inner product. or -1 and are arranged in that order. 0.-1.¢ U 'IjJ . It follows from these relations that Clifford's product defines a Grassman~ V-product.10. including degree and duality. t) (the orthogonal subgroup of SL(V) respecting t). D_) of the number of + l' s. In infinite dimensional spaces there there may be infinite numbers of l' s. that is a symmetric bilinear form (2) linear in both vectors 'IjJ.0. distributes over +. 0. (7) We retain the entire terminology of Grassmann's extension algebra. Clifford's are anticommuting square roots of ±1 or O. and defining a real quadratic form (3) called the norm (or square of the length) of the vector 'IjJ. and this trace is undefined. 0' sand -1' s in A. over K = lR or IE. The trace of A is called the signature of the norm. .A in V such that (4) where A = (AAB) =Diag(+I. We assume there exists a basis f. . 0' sand -1' s in A. We extend them to Op Set.6 Clifford Algebra 305 Clifford mutually dual products U and n with group SO(V. given for first-grade elements 'IjJ and ¢ by 2'IjJ V ¢ := 'IjJ U ¢ . ¢ E V. which we call set operators. (6) differs from Grassmann's multiplication table in sometimes having ±1 instead of 0 on its right-hand side.. Grassmann's generators are anticommuting nilpotents. the mixed skew-symmetric tensors over V.D _. We begin with a module V.

Then the Clifford square or norm Ilwll := wuw of any vector W is its squared length. -1.¢ can be expressed in terms of Clifford's product by (8) There is a similar relation for the Clifford regressive product Ws<I> of complemented vectors. Clifford required the scalar product of a vector with itself to be positive as in Euclidean geometry. . defined by (6). 10. -1. the generating elements of the Clifford algebra U(V.306 10. t . L. . o The number 1 represents the empty class o The number 0 represents the undefined O. A mapping II from extensors to classes is defined as for Grassmann's extensors: o The generators f\. In the case of special relativity. Quantum Set Algebra It follows also that the scalar product of vectors 'I/J t .). . The basis vectors fn of the space V. The dual Clifford products U and n are associative and distributive. is merely required to have degree O. We tum now from the geometrical to the logical interpretation of Clifford's algebra. We consider classes within a state space 8 and take as basic vector space V = IN = 8" over lR. o The sum W+ <I> is given no logical interpretation in the classical theory.6.1 Classes as Clifford Extensors In the classical logical interpretation of Clifford' s extensors. its O-degree part gives the transition amplitude). The more general conception presented above evolved from Clifford' s to meet the needs of special relativity.¢. Instead its symmetric part 'I/J t . o The Clifford product W U <I> projectively represents the XOR operation (and thus. Nowadays one considers inner products of any signature. . . Then ~mn = 8mn . for first-degree extensors. Similarly the Clifford square of any extension of degree 2 is its squared area. we use real extensors and the Euclidean norm of signature D . like the two Grassmann products. extensors of grade Dim V-I. The U-product of degree-l extensions is not required to be antisymmetric and nilpotent like the V-product. and of any homogeneous extension of any degree is the square of its n-dimensional measure. -1) of signature -2. then obey (9) Therefore we replace Clifford's equation (6) by (10) which takes on the values ±2 and 0 for a canonical basis. fD projectively represent the basic states of the system. the canonical form of gmn is ~ =Diag(1.

(6) of full signature (D. POR is projectively represented by Grassmann's V product of extensors. OR is represented by the span of subspaces. and the Boolean algebra on D states may be represented within a Clifford algebra over an 1. [J. We saw in 10. OR is idempotent: (3) (Peano's U. every Clifford algebra with D independent vectors (= first degree extensors) defines a Boolean algebra on D states. either Grassmann's or Clifford's. the union of classes).t =f /I] (4) = -'1jJy U'1jJ1-' . and XOR. OR.10. Such a space W has a natural symmetric real inner product. XOR is unipotent: '1jJU'1jJ = 1 (2) (Boole's symmetric addition of predicates) XOR is projectively represented by Clifford's product of extensors. (1) (Peirce's "arithmetic sum" of predicates).6 Clifford Algebra 307 With these interpretations. '1jJ1-' U'1jJ1-' '1jJ1-' V'1jJy = -'1jJy V'1jJ1-' [J. we may adjoin an addition operation '1jJ + ¢ over which the given operation distributes. The operator algebra Op Set € admits a natural Clifford algebra structure.t =f /I] '1jJ1-' u'1jJy = '1jJy U'1jJ1-' . '1jJ1-' U '1jJy = '1jJ1-" where the minus signs are irrelevant in the logical interpretation. Proposition. thus representing classes as extensors. In the cases of POR and XOR. . 0. This defines a natural Clifford algebra over W . '1jJ1-' U'1jJ1-' = 1. D). For states '1jJ they have the following properties and algebraic representations respectively: POR is nilpotent: '1jJV'1jJ=O.J-dimensional linear space.6. The three products lead to monoids with the respective generating relations '1jJ1-' V'1jJ1-' = 0 .1 that the 19th century provided us with three historic forms of disjunction: POR. but not OR. Proof Consider the direct sum W of a real vector space V D and its dual V t = FIN € : = IN € of dimension (5) where the contravariant and covariant components (vA) and (VA) of the general vector v E W vary independently.

u' E vt. the original complex theory is equivalent to this real theory provided with a central element in its algebra. as Stiickelberg (1960) pointed out.6.2 Io-=-il 'C =~ Io1l C=~. For vectors of opposite modality it defines the vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude. A complex Hilbert space inner product is bilinear over the real field JR if not over the complex field C. . Clifford worked with the bilinear inner product of Euclidean geometry.2 Real Quantum Theory Before putting Clifford algebra into quantum theory we must correct a mismatch between the two. The multiplication table defining U is u U v + v U u =2u : v u U u' + u' U u =0 v' U v + v U v' =0 . -to"2. (7) for all u. 10. v' E V.308 10. Indeed. Clifford worked with real linear spaces and quantum theory with complex. and restricts complex coefficients C to the real subset JR c C. • Thus the Grassmann double algebra Op Set f also enjoys a natural Clifford product arising from the inner product (6). But every complex Hilbert space is also a real Hilbert space in a unique natural way: One simply keeps the same vectors and + operation.=~. We cannot simply take the Clifford algebra of a complex Hilbert space without ado. (1) corresponding to Pauli matrices 0"3. while the inner product of Hilbert space and quantum theory is sesquilinear. takes the real part of the complex inner product to be the real inner product. Quantum Set Algebra This Clifford algebra is isomorphic as a linear space to the operator algebra OPSetV . Clifford's inner product 12(1) is symmetric and that of quantum theory is merely Hermitian symmetric. v. antilinear in one of its arguments. The complex number i and the operator C of complex conjugation (let us call C the conjugator) are represented over JR by the real matrices IlOl 2. We designate it by U and its opposite by n. We develop this equivalence here. and A is a vector index. If K is a coefficient ring C or JR. the number i . The dimension of KA is the number of values of the index A . The natural Cliford product U agrees with the progressive product V of Grassmann for action vectors of like modality (both covariant or both contravariant). recall that K A is the vector space over K of contravariant vectors with the index A (that is. of K-valued functions of A). 0").

-i} of two such square roots of minus one of opposite sign. which can be reconstructed from it thus: (4) The symmetric inner product (3) is nonsingular and linear over the real coefficient field R While the two vectors 'l/J and i'l/J are C parallel. not real symmetric. To follow Clifford's construction we also require a real symmetric inner product <I> t . = ± 1 of]RK as the matrices (1) and on the index A of]RA as the unit operator. upon which i acts. Caution. But IN does have a preferred set {i. IN does not quite have a preferred real anti symmetric square root of minus one. The complex numbers C form a preferred subalgebra of OP IN over ]R whose elements have the form (2). = 1 consists of real functions (in a suitable basis) and that with C == Ii. From the ]R point of view. ]R] =]RA ®]RK (5) as a tensor product in such a way that the operators i and C act on the index Ii. The given complex form defined by t is merely Hermitian. of]RK is an eigenvalue of the conjugator C. C rv 2D . The index Ii. the operator i is antisymmetric and orthogonal with respect to this inner product and the conjugator C is linear and symmetric. The complex structure of CD is an operator structure in ]R2D. Thus from the point of view of the ]R quantum theory. \[! on ]R2D. That is. The complex quantum theory is a fortiori a real one of twice the dimension. all external C-vectors are mixtures of ]R-eigenvectors of both eigenvalues of C = ± 1 with equal weights. the system has a hidden two-valued internal variable C = ±1. The subspace with C == Ii. From the ]R point of view. since i and -i are on the same footing in the theory of complex linear spaces. ]R = [D .10. = -1 of imaginary functions. We may always factor IN =C A = D . We define a real symmetric form by taking the real part of the usual complex inner product on IN: (3) The real form gives as much physical information as the whole complex inner product. = ± 1 respectively: . they are ]R orthogonal.6 Clifford Algebra 309 If we make the identification IN = CD = ]R2 ®]RD (a tensor or Kronecker product) then any complex numbers z = x + iy leaves the factor ]RD invariant and acts in the factor ]R2 as the matrix x + iy =1 x -y y x 1 (2) The C linear operators are exactly the ]R linear operators that commute with i. while the real inner product (3) is the product of the two Euclidean inner products on the two factor spaces ]RA and IRK respectively. ]R] ® [2 . any complex vector \[! resolves into its two vectorial components \[! ± with eigenvalues C == Ii.

Any physical transition probability 1<1> t . and are called the real and imaginary parts of '11 relative to /3. We define a derived basis /3R := /3 U i/3 for VR . We designate the two linear spaces by VR and Vc. Proof By direct calculation. We may write the two duals as c IN and R IN respectively. with the convention that we call vectors of Vc "real" or "imaginary" when their coordinates in the basis /3 are real or imaginary. '1112 = Em Av 1<1>. Now any vector '11 E Vc can be expressed as (10) where ~'I1 and ~'I1 are real and imaginary. the correct normalization being There are now two natural concepts of dual space to IN." . We choose a basis /3 for Vc . the lR dual space consists of lR-valued lR-linear functions on IN. then it is afortiori an lR vector space of twice the dimension. If V is any C vector space. the absolute square of the complex inner product is given by (8) l<I>t . The operator i is represented in the basis /3 U i/3 by the matrix ro=Il (12) i"'~=10€ where 0 and 1 are the zero and unit matrices for the basis /3 and . <I> is a sum over final C values and an average over initial C values of the nonphysical transition probabilities l<I>m t . upon which i acts as a real linear operator. of the C and lR theories respectively.310 10.'1112 between complex vectors '11. Correspondingly. 'I1n1 2 . there are two concepts of adjoint operation t.'11 nl 2 between the constituent C eigenvectors. In this basis VR is represented by (11) where ~Vc is the real linear space of vectors in Vc whose coordinates in the basis /3 are real and ~Vc is the real linear space of vectors in Vc whose coordinates i~ the basis /3 are imaginary. n With the appropriate normalization this is just the transition probability. the C and the R The C dual space consists of C-valued C-linear functions on IN. Quantum Set Algebra (6) Two components <1>+ and '11_ belonging to different C eigenvalues are orthogonal in the real transition metric: (7) Proposition.

where A and B are arbitrary real linear operators on VR • Proof (15) follows directly from (3). Proposition. For example if 'IjJ is any nonzero vector of DlR. It is straightforward to verify the converse. The general linear operator L on Vc has the form [A-=B] L-'J~ (15) in the basis (JR. on the following grounds. 311 (13) The general linear operator on VR has the form L -'J1ACl ~ (14) where A.3 Episystemic Variables We expect that in nature the lR quantum theory underlies the C. lR) and Set(D. The operator i is a central or superselection operator from the lR point of view. . by Set(D. we expect that the supers election operator i arises at the same time as t.6 Clifford Algebra . <C) respectively.10. Since i transforms into -i under time reversal T. Let us designate the lR and C set operator algebras of an entity t with D independent modes.ro=tl t=-ta2=~. This again raises the question of the origin of the complex coefficients of quantum theory. Imaginary units do not combine like symmetries or symmetry-generators under tensor multiplication.• There are also two natural concepts of exterior algebra for any complex vector space. 10. For the nonce we write the lR and C progressive products as VR and Vc respectively.6. We gain further insight into the nature and origin of i by examining how peculiarly i behaves when we compose systems. namely. but usually 'IjJ VR (i'IjJ) 'f 0 because 'IjJ and i'IjJ are usually independent in the lR theory. Other superselection operators emerge as a result of random phases when a microscopic quantum theory condenses into a classical macroscopic theory. then the V-product 'IjJ Vc (i'IjJ) vanishes identically because 'IjJ and i'IjJ are parallel in the C theory. B. C. when an underlying non-manifold quantum spacetime structure condenses into a manifold-like structure admitting the macroscopic classical t variable of elementary quantum mechanics and field theory. We take this up in the next unit. (4) and the condition iL = Li. D are arbitrary D x D real matrices. that (5) implies that L is a linear operator on Vc .

momentum and charge. we see this by requiring that the symmetry 1 + ey multiply.6. where the vector leaves us to a choice between 111 and i1l1 . However when we compose systems. there is only one episystem. but not both. . and in field theories the spacetime coordinates do.4 The Real World Since both vectors 111 and i1l1 represent the same action. We equate them because even when there are many systems being composed. symmetries mUltiply. When we compose systems. not a systemic one. It is not unique in this respect. so does their POR combination (1) R1I1 = 1I1Vi1l1 . like energy. along with the time t and other group parameters. If i is represented by in in the initial space Vn (n 1. but log22 = 1 bits from the point of view of the IR theory.312 10. unit factors 1 understood. when we combine systems we tensor multiply their symmetry transformations but we equate their group parameters. This means that i is not a systemic variable. add. i and C in the case of field theories. R1I1 is the tensor of the IR theory that projectively represents the same actions that 111 represents in the C theory . then in the tensor product ~ ® Vi the same symmetry 9 acts as 91 ® 92.2) and ~ ® V2 is the initial space of a composite system. 8 m . both prominent parts of the episystem. If we look at two initial spaces ~ and V2 . not the system. there is an algebra of such episystemic operators. These parameters derive from the episystem. This ignorance arises because (according to the C quantum kinematics) physical operators must commute with i. Under tensor multiplication. Under tensor multiplication infinitesimal symmetry generators. When we combine systems in classical or quantum mechanics their time variables t also combine by identification. imaginary units equate. We usually express this by making the identification i = i l = i2 from the start. Thus the choice that a complex vector leaves us is 0 from the viewpoint of the C theory. where C is the conjugator of 10.2 (1) = 10. This mathematical practice expresses a certain physical practice: To learn the time. Quantum Set Algebra When we compose systems. R1I1 has real grade 2. the imaginary units i of separate systems combine not by multiplication (like finite symmetries) or addition (like infinitesimal symmetries) but by identification. For any generator 'Y.6. in which some group symmetry 9 is represented by two operators 91 and 92. we multiply either 'I/J by i l or 'l/J2 by i2. Then besides the usual algebra of system operators. including familiar operators like x m . We can understand all the variables that we equate under composition in a uniform way if regard the imaginary i too as an episystemic operator. where € is an infinitesimal group parameter. First-degree real tensors are inaccessible because they do not commute with i . which appears as a nontrivial operator in the IR theory. where the vector specifies an initial act sharply. In general. generators add. then to multiply a product vector 'l/JI ® 'l/J2 E ~ ® V2 by i. we do not look at the system but at the sun or (nowadays) at the laboratory clock.

10. say. We see only one resolution to this dilemma. but must undergo dynamical change in reaction to sufficiently energetic collisions.10.6. We will not pursue this question further now. and time reversal) have already been invalidated. especially after Dirac's success with the spacetime Clifford algebra. C quantum kinematics works well and should not be weakened for insufficient cause. but because i is central we cannot separate them by any selective act. Then in such experiments i is conserved. e in the dynamics. charge conjugation. I suppose that in fact there are a great many different i's. . The Clifford product u corresponds to the XOR operation. and the C theory will become an approximation useful. We must actually live in a real world. It must be that the symmetry represented by i will eventually be invalidated experimentally (say at higher energies).. and T symmetries (parity. C.7 Quantum Extensors 313 The IR version of a complex quantum theory is physically unsatisfactory at present because its rays do not represent presently feasible actions in a 1-1 way. In sufficiently rapid or strong interactions. This Clifford algebra is the quantum analogue in form and meaning of the algebra of classical logic of Chapter 8. Thus the IR theory introduces unobservables with a vengeance. as the related discrete P. wand iw represent the same action and belong to the same rflY. .7 Quantum Extensors We now use a real metric or adjoint form like 10. with tlg/LV "# O. and i can be treated as a complex number rather than an operator. Then the IR kinematics will become as operational as the C is today. which is safely treated as a number in present-day quantum experiments for similar reasons. for lower energies. At the other hom. At one hom. as in sufficiently high-energy collisions. When <I>tw is real (which can always be arranged by a phase change in wor <I» and wand ware normalized to unity then <I> t W is the transition amplitude from initial act W to final act <I> t . tli = 0. wand iw (if nonzero) always belong to two different rays.2 (3) to define an inner product. In the complex theory. tli "# O. This would imply a physical action that does not commute with i. not a complex one. If the C quantum kinematics holds then the IR does not. A similar situation is familiar for the gravitational field g/LV. The gap between the first two energy eigenvalues of the condensate resulting from Se must be so large that the lowest suffices for moderate energy particle physics experiments. We will find a way to separate the two beams produced by the physical acts represented by the separate real vectors W+ and W _. For this to happen there must be an i-breaking term Se . We seem to live in a complex world. transition amplitudes. In the real description. the real quantum Clifford algebra is too beautifully unifying for a theoretical physicist to ignore. Thus the enquiring theorist faces a two-homed cornucopia. . with a coupling between them (which must be at least trilinear in the sense of il i2i3) that causes a condensation to an aligned form. with tlg/LV = 0. and a Clifford algebra.

. C) is to be a linear transformation from extensors to matrices. We have therefore reduced the problem to representing the classical action vectors. then M : Set -> M(D. D) of the Grassmann algebra Set to 2D anticommuting independent nilquadratic matrices (square roots of 0).. This matrix representation of extensor algebra provides a matrix representation of extensor logic as well. (J'(J'T + (J'T (J' = 1 . This requires us to correspond the 2D first-degree basic extensors EA and EA (A = 1. where the products in the polynomial P are now matrix products. (3) . But then the extensor logic expresses much more.2. with M = 2D and M = Dim IN E. . but that of the extensor logic on D points requires 2D x 2D matrices. We build these representatives from standard 2 x 2 matrices thus: One standard nilquadratic matrix is a creation operator or creator (J' := I~ ~ I' (J'2 =0. Extensor logic uses up much more raw material than Boolean logic does. Let us now represent the operators of the quantum set by matrices. In particular. Let us also give matrix representations of the regressive product 'lI /\ ~ and the complement -L'lI.4. the matrix representing the extensor ! is the unit matrix 1. where the products in the polynomial P are understood to be progressive. M = (M::!) bears four indices. by anticommuting nilquadratics. two collective indices ~ to contract with those of the general extensor 'lI = ('lI~) and the two indices ~ of the matrix M = M'lI representing 'lI. If M'lI stands for the matrix representing the extensor 'lI. which we write as (2) This then determines the representative of any extensor. in such a way that the extensor sum and progressive product are represented by matrix sum and matrix product. C).. and according to (1) the representative of'll is r = per v). the basic E'S. Then for a matrix representation M of the extensor algebra we require M('lI + 'lI') = M'lI + M'lI' (1) M('lI V 'lI') = (M'lI)(M'lI') M('lIt) = (M'lI)t with a suitable adjoint t on matrices M. let us put the extensors in the finite-dimensional complex operator algebra Op Set = Op Set E into a linear 1-1 correspondence with all the complex M x M matrices M(D. Quantum Set Algebra Next we represent extensors by matrices. In a fuller index notation. The matrix representation of the Boolean algebra on D points uses D x D matrices.314 10. much as we have represented Boolean classes in 3. That is. For any extensor 'lI is a polynomial 'lI = peE) in the basic E'S.

= i( (7 - (7 T) . and all the superdiagonal positions by 1'So Each r in (6) is nilquadratic.rD as Kronecker products of 2D of the Pauli matrices 1.- (4) (5) 2 We form 2D anticommuting nilquadratic matrices r l . Richard P. A real quantum theory is a complex one with an antilinear supers election operator C.1 factors commute. since their v-th factors anticommute and their 2D . /\. (71 + i(72 (7= .1 other factors commute. . This completes the matrix representation M of the basic extensors of QpSet. 10. Any two distinct r's in lines v and J. and XOR respectively. (73 =1 - 2(7(7 T . and n which are quantum extensions of PAND. 2.10. XAND.. They form a linear space IN Set with four natural associative products. V.rD. . he just counts. God doesn't do calculus. There are.8 Summary Extensors are mixed skew-symmetric tensors of any contravariant and covariant degrees. Feynman . 3). The product U is the Clifford algebra product based on the contraction <I> 'l1 as inner product. and (7 according to the following 10rdan-Wigner pattern: rl r2 r3 rD = (7 = (73 = (73 = (73 ® 1 ® 1 ® ® (7 ® 1 ® ® (73 ® (7 ® ® ® ® 1 ® (73 ® (73 ® ®(7 (7) The 2D diagonal positions in this array are occupied by (7'S. (72 In terms of these. all the subdiagonal positions by (73 's.. three useful anticommuting square roots of unity (7m (m = ~. .·· · (6) .L with v < J. A complex quantum theory is a real one with an antihermitian superselection operator i. rl. U. however.L anticommute. POR. since it contains one factor (7 which is nilquadratic and the other 2D .8 Summary 315 There is no linearly independent 2 x 2 nilquadratic which anticommutes with (7. which reappear as the Pauli matrices (7m in Chapter 11: (71 = (7T + (7 . (72. Therefore for more than one kind of fermion we must go to higher dimensions.

Act 3 One .

and the semi-quantum spin and gauge theories based thereon. Classical Spacetime We recapitulate the classical spacetime whose quantum analysis is our main goal. and belonging to a freely moving non-rotating experimenter. M is a class of (spacetime) points representing the where and when of possible events. Nowadays. a point x E M is represented by a quadruple xm of real numbers describing the when and where of an event. M has additional structure. There probably are no point objects. This concept is born under a cloud of suspicion. Here we collect for reference some of the salient concepts and laws of special relativity. and so quantum kinematics rests on a theory of spacetime structure.4 . These energies and momenta act disastrously upon the spacetime at the event according to Einstein's law of gravity itself. These are the macroscopic theories that microscopic ones must cover. To delimit small point sets. We join in this fiction until Chapter 16.1 Flat Spacetime Actual experiments go on in spacetime. Something that happens at a spacetime point we call an event. most physical theories extrapolate this classical concept to the infinitesimally small. we need small things with high energies. due to quantum complementarity. In 11. beyond the reach of experiment. 11.2 we treat spacetime as a constant object. There is a preferred collection of inertial frames. if only of a time axis.11. collision or annihilation of point objects. nevertheless. the classical theory of flat spacetime. recognized by the fact that particles subject to no forces travel on straight lines. . that is. In the rest of the chapter we treat spacetime as a classical or random variable giving rise to gravity by its changes. In Chapter 16 we propose a quantum kinematics of spacetime structure. Relative to any inertial linear frame. We never experience empty spacetime points by themselves. of spacetime with negligible gravitational fields. We call this spacetime MINKOWSKI or sometimes simply M. mappings M --+ ]R. They are attributes or coordinates of events that we do experience. such as a brief creation. The higher-order classical set theory that they use guides us as we form the higher-order quantum set theory in the chapters that follow.1 .

according to the uncertainty principle. specifically under transformations between frames in uniform relative motion. thus. then we still could not know the velocity of the system as well.1 Chronometry In pre-relativistic physics one specified an event by giving a space point xk (k = 1. Vectors of d MINKOWSKI can be multiplied by real coefficients and added but their addition merely represents group composition. 11. Again we suspend disbelief until Chapter 16.320 I 1. when what happens at x can causally affect what happens at y. and write y ~ x. Evidently an event carries more information than a point. or we can describe a point as an equivalence class of events. We assume that causal relations are determined by spacetime points independent of the events at these points. Points and vectors are both represented by real quadruples but vector components are invariant under translation and point coordinates are not. To determine that the relation '¢ ~ x holds we may do . Neither space point nor time point is a physical object in special relativity. Events seem to connect causally to other events. v m = xrn'(O) yrn (1) = xm(O) with xrn'(O) := dxrn(O)/dO. Physicists since Galileo recognized that space points are not physical objects. for example if Einstein's law of gravity breaks down in the small. frame-independent way to recognize anything that might reasonably be called "the same time at another point of space".2. Then a spacetime point represents an equivalence class of events having the same causal antecedents and consequents. Classical Spacetime A MINKOWSKI tangent vector v at a point y is defined by the tangent to a parametrized curve xm = xrn(O) at x. have no law of transformation. or covectors. The space of Minkowski vectors we call d MINKOWSKI or sometimes dM. It specifies both a position x and a velocity v. the spacetime point or event. and in particular as we live from one instant to another. and can be regarded as gratings in M. then the point is still more fundamental. that is. not quantum superposition. We say that point x connects (causally) to point y.3) and a point of time xo.1. according to quantum theory. This concept is doubly suspect. covariant vectors. of MINKOWSKI. We can describe an event by specifying a point and what happens there. but if events indeed factor into a point and what happens there. Since Einstein we have also known that there is no absolute. They are relative coordinates of a true physical object. Vectors of the dual space dM' are called forms. There is no absolute way to recognize "the same space point at another time". unless the system had infinite mass. Even if we could know exactly where and when an event occurs. We experience these causal connections between separated events whenever we determine how things mOve or propagate. when SOme signal can propagate from x to y.

x 2)2 _ (D..72 = hmnD.x 3)2 .. and test for a correlation between what we do at x and find at y.xl)2 _ (D. Correspondingly we say that the arrow y +. A Minkowskian coordinate system represents a point x by a column matrix of its time and space coordinates t and x = (x. The theory of connections is generally called topology. In special relativity the pattern of causal connections is the causal topology and defines the spacetime t- topology. y.. and irreflexive: NOT (x > x)... so that its postulates come in the middle of our study. In mathematics one usually opens the study of topology with postulates.1 Flat Spacetime 321 a large number of experiments with varying initial actions at x.. MINKOWSKI is a causal measure space having an inertial coordinate system (xm) = (x O. and presumably concern the rest of physics too.xO)2 _ (D.xn occurring in (2). z): . and the quadratic form D.or spacelike directed arrow.L(X) or hypervolume of a set of points X is approximately defined by taking as a unit of measure some standard way of defining a point set Xl up to causal isomorphism.. the measure is taken to lie between Nand N + 1 units.x m D. If neither y > x nor x > y then we say that x and y are in a present of each other.X3) = (t. If N such units fit into X without overlap and N + 1 do not.. not the beginning..X2. We call such a special coordinate system. The measure J.X I . Minkowskian. This excludes just boundary cases. and final actions at y.L(dt dx dy dz) = dt dx dy dz (1) and y 2': x ¢:} yO 2': XO &D. MINKOWSKI is partially ordered by the causal relation 2': . such as one cycle of oscillation of a standard quartz crystal.xn := (D.z) in which J.. Here we deal with a physical topology that comes from experiments. This implies the following properties of the proper causal relation > : The relation > is transitive: Z >y asymmetric: (y AND > x) Y >x IMPLIES z>x.7 2 := hmnD.7 2 2': 0 (2) D.x m D. possibly among other points. If y > x we also say that x is in the past of y and y is in the future of x.11.x is a future-.x.y. We call 2': the causal relation or connection and > the proper causal relation. past. If y 2': x and y x we write y > x. IMPLIES NOT (x> y)..

are related. The form L:l. 0. however. 'IjJ of quantum kinematics. Its invariant physical content consists of two irreducible parts.det[h nm l (6) which we call the metric density. is the square of the time interval as seen by an observer who is present at both events. the causal topology and the spacetime measure density p := y' . or sometimes the chronometric. Here we give two partial answers to this question. the two. to distinguish it from the transition metric q) . 0). The value of the quadratic form t:u 2 in (2). that is. Why is the causal topology of our spacetime described by the curious quadratic form of (2)? I believe that this is a clue to the underlying quantum structure of spacetime. the distance relative to an observer who finds them to be simultaneous. that of Alexandrov and Zeeman based on causal symmetry. The metric assigns a number r called the proper time or interval to any timelike curve x = x(O) with parameter 0 in the interval [00 . The metric assigns to each vector v = (v m ) a covector v M = (v m ) = (hmnvn) called the Minkowski adjoint of v . Then its positive square root is called the proper time between the two events or their points and designated by L:l. The unit time vector eo Jll -~ (5) is the tangent to this locus. Od ~ R r= l OI dr. and that of Cartan based on spin. (7) 00 A curve of stationary path time one calls a geodesic. We return to this question in Chapter 16.r2 itself we will call the spacetime metric. .322 11. When (2) is negative it is the negative square of the proper distance between the two events.r. Geodesics in MINKOWSKI are represented by straight lines x = Xo + vr in inertial coordinates. Classical Spacetime (3) The locus or world-line of the inertial observer is the line (4) where 0 = Col(O. when it is positive.

Let the causal topology of a causal space M' define a complete (boundary-less) four-dimensional manifold.11. 11. then the (material) equivalence y' ~ x' :=:: y ~ x. then M' is MINKOWSKI up to isomorphism.2 Causal Symmetry Implies Minkowski By the causal interval [b. q of 2 x 2 complex Hermitiansymmetric tensors a = (a AB ). . and the convex subset H+ ~ H consisting of the positive-definite sesquispinors. and dali V da 2i = Ow V dw is an element of real area in a complex w plane. (da) = -2dall V da 12 V da 21 V da 22 . called the causal group. we mean the set of all points x with b > x and x > a. Evidently if there is a causal symmetry that maps an arrow y f .3 Spinors and Minkowski By a spinor we mean a complex two-component vector related to spacetime in the following indirect manner. There is then the following beautiful way to characterize the causal set MINKOWSKI: Theorem of Alexandrov-Zeeman.X into an arrow y' f . . For all a. a 2i =: wand sl2 =: W are each other's complex conjugate.1. that is. whenever the equivalence (1) holds. the two sides are both true or both false. By a causal symmetry of a causal space we mean a point transformation that respects the relation y ~ x. Consider the real linear space H = H(2. The causal symmetries form a group. If. We use this topology for any causal space. This may be expressed in terms of the usual real element of area dx V dy by setting . define the partial order a' > a to mean that a' .1. (1) Here a l i and a 22 are real and their differentials require no special discussion.a E H+. Define a volume element (da) on H by i· . also called sesquispinors. By the spacetime topology of a causal space we mean the class of open sets based on the causal intervals. (1) holds. a] with endpoints b::f a. conversely._ This characterization is relatively coordinate-free (though one uses coordinates to define the manifold concept) and remarkably general but non-constructive. A set of points is open in this topology if it contains a causal interval about each of its points. then we say that the causal set has maximal causal symmetry.1 Flat Spacetime 323 11. a' E H. the two causal arrows are connected by some causal symmetry of the space. The following characterizion is curiously constructive. If M' has maximal causal symmetry.x'.

Proof First we map M ---. y.H. These are just the conditions for the causal relation x' > x . .324 11. to establish that a respects causal order.H(2. we note that a(x') .• The theory of spinors and some important theories of spacetime are based on this causal measure isomorphism a: M ---. 11. we recall.dM respecting the Minkowski norm Ilxll and the causal relation y > x. Classical Spacetime w = x + iy . The actions of the group SL2 on spinors induce transformations of sesquispinors. This establishes the linear isomorphism H rv M. The group L = LORENTZ is the group of homogeneous linear transformations dM ---.2 Causal Symmetries The vector space dM is. (2) Cartan discovered the following relation between M = MINKOWSKI and sesquispinors: Proposition. Tra = 2t.y2 .x 2 . t + z x+ iy m = am x x +iy t . z) is a(x) = rtOl ao=~. Finally.z2 = hmnxmxn.i dy) V (dx + i dy) = 2i dx V dy . the tangent space to M = MINKOWSKI at O. x.a(x) = a(~x) E H+ if and only if Tra(~x) > 0 and deta(~x) > 0 (since the trace is the sum of the eigenvalues and the determinant the product) But by (4) the first of these conditions is ~t > 0 and the second is ~T2 > O. io=il a2=~' The key formulae connecting the complex "plane" 2C to spacetime are deta(x) = t 2 . We have already verified that a respects the measure (volume element). The causal measure space of H is isomorphic to M. (4) The inverse mapping a-I: H ---.M is (5) where the dual sesquispinors am = (a~B) have the same elements as the sesquispinors a~B in the present frame and normalizations. hence MINKOWSKI vectors. q. 8iIJ V dw = (dx . A standard choice for a sesquispinor a = a(x) associated with the point (xm) = Col(t.z Io1l al=~' (3) . that cover LORENTZ twice.

if neither x (00) or zero if x = O. We use c-units (c = 1) henceforth. ~ 0 but neither x > 0 nor x = O. Minkowski vectors (xm) fall into six invariant irreducible classes under LORENTZ. zero. We have defined Ch mn ) =8. We write the duality relation Vm = hmnw n between the vectors v and w mediated by the metric h also as (4) The path of a particle traveling slower than light may be parametrized by the proper time along its world-line as x = x(T). by expressing the spatial unit in terms of the time unit and c. 0.3 (2) of forms with points. with dr2 = Ildxll. (3) -1 This has the same matrix elements as h mn in a Minkowskian coordinate system but not in a general curvilinear one. ~ (I) The norm (proper time squared) of time space vectors in a Minkowskian coordinate system is Q We also require the dual form (hmn) in order to assign norms to covectors: l (hmn) = -1 -1 .1. called the future and past null cones.-) or past time like if x > O. . (-0) or past null if 0 ~ x but not 0> x nor 0 = x. . we understand that Vm = hmnv n . Proof With each Minkowski vector x we associate a Hermitian form O'(x) induced by the association 11. ordered by numerical size.2 Causal Symmetries 325 Proposition. The vector x = (xm) is of class o d o o o o (++) or future time like (+0) or future null if x (+. or negative). The symbols +. The 4-velocity of the particle is then the tangent vector v m = dxm jdr > O.) or spacelike if x > O. ~ 0 nor 0 ~ x. of the Hermitian form O'(x). ( .11. We use (h mn ) to lower time space indices and (hmn) to raise them. if v m has been defined. It is straightforward to verify that any two vectors in the same class are equivalent by some LORENTZ transformation.in the class label describe the two eigenvalues (positive. For example. and given by the same formula._ The classes (+0) and (0-) are spherical hypercones.

and F is the 4 x 4 matrix whose elements are all 1/2. (1) where o1 1 1 (fst) =f = 10 1 1 110 1 1 1 10 = 2F - 1. The null-symmetric basis vectors em are the world-velocities of four small light pulses emitted simultaneously from the center of a regular tetrahedron toward its vertices. 1.x \ b.x 2b. We call such a basis null symmetric. so that their 4! permutations are causal symmetries. A more physical basis exists consisting entirely of future null vectors whose pairwise inner products are all equal. Classical Spacetime 11. connecting the Minkowskian to the null symmetric representations of LORENTZ. Space divides. only quadratic forms of Minkowskian signature and even dimensionality can be brought to this form. in that nothing propagates in a spacelike direction. 1. 1).xll.x \ b. . We give now the equivalence transformation A : L f-> ALA -\. however. 1. The Lorentz group could just as well have been defined as the group of linear transformations respecting the anti-Euclidean proper time (1) as the Minkowskian one. We write T for the timelike contravariant vector associated with the null symmetric tetrad em: T =L es = Col(1.x 3b. time connects.326 11.x 3 + b.x4 ) = fstb.xsb. has greater permutational symmetry than the Minkowski form. We normalize the pairwise inner products to 1. The null symmetric proper-time form. 1. T2 = 2 (b.x4 + b.x2 + b.x2b. invariant under all 24 permutations of its null basis vectors. IITII = 12 (3) TT = Row(1 . 1) F-!TT®TT -2 . 1 itself is the unit matrix.1 Null Symmetric Metric Three of the four Minkowskian basis vectors are unphysical.x t =: IIb. Over an algebraically closed field (like C) any non-degenerate quadratic form in an even-dimensional space can be brought to the anti-Euclidean form (1) [Bourbaki (1959)] by a suitable choice of basis. so that F2 = F. Over the real field lR. which is invariant under only 6 permutations of its three spacelike basis vectors.x3 + b. so that the proper time quadratic form assumes the form b. (2) This f is the Boolean complement of the Euclidean metric 1.x \ b.x4 + b.2.

e2 .mn = Tr(). and the Minkowskian by e~ = emAI-£ m".eO' = I fixes /3 = 1/ J(I2).mk . The condition el. (6) In the anti-Euclidean frame the Minkowskian norm of a vector v is (7) and the (Casimir) invariant of an infinitesimal Lorentz transformation>. must obey (9) .e2 + e3 + e4)a . By symmetry the inverse f.f>. We must adjust the constants a.. 3) are orthonormal.2 Causal Symmetries 327 The three lines joining midpoints of opposite edges of a regular tetrahedron are mutually orthogonal. The condition (el')2 = -1 fixes a = 1/2. To be sure. The least asymmetric form for the transformation matix A chooses as Minkowskian time axis the unit vector eollT of (2) and space axes ~i directed along these three orthogonal lines.·e2' = 0 is identically satisfied. designating the null symmetric axes by em.1)A(2F .2) = Tr(>. nm (8) with T the timelike vector given by (3). I f.11.I = (fst -# !) have more non-zero elements than the matrix h -I :::: h. Then. ~ 0 to respect the spacetime metric g. = (>. and then f.nm)2 .1)>'] = 4 Tr(>'F)"F) .) + Tr(>.!) = Tr[(2F . The condition eo' . whatever basis we use.4 Tr(>.e3 + e4)a e~ = (-el .I f =(AF + Bl)(2F - 1) = 1 (5) implies that the contravariant anti-Euclidean spacetime metric is r l = 3F .L(>.1.e3 + e4)a e~ = (-el + e2 . lines. In order for a transformation L = 1 + >.mn) = (_>. the infinitesimal 4 X 4 operator>. We need f to exhibit most simply the connection between the LORENTZ and 8 4 that we develop later. we infer from symmetry that e~ = (+el + e2 + e3 + e4)/3 .2T =2 L nmk >. (4) e~ = (+el .F>.= AF + Bl.2) - 2T>.I must be a linear combination of F and 1.2. f is less convenient than the Minkowskian h for most calculations because f and its inverse f.nm) is 11>'11 = >'mn>.mn >. /3 so that the e~ (m = 1. with >.

bm . If A is anti-Minkowskian then so is iA . d m has the measure (3) Much the same linear algebra works for both the tangent space to spacetime and for quantum initial space. The matrix £1.2.:'. the sense appropriate for this problem.T is invariant.t and D. The single concept of the proper time D. The POINCARE transformations with L = 1 = (8. .3 LORENTZ The time and space differences D. in any Minkowskian coordinate system any POINCARE transformation P : M -+ M has the inhomogeneous linear form (1) with constant coefficients L and a depending on P. The Minkowskian time-space points x and vectors D.2 POINCARE The group of causal measure isomorphisms of M is called POINCARE. with four parameters am.x between two points are mixed with each other when we boost from one inertial coordinate system to another moving with respect to the first. with parameters L. If A = _AM we call A anti-Minkowskian. but D. so that Emnpq is anti symmetric in every index pair.' obeys conditions given below in 11. The POINCARE transformations respecting one point (say the origin x = 0) form a subgroup isomorphic to LORENTZ. This means that A is anti-hermitian relative to the Minkowskian spacetime metric.:') and arbitrary am form the invariant subgroup of spacetime translations.3 (1).• 11. ..x obey classical kinematics.:. Nevertheless the meanings of the vectors and the operations of these two spaces are totally different. Spacetime measures of any dimension can be written in terms of the LeviCivita object Emnpq defined in any inertial coordinate system by the conditions that E0123 Emnpq = = 1..328 11.2.2. Then the cell whose edges are the four 4-vectors am.T is complete for the theory of M = MINKOWSKI. Because POINCARE respects straight lines. (2) E[mnpq] . em. Remark. Classical Spacetime We call (10) the Minkowskian adjoint of A. 11.

r. A Galilean boost is given by t' = t.2 Causal Symmetries 329 M is a space with a certain concept of time D. We use these non-invariant concepts for some concrete calculations.xll. It is not a geometry but a chronometry. x') := lx' . (3) The rotation matrices R form a subgroup of LORENTZ depending upon the given Minkowskian frame.Vt.11. the sign of D.xl if D. A rotation about the origin of Euclidean space E3 is described by a 3 x 3 matrix R having the property det R = 1. The spacelike distance lx' -xl between non-simultaneous events varies widely from one inertial coordinate system to another in Galilean relativity.t = 0. They let us make some use of our pre-Einsteinian intuition. (2) We define this rotation to act on M by transforming the three spatial coordinates (Xl. points are represented in any inertial coordinate system by quadruples xJ. x 2 . This defines the 4 x 4 LORENTZ matrix flOl R=~. x' = x . undefined otherwise. Points of space are not physical entities for Galilean relativity either. However Galilean spacetime is defined not by one concept of time alone but by one of space as well. x 3 ) = x with R and leaving XO = t unchanged.t for future-timelike vectors. and Lorentz into rotations and boosts. o o the time interval D. Relative to anyone Minkowskian coordinate system x m .t the space distance d(x. and the time space volume element (dX)4 = dt dx dy dz. the defining conditions for a LORENTZ transformation L are correspondingly LThL = h (1) Lg > 0 detL = 1. and is described by the matrix . We briefly contrast M with the spacetime of Galileo. For any two points x and x'. Since LORENTZ respects o o o the value of the norm IID. time space may be decomposed into time and space. Space is a consequence of different time streams. GALILEO and LORENTZ agree on rotations. and would better called a time space than a spacetime.t(x. In Galileo's spacetime theory too. R -I = R T .L composed of time and space coordinates t and x as in Einstein's theory. x') := t' . and t is mixed into x by boosts.

Dl ~ (11) . Classical Spacetime BGAL V_ - =1_1v ~ I. In Einstein's flat spacetime theory. (10) The general boost dilates one coordinate and contracts the other by the same factor. and vm = dxm / dT is the 4-velocity of the primed with respect to the unprimed observer.330 II. the general boost is a symmetric matrix of the form rt=VTl (6) B=T'~' Here Pv designates a spatial projection operator v®v T (7) Pv = -V-=T=-·-Vwhich maps any space vector into its projection on V := v. Then the spacetime metric reduces to Io1l f=~. The locus of the primed observer x' = 0 is xm = VmT. Boosts along one direction are most simply represented in symmetric null coordinates in the two space and time dimensions mixed by the boost. e~ is (8) where V is the spatial velocity vector. however. The new time axis e~ = T'1_Iv I. boos~s do not commute.( -dt') - dt -(dt) - x=O - dt' x'=o· (9) In the spacetime theory of Galileo and Newton. still defined by (6). and do not form a subgroup. and the factor T' is determined so that II V II = 1. boosts form a commutative group and to compose boosts we add their spatial velocity vectors V. B=r. (dX) dt (4) x'=o The new time axis resulting from this boost is eo = GAL I_Iv I· (5) In Einstein' s special theory. The factor T' is called the dilatation factor because each observer appears dilatory with respect to the other by the factor T'.

These may be combined into a 3-component spatial vector B (of boosts) and a 3-component axial vector A (of rotations).2. We may choose . and commutators [A. The algebra dLoRENTZ is closed under addition A + A'.2. 11. where a rotation through an angle () is described by a complex multiplier p. These relations are in close parallel to those of plane Euclidean geometry. their multipliers multiply and their hyperangles add. Thus there are six independent matrix elements A~.11. Those who wish to express this without infinitesimals may require instead that the expoentials exp(Aa) be in LORENTZ for every real a. and a slope m related by p =ei8 (13)] a = cos() m=tan().. These exponentials form a one-parameter subgroup. A is called an infinitesimal generator of this subgroup. product r A by a real scalar r. When boosts in one spacetime plane are concatenated. = cosh '" V = tanh". The infinitesimal LORENTZ transformations form an algebra d LORENTZ whose elements A obey the differentials of the equations 11.3 (1) defining LORENTZ: ATh+hA =0 (1) TrA = O. which generate Lorentz transformations in the mn plane: (3) with an array of six parameters w~ which represent rates of transformation (with respect to a parameter a).2 Causal Symmetries 331 with multiplier I-L given by I-L = e'7 (12) . It follows that (2) is antisymmetric. a direction cosine a. The most general infinitesimal Lorentz transformation A = (A~) may be expressed in terms of an array of six independent infinitesimal Lorentz transformations L~ = (~~).4 Infinitesimal LORENTZ An infinitesimal LORENTZ transformation is an operator A = (Am n) such that 1 + Ada is in LORENTZ for any infinitesimal real number da. Therefore we call rJ the hyperbolic angle or hyperangle of the boost.A'A. A'] = AA' .

When we compose rotations about the same axis we add their rotation vectors a. The relative velocity V = IVI and the dilatation factor I associated with a boost are related to the hyperangle /3 much as slope and direction cosine are related to angle of rotation (): V = tanh/3 . not their velocities. Ii = A3 define three unit infinitesimal rotations Ai about the x. (14) . The direction of b is the direction of the boost. (13) 1= cosh/3. the rapidity) of the boost.332 11. When we compose boosts in the same direction we add their rapidities. The spatial components (4) IJ = AJ. we define the infinitesimal boost Bi = 101 = ei do + e0 di in the XOx i (10) hyperplane. We write A for the symbolic vector of infinitesimal rotation operators (6) The Ai obey commutation relations AiAj . Classical Spacetime Imnpq = Emnpq in any Minkowskian coordinate system. Ii = A2 . The most general finite rotation R (relative to the given coordinate system) may be expressed in terms of the three infinitesimal rotation operators of A: (9) where a is a 3-vector coefficient whose direction is the spatial rotation axis and whose magnitude 0: is the geometrical angle of rotation. y and z axes: (5) where &c(ijk) means" and likewise for all cyclic permutations of ijk". We call a the rotation vector. with the further commutation relations B x B = -A. The magnitude /3 of b may be called the hyperbolic angle or hyperangle (or by some authors. (11) The most general finite boost B (relative to the given coordinate system) has the form B = eboB (12) where b is a spatial vector called the rapidity or the boost vector. A xB=B. Similarly.AjAi = Ak &c(ijk) (7) or mnemonically written (8) AxA=A.

The heart of relativity is Einstein's locality principle: The law of nature is local and causal. which generally varies from point to point. the physics of gravity led Einstein to general relativity.3 Einstein Locality Soon after the physics of light led Einstein and others to special relativity. It is a local feature of Newton's non-local theory of gravity. Diff(M). In Newtonian theory x' = x + 4at2. Einstein assumed covariance . Einstein sought a relativistic theory that following the precedents of electromagnetism would describe the propagation of gravity by a wave equation for a gravitational field. After adapting the symmetry group of physics to electromagnetism. "Causal" means that these other events are inside the light cone of e . would be invariant under transformations to accelerated frames. Einstein's general relativistic spacetime theory is MINKOWSKI made local. It already follows from Newton's theory that all effects of gravity infinitesimally near a point are equivalent to those of an appropriate acceleration. That is. 11. To support the equivalence principle. and one expects this to be a good approximation for low velocities at least. and his gravitational theory is Newton's made local and generally covariant (unchanged in form by general smooth coordinate transformations). and did. These are the topics of this section. This is the equivalence principle.1 Equivalence Principle Einstein based his approach to gravity on the key fact that all local effects of gravity can be removed by letting the local laboratory fall freely. like Coulomb's law. This would demote Newton's non-local "law" to a special (possibly approximate) solution. so that the local effects of gravity could be transformed away. and that its characteristics (the surfaces across which there could be jumps in a solution) were null cones.3 Einstein Locality 333 11. This violates special relativity. Einstein adapted it to gravity. these accelerations do not form a group. Newton's theory described instantaneous action at a distance. which Einstein could therefore carry with him into his new theory. Einstein assumed that the law of nature was a differential equation. Euclidean geometry and the theory we have given of MINKOWSKI are not local. Unlike boosts.11. however. t' = t is such a transformation. The resultant of two linear transformations is linear. Einstein supposed that all laws of nature. including the desired gravitational wave equation. Here "local" means that the dynamical law relates any event e only to events in its infinitesimal neighborhood. but two quadratics make a quartic.3. The most conspicuous group that includes accelerations is the group of all "smooth" (say COO) diffeomorphisms of the spacetime.

we general-relativize a concept that has been expressed in the language of special relatvity by carrying out a general curvilinear coordinate transformation. This breaks general covariance. Let us suppose that what he meant by general covariance. This guarantees that by a coordinate transformation we may bring the metric tensor and the geodesics at all points y in a neighborhood of any point x in the form that they have in M.(dXl)2 . To be content with the general covariance principle we should know how to implement each diffeomorphism experimentally. 11. both actively (on the system) and passively (on the episystem).3. In analogy to the term "quantization" or (as we prefer) "quantum-relativization". is invariance under Diff. such as parallelism. the seed of Einstein's gravitational theory and modern gauge physics. and inventing new physical field variables as necessary to account for the new terms. reducing to (1) in a suitable basis dm(x) at x. Special relativity violates Einstein locality by assuming a constant field of light cones that fills the universe.2 General Relativization Locality has been a most fertile principle. If the proper time interval of M has the standard form dT2 = hmndxmdx n = (dXO)2 . The general covariance principle precludes such a remote comparison of directions.(dX 2)2 . Thus while special relativity eliminated one global concept.xm. There is a standard (non-unique) heuristic procedure for turning any concept of special relativity into one of general relativity. One must manipulate huge masses to make even small active changes in the spacetime description of a system. (1) in one coordinate system. then under Diff(M) it will transform to some different form (2) A manifold E is called Minkowskian if it is provided with a smoothly varying quadratic form (2) in each tangent space dE(x). in the more rigorous mathematical parlance of today. we can compare remote directions only by carefully carrying copies of them to the same point. Classical Spacetime under "all" coordinate transformations. Here are some examples of general-relativization in practice. let us call it general-relativization. The principles of general covariance and locality are independent but have overlapping consequences.334 11. which introduces new terms. . Most non-local laws of pre-Einsteinian physics presupposed that it was meaningful to speak of relations between coordinate axes at remote points. Broadly speaking. it retained others. o We begin with the Minkowski metric. calling this principle general covariance. which were first eliminated in Einstein's general relativity theory.(dX 3 )2 . simultaneity. In experimental actuality. thus directly comparing remote directions. up to errors of the second order in the coordinate differences ym . called the (spacetime) metric. any fixed metrical structure does.

is that they follow null geodesics in general relativity. if two admissible experimenters give different values for a physical object. Similarly. two pairs lightyears apart can be added. then one experimenter may also give different descriptions of it at different times. We also define the Minkowskian adjoint covariant and contravariant vectors gm := dm M = (gmn) gm := 8mM = (gmn) (4) defined by and defining the covariant chronometric tensor gmn and its reciprocal. v: [IR <. designated here by om(x). (Physical photons have spin which in principle pulls them off geodesics to a degree depending on the local curvature. and whether it depends on others. (3) In particular the tangent vector to the xm axis at x.3 Einstein Locality 335 The general relativization of MINKOWSKI is a Minkowskian manifold.8 3 ) is defined by the condition 8n ·dm = 8n m. For any basis d m of dM(x). • We shall use a basic heuristic principle [Anderson (1967)]: Every physical object that varies under frame changes also varies in the action principle. That is. is the differential operator om(x) = %x m . free particles follow lines with the linear parametric equation xm = am + bm s with timelike or null coefficient vector bm . Recall that one may represent any tangent vector v E dM(x) in the tangent space at x as a linear differential operator on scalar fields. the reciprocal basis of covariant vectors (8 m ) = (8°. This leaves open the question of how this variable varies. the general-relativization of the principle that light pulses follow null straight lines in M.M] -> IR. o In M. and this object must be varied when we deduce the equations of motion from the action principle. o The general-relativization of the concept of a Minkowski dual vector or co vector is the concept of form. the contravariant one gmn . This is not a generally covariant concept. Such vectors are not localized. or timelike geodesics.82 . The general-relativization is the concept of tangent vector. A form or covariant vector at x is an element of the dual space dM'(x) to the tangent space. obeying the Leibniz rule: (f v(fg) = (vf)g(x) + f(x)vg.e. One general-relativization is the statement that particles follow geodesics with timelike or null tangents.81 . .) o A vector in MINKOWSKI was defined as an equivalence class of event pairs <. The om(x) form a basis for the tangent space dM(x).11.e) having the same value of the difference f . followed by evaluation at x.

and the sole new one. which he imagined would change in size depending on its path in spacetime. and we call Dm the gauge derivative. or an invariance group of the first kind. By a local invariance group. am -> Dm = a+A. which has been used to describe all the known forces. since 9mn transforms under Diff.336 11. the gauge was an object that could vary between being (say) a proton or a neutron. we mean a group G that acts by transforming local quantities in the same way at each spacetime point. but not that it is a dynamical variable. depending on its path. 11. which came next. His was a literal gauge. For example. we mean an invariance group G M obtained from a local group G by allowing the group element to vary smoothly with spacetime position x E M. a physical vector field called the (gauge) connection. In fact additional physical variables seem to be necessary to guide quanta with spin. it follows that 9mn is a dynamical variable. A the gauge vector field. or an invariance group of the second kind. By the gauge (of a gauge theory) we mean the fundamental entity transported by the gauge vector field. . the gauge was the local wavefunction (today we say creation operator) for a charged particle. which would otherwise tell us how 9mn transforms. with a change in phase angle ¢ that is independent of x. By a global invariance group. One is then said to gauge the group G. and in the Yang-Mills gauge theory. The archetype gauge was that of Weyl. Einstein's original form of general relativity assumes that 9mn is a fundamental independent dynamical variable. While the Weyl gauge was a spacetime structure. to a detailed dynamical theory. which were not known when Einstein created general relativity. in the Dirac gauge theory of electromagnetism. Indeed. who coined the term.4 The Idea of Gauge One feature of general relativity that has been most inspiring for the developemnt of physics in this century is how it argues almost directly from a symmetry principle. that of a carpenter or machinist. This led to the general yet powerful concept of gauge physics. whose complex phase depends on its spacetime path. One historic example is a phase change 'l/J(x) -> ei¢'l/J(x) of a complex (charged) scalar field. to the ordinary derivative operator. in the absence of some such principle one could conclude that the general covariance principle was empty (as did Einstein and Kretschmer in a well-known exchange of papers). general relativity. In this unit we provide some background on gauge theory that we use later. If an element of G depends on D group parameters or coordinates then an element of G M depends on D arbitrary functions M -> R The standard way to convert a global in variance G to a local one G M is to add a correction term A(x). general covariance. Since then gauges have had little to do with spacetime. The power symbol G M suggests a group G at each point of M. Classical Spacetime This principle gives some physical content to the general covariance principle.

giving the change 8go. General relativity does not quite fit the standard gauge mold. In 11.8 we gauge SPIN or intrinsic POINCARE. and say that this is the group we gauge.5 Tensor Differential Calculus 337 In general the connection A(x) is a form (covariant vector) (1) with values (components) in the Lie algebra dG. We replace these partial diffeomorphisms by total ones. (It is also Lie derivation with respect to the tangent vectors also designated by am. x E M. The comma indicates ordinary partial differentiation. Feynman gauged TRANSLATION and Hehl et al. but it also includes LORENTZ and POINCARE and even the affine group GL4 and the inhomogeneous affine group IGL4 . But this POINCARE acts only on points. in the local gauge variable go.) We abbreviate amTA =:. These do not form a group. to produce the tensor differential calculus.5. scalars and tensors. . A general coordinate transformation on a manifold M may be expressed by a partial diffeomorphism x' = I(x). x ENe M with a variable translation.11. Dml = Fnm the gauge curvature (field). We can arrive at Einstein's theory of gravity by gauging any of these groups we like. For example. 11. 11. (1980) gauges IGL4 . according to (2) One calls the commutator [D n . which had not entered physics when Einstein invented his 1905 theory.1 Covariant Derivative The operator of component-by-component derivation of a general tensor TA in a given frame is called ordinary derivation am = (am AB). appending a final (left) index of type V' so as to preserve order among the indices. One way to minimize this arbitrariness is to find the largest possible Lie group that is an invariance group of the ungauged theory and that gives the gauge theory under study. x' = x + I(x). T m. not on spinors. A. which we write as variable translations. The diffeomorphism group thus gauges global TRANSLATION x' = x + const. we may call its group orbital or extrinsic POINCARE.5 Tensor Differential Calculus Here we general-relativize the differential calculus. relative to an arbitrarily chosen coordinate system (x) under a careful infinitesimal gauge transport from the point (xm) to the point (xm + dx m ). the first language of general relativity. Since this theory omits spin. Then we should say that Einstein's theory of gravity gauges the POINCARE group of special relativity (note that IGL 4 is not an invariance group of specal relativity).

but in general relativity it is a generally covariant object for scalars only. using gyroscopes for example. here invisible. using the Leibniz product law. the general covariant derivative (for any type of tensor TA) has the form (5) with a general connection Cm = Cm B A. We always designate the covariant derivative of a tensor with an additional final (left-hand end) subscript mi. This operator is called the covariant derivative. belong to the infinitesimal transport operator. Now that we can differentiate vector fields we can differentiate any tensor type. It follows that in general coordinates the covariant derivative for vectors has the form ~=~+~ ~ where r m = (rm1k) is an operator-valued form called the (affine) connection. the right-hand side of (1) sprouts a new term rv 8X and becomes Vn '. To general-relativize the tensor derivative one notes that even in the presence of gravity we can physically carry any vector from one point of spacetime to another infinitesimally near in a unique way by inertial guidance. which compares the vector vex + dx) with the vector vex) after transporting vex + dx) to x. u m = Xmm. We call this extension of Dm to arbitrary tensors the general covariant derivative V m . Thus in general relativity 8m = 8/ 8x m is a physical object as an operator on scalars but not on vectors.u m' with non-constant transformation tensor xm m' := 8x m / 8x m '. Similarly. or TRANSLATION. as one prefers). We use this inertial transport to define a physical object D m . It maps vector fields (type V) into tensor fields of type V' V. according to (3) The bar I indicates covariant diffentiation. The connection r is the gauge vector field for extrinsic POINCARE (or extrinsic LORENTZ. or (dx· 8)v l = -dXkrk1m'lr. The infinitesimal transport of a vector v at x along dx to x + dx is defined by dx· Dv = 0. m' _ - an'U m' + r n' m' p'up' . we differentiate a vector v m in special relativity by taking the oordinary derivative in an inertial frame to obtain a tensor (1) After a general diffeomorphism x' = x'(x) . (2) A differential manifold with no additional structure provides no invariant way to subtract or in any way compare two vectors at two different points. and is the gauge derivative for TRANSLATION. Indeed. even if they are infinitesimally close. The index m on G m gives the transport direction. Since Dm is a tensor and 8m .338 11. the other two. Classical Spacetime In special relativity the ordinary derivative of a general tensor in an inertial frame is POINCARE covariant under frame change.

the covariant commutator involves no second derivatives. I assume zero distortion to simplify what follows. 'Dmn is therefore the sum of a first-derivative part. with an inhomogeneous transformation law G 2. The following important secondary objects are formed from the covariant derivative and the metric alone.5 Tensor Differential Calculus 339 is not. called the torsional derivative SP mnop. There is no evidence about distortion inside or very near the physical particles. so we focus on its restriction to vectors.5. neither is r m. or lozenge om V 01. SIRe might eschew distortion. (2) which vanishes on vectors.5.11. and none for long-range distortion. Therefore we call it the distortion (tensor). called the the Riemann curvature tensor. Einstein did. The curvature tensor (3) is the gauge curvature for TRANSLATION. gmlkl := 'Dmgkl (1) tells how transport changes angles and lengths. This is an algebraic (non-differential) operator-valued 2-form (R[ml]k j) on vector fields v j . The general curvature vanishes on scalars. the connection is uniquely defined by the metric and is called metrical. If (as I expect) the metric tensor is not a fundamental physical entity but an order parameter of a quantum condensate. then it is possible that at very high energies there is some distortion in nature. If the distortion vanishes. . If the curvature vanishes there are local coordinates in which glk == hlk (the Minkowski metric) and the spacetime is called locally flat.3 Curvature We describe the transport of a general tensor field around a lozenge by means of the general covariant commutator (1) Because ordinary second derivatives commute.2 Distortion The covariant derivative of the metric. and an algebraic (non-differential) part. but it is still a physical object. If God were a differential geometer. 11. called the general curvature (3) an operator-valued 2-form. 11. Its component (4) gives the change in the k component per unit j component when we transport a vector around an infinitesimal rectangle.9 (2).

We start from Newton's non-local gravity law. Caution: Of late the term "torsion" is applied to the gradient Dmea m of the variable tetrad e a that we introduce in 11. Classical Spacetime 11. 11. any more than there is a non-quantum universe underlying the quantum one.5. which we have seen is a deeper kind of relativization. not an ontological hypothesis.8. called the torsion tensor. Newton's third law implies the last two are the same.3 (2) vanishes on vectors. so we focus on its restriction to scalars.4 Ricci Tensor A first contraction of the Riemann curvature tensor is Rmk := R~llk . we now speak simply of mass.5. . (1) called the Ricci tensor. then we special-relativize it. then we general-relativize it. R is linear in the second derivatives of gnm. There is no Newtonian universe underlying a special-relativistic one underlying the Einsteinian one. There is a simple linear relation between these two torsion tensors. First we localize it. distinguishing it from the mass determined by weighing. A second or full contraction gives the (Riemann) curvature scalar (2) where gl := 15 1M = (glk) is the Minkowskian adjoint of the coordinate covector 151 . Within Newtonian mechanics we can determine a mass by colliding it with a standard mass and assuming momentum conservation. 11. and the mass determined by orbital period of a satellite. One calls this inertial mass. The term "torsion" is also used in algebraic topology for an unrelated concept. It measures how far the lozenge mn fails to close in the p dimension. this is a heuristic procedure. the passive gravitational mass. the active gravitational mass. The equivalence principle tells us that the first two are the same. We retain the older nomenclature.5 Torsion Tensor The torsional derivative of 11. Like Newton.340 11. Every scalar formed from the metric tensor and its derivatives up to the second order is a function of R . This has the form (1) where SP mn is a tensor of the indicated type.5. Like quantization.6 Gravity Now we general-relativize Newton's theory of gravity. The Riemann scalar is the simplest scalar describing the metrical state of a manifold at a point.

Newton's gravitational law is summarized in the variational action principle 88 = 0. generalization is Einstein's law of gravity.p¢>] (1) where 8 m is the non-gravitational action of matter.. is the same as the mass that enters into the law of inertia.6 Gravity According to Newton's law of gravity.. so localize. 341 masses at that time. any test particle at x a gravitational acceleration g(x) = -G~m 1 m X-Xm . As Hilbert we introduce one as we 11. is a tensor T = (Tn[mlk]) called the energy-momentum-stress. The relevant fields are the fields p(x) = mass density and vex) = velocity describing the source. We reach found. the work is easier with an action principle. t) = g(x) transmitting their actions to each other. symbol by symbol. nor even a physical object. Indeed. Next we special-relativize (1). and g = -'\l¢>. There must be a gravitational acceleration field g =g(x.11. Rest mass (rest energy) is an object and invariant. therefore. which is also what gravity acts upon. exert on (1) 12 determined by the distances from the test particle to the law is neither local nor LORENTZ invariant. the source of gravity. m'. In special relativity Newton's single concept of mass splits into two concepts. depending on context.8 := 8 m + ~ Jcrx [('\l¢»2 + K.6(1) is the Green's function. Newton's gravitational law is equivalent to a scalar field theory. This leads to Poisson's equation of which Newton's law 11. Since inertial mass is not a special-relativistic physical object we must specialrelativize it to one.1 Special Relativistic Gravity First we localize Newton's law 11. The simplest local special-relativistic physical object including the energy density. but not conserved. inertial mass and rest mass. Its local. tensor that associates (maps) each three-dimensional dx[mlk]emlk to its energyvolume element (dx[mlk]) = dx[mlk]e m V el V ek momentum vector content dpn: = . There is first the Newtonian mass density p to be relativized. particles of mass m. otherwise we could not transform gravity away locally by an acceleration. It is thus the inertial mass.6. The sun and the earth cannot pull directly on each other across the intervening space.6 (1). and one gravitational field ¢>(x) = gravitational potential describing their influence. This locally Lorentz-invariant it by stages. not the rest mass. The simplest global special-relativistic physical object including the energy is the energy-momentum vector P = (Pm). Which if either is the source of gravity? According to the equivalence principle. When we say simply mass we may mean either. Inertial mass (energy!) is conserved but not an invariant.

who arrived at his gravitational theory from particle mechanics.2. into the field variable h nm . [mlk] = [123] . The energy tensor for a closed system in special relativity obeys the continuity equation (3) To save indices one commonly represents a three-volume element dx k1m by the dual relative vector dan = fklmndxklm.342 11. with 10 components. Likewise the energy tensor Tn[mlk) becomes the relative tensor Tn m. An illustrative special-relativistic action density that yields a second-order differential equation for the gravitational field is a sum L = LM + L1 + Lh of matter Lagrangian L M. and o stress (momentum flux): n = 1. we take the special relativistic gravitational field to be a symmetric tensor hmn' and couple it to T through the action T nm h nm y'( .3. [mlk] = [012] . an action density. absorbing the coupling constant K. [mlk] = [012] . interaction Lagrangian L 1.Ln[mlk) X therefore has the index structure bracketed indices.2. The field-theoretic meaning of (say) the gravitational field component hoo(x) is the invariant action density (action per 4-volume at x) per unit of material energy density (energy per 3-volume at x). indicates a complete contraction. o momentum density: n = 1. where . h. o energy flux: n =0. anti symmetric in the three o energy density: n = 0. generalizing the form p¢ in (2) of the coupling action between gravity and matter. and is known for short as the energy tensor (or stress tensor). This suggests that the gravitational field h of special relativity should be a relative tensor of the tensor type V[VVV]. To parallel Einstein. however. and gravitational field Lagrangian Lh given by (6) . Classical Spacetime dPn -- . and couple it to gravity with an action T . [mlk] = [123] . using the Minkowski metric tensor gnm to lower the indices of dx. and (4) becomes (4) Now special-relativistic energy-momentum continuity becomes (5) We take the energy tensor Tn[mlk) as the special-relativistic version of the source p of the gravitational field. so that its contraction with the proper tensor Tn[mlk) will be a scalar density.3. The source tensor Tn[mlk) unites: T d 'T' T = [kim) (2) • (Tn[mlk).det h) .

gmllk = 0. called the Newtonian limit. and torsion-free. We must next general-relativize the derivatives of vector and tensor fields in the special relativistic action. V .11. introducing a variable physical connection. On grounds of simplicity. this symmetry assumption is still plausible as long as the energy tensor is symmetric. In the field theory. 11. but there is no problem in interpreting asymmetric energy tensors (as in 11.6. therefore. since planets and pendula have rest masses nearly equal to their inertial masses. which are proper-time derivatives. and so gmn was assumed to be symmetric. the field variable gmn is naturally coupled to matter by its appearance in all volume elements and velocities and in the Christoffel connection [m1k]. Einstein postulated a new physical variable metric gmn to take its place. That is.6. metrics. One does this by the prescription am . or the derivative coupling gmnomhmkonhnl. In principle. and we make them as small as possible. or between the scalar T and the inertial mass density L I . Belinfante recognized that when the energy-momentum density is symmetric it is just the variational derivative of the minimal coupling and proposed the following definition for the symmetric energy~momentum tensor in any case: . There are also possible terms like the trace coupling (7) to rest-mass density and pressure combined. therefore. with weights to be determined.1) and. we should take a weighted average of the scalar and tensor couplings for now.6 Gravity 343 We have written a tensor coupling term for AI. The Minkowski metric loses its special significance under general coordinate transformations. Whether asymmetric metrics occur in nature is still a meaningful and open physical question.2 Einstein Gravity Now we general-relativize the theory of the preceeding unit. which resolves these ambiguities at once. Rather than develop this special-relativistic theory of gravity further. which enters into the matter action through the velocities. since in the Newtonian limit only the 00 (time-time) terms survive. This interprets only the symmetric part of gmn.t 0. Einstein assumed that nature was distortionfree. m . As metric. Newtonian experiments and theory do not distinguish between the trace coupling (7) and the tensor coupling hmnTmn of (6). This is called the minimal coupling to gravity.8. We make as few changes as possible in the theory. preserving the Minkowski relation dT2 = gmndxmdxn. however.t 0. Torsion-free is less plausible than distortion-free because it spoils an important and plausible symmetry that we take up in 11. we replace the global special-relativistic concepts by local general-relativistic ones that revert to their Newtonian origins in the limit of weak gravitational field and slow motions.t Llm. We already general-relativized proper time. we pass at once to general relativity. smlk == 0.

the electric current is the variational derivative of the action with respect to the electromagnetic vector potential.. LG = . A galaxy does not seem to define a universal cosmic time constant. It leaves room for a fundamental constant hypervolume or time. by going to geodesic coordinates. Classical Spacetime (1) In electromagnetism. and so it has to be astronomically small. or . It is straightforward to show. but an electron (say) defines several. Moreover it has the same characteristics (possible shock fronts) as Maxwell's equations: gravitational impulses travel at the speed of light.4 (2).[R+A]p. where it leads to a departure from the inverse-square law. similarly. like the electromagnetic. such as its Compton period. Einstein first put A in to permit a static spherical universe and then withdrew it when de Sitter pointed out that the universe was expanding.1. We call the new action for gravity LG . Experiment is still consistent with A =o. (2) Being linear in its second derivatives.1 (6). From these facts together we tentatively infer that hmn(x) is proportional to the difference of the variable metric field 9mn from its constant Minkowski value. There is a plausible theory of gravity with a unique action without this ambiguous fundamental constant A. The principle of unimodular covariance at first seems somewhat more consistent with experience across the entire scale of times from particles to planets than the principle of general covariance. as saying that the energy tensor is the current for the metric. and that the special-relativistic coupling to h mn is actually just an approximation to the minimal coupling to the metric 9mn. It is a scalar density created by multiplying an action scalar with the metric density p of 11. Current attempts at a quantum theory of gravity put A back.344 11. producing the action density p. this action implies that the gravitational field. renormalization and dimensional arguments suggest an absurdly large A. The first candidate for the action scalar is the Riemann curvature scalar 11. There is also the scalar 1. when we fall freely we see 9mn locally as the Minkowski metric and h as zero. We must also general-relativize the gravitational field action. It also determines the radius of the static empty universe and so is called the cosmological constant. Taking a linear combination of the two possibilities we arrive at the generalrelativistic action density of Hilbert.5. According to the equivalence principle. The group Diff(M) has an invariant subgroup 8Diff(M) of "special" or unimodular diffeomorphisms: those with unit Jacobian determinant. therefore. obeys a quasilinear second-order differential equation. We read (1). one that would roll the universe up into a ball the size of an elementary particle or less.. that this is the most general action density with this property. Indeed. The constant A does not go away in the Newtonian limit.

Einstein considered the unimodular covariance principle too. .6 Gravity 345 the time for light to cross its classical radius. the second proper-time derivative of the volume.8gmn . Suppose at one time this is stationary. Consider an infinitesimal tube of geodesics in a Minkowskian manifold E around a central geodesic xm = Xm(T).11. are (3) Here . free from a cosmological constant [Anderson & Finkelstein (1971)]. determining at birth how large the universe will be at full growth. There a constant playing the cosmological role of A reappears in the initial data. and 81l'G (5) c where G is the Newtonian gravitational constant. the strain acceleration 0:'. ~ V = O. whose tangent at x is v m = dxm /dT. But they mean subtly different things by these words. These have a useful paraphrase given by Ehlers (1961). In unimodular relativity the dynamical equation is unique. per unit volume of initially static cloud. Let us call ~ iT / ~ V.Rnm . In general relativity the strain acceleration x is given by the quadratic form 0:' 0:' (6) for geodesics in the direction v m at = Rmnvmv n . but its physical consequences do not differ significantly from the principle of general covariance.2gnm R (4) is called the Einstein tensor. which he therefore adopted.2 0:' = -41l'Gp._ 8L g _ 1 G nm .. (7) According to (2) the strain acceleration is a certain unique linear combination of the inertial mass density and pressure. We set A = 0 to simplify discussion here. The cross-sectional volume of the tube we call ~ V. Thus when pressure is negligible Einstein's and Newton's laws of gravity both tell us: The strain acceleration is proportional to the local mass density. Unimodular relativity does not explain why the initial value of A is so small. independently discovered by Einstein without going through the action. The dynamical equations for gmn that follow from (2). Then Newtonian gravitational theory tells us that at each point the strain acceleration is proportional to the mass density: K:= .

L. We must make an abrupt change in B at the interface between the two Stem-Gerlach magnets. In principle. P is approximately 1 for all 0. then in gravitational fields. Then the transition probability from the initial i beam to the final i' beam will obey this modification of the Malus-Born statistical principle: (2) In this thought experiment we put two Stem-Gerlach experiments in series as we do two Iceland spar polarizers. electrically neutral. . It is harder to verify Malus' Law directly for electron polarization than for photon polarization. as is generally the case with the magnetic beam splitters in use today.7 Spin We now discuss the quantum kinematics and dynamics of a quantum with spin. the spin turns with the field. If the field B varies too slowly with x. Classical Spacetime 11. This raises a serious experimental problem. We represent the atom as a small. and for the covalent bond that lies at the basis of organic chemistry and life processes. can be polarized in that way. analyzing the beam once more. Due to electron diffraction. In principle. rotated through an angle () relative to the first about the beam axis. This problem does not arise for photon spin because dichroic media like Iceland spar have sharp boundaries. An external constant inhomogeneous magnetic field B = B(x) exerts a force on such an atom given by F = qJ. Silver atoms carrying one uncompensated electron spin.346 11. It is hard to make the magnetic field change abruptly in empty space. this is an impractical (some say impossible) experiment. diffracting less than electron beams. This difficulty is not yet a matter of principle and we ignore it. and (2) does not hold. into beams i' and !'. Electron spin first revealed itself in the splitting of atomic spectral lines and was soon seen to be crucial for the structure of the periodic table and chemistry. one can polarize electron beams by firing them through an inhomogenous magnetic field. however. this magnetic force splits a beam of neutral silver atoms into two beams. then the component of the spin along the field is an adiabatic invariant. first in M = MINKOWSKI. the i beam emerging from a first magnetic beam splitter can be transmitted to a second. Individual free electrons have a spin that is most easily aligned or polarized by scattering. VB. that is the Stem-Gerlach experiment. conventionally labeled i and ! ("up" and "down"). It is natural to compare the two atomic beams emerging from a magnetic beam splitter with the ordinary and extraordinary beams of a dichroic optical filter. The field deflects the magnetic electrons according to the value of the spin component along the magnetic field. magnetized entity f of position x and velocity v = dx/ dt carrying a net magnetic moment J.L. (1) In the Stem-Gerlach experiment. Let us approximate the dynamics of this process.

We may. and e2 is in the plane of the polarizer and orthogonal to the polarization direction. The polarizer defines a natural basis of spacetime vectors em. The initial vector ¢ of the photon polarization is a transverse spacetime vector. The structure of the space IN a may be inferred from measured transition probabilities according to Born's Law. describe them both by associating twocomponent initial vectors with the polarizer. Spinors too have two components. on the contrary. Initial action vectors rarely behave like spacetime vectors under rotation of the apparatus.7 Spin 347 In particular. not 7r /2. the spinor describing the polarizer turns through 7r /2 in spinor space. Thus photons and electrons have significantly different transverse structures. and IN a may have any number of complex dimensions. the vector space of spinors is C EB C = 2C like that of photon polarizion initial vectors.2') are both special cases of Born's law. when we tum a photon polarizer through an angle e in the laboratory frame. silver atom polarizers) occlude when they are separated by 7r. where eo is a unit timelike vector along the proper time axis of the polarizer. is not a spacetime vector. which describe initial processes and whose angle a appears in Born's law. and spacetime vectors. may be printed upon the initial apparatus. We say that the inhomogeneous magnetic field polarizes the atomic beam. The initial vector 'IjJ of electron polarization. but spinors do not transform like photon initial vectors under rotation. The angle a determines the transition probability according to p= cos 2 a. When a vector inscribed on an electron polarizer (such as a Stem-Gerlach magnet) turns through 7r in physical space. It is a different kind of two-component geometrical object called a spin or (sounds like spinner) because it describes the spin of the electron.11. e3 are unit spacelike vectors orthogonal to eo and each other. the photon initial vector turns through the same angle a = e. however. Photon polarization vectors occlude when they differ geometrically by 7r /2. writing CL = 2C. We reserve the two-valued index E for spinors. There the geometrical angle coincides with the initial vector angle. (2') Equations (2. e2. Sometimes one relies on context to distinguish the two meanings of the unqualified word "vector". to be sure. We must distinguish between quantum initial vectors. and make up an initial space IN = IN f associated with the physical system f. which reside in spacetime. if the two magnets are parallel there is no further splitting. but electron polarizers (or more experimentally. Photon polarizers occlude when they are separated by an angle of 7r /2. the electron spin initial vector turns through an angle a = e/2. Now (2) implies that when we tum an electron polarizer through an angle e. According to Malus's Law. The initial vector ¢ has two nonzero components in the spacetime frame em. for two such vectors are orthogonal (occlude) when their electron polarizers differ geometrically by 7r. Any ideal polarization analysis of a photon beam has two possible final beams. which may be depicted as a fletch and turns with the polarizer. . e) is in the plane of the polarizer in its rest frame and parallel to the polarization direction. Quantum initial vectors describe the initial action. e).

take on the values i for jC. 2 for 1. unlike the two basic photon linear polarization vectors Ix) and Iy). whose rays are interchanged by a rotation through only 7r /2 instead of 7r . Under a rotation through about the beam axis. and we write I 1) for an initial vector ("down") selecting the spins which are deflected in the -z sense. This suggests. as we did with the photon polarizer. However C maps any basis tOE of 2C E naturally into a basis tOt of 2C t • If basis elements tOE and tOt correspond under C we write ~ +--t t. Ordinarily ~ and t are independent indices. We double the rate of transformation by forming a quadratic combination. e 11. Since in the rest frame no beam momentum nor beam axis spoils the symmetry. and 2 +--t i .1 Spinors and Polyspinors Let the index ~ take on the two spin values 1 for j.8 with two complex coefficients. Entities in C E9 C transforming under SPIN are called spinors. consider a photon polarization. The group of such complex unideterminantal 2 x 2 matrices A = (A E'~) is called SL2 (for "special linear"). . SL(2. we may subject the electron polarizer not merely to a rotation in a fixed plane.7. under a Lorentz transformation of the magnet system the electron spin or must undergo a transformation A of GL 2 . Thus 1 +--t i. as it turns out correctly. but to an arbitrary rotation. a rotation of the magnetic polarizer through 7r in spacetime turns I j) into the ray of 11). SPIN4 or SPIN. that vectors are quadratic in spinors. If the magnetic field is inhomogeneous along the z axis.348 11. Classical Spacetime While photon polarization experiments are easier than electron ones. electron spin theory is simpler. selecting the spins deflected in the +z sense defines (up to a scalar) an initial vector or spinor that we shall write as I j) and read as "up". and let the dotted index t labelling vectors in the conjugate initial space I C. i for 1c. By taking out a scalar factor. each of the silver atoms in an atomic beam is at rest. we may express the most general spinor as a linear combination (3) 7jJ = I j)a + I 1). The electron initial spinor 7jJ = (7jJE) belongs to C E. Photon polarization is coupled to the orbital motion of the photon by the circumstance that the polarization is transverse to the momentum. Since every electron goes one way or the other. but merely in a frame other than the laboratory frame. Electron polarization may be studied in an electron at rest. C). Spinors are simpler than vectors much as a proton is simpler than a hydrogen atom: A vector is made of two spinors. For example. we have seen. Such a factor of two in rate of transformation is common in geometry. we can arrange for A to have determinant 1. in principle. Indeed. Empirically. the photon polarization Ix) + Iy)i is multiplied by e iO • Then the tensor product (Ix) + Iy)i) 0 (Ix) + Iy)i) is multiplied by e2iO . and photons cannot be brought to rest. By the principle of superposition.

simply by restricting the domain of the representation R(g) from GL 4 to LORENTZ. like the vectors dxm. In an inertial coordinate system a complex point is represented by a complex column matrix zm. which is isomorphic to LORENTZ. Since LORENTZ is a subgroup of GL4 . Any finite dimensional LORENTZ tensor is the restriction of a GL 4 tensor (we state without proof). or direct sums thereof. The initial vectors of quantum theory are usually understood to be complex. and acts on dM itself. Example. with id(L) = L.for dual: 0 C~ spinors 0 C~ cospinors 0 CE anti-spinor 0 CE anti-cospinors 0 C~0CE ambi-spinors 0 C~0CE ambi-cospinors (1)" When spinors undergo a SPIN transformation A. We define POINCARE to act separately on the real and imaginary parts of such complex matrices. If a quantum system is attached to a point p of M. This however is a real representation. When tensors are used in differential geometry they are traditionally real. LORENTZ is (isomorphic to) the representation of SPIN supported by ambispinors. its initial vectors must support a representation of POINCARE \p.7 Spin 349 Natural representations of SPIN are associated with the following linear spaces.11. with two-valued spinor index ~. any GL4 tensor defines a LORENTZ tensor. Example. Any entity transforming under a representation of G Lm is called a tensor. We use the prefixes anti. The differences ~zm are called complex . written id: LORENTZ --t LORENTZ.for complex conjugate and co. in that their components are labelled by a string of raised and lowered vector indices. To construct a complex representation we complexify M and dM. By the complexification of M = MINKOWSKI we mean the space M(C) of point pairs (2) z = (p. Finite dimensional tensors are polyvectors. The initial vectors of a quantum system in M must support a representation of POINCARE. We map each SPIN transformation to a unique LORENTZ transformation in a way that respects products and the unit element. the subgroup of POINCARE that fixes the point p. each of the above kinds of polyspinor '11 also undergoes a linear transformation w' = R(A)w. The simplest representation of LORENTZ is the identity one. defining a representation R of SPIN. p') =: p + ip' E M x M . in the real linear space dM. possibly with linear relations among these components.

ambispinors undergo a linear transformation v' = A-IT vA -IC =: Lv.0'12) representing rotations A. 11. Lor(iO') =B .3 Sesquispinors We do not express spinors single-valuedly in terms of vectors. When spinors 'IjJ undergo a SPIN transformation 'IjJ' = A'IjJ.350 11. Here the second transpose T operation expresses the fact that in (1) the factor A -IC acts on 2CE ® 2C E from the right. as tensor products in 2C E ® 2CE of the form v = (vEE)' called ambispinors. like those of LORENTZ. This provides a complex POINCARE representation. The (5) where A = A + iB is a complex 3-vector.7. and a spatial vector representing boosts B. (3) The commutation relations of d LORENTZ are summed up schematically in the cross-product 0' X 0' = 2iO' . partition into an axial vector 0' = (0'23. We write the relation from SPIN to LORENTZ in the form (1) so that (2) The six infinitesimal generators O'mn of SPIN. Classical Spacetime MINKOWSKI vectors and form a complex linear space that we write !1M(C). (1) The ambispinor transformation matrix L may thus be represented as L(A) = A-I T ® A -lTc. while L acts on 2CE from . The most general vector representation of LORENTZ is a complexified MINKOWSKI tensor.0'31. 11.2 Spin Algebra The infinitesimal LORENTZ transformation 1 + dw m nln m must represent an infinitesimal SPIN transformation. A also has a polar form A = pei (3u (6) . where the exponential has been factored into a positive definite Hermitian operator p = eM representing a boost and a unitary operator ei (3u representing a rotation. Cartan has shown us how to express vectors in terms of spinors. L = L(A). analogous to the polar form z = pe iO of a complex number z. (4) which would have to vanish if the components of the vector most general SPIN transformation A is an exponential 0' commuted.7. which in the present frame is: Lor(O') =A .

o Any v has the form VI + iV2 where VI and V2 are Hermitian.7 Spin 351 the left. The determinant of the transformation matrix L of (1) is det L = Idet(A)1 2 (5) by (2). For any ambispinor v. Ambispinors are (naturally isomorphic to) complex MINKOWSKI vectors. The sesquispinor space H(2<C) of2 x 2 Hermitian matrices is isomorphic to the Minkowski vector space dM and the SPIN transformations acting on H(2<C) ---> H(2<c)form a group isomorphic to the Lorentz group. and since det(A) = 1. To see that conversely {Lor(A)IA E SPIN} 2 LORENTZ. Proof To show that the mapping 11.3 (3) of dMINKOWSKI ---> H(2<C) is an isomorphism we invert it. Let us call an ambispinor v Hermitian and a sequispinor if it has the symmetry v = v TC.11._ The Pauli matrices make a spacetime vector v from a spinor 'l/J and its complex conjugate 'l/Jc thus: . For positive-definite v. (6) note that every LORENTZ transformation is a product of boosts and rotations. Next we show that Lor(A) respects the sign of dt and the value of dt dx dy dz as well as the proper time (3). (v + v CT )j2 is Hermitian. We designate the LORENTZ transformation L(A) that (1) associates with a SPIN transformation A by Lor(A). covered doubly by SPIN._ o o Proposition (Cartan). and so o o (4) {Lor(A)IA E SPIN} ~ LORENTZ. the trace is positive. The sign of t = xO in (2) is the sign of the trace Tr(v). detL = +1. both of which belong to {L}.1. The inverse transformation H(2<C) ---> d MINKOWSKI is conveniently written (2) defining contravariant Pauli matrices 8 m = (O"tE) which have the same matrix elements as the 0" m in the coordinates and normalization used here. Then: Hermitian symmetry is respected by L. Spacetime vectors are real. Then the invariant determinant becomes (3) which is precisely the formula of special relativity for the square of the invariant proper time of (xm). and the transformation L of (1) respects positive-definiteness and therefore the sign of t.

The angle between two spinors 'IjJ and ¢ relative to a given adjoint t is then defined by (2) This is then used in the Malus-Born law of 11.7. They correspond to future timelike spacetime vectors. A SPIN . that t should have in order that 'ljJt . or a star in the terms of * algebras. are the adjoint operators t of the electron spin. in the older terminology of projective geometry.7 (2').352 11. (3) .TRANSLATION element is described in an inertial coordinate system by a SPIN matrix A and a TRANSLATION vector am. therefore. 11. an antilinear map from C E -+ Ct. The product of two SPIN . To define an angle between two spinors we require the following concept. SPIN may be combined with translations in much the way that LORENTZ is. There is always a spinor frame in which a given t is represented by the form bEt =1 =0 [L: [L: =E] f E]. We define the vector of an adjoint operator by this correspondence. Such a frame is called orthonormal (relative to t). A) = (a' + Lor(A)a. The positive sesquispinors. A' A) .TRANSLATION elements is given by (a'. (1) These are the properties. ¢ be the Hilbert space inner product of a quantum theory. and =0 only if y=O. A). This means that 'ljJt'IjJ?'O for all 'ljJEC E . we saw in Chapter 6. (7) We call v the null-vector of the spinor 'IjJ. .4 Spin Adjoint By an adjoint (or a polarity. A')(a. and will be designated by (a. and may be identified with. The angle between two spinors should be () /2 when they are related by a spatial rotation through an angle (). not to be conflated with a Hodge star) of 2C E is meant a mapping 'IjJ t--+ t'IjJ =: 'IjJ t on 2C E into the dual space 2C E which has the following properties: otis antilinear. We identify the vector of an adjoint operator with the time axis of the rest frame of the beam-splitting transition experiment. Classical Spacetime vm =a~ 'ljJCA'ljJB . Any sesquispinor VAS defines.TRANSLATION group. (8) It remains to be shown that these mathematical spinors indeed represent electron polarization initial vectors. the result is the SPIN . otis positive.

written H 2: 0.). First the modulus.7 Spin 353 11.7. A SPIN transformation A =e is unitary (relative to t) if 8 t =8. They do not form a group. This defines a bijection between the spaces {p} and {rJ} of such finite and infinitesimal SPIN boosts respectively. p' (called initial and final moduli of A) and spin rotations e.5 Spacetime Decomposition of Spin We decompose SPIN into boosts and rotations relative to any adjoint t by decomposing each SPIN matrix into its polar coordinates. and will be called a SPIN rotation. and then its diagonal elements are real. Self-adjoint SPIN transformations represent boosts. and assemble these into the matrices p and 8 respective. A SPIN rotation has the exponential form (5) where the axial 3-vector w defines the axis and angle of the rotation 8. An infinitesimal SPIN boost represents a rapidity and has the form X = a· x· Now the phase. By the polar decompositions of a spin transformation A are meant the expressions of A in the two forms (6) A= p8 = 8'p' respectively. Such a spin transformation represents a rotation.1 . and non-negative. if for all (2) In an orthonormal frame. The (Hermitian) adjoint of a SPIN transformation A = H (relative to an adjoint operation t) is (1) H is called self-adjoint if H spinors 'IjJ = Ht. e' (called final and initial phases of A . as follows . a positive matrix (its "modulus") and a unitary matrix (its "phase"). A2 into their absolute values and phases.11. and its diagonal elements have absolute value 1. If further H 2: 0. These decompositions exist for all A. A SPIN boost P =pt 2: has the exponential form ° p= eX (3) where X is a self-adjoint operator called an infinitesimal SPIN boost. and will be called SPIN boosts. with spin boosts p. (4) This too guarantees that there is an orthonormal frame in which e is diagonal. The corresponding infinitesimal decomposition is . we may decompose its complex diagonal elements AI. these diagonal elements are non-negative. When A is diagonal. the adjoint of H is represented by the matrix HCT • If H is self-adjoint then there always exists an orthonormal frame where H is diagonal.

In any case. First we note how forms induce operators. • One may construct the Dirac operators from the Pauli forms as well (instead of the Pauli operators). (7) Here dX is an infinitesimal spin boost and dw is an infinitesimal spin rotation vector.354 11.-x. and (1) characterizes four operators "In generating a complex Clifford algebra over spacetime. The algebra of 2 ---. the spacial reflection x ---. (2) The differential operator a-y := "In an is then used to write the Dirac wave equation for a 4-spinor 'l/J(x). The Dirac equation and the law of transformation for the spin or 'l/J are real. We can represent the operators "In by 4 X 4 real matrices. as much so as Maxwell's equations. Here we sketch the Dirac 4-component spinors and relate them to the Pauli 2-component spinors. Each co-ambispinor a = v/1-am = . In virtue of (1). it fixes em and reverses the three basis vectors en orthogonal to em . called Dirac operators or matrices. We would also construct the Dirac algebra if we adjoined a linear parity operator to the Pauli algebra. the complex four-dimensional spinor space is more useful than the real for some purposes. Let C E = 2C be the complex two-dimensional Pauli spinor space indexed by E .7. called Majorana operrators or matrices. 11. Classical Spacetime dA = a· (dX+idw). and let C t = 2C c be the complex conjugate space (indexed by t. Historically Dirac invented his matrices in order to "take the square root" of the relativistic second-order wave operator a 2 := ama m as a first-order scalar operator a-y := "Imam on scalar fields.6 Dirac Spinors Dirac spinors or 4-spinors are vectors that support the Clifford algebra of MINKOWSKI. Without the minus-sign on the right-hand side of (1) we could not do this but would need complex matrices. Here the constant Minkowski metric inverse gnm is given. which for a quantum of mass m in flat field-free spacetime takes the form (3) [a-y + m]'l/J(x) = o. the Dirac operator "1m represents a reflection in the line of the xm axis. For Cartan.2 Pauli matrices can represent the boost and rotational operators for a neutrino but includes no linear operator representing parity. Dirac's theory is based on the Clifford commutation relation in the form (1) for special relativity.

) which properly includes Spin4 . a also defines a map if : C~ --+ C t .JR.3 (1) for a .)\{i}1/Cent rv LORENTZ+ . JR.) to the spin group of special relativity? One answer to this question is the following Proposition. because the range and domain spaces are different. JR. This raises the question: What spin structure is relativity about? That is: What is the simplest structure that must be added to the Majorana spinor space 4JR.7 Spin 355 a~t E c~t defines a map a : Ct --+ C~. where (~) and the invariant transpose operator T interchanges the two spinor indices of the form it acts on. Every DIRAC spinor ~ has the form (6) Then the spin form am defines a DIRAc-operator-valued vector "1m by (7) One may then verify that the Dirac-Clifford relation (1) for "I is equivalent to the Cartan determinantal property 11.1.) be any (real) square root of -1.. Then the stabilizer of i within GL(4. The "I a that commute with i are just those . The maps a. where t designates the dual space and a lowered index. • We also need to go from the Dirac or Majorana algebra to the Pauli. to reduce its group from OL(4. We therefore imbed both domain spaces in their direct sum (5) forming the space of Dirac 4-spinors. if are not linear operators. The group of this space is OL(4. (8) Proof By a choice of basis we may set i = "1 5 .11. Let i E M(4. Write the 16 linearly independent Majorana matrices as "I a where a is a composite index standing for a set of (up to four distinct) Majorana indices. JR. In a later chapter (16) we shall derive the concept of spin within a real quantum theory whose initial vector space is 4JR. JR. and this taken modulo its center is the orthochronous Lorentz group: [OL(4.) is Spin4 ®U\.

especially Y. and these form simply connected subsets of GL(4. Classical Spacetime with a = [mn]. Lemma. After all. . Sub-proof. We take the well-beaten path of Infeld & van der Waerden and Bergmann and general-relativize 11. being topologically the Cartesian product of two simply connected sets. C). Spinors do not. we combined them with magnetic fields to make 6-vectors. Every complex matrix is the product of a positive definite matrix and a unitary one. and to special-relativize the Pauli 2-spinors we combined them with antispinors to make Dirac 4-spinors. Afew brave people presently explore this domain.6 (1). But in the case at hand._ 'Ymn generate Spin4 and 'Y0123 = 'Y5 generates a In this sense. For Einstein treated planets as structureless points._ The dramatic way to general-relativize spinors is to add extra components until we get a direct-sum representation that can be extended. and to propagate it we need to transport spinors. 11. Einstein's spacetime was rich enough to guide planets.8 Spin Gauge Now we general-relativize the special-relativistic concept of spin. Proposition. How do we general-relativize this operator? The well-known difficulty is that while the vector and tensor (single-valued) representations of LORENTZ have natural extensions to the overgroup GL4. C) is simply connected. but not electrons. a Majorana square root of minus one. 1R). We would need infinitely many physical partners for each spinor particle. The simplest spinor wave equation is one proposed for the neutrino. C).7.356 11. all of Minkowski spacetime and the Minkowski metric are elaborations on one topic. not GL4. It could then be further extended by complexification to a double-valued representation of the complex matrix group GL(4. is simply connected. [0123] . Therefore it has no analytic double-valued representations. to specialrelativize electric fields. The six commuting SU 1 . Its matrix elements would be analytic double-valued functions of the parameters Ln m of a variable matrix L E GL(4. while an electron has an attached spin. Proof Suppose a double-valued representation of the finite group SPIN4 could be extended to one of GL(4. it takes an infinite-dimensional representation of GL4 to be double-valued. but spinors transform under SPIN. regarded as a massless particle: (1) The differential operator (2) transforms spinors into antispinors. 1R). ((}Therefore GL(4. The covariant derivative Dm transports all types of GL4 tensors. GL(4. Ne'eman.

the spin distortion.oncepts into the foundations of relativistic spacetime structure. general-relativizing 11. just as the covariant derivative Dm = (Dm l k(X» for vectors provides the gauge field f m l k for the extrinsic Poincare transformations. raised or lowered. the name "matrix" is merely traditional). Now (1) defines the spacetime metric in terms of the Dirac spin operators. This implies that the metric distortion is also O.(x) as fundamental field variable. itself. It is assumed to be O. This is mathematically equivalent to the field of Dirac spin operator vectors .m(x).2 (1). which covers it twice. It and its derivatives will enter into the dynamical action. This local algebra. by designating the Dirac spin vector as a 4-component physical variable. We must also preserve local LORENTZ invariance of the Dirac spin vector . tensors. which may have any sequence of indices. We call a spacetime manifold provided with such a Dirac spin operator-vector and spin covariant derivative [0". moreover. whose anticommutators (1) are required to be in the center of the algebra at each point. Bergmann (1957) first described spacetime by a manifold provided with a vector of sesquilinear spin forms O"m(x) = O"mEr. the spin manifold may be a better starting point for quantum gravity than the Riemannian manifold of Einstein. itself. is generated by four spin operators forming a privileged physical spin-operator-valued vector .8 Spin Gauge 357 We provide each point x of the 4-dimensional .spacetime manifold not with a metric tensor gnm and a connection. which are more fundamental. We hereby generalize from the concept of tensor to that of spin tensor. because it couples their transformations so rigidly.6 (1). Now it suffices to maintain GL 4 invariance of the dynamics of" rather than of . D] a spin manifold. the change is equivalent to that produced by a gauged spin transformation A(x) E SPIN C acting on the spinor indices of . The 4-component vectors 'IjJ<X. Using the spin operator vector we can replace every spacetime tensor index by a mixed pair of spinor indices. spacetime-vector or spinor: .m(x) := gmn.m(x). but with a full (Dirac) algebra A~(x) of 4 x 4 so-called Dirac spin "matrices" (more accurately.m(x) according to 11. and its partner covector . (3)' We call the covariant derivative Fn m := Dn . The vector . on which the Dirac spin tensors act are again called (Dirac) spinors.11. The LORENTZ transformation is a single-valued function L = Lor(A) = Lor( -A) of the spin transformation. you can tell time. instead of the metric tensor.(x» for spinors provides the gauge field fmYr. Ashtekar (1991) and coworkers have made much progress towards canonically quantizing the classical dynamics of spin manifolds. if quanta can spin.m(x) that we use here. provides them with their own spinor covariant derivative operator Dm = (Dm <X.7. Then we restore local GL4 invariance.7.m .m(x) is said to "solder" the spin frame to the spacetime frame. Since it brings quantum c. we suppose.n . The spin covariant derivative Dm = (DmYr. One notes that when a gauged LORENTZ element L(x) acts on the vector index of .m . and nature. for the SPIN or intrinsic Poincare transformations.

An operator is a sharp description of an arrow. the Leibniz law. with fixed matrix components. represented by operators on an initial vector space of kets for the gravitational field. A Hermitian form is a possible transition metric. with a I'm (x) at each point x. proper to as many stages in the evolution of relativistic spacetime theory. We extend the concept of general covariant derivative VfJ from tensor to spin tensor. o In quantum spacetime (Chapter 16) we will find expressions for I'm in the quantum topology of the network underlying spacetime . The spin covariant derivative includes a connection for vectors and one for spinors. one at every spacetime point. o In general relativity I'm is a field of such operator-vectors. This relates the vector covariant derivative to the spinor one. We fix this in Chapter 16. and contractions.358 11 . The base of the bundle. To covariantly differentiate a spin tensor we take the ordinary derivative with respect to the spacetime variable x and add a connection term of the appropriate kind for each index. and specifies the coefficients. a mode-reversing operation. however. One supposes that the spin form (1 m and the Dirac vector I'm are both covariantly constant. Einstein's law of gravity states that the strain acceleration is linearly. preserving linearity. Classical Spacetime four kinds of four-valued index. Note that now there are at least four different meanings to the Dirac symbol I'm.9 Summary One may describe a spacetime with gravity and spinning particles as a spin manifold. and we are not finished yet: o In special relativity I'm is a constant vector. The quantum theory of a spin112 field looks like a bundle of quantum theories. we recall. o In canonical quantum gravity the matrix elements of I'm (x) become noncommuting dynamical variables. The vector connection is the gauge vector field of the extrinsic Poincare group. . dependent on the local energy density and pressure. We may think of (1v = V m (1m as the Hilbert-space metric of a spin experimenter with time-axis (or world velocity) v. The spinor connection is the gauge vector field of the intrinsic Poincare group. 11. describing the gravitational field. and is the main dynamical variable. possessing a spin or soldering form (1m and a spin covariant derivative Dm . is still classical. • Operators and forms like the I' and (1 of special and general relativity have simple meanings in a quantum theory.

let us study the dynamics of a photon polarization while the photon travels at constant velocity v through a medium that rotates its polarization. little occurs between the polarizer and analyzer. there is a medial (or intermediate) action between initial and final actions. thus introducing a time delay f). In somewhat more complex experiments. first for polarization and then for more general quantum systems. In our first experimentation with dynamics. assuming thin polarizers face-to-face. using the classical theory of time. This is q dynamics in c time.t between initial and final actions. Semi-quantum Dynamics We describe the dynamical operation or propagation that goes on between initial and final actions. The strategy of classical mechanics was "Find the forces". Now we take the time into account. 12.12. such as sugar water. 12. In our earlier treatment of a three-stage experiment we neglected the duration of the experiment.1 Forward Propagation Here each photon propagates through a cell of sugar water on its way from the polarizer to the analyzer.1 Propagator In the relatively trivial experiments considered in earlier chapters. The strategy of quantum dynamics is "Find the propagator". For example.1. which may be face to face. The action is then ( count I analyze I propagate I polarize I emit) (1) or briefly (wi ® [JL] ® 10:) (2) . To simplify the problem we suppose that the medium does not change with time during our experiments nor with space in the plane normal to the optical axis. The propagator is an operator that represents the effect of this time delay directly. and maximally. we carry out a fixed initial polarization 10:) and displace a final analysis (wi a distance x = vf).t along the optical bench. Such media are said to be optically active. succinctly.

That would be a final operation itself. While external operations disturb the photon.7) to express a symmetry by a linear operator. performed at the later time tj. and medial or propagation operations by square matrices called propagators. Semi-quantum Dynamics or schematically (3) Sometimes one describes the experiment informally by simply giving its amplitude . We call the three stages initial. the single initial vector representing the combined actions of emission and propagation for all later purposes is the matrix product Ta. The medial operation influences the quantum but does not extract information from it. Once vector bases are introduced in the relevant initial and final spaces.360 12. To the principles CO and C 1 (Chapter 4) we append: C2 We represent an ideal propagation T from time t to t' by a mapping [t +- t'l : S(t) ~ S(t') . Only external actions exchange information with the quantum. and final. we determine the medial operation. (wl~la). We use the fundamental theorem (6.1. they also tell us indirectly what a photon does when we are not disturbing the photon.1. we mean that for any action a performed at some initial time to. Let S(t) be the state space associated with an classical system at time t. It goes on when we are not looking at the quantum. 12. This information about what happens betweeen our initial and final actions is inferential. We are not allowed to peek. When we say that a given polarization propagation T from time to to tj is represented by a 2 x 2 propagator (matrix) T. These assumptions extend the quantum kinematics from initial and final modes of action to the medial mode as well. however. (1) 12. the composite action of executing first a and then T is effectively the same as a single initial action represented by the matrix Ta. The medial operation is whatever goes on between the initial and final ones and is also called propagation or transmission. and append to the principles QO and Ql . When we choose the media through which the quantum travels and arrange magnets which act upon it in flight. medial. we can represent external actions in (1) by column and row vectors. A dual remark holds for the composite final dual vector wT. That is.2 Classical Propagation For comparison we first extend the classical kinematics to propagation.3 Quantum Propagation We designate by IN(t) the initial space associated with a quantum system at time t.

1 Propagator Q2 361 We represent a coherent propagation from time t to time t' by a linear transformation [t' ~ t] : IN(t) -> IN(t') . for all future final operations. wTa=O w¢Ta wT¢a.12. and o T respects occlusion (and hence superposition). It follows that for all action vectors a and wand propagators T. implies that any transformation that respects occlusion also respects superposition... (5) . (4') The fundamental theorem of quantum kinematics. and each sharp final mode into an earlier sharp final mode. (3) (010) = (lITIO) = (111).t is experimentally equivalent. and is represented by a matrix.t. o The same propagation carries any final operation from tt back to to: (01 = (liT. We assume also that the propagation T depends continuously on both initial and final times and reduces to the identity when to = tt. it follows that (010) =0 (111)=1. For example. we mean that o T propagates each sharp initial mode into a later sharp initial mode. Therefore T is a linear operator. It follows from the fundamental theorem of quantum kinematics that in a representation where initial vectors become column matrices. to some initial action 11) at time tt = to + D. T resepcts the coefficients of superpositions as well. That is: o The composite initial action consisting of any initial action 10) at time to followed by a propagation T of duration D. Since antilinearity is excluded by continuity in time. the propagation T becomes a 2 x 2 matrix function of to and tt called the propagator T = (T B A). We write symbolically (2) 11)=TI0) for the resultant initial operation. (4) Together (3) and (2) imply that In particular. and that phases may be assigned so that the equality (2) holds between the vectors 'l/Jt and T'l/Jo . propagation of polarized light through vacuum is coherent. By calling a medium or a propagation T coherent. but propagation through smoke is relatively incoherent and not well described by a coherent propagator.

'B A . . T2 .t']lt') retards the initial action It') .t'] between all pairs of initial and final times t'. When several propagations T\.362 12. and are not special to quantum theory. The dual equation (2) (t"l[t" +-. .1. Then we can propagate initial vectors backward in time as well as forward. . Suppose t' < til .4 Backward Propagation The same propagator that retards an initial vector advances a final vector. For a given coherent medium. The Malus-Born principle A = Tra still applies. even when the propagator has no inverse. we mUltiply their matrices in the same order. as we showed in 12. The forward propagation of initial vectors induces the backward propagation of final vectors. in this simple example Tr equates and sums adjacent indices. Semi-quantum Dynamics The vanishing matrix elements define a propagator T only up to a constant numerical factor. Henceforth unless otherwise stated. .. til is an operator category.3 (4). and means exactly the same as (1). . Propagators in sequence multiply associatively. with appropriately matching initial and final times for each adjacent pair then the resultant propagator is the matrix product (7) In this algebraic sense.t'] or t" <E:-<t. Since the product is not defined unless the final time of the initial factor is the initial time of the final factor. 12.' A A . ".. The propagators we encounter in physics often have inverses. provided we define (~) That is to say. the matrix T represents the inferred action of the act T upon photons: When we perform several medial operations in sequence. the resulting action at time t" would be physically equivalent for all later final acts to the action It"). the totality of such time-labeled propagators [t" +-.. These backwards propagations do not imply some surprising form of time travel. " into " . We call this the dynamical category of the quantum system. .1. one symbol like T designates both a propagator (a linear operator)and a propagation (a physical action) represented by that propagator. We also write the propagator from time t' to t" as [til +-. Its objects or morphs are the instants of time and its morphisms are dynamical propagators. It advances the final action [til]... turning in the pattern " . Then the direct equation (1) It") = N[t" +-.Tn occur in series in the order given. It means that if we were to perform the initial action It') and wait until time til without further disturbing the system. this category is generally not a group.t'] = (t'l is equivalent.

from the viewpoint of later final determinations. The problem already occurs in classical physics. This is paradoxical. Measurement is irreversible but dynamical evolution is reversible. It is straightforward to express P in terms of U and these projectors [Von Neumann (1932)]. Then we put the irreversibility in the instrument II. The core problem is to derive irreversibility from reversibility. Yet actual instruments can include printers that leave effectively irreversible records of ink diffused into paper. The measurement problem is to deduce P from U . Whenever we study the action of our instrument II on the system we see a dynamical evolution of the composite system I V II. They are the irreversible actions. It remains true in the presence of time delay that in classical dynamics almost all transitions are forbidden. The conditions of the question imply that the instrument cannot carry out an irreversible act. If the irreversibility is in the episystem III and not in the instrument II. How do we make a reversible theory of this irreversibility? . not the system.12. and in quantum almost all are allowed. How do we deduce P from U? Since the problem is not special to quantum theory we will not go into it deeply.5 The Measurement Problem Consider a system I interacting via an instrument II with us in the episystem III. the instrument is supposed to be under our maximal control. an initial vector is physically equivalent to earlier ones as well as later ones. its action is supposed to be irreversible. In an allowed transition experiment with a delay. The deeper problem is to account for the emergence of irreversible processes at the macroscopic level from a theory which is microscopically reversible. in the absence of dissipation. On the other hand. The essential point is that P has no inverse but U does. then there is no problem. We represent this evolution by a unitary operator U acting on the composite initial space IN(I V II). which zero the instrument before the determination and read it after. The selective act P includes not only the propagator U but also our selective acts on the instrument II. 12.1. classical and quantum mechanics both allow us to advance the final vector or retard the initial one. We can overwrite anything in its memory or recordings and reverse any of its evolutions.1 Propagator 363 In classical mechanics as well as quantum. On the one hand. Similar remarks apply to the backwards propagation of final vectors. These are projectors in the initial space of the instrument. In classical kinematics too (see Chapter 3) a selective act is represented by a projector P and a dynamical evolution by a unitary operator U . In quantum kinematics we represent a selective act of measurement on I by a projection operator P acting on the initial vector space IN I. such as any which can be represented by a projector.

Besides the technical many-body problems we have put aside. I is a projection. Semi-quantum Dynamics One answer to this question is that irreversibility is a relative matter. such precision would call for unlimited energy resources and is in principle impossible. To give up ontism for praxism and at the same time completeness for maximality is no small step. some postulate. This is one form of irreversibility. we would find that it is reversible. which we may treat as random variables in an average. But P represents an average over a portion of the sample space (in the classical theory. If we could control any closed system exactly.) 4> In particular. as we sometimes do. the system spends equal time near every mode in the subspace P . but Av U = P is a projector. This is the method of random phases. . a subspace of IN f).364 12. The unitary operator U is defined to connect two precisely specified times. Accepting any of the above solutions involves. and equally surely we can describe it sub-maximally. there remains a fundamental operationalist criticism of all theories of maximal information. then U = P + ei 4>(1 . the theory of ergodic motion. By the time-energy uncertainty relation. and we will not take it up in this work. we do not have complete control over the times of our determinations. determined by our resources. Such wild motion is called ergodic. We actually see some kind of time average 0. hearing a non-ontic. Einstein believed in the existence of a complete ontic theory and pursued a lifelong search for one. The instrument required to control a system sharply grows exponentially with the instrument. Our determinations leave some rapidly varying relative phases unknown. and then recognizing it to be a theory. Many include ontism in their very definition of a theory. It should not be necessary to base the sub-maximal description on unattainable maximal ones. Bohr seemed to acknowledge this when he incorporated the yin-yang symbol into his crest. When we apply the present quantum theory to big systems like ourselves. and can amount to a change of faith. we assume that practically impossible operations are possible in principle. complete or not. Ergodic theory. praxic theory. How do we pass from a time average to a space average? To do this. The average of unitary operators is not unitary but can be a projection.P) is unitary for all values of the phase ¢. For macroscopic bodies like ourselves there may be no possibility of their sharp control within the confines of the universe. We should also understand why so many people think that the theory of measurement is special to and critical for quantum theory. one supposes that in the course of its motion. is not more pressing or more difficult for quantum physics than classical. classical or quantum. (For example if P I' 0. We point this problem out but do not attempt to solve it. first.which need have no inverse. In practice we cannot see the exact evolution operator U of a sufficient~ complex system. Surely we cannot describe the universe maximally. Such assumptions are suspect. in any case.

1 Propagator 365 12.6 Generators Now we assume that for each time t there is a basis (3(t) for IN(t) so that the matrix representing the propagator [tl f . [G. a remote comparison of vectors at different times.12. . The present terminology is also better for real or quatemion quantum theory. G= -Gt. In that case (1-2) integrate to [til f . We assume the basis-family (3(t) nevertheless. d G(t) = dt [t f- (1) to] . If G(t) is independent of time then the propagation is called stationary. is written with an eye to (5) in the form [til f- t'l = Tef GOt (7) where the integral is over the interval t' < t < til. Then the propagator connecting two infinitesimally near times t and t + dt defines the generator G(t) of the evolution: [t + dt f- t] = 1 + dt G(t) . with the initial value (2). given by dX dt = [G.G6t . (3) (It is more customary to define a hermitian generator by attaching an imaginary factor i.to] depends differentiably on both times.e family of bases (3(t) amounts to a teleparallism. That introduces an arbitrary sign convention that we must then remember. (4) This is the most important application of the commutator. (2) If the propagator is unitary then its generator G(t) =: G is antihermitian.) The connection (1) between initial vectors at different times t and t + dt induces one of operators X. We may regard (1) as a differential equation for the propagator with the unit matrix as initial datum: [t f . (6) If G(t) is not constant. X] is the rate of X induced by G. and postpone its physical meaning for later discussion. T stands for "time-ordered".X]. the solution to the differential equation (1) for the propagator. The operation of T on any power series is defined to reorder the factors so that they are multiplied in the order of the times at which they act. with the earliest factor on the right. (5) X(t") = eGOt X(t ' )e. Th.t'l = eGOt . Such comparisons are physically difficult and sensitive to gravitational fields. a non-local element of ordinary classical and quantum physics.t] = 1 .1.

then a function x(t) locates the particle at different discrete places at different discrete times. Points q of X represent states of being. by means of 2n independent coordinates (qm. A spherical pendulum has configuration space X = S2. a single particle moving in space has configuration space X = ]R3 and n = 3. with n = 2.366 12. For example. According to Newton. corresponding to orthogonal initial vectors. written Tan X. such as that of point electrons and a point nucleus interacting by Coulomb forces to form an atom. To determine the future of the system using the motion equations. No matter how short the time. this theory takes it for granted that the system is an object. with states in the sense of classical kinematics. o Find: A quantum theory that approaches the classical theory asymptotically for high quantum numbers. A typical coordinate system map is an isomorphism q from a neighborhood in X to ]Rn defined by n configuration coordinates qm.2 Classical Dynamics The first important quantum dynamical theories were created by canonical quantization. In this section we summarize classical mechanics in a way that is suitable for canonical quantization. . The answer is not unique. and is usually not physically correct. being is logically prior to becoming. the initial vector turns through 1r /2. and has failed in others. The ancient paradox of motion arises from this conception of becoming. the 2-sphere. therefore. qm): Tan X --t ]R2n. and a typical coordinate system maps a neighborhood in Tan X into ]R2n. In classical mechanics.1 Phase Space The instantaneous place or configuration of a classical system S in space is specified by a point in a manifold X of n dimensions called its configuration space. A system of N such particles has n = 3N. If we introduce a discrete time variable t and a discrete space variable x. Semi-quantum Dynamics 12. we must give initial values for the n coordinates qm and their n rates dq qm := dt (1) at an initial time t = to. For example canonical quantization did not provide the spin variables actually needed to understand the fine structure of the hydrogen energy spectrum. the rate q of (1) describe states of becoming. the motion is governed by second-order differential equations for the qm. 12. a way of constructing sequential quantum dynamical theories that solves the following problem: o Given: a classical mechanical model. The state space S is therefore the tangent bundle of X.2. As equation (1) indicates. The procedure has produced useful theories in many important cases.

we shall derive the classical manifold topology from the transition metric. and dynamically allowed paths. How the particle jumps from one place to another is still a mystery. v) defines a point of the state space S = tan X for a light-particle. Fermat thought of light as a flow of light-particles. Fermat described this motion by a variational principle much as follows. according to Snell's law nsinB = constant. Quantum propagation is naturally continuous. Like Newton.) Let x be a Cartesian coordinate vector for a light-particle. the manifold topology is a poor man's quantum theory.12.. a point of the phase space expresses the initial data that must be given at time t' to determine the same data at time t = til. No matter how small the time-lapse. the greater the number of such mysteries. after all.2. In the continuum limit the number of mysteries becomes infinite. The more points we interpolate between the initial 'Ind final one. classical physics introduces a manifold topology and the limit ot -.2 Classical Dynamics 367 This description would be said by some philosophers to account for the being of the particle but not for its becoming. solutions of the equations of motion. and let ds be the differential Euclidean arclength. (We reserve the term photon for a quantum. where n = c/v. is the refractive index. the ratio of light speed c in vacuum to that v in the medium. Locally there is a 1-1-1 correspondence between points of phase space. We suppose that each point of the . in a simple case. let dx be the differential path element associated with a time differential dt. Light-particles are classical. In Chapter 16. and B is the angle between the ray and the normal to the interface. 12. [q). It enables us to say that the new state is completely different from the old one but nevertheless almost the same as the old one. The quantum theory provides a clarification of this ancient paradox. (1) Here glm is the Euclidean spatial metric (form).2 Least Time Principle Light travels in straight lines in empty space.l[q'). but this in itself was not considered sufficent reason to ignore them until some time after Newton. The propagator turns an initial vector from one direction in IN to an orthogonal one continuously as a function of time through intermediate superpositions. it generally brings the particle from the state q to a state q' that is orthogonal in the sense of the transition metric. The classical theory forbids these small angles between initial vectors and must proceed by jumps. In a small time. A pair (x. but refracts when it enters different media. being linear. In this sense. In general. O. To express our experience of continuity and to smooth away these jumps. the initial vector turns through a small angle. represented in orthonormal coordinates by the Kronecker delta function: glm = Olm· (2) Let v be a velocity vector for a light-particle.

x') ds .368 12. and designate derivatives with respect to s (or "s-rates") by a prime: I X dx := ds . and consider only velocities v of magnitude Ivl = v. u)ds/c. c ds ~herefore T = T[x(e)]:= (6) r n(x. If v does not depend on u. One answer was Fermat's least time principle: The light particle takes the least time between any two of its points compared to infinitesimally varied paths between the same points. The differential time dt for a path segment of length ds at x is then dt = n(x. X(SI) = XI. Physicists of the 1800's wondered what special virtue this broken line had in the economy of the universe. (5) = n(x. depending on x. u)ds/c for all the paths compared by this principle. traversed at the speed appropriate to the medium at each point. but the entire path defined by the function x(s). the medium is called isotropic.=: c= n(x. It is also common to work with a dimensionless measure of the fractional slowing of light by the medium. We represent the direction of v by the unit vector v u= -. n sin e = const. u) ds 10r L(x. When light passes from one medium to another its path bends according to Snell's law. Semi-quantum Dynamics medium has a characteristic light speed v = ds/dt =: Ds. Then the transit time T for one of these paths rr is a function T(rr) = dt LXI dt. We hold the two given endpoints XQ. (3) c dt n = . We may relate ds to dt by (1): dt n dt = . where n is the refractive index and e is the angle between the ray and the normal to the interface. XI of rr fixed for the moment.ds = . 10 c l =: l (7) The brackets after T are used to indicate that the argument of T is not the value of x(s) at one value of e. the refractive index where c is the lightspeed in vacuum.ds . setting x(so) = XQ. A function T whose argument is a function x(s) is written as T[x] and called a functional of . We parametrize the actual path with arclength s. u) d v s (4) v In general v is a function of both the position x and the direction u of the light ray.

Therefore the least-time principle may be written in the equivalent form (1) where the variations Ox are now unconstrained. one is the s-rate of the other. a standard procedure of the variational calculus.. [p . x') ds = lSI 8L(x.3 Endpoint Variations That a natural path makes 8T vanish for fixed endpoints is equivalent to saying that for arbitrary variations in the natural path. Along the actual path of the light ray. where even the endpoints vary. 8x ds + D. x') ax J. We next extract the equations of motion.] d s. x': c8T = 8 = tl L(x. Thus: c8T= =: 11 [aL~X') 11 -:s aL~"X')] 8xds+D.F := F(1) . L = dt (8) ds' According to the least-time principle. for then 8T vanishes when the endpoint variations do. we first express 8T in terms of the variations of its arguments x. designated for any function F(s) by D. producing endpoint differences. The variations 8x and 8x' are not independent.2. x') ds JX4) r Jo l (2) So [aL(X. We therefore eliminate 8x' in favor of 8x by an integration by parts.F(O). the first-order change 8T is a linear expression in the endpoint variations alone.. determined by this equation and given explicitly below. The endpoint coefficients Pm are functions of xm independent of 8x.. [aL~:.x')8X] E .: uX .: uX + aL(x. the variation 8T vanishes for all variations 8x subject to the constraint 8x(0) = 8x(1) = 0. x') ax' J.2 Classical Dynamics 369 x(s) to avoid confusing it with a "function of a function" T(x) in the pointwise sense of the differential calculus. 12.8x] . Therefore we cannot infer from the above equation that their coefficients vanish separately.12. L designates the integrand of T. (3) (4) . to first order in the infinitesimal variations 8x. To extract expressions for the Pm and differential equations for the trajectory of the light ray. L is the inverse lightspeed.

The coefficient 8L d 8L (1) E = (Em) = E(s) := ax .4 Variational Derivative By the fundamental theorem of the variational calculus. written E = 8T (2) 8x . In refraction.370 12. The equation of motion is E=O. and therefore the idea of a unique wave-front is an approximate one of limited validity.2. We shall for the moment ignore the differences between a scalar field and a vector field and interpret x' := u as the unit normal to a wave front through x. We assume a single field of the form A(x)ei(¢(x)-wt) (1) . Then 8T = 0 is impossible. The endpoint coefficient p = (Pm) resulting from integration by parts is (4) a function p(x. a surface of constant phase.2. light is not a stream of particles but a wave in a field. x') of the position and the direction of the light-particle at the endpoints. what bends is not a particle track but a wavefront. This is shown by supposing that at some point E(s) 'f 0. and choosing a variation 8x which is supported by an interval about s in which E . which we continue to use in this chapter. Each component of a vector field has its own phase. 12. directed in the sense of propagation. (3) Sometimes the quantity E itself is loosely called the "equation of motion". and we should apply Fermat's principle to the wave theory of light instead of the particle theory. A surface of constant time is a focal surface or isochrone. the surfaces of constant phase 1> = const. the variation 8T will vanish to first order for all variations dx which vanish at the endpoints if and only if the coefficient E of 8x vanishes along the path. Semi-quantum Dynamics 12.5 Stationary Phase According to Maxwell's field theory of light. The lines that are interpreted in the particle theory as the paths of light-particles are interpreted in the wave theory as rays. 8x does not change sign. Its meaning is given by the fact that the surface element Pm8xm = 0 at x" is an element of a surface of constant time relative to x' passing through x". The covariant vector p is called the momentum conjugate to x.ds ax' of 8x(s) in the variation 8T is called the variational derivative of T with respect to x(s). lines everywhere normal to the local wave fronts.

II n(x. divided by the frequency w. The action principle now characterizes the system of wavefronts rather than the paths of particles. is related to n by w v K= - n (2) =W-.q)dt. with <P = <P[x(t) : t' ~ t ~ t"] := 8<P = 1fm 8x m (t") - til [ it' dt(x. and to ask what it is that nature minimizes or maximizes in mechanical systems. and constant frequency w. and designate derivatives with respect to t by a dot: (1) The action principle presupposes that each path of the system. the local wave-number K := ¢' = d¢/ds (the space rate of phase) in the medium. u) 1f m 8x m = IX x. x')ds . where now c is wave-front or phase velocity in vacuum and v is the local phase velocity. which characterizes the dynamical law of the mechanical system under study and completely specifies its dynamical structure. Let us parametrize paths of the system with time t. (2) to The integrand is a given function. we neglect this possibility here. the Lagrangian of the system. For waves of a given frequency w.12. We still characterize the medium by an index of refraction n(x. the action functional .2 Classical Dynamics 371 with real amplitude A(x). the least time principle becomes the stationary phase principle.6 Action Principle The beauty of Fermat's variational principle for the motion of light led physicists to seek similar variational formulations of Newton's laws of motion for particles. c The integral that is interpreted in the particle theory as the transit time T between two points we now interpret as the phase difference <P between the wave at the points. u). phase ¢(x). (3) (t') + o(8x). Despite their importance. In general v and n also depend on the polarization of the wave. If we hold the frequency w fixed when the wave field is varied. 12. The classical variational principle that is most important for the transition to quantum mechanics is Hamilton's action principle. wave normal u = 8¢/8x. We write s for the length parameter along the ray. which we assume constant throughout the medium. with endpoints q(to) and q(td at initial and final times to and tt. designated by K(X. u) = c/v. and primes to indicate derivatives with respect to s. is endowed with a quantity S called action given by an integral of the form S= l tl L(q.2.

In the simplest and oldest mechanical problems. do not determine where theyare. Semi-quantum Dynamics and the Lagrangian function do not have as immediate experimental significance as the coordinates. All variations q(t) ~ q(t) + 8q(t) from an allowed path which vanish at to and t) will leave the action 8[q] stationary to first order in the variations 8q(t): 88=0 . Why should the value of a function matter at a point where the particle is not? How does a particle at one point know where the potential is lower. and 8[q] be the action functional (2) for that interval. singling out dynamically allowed paths q =q(t) from all the kinematically possible ones. the canonical momenta to qm . for arbitrary differential path displacements (which do not necessarily vanish at to and t)) from an allowed path q = q(t) there exist functions Pm(q . (6) Equivalently. (5) - and the Lagrangian is where K = K(q. the central structure-defining function of classical mechanics. There is something paradoxical about the action principle. Quanta only act where they are.8V 8q' (4) L=K-V. motion is influenced by forces F according to Newton ' s Law of Motion mij =F(q) . q). and the particle is only at one of them. remained a mystery until Dirac revealed its physical interpretation in quantum mechanics: Lin is the phase of a quantum amplitude. Thus quantum theory resolves not only the paradox of motion but the paradox of the action principle. The particle takes only one trajectory. which it absorbs into the quantum two-slit paradox. all derivatives are limits of functions of two points. such that (7) . the velocities. beyond the old paradox of motion already discussed. by the following action principle: Let to < t < t1 be any time interval. the energy and the momentum. The Lagrangian governs the motion. to accelerate in that direction? The operational meaning of the action. Quantum physics is kinematically nonlocal though dynamically local. Why should its motion be affected by the values of the action on paths it did not take? More generally. (3) the forces are derived from a potential energy function V(q) according to F-. but most initial and final actions.372 12. even sharp ones. q) is the kinetic energy expressed as a function of the positions q and their rates q.

J. thence to x + dx + dx'. Let dx = (dq . The Levi-Civita £. q) designate all the coordinates of the state space 8 . which is skew-symmetric and has n n-valued indices. and finally back to x. dq) and dx' = (dq' . dq') be two tangent vectors to the state space 8 at a point x . The momentum P is given in terms of q and q by Pm = 8L(q. The contraction Pm8qm (summed over the bound indices as usual) is invariant under position coordinate transformations. dq') =: £. We regard them as infinitesimal segments of natural paths through x. . We consider their salient features next. a kind of skew-symmetric inner product of the two tangent vectors dx and dx' . unlike the velocity q. We write this contraction also as dp . We define an infinitesimal rectangle <> composed of four natural paths starting out from the initial vertex x.8L = 0 . dq. Note that we distinguish three kinds of e-symbol by their indices: • • • The Levi-Civita £.12.(dx. It defines an element of measure in q space.2. of the n-dimensional position space of the q's.dq.. of the 2n-dimensional phase space of the x's.Ldx'V . then to x + dx'. The equation of motion is found by the calculus of variations: E = 88 = 8L _ !!:. which completely determines the dynamics.(dq. which is skewsymmetric and has 2n 2n-valued indices. The surviving second-order term is the invariant skew-symmetric bilinear form in dx and dx' 8(2)8 := £. (1) the symplectic form. dq 8() dt 8q (8) This is called the Lagrangian equation of motion.dx') = £. It defines a new kind of geometry on the phase space called symplectic geometry. constructed as follows.7 Hamiltonian Dynamics The action gives phase space a geometric structure described by an antisymmetric form called the symplectic form.. This rectangle has two sides described by the infinitesimal vector dx and two by dx'. which is cogredient to dq. following a natural path to x + dx.2 Classical Dynamics 373 The low index on Pm indicates that pis contragredient to 8q. 12.q) 8qm (9) For quantization the phase space coordinates q and p are more appropriate than the tangent bundle coordinates q and q. The present symplectic £.LvdxJ. since each differential is traversed in both senses. It defines an element of measure in phase space. Let x = (q. with two 2n-valued indices. dq'. The symplectic form gives the action for a trip around any small parallelogram <>. The action for this infinitesimal rectangular path vanishes to first order in the infinitesimals.

Semi-quantum Dynamics While the symplectic form E dominates classical mechanics. when it was recognized as a commutator of physical propagators and as a quantum phase difference. it cannot be diagonalized in a basis of real vectors. we define the Poisson bracket [F. Phase-space coordinates in which E takes this canonical form are called canonical. the variation of the action of the path 8x under the variation dx is given by d8 = dp . When (3) fails we call the dynamics singular. where p is the momentum defined in 12. . Pm) in phase space.8IJ.v =I~ ~1 I (2) where 0 and 1 are the n x n zero matrix and unit matrix. Since the symplectic form E is skew-symmetric.v inverse to the symplectic form EIJ.8 of the entire rectangular path <> is therefore r}2) 8 = dp' .2n) for the point (qm. They exist only if the action has a non-vanishing determinant. We define a dual symplectic form ElJ.' (7) For any two smooth functions F and G of these variables. [I] =(qm. Instead.. G]p by .ve Vp -.) (J.) for a tangent vector at x.L = 1. q) 8qm8qn . ..2. are singular.. it may in the generic case be brought by a suitable choice of coordinates xlJ. The variation in the action of the path dx under the phase-space variation dx' is given by 12. The action b.V from the right: P ElJ. dq .6 (7). the number it associates with a rectangle could not be given a physical meaning until the quantum theory.2. in a neighborhood of each point of phase space to a standard or canonical form ElJ.Pm) = (5) (6) are canonical. dq' It follows that the phase-space coordinates xlJ.374 12. those of the gravity and the standard model. so that the q can be expressed as functions of q and p. which now takes the form 88 = dp'· dq. and also as a path dx' together with its variation by dx. and dx = (dxlJ.6 (9). det fP8(q. T 0 .J. The most basic dynamical theories we know today. The infinitesimal parallelogram <> mentioned earlier may be regarded as a path dx together with its variation by dx'. dq'.dp . We discuss singular theories later. In this fundamental sense classical mechanics was an incomplete theory and quantum mechanics is its completion. (4) Similarly. (3) called the Hessian of 8. We now write x = (xlJ.

p) := pmqm . and give the Hamiltonian function H(P. We do not know how to make an arbitrary given function F be the Hamiltonian of a system. and so give experimental meaning to the assertion that a Poisson bracket relation E = [F. . C]p := f. q) of the canonical coordinates.qn]p. we can verify experimentally that F is (or is not) the Hamiltonian. q) is H(q. The relation between the Hamiltonian H(x) and the Lagrangian L(q. To completely define a non-singular canonical or symplectic dynamical system. On the other hand.2 Classical Dynamics [F. p) called the Hamiltonian function. we specify a dynamics by postulating an action function S. C]p is the rate of C generated by F.L(q. we specify instead a function H (q. q) or Lagrangian kinematics. so we cannot use this reformulation to actually measure the Poisson bracket in one trial. In the (q.Pn]P (9) =0 = [qm. 8x v (11) These Hamiltonian equations of motion derive immediately from the Lagrangian ones. This provides an alternative way to speak about the Poisson bracket and the canonical conjugate: • • The Poisson bracket [F. The basic Poisson bracket relations which follow from the definition are [Pm.12. The canonical conjugate to a given phase-space variable (in a complete set of canonical coordinates) is the one that generates a unit rate of that coordinate and a zero rate of all the others. It follows that the rate of any variable of the form F = F(x) (which does not explicitly depend on the time) is dF dt = [H. q) (10) together with 12. This could serve as an indirect experimental redefinition of the Poisson bracket.2. qn]p = 8~ [Pm.JLv. C]p holds. (12) When F obeys this differential equation we say that H generates the rate of F. JLV 8H --.JLV 8F 8C = 8F 8C _ 8F 8C . we write the basic Poisson bracket relations (2) among the canonical coordinates.F]p. H is a potential for the motion in phase space in that its gradient gives directly (the contragredient form of) the phase-space velocity dx/dt: dxJL dt --=f. 8xJL 8x v 8p 8q 8q 8p 375 (8) a kind of inner product of the two gradients 8F/ 8x and 8C / 8x with respect to the dual symplectic form f. In the canonical or Hamiltonian kinematics.6 (9).

is an incongruous hybrid from a classical point of view. in which the complete set of modes to be forgotten are not independent. Its left-hand side E comes from a particle .2. o Take their possible values to be their eigenvalues. It follows from the second clause that variables fail to commute when they are incommensurable . q = qt.E)n'ljJ = O. • If H is a Hamiltonian operator with a nilpotent part Nil H [see 4.1 Quantum Energy The quantum energy relation of Planck and Einstein.6 (6)] then it defines a decomposition of the initial space V into definite and indefinite parts V+ and V± .376 12. can apply to classical physics as well as quantum. The n-th vector in any principal block of the Hamiltonian with eigenvalue E is said to be virtual of order nand obeys (H . E = nw. We return to this in 12. The last creates the quantum theory.2.3. (13) among real variables p = pt. for example. It implies that the quantum matrix variables do not all commute. canonical quantization is a variant of quantum relativization. Semi-quantum Dynamics The classical linear harmonic oscillator. Only the vectors in its definite space V+ are effectual. o Read fundamental Poisson brackets as commutators divided by -in: (1) The first two clauses. The vectors in its indefinite space V± all represent virtual acts.3. we have seen. 12. q]p = 1 .3 Canonical Quantization Quantum theory began with a heuristic quantization prescription called canonical quantization. The resulting quantum theory sometimes approaches the given classical theory of Newtonian particle mechanics in a classical limit. In retrospect. 12. To convert a theory of classical mechanics into one of quantum mechanics. • Canonical quantization can be applied in the form given to any phase space coordinate representation of any non-singular classical mechanical system. is defined by the bracket relations and Hamiltonian [p. o Regard its basic variables as matrices.

] = w[e.tW t . We may measure energy either in joules with a calorimeter or in herzes with a clock.3 Canonical Quantization 377 theory of light and atoms.2. Evidently the sum e.12. as we find convenient. (1) Since we identify frequency with i8/ at then the eigenvalue principle of Chapter 4 (applied now to the non-Hilbert space of time-dependent kets) enables us to recognize when it has definite values and what they are. . and if we look closely enough we should find that the same fundamental processes underly both instruments and account for their agreement. We may understand the energy-frequency relation in a fully general way if we identify the energy operator with the frequency operator: (2) We may therefore read the Einstein-Planck relation as "Hamiltonian equals energy". We may express E = nw as an operator equation by introducing an operator for the frequency w as well.7. i 8t[e. According to its first clause. This is a differential equation governing the dependence of an initial vector 'ljJ(t) = ([t]) on the sample time t: H'ljJ(t) = in :t'ljJ(t). The oscillations of definite frequency w are also eigenfunctions of this operator with eigenvalue w: 8 . (3) This implies that the eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian operator H are the spectral frequencies of the initial vector (multiplied by n).iwt + e-iw't. and may be measured by a ballistic pendulum. if they are to be proportional in all coordinate systems the entire four vectors must be proportional. We measure w with a spectrometer. and it is understood that the vector values assumed by It) for various times are all related by time delays. This is the argument from special relativity that led de Broglie to the momentum-wave-number relation. has no definite numerical value of the frequency. Energy and vector frequency are now regarded as different units for the same physical entity. The time is sample time. Most oscillations have a spectrum of frequencies. With another frequency Wi goes the time dependence e-iw't. For this we must turn attention from initial vectors at one instant to time-dependent ones like It). The quantization rule eliminated this contradiction. the Hamiltonian H = (H B A) of 12. the energy value E is an eigenvalue of a matrix. Let us assign frequency w to waves whose time dependence consists entirely of a factor e. but a wave does not always have a frequency. Because E and w are only the timelike components of four vectors. It is the energy of a single quantum. The operator representing the frequency variable is then the differential operator f = i8 / at. Its right-hand side w comes from a wave theory.t t w ].iwt . This is incongruous because in classical thought a particle always has an energy.

Heisenberg represented P and q as infinite-dimensional matrices. We must identify the momentum operator with the wave-number operator: p= . Then without changing the equations we redefine their symbols as follows: o o o o Classical Classical Classical Classical variables products and sums Hamiltonian Poisson brackets quantum quantum quantum quantum -t -t -t -t [F. in increasing order.[F.Pn] = 0 = [qm. First we write the classical theory as a collection of Poisson bracket relations among canonical variables and an expression for the Hamiltonian H in terms of canonical variables. the defining equations for the linear harmonic oscillator become those for the quantum oscillator. The first experimental data that one wished to understand were the atomic energy levels. Canonical quantization in its earliest form turns a classical mechanical theory into a quantum one as follows. . Canonical quantization works because the Poisson bracket and its commutator replacement have the same meaning. with corresponding eigenvalues E\. These are the eigenvalues of the operator H representing the energy of the system as a function of x and p.. . (6) Then the quantum energy levels are the eigenvalues of the quantum Hamiltoman. The trace of a commutator of finite matrices is zero and the trace of the unit matrix is not. .~ -Zit a ax' (5) We now turn to the problem of atomic spectra. it is called the ground mode or fundamental mode. The commutative algebra of canonical variables thus acquires a Lie algebra structure as well. Hamiltonian. The wave-number operator is -ina/ax.. . If there is a unique eigenvector [1] of lowest energy.3.378 12. In particular the basic Poisson brackets 12. . and E\ the fundamental or ground energy of the system.. In classical mechanics [F.. EM. with the interpretation (1). .. commutators thus: Z -t r. We now apply our discussion of frequency (time-rate of phase) to wave-number (space-rate of phase). qn] = -ih8~ (7) [Pm.. G]p is the rate at . G]. G]p variables. Semi-quantum Dynamics (4) p=nk.9 (7) become the canonical commutation relations [Pm. .. We suppose a sequence of independent initial energy eigenvectors [1]. For example. qn] These cannot be satisfied by finite-dimensional matrices P and q. [M]. with the Poisson bracket as Lie product. products and sums. acting upon an infinite-dimensional vector space.

but this expresssion is non-zero in the quantum theory and will produce a significant change hK in the energy. (2) . Indeed. In relativity there are informal understandings about how to correct a nonrelativistic theory to make a relativistic one that has more chance of working. Therefore by imposing a commutator relation [FQ . P) is any classical function then there is an associated quantum variable Qw defined by Qw:= J dQdPw(Q. Q arise from a quantum theory with non-commuting p. After we formulate the relativistic theory we do not need the pre-relativistic one in principle. They are part of history. and can discard it and the relativization rule. q are replaced by the commuting classical ones. G Q] :::::J -ihHQ in the quantum theory we impose the relation [F. 12. and at the same time to solve the ordering problem.P).P)®W(Q. q. then the corresponding Poisson bracket relation is (8) where O(h2) designates a possible error of second order in h . G]/h gives this rate. G]Q =: H is any commutator bracket relation. up to first-order errors in h. and in quantum mechanics i[F. G]p = H among the corresponding classical variables. and one must find the right order to get the right theory.2 Coherent states One way to understand how commuting variables P. Q with coherent state parameters rather than operators. This is called the ordering problem. Then any quantum variable v corresponds to a classical function Cv with Cv(Q. P)vW(Q.qp)K to the classical Hamiltonian without changing the classical theory. P) := Wt(Q. commutator relations become Poisson bracket relations as h ~ O. The order of factors matters. There is no fundamental classical system underlying any quantum system. For example. Let the subscript c on any polynomial mean that the non-commuting quantum variables p.3 Canonical Quantization 379 which G would change if F were the Hamiltonian. which are approximate consequences in a suitable classical limit.12. Canonical quantization too is not part of the theory but only a scaffolding to use while repairing the theory and to discard after its work is done.3. not part of the theory. Canonical quantization is not a unique prescription at all. is to identify P. (1) and if w(Q. The quantum commutator relations are more fundamental than the classical Poisson brackets.P)W(Q. one may add the identically zero expression i(pq . if K is any function of p and q. P). If [F. but gives results that depend on how one chooses to write the classical theory. Let l!' and G be (say) polynomials in the canonical variables p. q of an classical theory.

(3) These selective acts are not quite orthogonal. without ordering ambiguities. the projectors on the coherent modes. that clocks meter. not strictly true. Then where we put a polarizer along the bench determines when it acts on the photon and may influence the outcome of the experiment. Semi-quantum Dynamics Thus classical mechanics may be regarded as quantum mechanics restricted to the coherent modes. Similarly in hydraulics we might have defined the amount of water with a liter measure. and is thus suspect. which are therefore called coherent or classical states. There is a physical operation that the classical physicist calls a selection [P = PI] of systems in which a variable P has the value pI . although the classical physicist thinks they are. but only up to order n. [P = Pl][P = P"] = 0 for pI f P" . the number of water molecules. Up to now all initial processes might have been performed with no lapse of time between them. which rotates the polarization of a photon travelling through it.4 Quantum Dynamics We now consider dynamics of a more general kind than the canonical. the time t. but is also of great pragmatic value. 12. Sometimes we use a discrete time whose range is the integers as a simplifying approximation. is then an approximation. [P = PI] = IPI)(PII. We define time as what clocks meter.380 12. Instead. the most classical of physical sciences. and as many dependent variables as we need to describe the system. The concept of time we use is born of astronomy. whose domain is the real axis. we find the quantum variable corresponding to P by (2). Therefore we cannot use them as a spectral family to define a quantum operator corresponding to the classical physicists variable P. Canonical quantization is a variant of frame relativization in which we set out not from a true frame but from this complete but dependent ("over-complete") family of modes. Besides rephasing. we may consider a photon traveling along on optical bench in a pipe filled with a clear but optically active medium such as sugar water. We have not discovered yet what it is. This operation the quantum physicist recognizes to be a projection on a coherent mode. it must supply the exact transition amplitudes that are omitted in the classical theory. then. . at one common instant of time t = O. In this formulation. canonical quantization is ambiguous because the transformations C and Q of (1) and (2) are not exactly each other's inverse. Now we recognize explicitly that in addition to specifying the orientation of a polarizer (for example) we must in general determine when it acts upon the photon. The classical physicist's belief that any two distinct states are orthogonal. and only later discovered what this actually metered. For example. In mechanics there is one independent variable. The states of classical mechanics are. but good enough for practical experiments at the macroscopic level. in this scheme of things.

but continue to deal with global experiments described by global actions at a definite time parameter to· We shall write such an initial or final action generically as Ito'lj.12. If (for example) the above column matrix stands for vertical polarizing direction at time to. To define what it means when an initial matrix depends on time. To understand the continuous evolution of one photon in time. We describe change relative to a standard of constancy. but we choose only one of these in each experiment. since they must give maximal information about the whole system at the time to. To classical intuition at least. If the system is extended then the experiments associated with a specified time parameter value to must be correspondingly non-local. seems to be real time. we . We still seem to have a continuum of possible times at which we might register the photon.tol. The time parameter of classical mechanics. at I and F. A deep synthesis of general relativity and quantum theory must analyze these non-local actions into local ones. In general. we must state what we shall mean by the same column matrix attached to some other time t). we first state what it means to be constant. In practice the time is often specified in context for external acts and variables alike. To declare that an initial act described by a particular column vector occurs at a particular time t =to we write a product like (2) In principle variables too must bear such a time declaration.1 Real Time and Sample Time We have a strong illusion of continuous observation when we watch a man running or a planet. 12. therefore. and are represented by matrices whose elements depend on their time parameter.4 Quantum Dynamics 381 Such experiments cause us to regard time as a numerical parameter t that must be specified in addition to an initial vector y in order to describe the initial process adequately. which is dominated by the asssumption that the basic concepts and laws of nature are local. We do not attempt that in this chapter. there seems to be a position observation for every time in a certain interval of the real numbers. This concept of experiment may bring us into conflict with general relativity. In the three-stage experiment F®M ®I we experience each photon only twice. Not in quantum physics. We actually observe the system during its passage. (1) This means that we have a separate initial vector space for each instant of time.) or ('Ij.4. we must give operational meaning to the concept of "the same action at different times t". To do this we may define how the frame is physically transported along the light path from t' to til.

382 12. Changes in this reference system constitute an important class of acts which change the description of the system because they act on the episystem. but almost never do. Semi-quantum Dynamics must register many photons once in their flight.. . we do this by moving the analyzer downstream through the medium along the light beam. and may take the limit of continuous time later. We convert the hitherto unused z coordinate along the beam into a time coordinate t by dividing it by the lights peed c. We study how a photon evolves by performing a series of experiments with the final action separated from the initial one by increasing intervals. To represent them we may in principle assume a distinct linear space IN(t') of initial vectors for each instant t' in the history of the photon. For these polarization experiments. tN. To represent extended experiments we must introduce an extended reference system. To establish an equivalence among vectors at different times we must specify how to carry filters from one time to another. 12. Each such specification defines a quantum connection. It is therefore not the real time of classical mechanics but a sample time. If all our external actions take place at times t 1 . and events at different times cannot be the same event. A vector represents an event. not that we watch the quantum continuously. labeling a sample from a large ensemble of photon experiments. It is a time at which we might determine a property of a photon. then the general initial vector has the form (1) To discuss change we require a standard of constancy.. We use a finite number of possible times t for simplicity of exposition. and we designate the set of these times by T. We consider first the quantum connection one-dimensional quantum theory. not one photon at many times.2 Quantum Connection Quantum field physics presupposes a geometric structure in the episystem called the quantum connection.4. The time parameter t of quantum theory gives the time between the only two external actions on a photon. we introduced no time delay between initial and final actions and could leave the time labels implicit because they were all practically the same. . To specify an instantaneous initial vector we may specify a time t' and then a vector in IN(t'). In our first external diagrams of the form ¢ 0 'IjJ. In experimental physics we cannot directly equate or compare initial modes carried out at different times. . The continuity of quantum time means that the moment at which we sample a quantum may be changed by as small an amount as we like between experiments. Now we should make the time coordinate explicit. and are examples of gauge transformations. Input actions acting at one definite instant of time are called instant or single-time actions.

and the final space is topologically IN' ®T. then an instant In action may be represented by a time t E T and a vector in IN(to). Such a representation of external actions at different times in a single space is called a picture. Equivalently. The union (2) is the bundle space of a certain fiber bundle we shall construct called the initial vector bundle. we may use the direct sum. the null (lightlike) line along the optical bench. however. To specify a picture it remains only to specify the transport along that line. not the union. there is a unique. and we all [t"ICit'] the picture transport. but restrict interpretation to operators that commute with t. This procedure alerts any relativist. The collection of such ordered pairs is the Cartesian product IN ®T. Within INT we can describe only a single-photon initial action. In a gravitational field we cannot fill spacetime with mutually parallel directions. t' E T we give an isomorphism [t"ICit'] from the earlier initial vector space IN(t') to the later one IN(t"). the fiber is spacetime. of the spaces in (2). called trivial. Then the initial bundle is topologically the product IN ®T. Thus our system has only one space-time dimension.12. they too cannot be uniquely propagated parallel to themselves from one space-time point to another in a gravitational field. and rejected it to make a local theory. The base space of this bundle is the time axis. The total initial space which embraces all the possibilities (1) without their superpositions is the union INT = UIN(t) . well-specified light path. The theory of many photons uses a larger algebra which we touch upon later. which is thus a superselection operator. general relativity. If for each t.t J(t) called the quantum connector. In a relativistic theory. In any picture P the difference between D and Dp is the algebraic (nonderivative) 2 x 2 matrix operator Q with matrix elements QA B : d D=-+Q dt (3) where Q is a linear operator on J(t) . These are quantum analogues of the covariant derivative and Christoffel connection . Since polarizers carry directions and higher-dimensional elements of space-time.4 Quantum Dynamics 383 In quantum theory. a new difficulty arises: We cannot directly add vectors from different times. We may regard the time variable t as an operator on this union so that each term in (2) is made up of t-eigenvectors with the same eigenvalue t. that followed by the photon along the optical bench. relative to the isomorphism. Defining a picture transport amounts to prescribing how to transport a polarization frame along the optical bench from t' to til for any two times. In the polarization playground some transports are differentiable and are described by an entity that we call the quantum derivative D along the light path at t. (2) lET not the direct sum. of all the single-time initial spaces. In this elementary example. Einstein recognized such a remote comparison as a non-local element in special relativity.

The defining property of the quantum connector Q for any frame transport operation is that action vectors It) and (tl that are transported along the light path by that operation obey the differential equations +- (t'l D = 0 Dlt) =O. In 12.3 Heisenberg Picture Dynamical transport uses the actual medium of the experiment. For the present we ignore the physical degrees of freedom in the quantum connection Q. Because the transport we study now is in one-dimensional time. We write the dynamical connection operator Q(t". a part of the episystem. to propagate frames. They lead to pictures called Schr6dinger and Heisenberg respectively. higher dimensional. as a constant object throughout this unit. and we may find a picture that makes any given quantum connection coefficient vanish. transport back is simply the inverse of transport forward. If't/J and if> are any vectors independent of t in the picture P then Dp't/J = 0 (4) where the arrow indicates that the operator dj dt in (3) acts negatively to the left instead of positively to the right. We regard Q as a background for quantum dynamics. t') as ret). while the ordinary matrix product of if> with Q is added in. and other fields.4 we define two forms of transport. electromagnetic. (5) One-dimensional quantum theory is called quantum mechanics.4.3 and 12. quantum field theory. A differentiable transport in field theory has another index on its Q indicating the direction of transport and describes background gravitational. which may depend on x. discussed in Chapter 11. Semi-quantum Dynamics coefficients of spacetime.4. We treat the gravitational field. 12.384 12. Its degrees of freedom include those of gravity. When there is curvature there can be be no picture in which the connection coefficients vanish. and we have not given a quantum dynamics for gravity yet. . The quantum connector Q describes the physical transport operation or connection relative to the given picture. We speak of curvature of a connection or transport when we can transport a frame back to its starting point and find it changed. there is no curvature. called inertial and dynamical. which is the quantum derivative with connector Q = 0 in the picture P.4. generally not the vacuum. Each picture P defines an "ordinary" (= Lie) derivative operator djdt =: Dp for that picture.

Then dq . The right-hand side of (2) is an operator acting on the operator variable q or a double operator (see 17. which may happen to be constants ofthe motion nevertheless.q]. and is the most comfortable one for discussing the correspondence between classical and quantum theory. in distinction to explicitly time-dependent operators such as pt-mx. In classical mechanics we sometimes speak of "variables not explicitly depending on the time". such as the position and momentum variables q. We write the image of an operator a under a double operator B as B . a. a true tensor.DH dt = 2 • q. To solve (2) formally it is useful to write it in the standard form of a first-order linear system. The generator G of this evolution is iH. (6) . not real time.2). then (1) In this picture any variable Q( t) that is a quantum constant of the motion and is represented by a constant (t-independent) matrix obeys the same trivial differential equation dQ / dt = 0 that classical constants of the motion do. Thus this picture is closest to what we are used to in classical mechanics. the commutator of iH with q . We define the double operator DH for all (first) operators q by DHq:= [H. where the Hamiltonian operator H is the difference of the two connections. It tells how inertial variables dynamically evolve.. Then the solution is (4) Here the variable q is the operator q. They vary with time solely because the system itself changes.12.q . For short let us call these inertial operators.4. This is the Heisenberg equation of motion for the system.4 Quantum Dynamics 385 This picture represents every operator that is a constant of the (undisturbed!) motion by a constant matrix. though in sample time. p "in the same way" at different times.5. We say that we measure such not-explicitly-time-dependent variables q. (5) Then the Heisenberg equation of motion (1) becomes dq . Let us represent an inertial variable q in a dynamical or Heisenberg picture. dq -r (3) dt .H] (2) dt = [2 . Inputs It) at different times t may be represented by the same column matrix if they differ by pure time delays.4). because they will appear as constant operators in an inertial picture (12. We shall use frequency units for energy so that h = 1. p of a linear harmonic oscillator.q with constant generator r.

In the Schrodinger picture. If we pump out the optical medium. t'). In a rough approximation this transport simply slides a polarizer along the optical bench. leaving a vacuum.386 12. We write the inertial connection operator Q(t" . the flight of a polarized photon in this vacuum pipe defines an inertial transport of its polarization and wave-vector. In this picture the effect of a dynamical time delay t upon an initial vector 10) acting at time t = 0 is an initial vector It) obeying the Schrodinger equation . so that the exponential of DH factors into the exponentials of LH and RH as in commutative algebra: q(t) = ei(LH-RH)tq(O) (to) = e iL Hte-iRHtq(O) = eiHtq(O)e-iHt . q(O) . (7) To eliminate the double operator DH from this expression we write DH as the difference of two simpler double operators DH=LH-RH (8) where LH designates left or final multiplication by Hand RH right or initial multiplication: LH·q :=Hq (9) RH · q :=qH. t') as O(t". The essential point is that for any (first) operators A and B .4. as in inertial navigation. (11) consistent with the Einstein-Planck relation. 12. A frame transported in this way and the resulting picture may both be called inertial. This picture represents initial vectors by the same column matrix at different times when they carry out the "same action" at their respective times. Semi-quantum Dynamics If H does not depend on time. It follows that the matrix element of q between action vectors with initial energy E' and final energy E" has frequency w = E" . but the ultimate reference for this transport is not the rather elastic material of the bench but the much stiffer fabric of spacetime. kinematic variables (not constants of the motion) are represented by constant matrices.E'. the double operators LA and RB commute. then the solution of (5) is q(t) = e iDHt .4 Schrodi