OPERATIONS RESEARCH Describe in details the different scopes of application of Operations Research.

Ans:- Where ever there is any problem, simple or complicated, operation research techniques may be applied to find the best solution. Examples of applications in which operations research is currently used include: Operation research is used in defense operations. Right from the beginning of World War two, operation research has widely been used in defense systems. Through various departments in modern armies like air force, navy and army, in various activities of administration, intelligence, training and supply, operation research techniques are now widely employed. The applications of modern war fare techniques in each of the components of military organizations require expertise knowledge in respective fields. Each of these components works to drive maximum gains from its operation and there is always a possibility that the strategy beneficial to one component may have an adverse effect on the other. For example, Operations research doubled the success rate of aerial attacks on submarines by recommending a shallower detonation setting on the depth charges being dropped by aircraft, it also doubled the on-target bomb rate of B-29s bombing Japan from the Marianas Islands by increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours. Operation research is used in industry. The modern systems in production are so complex that the optimum point of operation in its various components cannot be intuitively judged by an individual. The business environment is ever changing and any decision useful at one time may not be so good a time later. There is therefore, need to always check and validate decisions continually, against the situation. Due to division of labor, each department must ensure efficiency and this can only be achieved by employing operation research techniques. For example, the production department ensures maximum out put with minimum in put, whilst the marketing department ensures maximum sales returns while minimizing the cost per unit sale. Operation research helps in designing the layout of a factory for efficient flow of materials. Operation research is also employed during the planning process. In modern times it has become necessary for every government to have careful planning, for economic development of the country. Operation research techniques can be fruitfully applied to maximize the per capita income, with minimum sacrifice and time. A government can thus use various operation research techniques for framing future economic and social policies. This is particularly true with governments which use extensively evidence-based policy. In agriculture, various operation research techniques are also employed. Due to population explosion, there is need to maximize agricultural out put to cater for the ever increasing population. But this can only be achieved if the courses of action taken take into account various restrictions prescribed in order to ensure improved productivity. In hospitals operation research is equally relevant. The various methods here are used to solve waiting problems in out-patient departments of big hospitals. The administrative problems of hospital organization can also be solved by operation research techniques. In transport, operation research is widely employed. Different techniques are applied to regulate the arrival of trains and processing times, minimize the passengers waiting time and reduce congestion, formulate suitable transportation policy, reducing the costs and time of trans-shipment. Other examples include; road traffic management and one way street allocations i.e. allocation

problems, determining the routes of school buses (or city buses) so that as few buses are needed as possible. In research and development, operation research helps in control of projects, production planning, identifying those processes in a complex project which affect the overall duration of the project and blending of raw materials in oil refineries determining optimal prices, in many retail and B2B settings, within the disciplines of pricing science. It is also employed in constructing of telecommunications network at low cost while still guaranteeing quality of service or Quality of Experience if particular connections become very busy or get damaged in the connection process. It helps in globalizing operations processes in order to take advantage of cheaper materials, labor, land or other productivity inputs. 2. What do you understand by Linear Programming Problem? What are the requirements of L.P.P.? What are the basic assumptions of L.P.P.? Ans:- The Linear Programming Problem (LPP) is a class of mathematical programming in which the functions representing the objectives and the constraints are linear. Here, by optimization, we mean either to maximize or minimize the objective functions. The general linear programming model is usually defined as follows: Maximize or Minimize Z = c1 x1 + c2 x 2 + - - - - + cn x n subject to the constraints,

Where cj, bi and aij (i = 1, 2, 3, ….. m, j = 1, 2, 3 ——- n) are constants determined from the technology of the problem and xj (j = 1, 2, 3 —- n) are the decision variables. Here ~ is either £ (less than), ³ (greater than) or = (equal). Note that, in terms of the above formulation the coefficient cj, aej, bj are interpreted physically as follows. If bi is the available amount of resources i, where aij is the amount of resource i, that must be allocated to each unit of activity j, the “worth” per unit of activity is equal to cj. Requirements of L.P.P. i. Decisions variables and their relationship ii. Well defined objective function iii. Existence of alternative courses of action iv. Non-negative conditions on decision variables.

Basic assumptions of L.P.P 1. Liniarity: Both objective function and constraints must be expressed as linear inequalities. 2. Deterministic: All coefficient of decision variables in the objective and constraints expressions should be known and finite. 3. Additivity: The value of objective function for the given values of decision variables and the total sum of resources used, must be equal to sum of the contributions earned from each decision variable and the sum of resources used by decision variables respectively. 4. Divisibility: The solution of decision variables and resources can be any non-negative values including fractions. 3. Describe the different steps needed to solve a problem by simplex method. Ans:- The Simplex Method has its own deficiencies. For example, it requires that all variables be non-negative ( 0); also, all other constraints must be in  form with non-negative right-hand-side (RHS) values. The steps needed to solve a problem by simplex include the following; Convert the LP to the following form: Convert the minimization problem into a maximization one (by multiplying the objective function by (-1). All variables must be non-negative. All RHS values must be non-negative (multiply both sides by -1, if needed). All constraints must be in form (except the non-negativity conditions). No strictly equality or constraints are allowed. If this condition cannot be satisfied, then use the Initialization of the Simplex Method: Artificial-Free. Convert all constraints to equalities by adding a different slack variable for each one of them. Construct the initial simplex tableau with all slack variables in the BVS. The last row in the table contains the coefficient of the objective function (row Cj). Determine whether the current tableau is optimal. That is: If all RHS values are non-negative (called, the feasibility condition) If all elements of the last row, that is Cj row, are non-positive (called, the optimality condition). If the answers to both of these two questions are yes, then stop. The current tableau contains an optimal solution. Otherwise, go to the next step. If the current BVS is not optimal, determine, which non basic variable should become a basic variable and, which basic variable should become a non basic variable. To find the new BVS with the better objective function value, perform the following tasks: Identify the entering variable: The entering variable is the one with the largest positive Cj value (In case of a tie, we select the variable that corresponds to the leftmost of the columns).

Identify the outgoing variable: The outgoing variable is the one with smallest non-negative column ratio (to find the column ratios, divide the RHS column by the entering variable column, wherever possible). In case of a tie we select the variable that corresponds to the upmost of the tied rows. 4. Describe the economic importance of the Duality concept. Ans:- The Importance of Duality Concept Is Due To Two Main Reasons If the primal contains a large number of constraints and a smaller number of variables, the labour of computation can be considerably reduced by converting it into the dual problem and then solving it. The interpretation of the dual variable from the loss or economic point of view proves extremely useful in making future decisions in the activities being programmed. Economic importance of duality concept The linear programming problem can be thought of as a resource allocation model in which the objective is to maximize revenue or profit subject to limited resources. Looking at the problem from this point of view, the associated dual problem offers interesting economic interpretations of the L.P resource allocation model. We consider here a representation of the general primal and dual problems in which the primal takes the role of a resource allocation model. Primal Maximize z =

∑ C .x
j =1 j
Subject to

n

j

, i = 1,2,…., m

∑a x
j =1 ij
xj ≥ 0, j = 1,2,…., n Dual Minimize w=

n

j

≤b j

∑ b .y
i =1 i

m

i

Subject to

, i = 1,2,…., n

∑a
i =1
yj ≥ 0, i = 1,2,…., m

m

ij

yi ≤ ci

From the above resource allocation model, the primal problem has n economic activities and m resources. The coefficient cj in the primal represents the profit per unit of activity j. Resource i, whose maximum availability is bi, is consumed at the rate aij units per unit of activity j. Interpretation of Duel Variables – For any pair of feasible primal and dual solutions, (Objective value in the maximization problem) ≤ (Objective value in the minimization problem) At the optimum, the relationship holds as a strict equation. Note: Here the sense of optimization is very important. Hence clearly for any two primal and dual feasible solutions, the values of the objective functions, when finite, must satisfy the following inequality. z=

∑C x ≤ ∑b y
j =1 j j i =1 i

n

m

i

=w

The strict equality, z = w, holds when both the primal and dual solutions are optimal. Consider the optimal condition z = w first given that the primal problem represents a resource allocation model, we can think of z as representing profit in Rupees. Because bi represents the number of units available of resource i, the equation z = w can be expressed as profit (Rs) = ∑ (units of resource i) x (profit per unit of resource i) This means that the dual variables yi, represent the worth per unit of resource i [variables yi are also called as dual prices, shadow prices and simplex multipliers]. With the same logic, the inequality z < w associated with any two feasible primal and dual solutions is interpreted as (profit) < (worth of resources) This relationship implies that as long as the total return from all the activities is less than the worth of the resources, the corresponding primal and dual solutions are not optimal. Optimality is reached only when the resources have been exploited completely, which can happen only when the input equals the output (profit). Economically the system is said to remain unstable (non optimal) when the input (worth of the resources) exceeds the output (return). Stability occurs only when the two quantities are equal. 5. How can you use the Matrix Minimum method to find the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem.

Ans:- This follows the following steps: Determine the smallest cost in the cost matrix of the transportation table. Let it be Cij , allocate Xij = min(ai,bj) in the cell (i,j) If Xij = ai cross off the ith row off the transportation table and decrease bj by ai continue to the next step. If Xij = bj cross off the ith column of the transportation table and decrease ai by bj go to the next step. Repeat steps 1 and 2 for the resulting reduced transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied whenever the minimum cost is not unique make an arbitrary among the minima. Consider the example below: D1 O1 O2 O3 DEMAND 1 4 0 4 D2 2 3 2 6 D3 3 2 2 8 D4 4 0 1 6 SUPPLY 6 8 10 24

1*4+2*2+2*4+2*8+1*6=38 being the minimum transportation cost 6. Describe the Integer Programming Problem. Describe the Gomory’s All-I.P.P. method for solving the I.P.P. problem. Ans :- When formulating LP's we often find that, strictly, certain variables should be regarded as taking integer values but, for the sake of convenience, we let them take fractional values reasoning that the variables were likely to be so large that any fractional part could be neglected. Whilst this is acceptable in some situations, in many cases it is not, and in such cases we must find a numeric solution in which the variables take integer values. Problems in which this is the case are called integer programs (IP's) and the subject of solving such programs is called integer programming (also referred to by the initials IP). IP's occur frequently because many decisions are essentially discrete (such as yes/no, go/no-go) in that one (or more) options must be chosen from a finite set of alternatives. Note here that problems in which some variables can take only integer values and some variables can take fractional values are called mixed-integer programs (MIP's). As for formulating LP's the key to formulating IP's is practice. Although there are a number of standard tricks available to cope with situations that often arise in formulating IP's it is probably true to say that formulating IP's is a much harder task than formulating LP's. Gomory’s All – IPP Method.

An optimum solution to an I.P.P. is first obtained by using simplex method ignoring the restrictions of integral values. In the optimum solution if all the variables have integer values, the current solution will be the desired optimum integer solution. Otherwise the given IPP is modified by inserting a new constraint called Gomory’s or secondary constraint which represents necessary condition for integrability and eliminates some non integer solution without losing any integer solution. After adding the secondary constraint, the problem is then solved by dual simplex method to get an optimum integral solution. If all the values of the variables in this solution are integers, an optimum inter-solution is obtained, other wise another new constraint is added to the modified LPP and the procedure is repeated. An optimum integer solution will be reached eventually after introducing enough new constraints to eliminate all the superior non integer solutions. The construction of additional constraints, called secondary or Gomory’s constraints is so very important that it needs special attention. Set 2:Note: Each Question carries 10 marks What are the important features of Operations Research? Describe in details the different phases of Operations Research. Ans :- Important features of OR are: i. It is System oriented: OR studies the problem from over all point of view of organizations or situations since optimum result of one part of the system may not be optimum for some other part. ii. It imbibes Inter – disciplinary team approach. Since no single individual can have a thorough knowledge of all fast developing scientific knowhow, personalities from different scientific and managerial cadre form a team to solve the problem. iii. It makes use of Scientific methods to solve problems. iv. OR increases the effectiveness of a management Decision making ability. v. It makes use of computer to solve large and complex problems. vi. It gives Quantitative solution. vii. It considers the human factors also. Phases of Operations Research The scientific method in OR study generally involves the following three phases: i) Judgment Phase: This phase consists of a) Determination of the operation. b) Establishment of the objectives and values related to the operation.

c) Determination of the suitable measures of effectiveness and d) Formulation of the problems relative to the objectives. ii) Research Phase: This phase utilizes a) Operations and data collection for a better understanding of the problems. b) Formulation of hypothesis and model. c) Observation and experimentation to test the hypothesis on the basis of additional data. d) Analysis of the available information and verification of the hypothesis using pre established measure of effectiveness. e) Prediction of various results and consideration of alternative methods. iii) Action Phase: It consists of making recommendations for the decision process by those who first posed the problem for consideration or by anyone in a position to make a decision, influencing the operation in which the problem is occurred. 2. Describe a Linear Programming Problem in details in canonical form. Ans : Linear Programming The Linear Programming Problem (LPP) is a class of mathematical programming in which the functions representing the objectives and the constraints are linear. Here, by optimization, we mean either to maximize or minimize the objective functions. The general linear programming model is usually defined as follows: Maximize or Minimize Z = c1 x1 + c2 x 2 +………….. +cn x n subject to the constraints, a11 x1 + a12 x2 + …………….+ a1n xn ~ b1 a21 x1 + a22 x2 +……………..+ a2n xn ~ b2 …………………………………………… …………………………………………… am1x1 + am2 x2 +……………. +amn xn ~ bm and x1 > 0, x2 > 0, xn > 0. Where cj, bi and aij (i = 1, 2, 3, ….. m, j = 1, 2, 3…….. n) are constants determined from the

technology of the problem and xj (j = 1, 2, 3 n) are the decision variables. Here ~ is either < (less than), > (greater than) or = (equal). Note that, in terms of the above formulation the coefficient cj, aij, bj are interpreted physically as follows. If bi is the available amount of resources i, where aij is the amount of resource i, that must be allocated to each unit of activity j, the “worth” per unit of activity is equal to cj. Canonical forms: The general Linear Programming Problem (LPP) defined above can always be put in the following form which is called as the canonical form: Maximise Z = c1 x1+c2 x2 + …….+cn xn Subject to a11 x1 + a12 x2 +…………….. +a1n xn < b1 a21 x1 + a22 x2 +…………….. +a2n xn < b2 …………………………………………… …………………………………………… am1x1+am2 x2 + …… + amn xn < bm x1, x2, x3, … xn > 0. The characteristics of this form are: 1) all decision variables are nonnegative. 2) all constraints are of < type. 3) the objective function is of the maximization type. Any LPP can be put in the cannonical form by the use of five elementary transformations: 1. The minimization of a function is mathematically equivalent to the maximization of the negative expression of this function. That is, Minimize Z = c1 x1 + c2x2 + ……. + cn xn is equivalent to Maximize – Z = – c1x1 – c2x2 – … – cnxn. 2. Any inequality in one direction (< or >) may be changed to an inequality in the opposite direction (> or <) by multiplying both sides of the inequality by –1. For example 2x1+3x2 > 5 is equivalent to –2x1–3x2 < –5.

3. An equation can be replaced by two inequalities in opposite direction. For example, 2x1+3x2 = 5 can be written as 2x1+3x2 < 5 and 2x1+3x2 > 5 or 2x1+3x2 < 5 and – 2x1 – 3x2 < – 5. 4. An inequality constraint with its left hand side in the absolute form can be changed into two regular inequalities. For example: | 2x1+3x2 | < 5 is equivalent to 2x1+3x2 < 5 and 2x1+3x2 > – 5 or – 2x1 – 3x2 < 5. 5. The variable which is unconstrained in sign (i.e., > 0, < 0 or zero) is equivalent to the difference between 2 nonnegative variables. For example, if x is unconstrained in sign then x = (x + – x – ) where x + > 0, x – < 0.

3. What are the different steps needed to solve a system of equations by the simplex method? Ans: To Solve problem by Simplex Method 1. Introduce stack variables (Si’s) for “ < ” type of constraint. 2. Introduce surplus variables (Si’s) and Artificial Variables (Ai) for “>” type of constraint. 3. Introduce only Artificial variable for “=” type of constraint. 4. Cost (Cj) of slack and surplus variables will be zero and that of Artificial variable will be “M” Find Zj Cj for each variable. 5. Slack and Artificial variables will form Basic variable for the first simplex table. Surplus variable will never become Basic Variable for the first simplex table. 6. Zj = sum of [cost of variable x its coefficients in the constraints – Profit or cost coefficient of the variable]. 7. Select the most negative value of Zj - Cj. That column is called key column. The variable corresponding to the column will become Basic variable for the next table. 8. Divide the quantities by the corresponding values of the key column to get ratios select the minimum ratio. This becomes the key row. The Basic variable corresponding to this row will be replaced by the variable found in step 6. 9. The element that lies both on key column and key row is called Pivotal element. 10. Ratios with negative and “a” value are not considered for determining key row. 11. Once an artificial variable is removed as basic variable, its column will be deleted from next

iteration. 12. For maximisation problems decision variables coefficient will be same as in the objective function. For minimization problems decision variables coefficients will have opposite signs as compared to objective function. 13. Values of artificial variables will always is – M for both maximisation and minimization problems. 14. The process is continued till all Zj – Cj > 0. 4. What do you understand by the transportation problem? What is the basic assumption behind the transportation problem? Describe the MODI method of solving transportation problem. Ans: This model studies the minimization of the cost of transporting a commodity from a number of sources to several destinations. The supply at each source and the demand at each destination are known. The transportation problem involves m sources, each of which has available ai (i = 1, 2, …..,m) units of homogeneous product and n destinations, each of which requires bj (j = 1, 2…., n) units of products. Here ai and bj are positive integers. The cost cij of transporting one unit of the product from the i th source to the j th destination is given for each i and j. The objective is to develop an integral transportation schedule that meets all demands from the inventory at a minimum total transportation cost. It is assumed that the total supply and the total demand are equal. The condition (1) is guaranteed by creating either a fictitious destination with a demand equal to the surplus if total demand is less than the total supply or a (dummy) source with a supply equal to the shortage if total demand exceeds total supply. The cost of transportation from the fictitious destination to all sources and from all destinations to the fictitious sources are assumed to be zero so that total cost of transportation will remain the same. The Transportation Algorithm (MODI Method) The first approximation to (2) is always integral and therefore always a feasible solution. Rather than determining a first approximation by a direct application of the simplex method it is more efficient to work with the table given below called the transportation table. The transportation algorithm is the simplex method specialized to the format of table it involves:

i) finding an integral basic feasible solution ii) testing the solution for optimality iii) improving the solution, when it is not optimal iv) repeating steps (ii) and (iii) until the optimal solution is obtained. The solution to T.P is obtained in two stages. In the first stage we find Basic feasible solution by any one of the following methods a) Northwest corner rale b) Matrix Minima Method or least cost method c) Vogel’s approximation method. In the second stage we test the B.Fs for its optimality either by MODI method or by stepping stone method. Modified Distribution Method / Modi Method / U – V Method. Step 1: Under this method we construct penalties for rows and columns by subtracting the least value of row / column from the next least value. Step 2: We select the highest penalty constructed for both row and column. Enter that row / column and select the minimum cost and allocate min (ai, bj) Step 3: Delete the row or column or both if the rim availability / requirements is met. Step 4: We repeat steps 1 to 2 to till all allocations are over. Step 5: For allocation all form equation ui + vj = cj set one of the dual variable ui / vj to zero and solve for others. Step 6: Use these value to find Δij = cij – ui – vj of all Δij >, then it is the optimal solution. Step 7: If any Dij £ 0, select the most negative cell and form loop. Starting point of the loop is +ve and alternatively the other corners of the loop are –ve and +ve. Examine the quantities allocated at –ve places. Select the minimum. Add it at +ve places and subtract from –ve place. Step 8: Form new table and repeat steps 5 to 7 till Δij > 0 5. Describe the North-West Corner rule for finding the initial basic feasible solution in the transportation problem. Ans:- North West Corner Rule Step1: The first assignment is made in the cell occupying the upper left hand (north west) corner of the transportation table. The maximum feasible amount is allocated there, that is x11 = min (a1,b1)

So that either the capacity of origin O1 is used up or the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied or both. This value of x11 is entered in the upper left hand corner (small square) of cell (1, 1) in the transportation table Step 2: If b1 > a1 the capacity of origin O, is exhausted but the requirement at destination D1 is still not satisfied , so that at least one more other variable in the first column will have to take on a positive value. Move down vertically to the second row and make the second allocation of magnitude x21 = min (a2, b1 – x21) in the cell (2,1). This either exhausts the capacity of origin O2 or satisfies the remaining demand at destination D1. If a1 > b1 the requirement at destination D1 is satisfied but the capacity of origin O1 is not completely exhausted. Move to the right horizontally to the second column and make the second allocation of magnitude x12 = min (a1 – x11, b2) in the cell (1, 2) . This either exhausts the remaining capacity of origin O1 or satisfies the demand at destination D2 . If b1 = a1, the origin capacity of O1 is completely exhausted as well as the requirement at destination is completely satisfied. There is a tie for second allocation, An arbitrary tie breaking choice is made. Make the second allocation of magnitude x12 = min (a1 – a1, b2) = 0 in the cell (1, 2) or x21 = min (a2, b1 – b2) = 0 in the cell (2, 1). Step 3: Start from the new north west corner of the transportation table satisfying destination requirements and exhausting the origin capacities one at a time, move down towards the lower right corner of the transportation table until all the rim requirements are satisfied. 6. Describe the Branch and Bound Technique to solve an I.P.P. problem. Ans :- The Branch And Bound Technique Sometimes a few or all the variables of an IPP are constrained by their upper or lower bounds or by both. The most general technique for the solution of such constrained optimization problems is the branch and bound technique. The technique is applicable to both all IPP as well as mixed I.P.P. the technique for a maximization problem is discussed below: Let the I.P.P. be

Subject to the constraints xj is integer valued , j = 1, 2, …….., r (< n) –––– (3) xj > 0 …………………. j = r + 1, …….., n ––––––––––(4) Further let us suppose that for each integer valued xj, we can assign lower and upper bounds for the optimum values of the variable by Lj ≤ xj ≤ Uj j = 1, 2, …. r ––––––––––––– (5) The following idea is behind “the branch and bound technique” Consider any variable xj, and let I be some integer value satisfying Lj £ I £ Uj – 1. Then clearly an optimum solution to (1) through (5) shall also satisfy either the linear constraint. x j > I + 1 ––––––––––––– ( 6) Or the linear constraint xj ≤ I ………………...(7) To explain how this partitioning helps, let us assume that there were no integer restrictions (3), and suppose that this then yields an optimal solution to L.P.P. – (1), (2), (4) and (5). Indicating x1 = 1.66 (for example). Then we formulate and solve two L.P.P’s each containing (1), (2) and (4). But (5) for j = 1 is modified to be 2 ≤ x1 ≤ U1 in one problem and L1 ≤ x1 ≤ 1 in the other. Further each of these problems process an optimal solution satisfying integer constraints (3) Then the solution having the larger value for z is clearly optimum for the given I.P.P. However, it usually happens that one (or both) of these problems has no optimal solution satisfying (3), and thus some more computations are necessary. We now discuss step wise the algorithm that specifies how to apply the partitioning (6) and (7) in a systematic manner to finally arrive at an optimum solution. We start with an initial lower bound for z, say z (0) at the first iteration which is less than or equal to the optimal value z*, this lower bound may be taken as the starting Lj for some xj. In addition to the lower bound z (0) , we also have a list of L.P.P’s (to be called master list) differing only in the bounds (5). To start with (the 0 th iteration) the master list contains a single L.P.P. consisting of (1), (2), (4) and (5). We now discuss below, the step by step procedure that specifies how the partitioning (6) and (7) can be applied systematically to eventually get an optimum integer valued solution.

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