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InternationalSchoolofGeneva

HIGHERLEVEL

IBBiology

StudentGuide

FirstExamination2016

YoushouldalsoensurethatyoulookattheoriginalIBBiologyGuidewhichgivesthecomplete
curriculumanddetailsofthecourse

Topic

Approximate
ContactHours

1.CellBiology

15

2.MolecularBiology

21

3.Genetics

15

4.Ecology

12

5.EvolutionandBiodiversity

12

6.HumanPhysiology

20

7.NucleicAcids

8.Metabolism,RespirationandPhotosynthesis

14

9.PlantBiology

13

10.GeneticsandEvolution

11.AnimalPhysiology

16

The7MandatoryPracticalexperimentsareprintedinbold.
PleaseseeadditionalStudentGuidefortheOption

IB2016studentguides.doc

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Topic1:CellBiology
1.1IntroductiontoCells

EssentialIdea:

Theevolutionofmulticellularorganisms
allowedcellspecializationandcell
replacement.

SyllabusConnections:
Theuseofstemcellsinthetreatmentofdiseaseis
mostlyattheexperimental
stage,withtheexceptionofbonemarrowstem
cells.Scientists,however,
anticipatetheuseofstemcelltherapiesasa
standardmethodoftreating
awholerangeofdiseasesinthenearfuture,
includingheartdiseaseand
diabetes

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Thereisadifferencebetweenthelivingandthe
Lookingfortrendsand
nonlivingenvironment.
discrepanciesalthoughmostorganisms
Howareweabletoknowthedifference?
conformtocelltheory,thereareexceptions.
Theuseofstemcellsinthetreatmentofdiseaseis
Ethicalimplicationsofresearchresearch
mostlyattheexperimentalstage,withthe
involvingstemcellsisgrowinginimportance
exceptionofbonemarrowstemcells.

Understandings
Accordingtothecelltheory,living
organismsarecomposedofcells.

ApplicationsandSkills
Atypicalexamples,includingstriated
muscle,giantalgaeandaseptatefungal
hyphae.
Organismsconsistingofonlyonecellcarry Ethicsofthetherapeuticuseofstemcells
outallfunctionsoflifeinthatcell.
fromspeciallycreatedembryos,fromthe
umbilicalcordbloodofanewbornbabyand
fromanadultsowntissues.
Surfaceareatovolumeratioisimportantin Useofalightmicroscopetoinvestigate
thelimitationofcellsize.
anddrawcellandtissuestructure.
MagnificationCalculations
Multicellularorganismshavepropertiesthat Investigationoffunctionsoflifein
emergefromtheinteractionof
Parameciumandonenamed
theircellularcomponents.
photosyntheticunicellularorganism.
Specializedtissuescandevelopbycell
UseofstemcellstotreatStargardtsdisease
differentiationinmulticellular
andoneothernamedcondition.
organisms.
Differentiationinvolvestheexpressionof

somegenesandnotothersinacells
genome.
Thecapacityofstemcellstodivideand

differentiatealongdifferentpathwaysis
necessaryinembryonicdevelopmentand
alsomakesstemcellssuitablefor
therapeuticuses

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1.2UltrastructureofCells

EssentialIdea:

Eukaryoteshaveamuchmorecomplexcell
structurethanprokaryotes.

SyllabusConnections:

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsinapparatustheinvention
ofelectronmicroscopesledtogreater
understandingofcellstructure.

IBConnections:

Developmentsinscience,suchaselectron
microscopy,canhave
economicbenefitsastheygivecommercial
companiesopportunitiesto
makeprofits,butthiscanaffectcooperation
betweenscientists.

Microscopeswereinventedsimultaneouslyin
differentpartsoftheworldat
atimewheninformationtravelledslowly.
Moderndaycommunicationshave
allowedforimprovementsintheabilityto
collaborate,enrichingscientific
endeavour.

Understandings
Prokaryoteshaveasimplecellstructure
withoutcompartmentalization.
Eukaryoteshaveacompartmentalizedcell
structure.
Electronmicroscopeshaveamuchhigher
resolutionthanlightmicroscopes.

Notes

ApplicationsandSkills
Structureandfunctionoforganelleswithin
exocrineglandcellsofthepancreasand
withinpalisademesophyllcellsoftheleaf.
Prokaryotesdividebybinaryfission.

Drawingoftheultrastructureofprokaryotic
andeukaryoticcellsbasedonelectron
micrographs
Interpretationofelectronmicrographsto

identifyorganellesanddeducethefunction
ofspecializedcells.

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1.3MembraneStructure

EssentialIdea:

SyllabusConnections:
Thestructureofbiologicalmembranesmakes
Topic2.3Carbohydratesandlipids
themfluidanddynamic.
Topic2.6StructureofDNAandRNA

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Usingmodelsasrepresentationsofthereal
Theexplanationofthestructureofthe
worldtherearealternativemodelsof
plasmamembranehaschangedover
membranestructure.(1.11)
theyearsasnewevidenceandwaysof
Falsificationoftheorieswithonetheorybeing
analysishavecometolight.
supersededbyanotherevidencefalsifiedthe

DavsonDaniellimodel.

Understandings
Phospholipidsformbilayersinwater
duetotheamphipathicpropertiesof
phospholipidmolecules.
Membraneproteinsarediverseinterms
ofstructure,positioninthemembrane
andfunction.
Cholesterolisacomponentofanimal
cellmembranes.

ApplicationsandSkills
Cholesterolinmammalianmembranes
reducesmembranefluidityand
permeabilitytosomesolutes.
Drawingofthefluidmosaicmodel.

Notes

Analysisofevidencefromelectron
microscopythatledtotheproposal
oftheDavsonDaniellimodel.
Analysisofthefalsificationofthe
DavsonDaniellimodelthatledtothe
SingerNicolsonmodel.

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1.4MembraneTransport

EssentialIdea:

Membranescontrolthecompositionofcells
byactiveandpassivetransport.

NatureofScience:
Experimentaldesignaccuratequantitative
measurementinosmosisexperimentsare
essential.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic6.5Neuronsandsynapses

IBConnections:
Dialysistubingexperimentscanactasamodelof
membraneaction.
Experimentswithpotato,beetrootorsinglecelled
algaecanbeusedto
investigaterealmembranes.

Understandings
Particlesmoveacrossmembranesby
simplediffusion,facilitateddiffusion,
osmosisandactivetransport.
Thefluidityofmembranesallows
materialstobetakenintocellsby
endocytosisorreleasedbyexocytosis.
Vesiclesmovematerialswithincells.

ApplicationsandSkills
Structureandfunctionofsodiumpotassium
pumpsforactivetransportandpotassium
channelsforfacilitateddiffusioninaxons.
Tissuesororganstobeusedinmedical
proceduresmustbebathedinasolution
withthesameosmolarityasthecytoplasm
topreventosmosis.
Estimationofosmolarityintissuesby
bathingsamplesinhypotonicand
hypertonicsolutions.

Notes

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1.5TheOriginofCells

EssentialIdea:

Thereisanunbrokenchainoflifefromthe
firstcellsonEarthtoallcellsinorganisms
alivetoday

NatureofScience:
Testingthegeneralprinciplesthatunderlie
thenaturalworldtheprinciplethatcells
onlycomefrompreexistingcellsneedsto
beverified.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic5.1Evidenceforevolution

IBConnections:
Biologyisthestudyoflife,yetlifeisan
emergentproperty.Underwhat
circumstancesisasystemsapproachproductive
inbiologyandunder
whatcircumstancesisareductionistapproach
moreappropriate?

Understandings
Cellscanonlybeformedbydivisionof
preexistingcells.

Thefirstcellsmusthavearisenfrom
nonlivingmaterial.
Theoriginofeukaryoticcellscanbe
explainedbytheendosymbiotictheory
Notes

IB2016studentguides.doc

ApplicationsandSkills
EvidencefromPasteurs
experimentsthatspontaneous
generationofcellsandorganisms
doesnotnowoccuronEarth.

HIGHERLEVEL

1.6CellDivision

EssentialIdea:

Celldivisionisessentialbutmustbe
controlled.

NatureofScience:
Serendipityandscientificdiscoveriesthe
discoveryofcyclinswasaccidental.

SyllabusConnections:
Biologistsinlaboratoriesthroughoutthe
worldareresearchingintothecausesand
treatmentofcancer.

IBConnections:
Themitoticindexisanimportantprognostictool
forpredictingtheresponse
ofcancercellstochemotherapy.
Suppressionoftheresultsofresearchbytobacco
companiesintothehealtheffectsofsmoking
tobaccowasunethical.

Understandings
Mitosisisdivisionofthenucleusintotwo
geneticallyidenticaldaughternuclei.

ApplicationsandSkills
Thecorrelationbetween
smokingandincidenceof
cancers.
Chromosomescondensebysupercoilingduring Identificationofphasesof
mitosis.
mitosisincellsviewedwitha
microscopeorinamicrograph.
Cytokinesisoccursaftermitosisandisdifferent Determinationofamitotic
inplantandanimalcells.
indexfromamicrograph.
Interphaseisaveryactivephaseofthecellcycle
withmanyprocessesoccurringinthenucleus
andcytoplasm.
Cyclinsareinvolvedinthecontrolofthecell

cycle.
Mutagens,oncogenesandmetastasisare

involvedinthedevelopmentofprimaryand
secondarytumours.
Notes

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Topic2:MolecularBiology
2.1MoleculestoMetabolism

EssentialIdea:

Livingorganismscontroltheircomposition
byacomplexwebofchemicalreactions.

NatureofScience:
Falsificationoftheoriestheartificial
synthesisofureahelpedtofalsifyvitalism

SyllabusConnections:
Chemistry
Topic4Chemicalbondingandstructure
OptionBBiochemistry

IBConnections:

Understandings
Molecularbiologyexplainslivingprocessesin
termsofthechemicalsubstancesinvolved.

Carbonatomscanformfourcovalentbonds
allowingadiversityofstablecompoundsto
exist.
Lifeisbasedoncarboncompoundsincluding
carbohydrates,lipids,proteinsandnucleicacids.

ApplicationsandSkills
Ureaasanexampleofacompound
thatisproducedbylivingorganisms
butcanalsobeartificially
synthesized.
Drawingmoleculardiagramsof
glucose,ribose,asaturatedfattyacid
andageneralizedaminoacid.
Identificationofbiochemicalssuchas
sugars,lipidsoraminoacidsfrom
moleculardiagrams.

Metabolismisthewebofallthe
enzymecatalysedreactionsinacellororganism.
Anabolismisthesynthesisofcomplexmolecules
fromsimplermoleculesincludingtheformation
ofmacromoleculesfrommonomersby
condensation
reactions.
Catabolism is the breakdown of complex
molecules into simpler molecules including the
hydrolysisofmacromoleculesintomonomers.
Notes

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2.2Water

EssentialIdea:
Wateristhemediumoflife.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic4.3Carboncycling
Topic4.4Climatechange
Physics
Topic3.1Thermalconcepts

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Usetheoriestoexplainnatural
Claimsaboutthememoryofwater
phenomenathetheorythathydrogenbonds
havebeencategorizedas
formbetweenwatermoleculesexplainsthe
pseudoscientific.
propertiesofwater.

Understandings
Watermoleculesarepolarand
hydrogenbondsformbetweenthem.
Hydrogenbondinganddipolarity
explainthecohesive,adhesive,thermal
andsolventpropertiesofwater.
Substancescanbehydrophilicor
hydrophobic.

ApplicationsandSkills
Comparisonofthethermalpropertiesof
waterwiththoseofmethane.
Useofwaterasacoolantinsweat.

Modesoftransportofglucose,amino
acids,cholesterol,fats,oxygenand
sodiumchlorideinbloodinrelationto
theirsolubilityinwater.

Notes

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2.3CarbohydratesandLipids

EssentialIdea:

Compoundsofcarbon,hydrogenandoxygen
areusedtosupplyandstoreenergy.

NatureofScience:
Evaluatingclaimshealthclaimsmade
aboutlipidsindietsneedtobeassessed

SyllabusConnections:
OptionB:Biotechnologyand
bioinformatics

IBConnections:
Variationintheprevalenceofdifferent
healthproblemsaroundtheworld
Therearesocialimplicationsofobesity.

Understandings
Monosaccharidemonomersare
linkedtogetherbycondensation
reactionstoformdisaccharides
andpolysaccharidepolymers.
Fattyacidscanbesaturated,
monounsaturatedor
polyunsaturated.
Unsaturatedfattyacidscanbecis
ortransisomers.
Triglyceridesareformedby
condensationfromthreefatty
acidsandoneglycerol.

ApplicationsandSkills
Structureandfunctionofcelluloseandstarch
inplantsandglycogeninhumans.

Notes

Scientificevidenceforhealthrisksoftransfats
andsaturatedfattyacids.

Lipidsaremoresuitableforlongtermenergy
storageinhumansthancarbohydrates.
Useofmolecularvisualizationsoftwareto
comparecellulose,starchandglycogen.

Determinationofbodymassindexby
calculationoruseofanomogram.
Evaluationofevidenceandthemethodsused
toobtaintheevidenceforhealthclaimsmade
aboutlipids.

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2.4Proteins

EssentialIdea:

SyllabusConnections:
Proteinshaveaverywiderangeoffunctions
Topic8AHLMetabolism,cell
inlivingorganisms.
respirationandphotosynthesis

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Lookingforpatterns,trendsand
Proteomicsandtheproductionof
discrepanciesmostbutnotallorganisms
proteinsbycellsculturedinfermenters
assembleproteinsfromthesameamino
offermanyopportunitiesforthefood,
acids
pharmaceuticalandotherindustries

Understandings
Aminoacidsarelinkedtogetherbycondensationto
formpolypeptides.

ApplicationsandSkills
Rubisco,insulin,
immunoglobulins,
rhodopsin,collagenand
spidersilkasexamplesof
therangeofprotein
functions.
Thereare20differentaminoacidsinpolypeptides
Denaturationofproteinsby
synthesizedonribosomes.
heatorbydeviationofpH
fromtheoptimum
Aminoacidscanbelinkedtogetherinanysequence
Drawingmolecular
givingahugerangeof
diagramstoshowthe
possiblepolypeptides.
formationofapeptide
bond.
Theaminoacidsequenceofpolypeptidesiscodedfor
bygenes.
Aproteinmayconsistofasinglepolypeptideormore
thanonepolypeptide
linkedtogether.
Theaminoacidsequencedeterminesthe

threedimensionalconformationof
aprotein.
Livingorganismssynthesizemanydifferentproteins
withawiderangeof
functions.
Everyindividualhasauniqueproteome.

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2.5Enzymes

EssentialIdea:

Enzymescontrolthemetabolismofthecell

SyllabusConnections:
Topic8AHLMetabolism,cellrespiration
andphotosynthesis

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Experimentaldesignaccurate,quantitative
Developmentofsometechniquesbenefits
measurementsinenzymeexperimentsrequire
particularhumanpopulations
replicatestoensurereliability.
morethanothers.

Understandings
Enzymeshaveanactivesitetowhichspecific
substratesbind.
Enzymecatalysisinvolvesmolecularmotionand
thecollisionofsubstrateswiththeactivesite.

ApplicationsandSkills
Methodsofproductionof
lactosefreemilkanditsadvantages.
Designofexperimentstotestthe
effectoftemperature,pHand
substrateconcentrationonthe
activityofenzymes.
Temperature,pHandsubstrateconcentration
Experimentalinvestigationofa
affecttherateofactivityofenzymes.
factoraffectingenzymeactivity.
Enzymescanbedenatured.

Immobilizedenzymesarewidelyusedinindustry.
Notes

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2.6StructureofDNAandRNA

EssentialIdea:

ThestructureofDNAallowsefficient
storageofgeneticinformation

NatureofScience:
Usingmodelsasrepresentationofthereal
worldCrickandWatsonusedmodel
makingtodiscoverthestructureofDNA.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.2Water
Topic3.5Geneticmodificationand
biotechnology
Topic7Nucleicacids

IBConnections:
Thestoryoftheelucidationofthe
structureofDNAillustratesthat
cooperationandcollaborationamong
scientistsexistsalongsidecompetition
betweenresearchgroups

Understandings
ThenucleicacidsDNAandRNAare
polymersofnucleotides.
DNAdiffersfromRNAinthenumberof
strandspresent,thebasecompositionand
thetypeofpentose.

DNAisadoublehelixmadeoftwo
antiparallelstrandsofnucleotideslinked
byhydrogenbondingbetween
complementarybasepairs.
Notes

IB2016studentguides.doc

ApplicationsandSkills
CrickandWatsonselucidationof
thestructureofDNAusing
modelmaking.
Drawingsimplediagramsofthe
structureofsinglenucleotidesof
DNAandRNA,usingcircles,
pentagonsandrectanglestorepresent
phosphates,pentosesandbases.

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2.7DNAReplicationandProteinSynthesis

EssentialIdea:

GeneticinformationinDNAcanbe
accuratelycopiedandcanbetranslatedto
maketheproteinsneededbythecell.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic3.5Geneticmodificationand
biotechnology
Topic7.2Transcriptionandgene
expression
Topic7.3Translation

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Obtainingevidenceforscientific
Ethicalimplicationsinalteringthe
theoriesMeselsonandStahlobtained
genomeofanorganism
evidenceforthesemiconservativereplication
inordertoproduceproteinsformedical
ofDNA
useinhumans.

Understandings
ThereplicationofDNAis
semiconservativeanddependson
complementarybasepairing.
Helicaseunwindsthedoublehelixand
separatesthetwostrandsbybreaking
hydrogenbonds.

ApplicationsandSkills
UseofTaqDNApolymerasetoproduce
multiplecopiesofDNArapidlybythe
polymerasechainreaction(PCR).
Productionofhumaninsulininbacteriaas
anexampleoftheuniversalityofthegenetic
codeallowinggenetransferbetween
species.
DNApolymeraselinksnucleotides
Useatableofthegeneticcodetodeduce
togethertoformanewstrand,usingthe
whichcodon(s)correspondstowhichamino
preexistingstrandasatemplate.
acid.
TranscriptionisthesynthesisofmRNA
AnalysisofMeselsonandStahlsresultsto
copiedfromtheDNAbasesequencesby
obtainsupportforthetheoryof
RNApolymerase.
semiconservativereplicationofDNA.
Translationisthesynthesisofpolypeptides UseatableofmRNAcodonsandtheir
onribosomes.
correspondingaminoacidstodeducethe
sequenceofaminoacidscodedbyashort
mRNAstrandofknownbasesequence.
Theaminoacidsequenceofpolypeptidesis DeducingtheDNAbasesequenceforthe
determinedbymRNAaccordingtothe
mRNAstrand.
geneticcode.
CodonsofthreebasesonmRNA

correspondtooneaminoacidina
polypeptide.
Translationdependsoncomplementary

basepairingbetweencodonsonmRNA
andanticodonsontRNA.

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2.8CellRespiration

EssentialIdea:

Cellrespirationsuppliesenergyforthe
functionsoflife.

NatureofScience:
Assessingtheethicsofscientific
researchtheuseofinvertebratesin
respirometerexperimentshasethical
implications.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.5Enzymes

IBConnections:
Ethicsoftheuseofanimalsin
experimentsandLargescaleuseoffood
plantsfor
biofuelsandtheresultingimpactonfood
prices

Understandings
Cellrespirationisthecontrolledreleaseof
energyfromorganiccompoundstoproduce
ATP.
ATPfromcellrespirationisimmediately
availableasasourceofenergyinthecell.

ApplicationsandSkills
Useofanaerobiccellrespirationinyeasts
toproduceethanolandcarbondioxidein
baking
Lactateproductioninhumanswhen
anaerobicrespirationisusedtomaximize
thepowerofmusclecontractions.
Anaerobiccellrespirationgivesasmall
Analysisofresultsfromexperiments
yieldofATPfromglucose
involvingmeasurementofrespirationrates
ingerminatingseedsorinvertebratesusing
arespirometer.
Aerobiccellrespirationrequiresoxygenand
givesalargeyieldofATPfromglucose.
Notes

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2.9Photosynthesis

EssentialIdea:

Photosynthesisusestheenergyinsunlightto
producethechemicalenergyneededforlife.

NatureofScience:
Experimentaldesigncontrollingrelevant
variablesinphotosynthesisexperimentsis
essential.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.5Enzymes

IBConnections:

Understandings
Photosynthesisistheproductionofcarbon
compoundsincellsusinglightenergy.

Visiblelighthasarangeofwavelengthswith
violettheshortestwavelengthandredthe
longest.
Chlorophyllabsorbsredandbluelightmost
effectivelyandreflectsgreenlightmorethan
othercolours.
Oxygenisproducedinphotosynthesisfromthe
photolysisofwater.
Energyisneededtoproducecarbohydratesand
othercarboncompoundsfromcarbondioxide.
Temperature,lightintensityandcarbondioxide
concentrationarepossiblelimitingfactorsonthe
rateofphotosynthesis.
Notes

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HIGHERLEVEL

ApplicationsandSkills
ChangestotheEarths
atmosphere,oceansandrock
depositiondueto
photosynthesis.
Drawinganabsorption
spectrumforchlorophyllandan
action
spectrumforphotosynthesis
Designofexperimentsto
investigatetheeffectoflimiting
factorsonphotosynthesis.
Separationofphotosynthetic
pigmentsbychromatograph.

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Topic3:Genetics
3.1Genes

EssentialIdea:

Everylivingorganisminheritsablueprint
forlifefromitsparents.

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsintechnologygene
sequencersareusedforthesequencingof
genes.

SyllabusConnections:
Sequencingofthehumangenomeshowsthatall
humanssharethevast
majorityoftheirbasesequencesbutalsothat
therearemanysingle
nucleotidepolymorphismsthatcontributeto
humandiversity.

IBConnections:
Thereisalinkbetweensicklecell
anemiaandprevalenceofmalaria.How
canweknowwhetherthereisacausal
linkinsuchcasesorsimplya
correlation?

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
Ageneisaheritablefactorthatconsists Thecausesofsicklecellanemia,
ofalengthofDNAandinfluencesa
includingabasesubstitutionmutation,a
specificcharacteristic.
changetothebasesequenceofmRNA
transcribedfromitandachangetothe
sequenceofapolypeptidein
hemoglobin.
Ageneoccupiesaspecificpositionona Comparisonofthenumberofgenesin
chromosome.
humanswithotherspecies.
Thevariousspecificformsofageneare Useofadatabasetodetermine
alleles.
differencesinthebasesequenceofa
geneintwospecies.
Allelesdifferfromeachotherbyoneor
onlyafewbases.
Newallelesareformedbymutation.

Thegenomeisthewholeofthegenetic
informationofanorganism.
Theentirebasesequenceofhuman

geneswassequencedintheHuman
GenomeProject.
Notes

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3.2Chromosomes

EssentialIdea:

Chromosomescarrygenesinalinear
sequencethatissharedbymembersofa
species.
NatureofScience:
Developmentsinresearchfollow
improvementsin
techniquesautoradiographywasusedto
establishthelengthofDNAmoleculesin
chromosomes

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.6Celldivision

IBConnections:
Sequencingofthericegenomeinvolved
cooperationbetweenbiologistsin
10countries.

Understandings
Prokaryoteshaveonechromosome
consistingofacircularDNAmolecule.

ApplicationsandSkills
Cairnstechniqueformeasuringthe
lengthofDNAmoleculesby
autoradiography.
Someprokaryotesalsohaveplasmidsbut ComparisonofgenomesizeinT2
eukaryotesdonot.
phage,Escherichiacoli,
Drosophilamelanogaster,Homo
sapiensandParisjaponica
EukaryotechromosomesarelinearDNA Comparisonofdiploidchromosome
moleculesassociatedwithhistone
numbersofHomosapiens,
proteins.
Pantroglodytes,Canisfamiliaris,
Oryzasativa,Parascarisequorum.
Inaeukaryotespeciestherearedifferent Useofkaryogramstodeducesexand
chromosomesthatcarrydifferentgenes.
diagnoseDownsyndrome
inhumans.
Homologouschromosomescarrythe
Useofdatabasestoidentifythelocusof
samesequenceofgenesbutnot
ahumangeneandits
necessarilythesameallelesofthose
polypeptideproduct.
genes.
Diploidnucleihavepairsofhomologous
chromosomes.
Haploidnucleihaveonechromosomeof
eachpair.
Thenumberofchromosomesisa

characteristicfeatureofmembersofa
species.
Akaryogramshowsthechromosomesof
anorganisminhomologouspairsof
decreasinglength.
Sexisdeterminedbysexchromosomes

andautosomesarechromosomes
thatdonotdeterminesex
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3.3Meiosis

EssentialIdea:

Allelessegregateduringmeiosisallowing
newcombinationstobeformedbythe
fusionofgametes

NatureofScience:
Makingcarefulobservationsmeiosiswas
discoveredbymicroscopeexaminationof
dividinggermlinecells.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.6Celldivision
Topic10.1Meiosis
Topic11.4Sexualreproduction

IBConnections:
Prenatalscreeningforchromosome
abnormalitiesgivesanindication
ofthesexofthefetusandraisesethical
issuesoverselectiveabortion

Understandings
Onediploidnucleusdividesbymeiosisto
producefourhaploidnuclei.
Thehalvingofthechromosomenumber
allowsasexuallifecyclewithfusionof
gametes.
DNAisreplicatedbeforemeiosissothatall
chromosomesconsistoftwosister
chromatids.

Theearlystagesofmeiosisinvolvepairing
ofhomologouschromosomesandcrossing
overfollowedbycondensation.
Orientationofpairsofhomologous
chromosomespriortoseparationisrandom.
Separationofpairsofhomologous
chromosomesinthefirstdivisionofmeiosis
halvesthechromosomenumber.
Crossingoverandrandomorientation
promotesgeneticvariation.
Fusionofgametesfromdifferentparents
promotesgeneticvariation.
Notes

ApplicationsandSkills
NondisjunctioncancauseDown
syndromeandother
chromosomeabnormalities.
Studiesshowingageofparents
influenceschancesof
nondisjunction.
Descriptionofmethodsusedto
obtaincellsforkaryotypeanalysis
e.g.chorionicvillussamplingand
amniocentesisandtheassociated
risks.
Drawingdiagramstoshowthe
stagesofmeiosisresultinginthe
formationoffourhaploidcells.

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3.4Inheritance

EssentialIdea:

Theinheritanceofgenesfollowspatterns.

NatureofScience:
Makingquantitativemeasurementswith
replicatestoensurereliability.Mendels
geneticcrosseswithpeaplantsgenerated
numericaldata

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.6Celldivision

IBConnections:
Socialimplicationsofdiagnosisof
mutations,includingtheeffectson
thefamilyandstigmatization.

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
Mendel discovered the principles of inheritance Inheritance of ABO blood
with experiments in which large numbers of pea
groups.
plantswerecrossed.
Gametes are haploid socontainonlyonealleleof Redgreen colour blindness and
eachgene.
hemophilia as examples of sex
linkedinheritance.
The two alleles of each gene separate into Inheritance of cystic fibrosis
differenthaploiddaughternucleiduringmeiosis.
andHuntingtonsdisease.
Fusion of gametes resultsindiploidzygoteswith Consequences of radiation after
two alleles of each gene that may be the same
nuclear bombing of Hiroshima
alleleordifferentalleles.
andaccidentatChernobyl
Dominant alleles mask the effects of recessive Construction of Punnett grids
allelesbutcodominantalleleshavejointeffects.
for predicting the outcomes of
monohybridgeneticcrosses.
Many genetic diseases in humans are due to Comparison of predicted and
recessive alleles of autosomal genes, although
actual outcomes of genetic
some genetic diseases are due to dominant or
crossesusingrealdata
codominantalleles.
Some genetic diseases are sexlinked. The Analysis of pedigree charts to
pattern of inheritance is differentwithsexlinked
deduce
the pattern
of
genesduetotheirlocationonsexchromosomes
inheritanceofgeneticdiseases.
Many genetic diseases have been identified in
humansbutmostareveryrare.
Radiation and mutagenic chemicals increase the
mutation rate and can cause genetic diseasesand
cancer.
Notes

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3.5GeneticEngineeringandBiotechnology

EssentialIdea:

Biologistshavedevelopedtechniquesfor
artificialmanipulationofDNA,cellsand
organisms.

NatureofScience:
Assessingrisksassociatedwithscientific
researchscientistsattempttoassessthe
risksassociatedwithgeneticallymodified
cropsorlivestock.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.7DNAreplication,transcription
andtranslation

IBConnections:
Theethicsofgeneticmodificationcould
bediscussed.

Understandings
Gelelectrophoresisisusedtoseparate
proteinsorfragmentsofDNAaccording
tosize.
PCRcanbeusedtoamplifysmall
amountsofDNA.

ApplicationsandSkills
UseofDNAprofilinginpaternityand
forensicinvestigations.

DNAprofilinginvolvescomparisonof
DNA.

Geneticmodificationiscarriedoutby
genetransferbetweenspecies.

Clonesaregroupsofgeneticallyidentical
organisms,derivedfromasingleoriginal
parentcell.
Manyplantspeciesandsomeanimal
specieshavenaturalmethodsofcloning.
Animalscanbeclonedattheembryo
stagebybreakinguptheembryointo
morethanonegroupofcells.
Methodshavebeendevelopedfor
cloningadultanimalsusingdifferentiated
cells.

Genetransfertobacteriausing
plasmidsmakesuseofrestriction
endonucleasesandDNAligase.
Assessmentofthepotentialrisksand
benefitsassociatedwith
geneticmodificationofcrops.
Productionofclonedembryos
producedbysomaticcellnuclear
transfer.
Designofanexperimenttoassessone
factoraffectingtherootingof
stemcuttings.
AnalysisofexamplesofDNAprofiles.

Analysisofdataonriskstomonarch
butterfliesofBtcrops.

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Topic4:Ecology
4.1Species,CommunitiesandEcosystems

EssentialIdea:

Thecontinuedsurvivaloflivingorganisms
includinghumansdependsonsustainable
communities.

NatureofScience:
Lookingforpatterns,trendsand
discrepanciesplantsandalgaearemostly
autotrophicbutsomearenot.

SyllabusConnections:
Geography
Part2A:Freshwaterissuesandconflicts
Environmentalsystemsandsocieties
Topic2.1Speciesandpopulations

IBConnections:
Promotingtheneedforsustainabilityin
humanactivities.

Understandings
Speciesaregroupsoforganismsthatcanpotentially
interbreedtoproducefertileoffspring.

ApplicationsandSkills
Classifyingspeciesasautotrophs,
consumers,detritivoresor
saprotrophsfromaknowledgeof
theirmodeofnutrition.
Membersofaspeciesmaybereproductivelyisolated Settingupsealedmesocosmsto
inseparatepopulations.
trytoestablishsustainability.
Specieshaveeitheranautotrophicorheterotrophic
Testingforassociationbetween
methodofnutrition(afewspecieshaveboth
twospeciesusingthechisquared
methods)
testwithdataobtainedbyquadrat
sampling.
Consumersareheterotrophsthatfeedonliving
Recognizingandinterpreting
organismsbyingestion.
statisticalsignificance.
Detritivoresareheterotrophsthatobtainorganic

nutrientsfromdetritusbyinternaldigestion.
Saprotrophsareheterotrophsthatobtainorganic

nutrientsfromdeadorganismsbyexternaldigestion
Acommunityisformedbypopulationsofdifferent

specieslivingtogetherandinteractingwitheach
other.
Acommunityformsanecosystembyitsinteractions
withtheabioticenvironment.
Autotrophsobtaininorganicnutrientsfromthe

abioticenvironment.
Thesupplyofinorganicnutrientsismaintainedby

nutrientcycling.
Ecosystemshavethepotentialtobesustainableover
longperiodsoftime.

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4.2EnergyFlow

EssentialIdea:

Ecosystemsrequireacontinuoussupplyof
energytofuellifeprocessesandtoreplace
energylostasheat.

NatureofScience:
Usetheoriestoexplainnatural
phenomenatheconceptofenergyflow
explainsthelimitedlengthoffoodchains

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.8Cellrespiration
Topic2.9Photosynthesis
Physics
Topic2.3Work,energyandpower
TopicB.2Thermodynamics
Environmentalsystemsandsocieties
Topic2.3Flowsofenergyandmatter

IBConnections:
Theenergeticsoffoodchainsisafactor
intheefficiencyoffoodproduction
forthealleviationofworldhunger.

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
Most ecosystemsrelyonasupplyofenergyfrom Quantitative representations of
sunlight.
energy flow using pyramids of
energy.
Light energy is converted to chemical energy in
carboncompoundsbyphotosynthesis.
Chemical energy in carbon compounds flows
throughfoodchainsbymeansoffeeding.
Energy released from carbon compounds by
respiration is used in living organisms and
convertedtoheat.
Living organisms cannot convert heat to other
formsofenergy.
Heatislostfromecosystems.

Energy losses between trophic levels restrict the
length of food chains and the biomass of higher
trophiclevels.
Notes

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4.3CarbonCycling

EssentialIdea:

Continuedavailabilityofcarbonin
ecosystemsdependsoncarboncycling.

NatureofScience:
Makingaccurate,quantitative
measurementsitisimportanttoobtain
reliabledataontheconcentrationofcarbon
dioxideandmethaneintheatmosphere.

SyllabusConnections:
Physics
Topic8.1Energysources
Chemistry
TopicC.2Fossilfuels
TopicC.5Environmentalimpact
IBConnections:
Theethicalimplicationsofdiverting
cropssuchasmaizefromafood
toafuelcropcouldbeconsidered.

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
Autotrophs convert carbon dioxide into Estimation ofcarbonfluxesdue
carbohydratesandothercarboncompounds.
to processes in the carbon
cycle.
In aquatic ecosystems carbon is present as Analysis of data from air
dissolvedcarbondioxideandhydrogen carbonate
monitoring stations to explain
ions.
annualfluctuations.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from the atmosphere or Construct a diagram of the
waterintoautotrophs.
carboncycle.
Carbon dioxide is produced by respiration and
diffuses out of organisms into water or the
atmosphere.
Methane is produced from organic matter in
anaerobic conditions by methanogenic archaeans
and some diffuses into the atmosphere or
accumulatesintheground.
Methane is oxidized to carbon dioxideandwater
intheatmosphere.
Peat forms when organic matter is not fully
decomposed because of acidic and/or anaerobic
conditionsinwaterloggedsoils.
Partially decomposed organic matter from past
geological eras was converted either into coal or
intooilandgasthataccumulateinporousrocks.
Carbon dioxideisproducedbythecombustion of
biomassandfossilized
organicmatter.
Animals such as reefbuilding corals and
mollusca have hard parts that are composed of
calcium carbonate and can become fossilized in
limestone.

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4.4ClimateChange

EssentialIdea:

Concentrationsofgasesintheatmosphere
affectclimatesexperiencedattheEarths
surface.

NatureofScience:
Assessingclaimsassessmentoftheclaims
thathumanactivitiesareproducingclimate
change.

SyllabusConnections:
Physics
Topic8.2Thermalenergytransfer
Geography
Part1.3Patternsinenvironmentalqualityand
sustainability/Atmosphereand
change
Environmentalsystemsandsocieties
Topic7.2Climatechangecausesandimpacts

IBConnections:
Thereareinterestingparallelsbetweenhumans
thatareunwillingto
reducetheircarbonfootprintandcheatingin
socialanimals.Whenthelevel
ofcheatingrisesaboveacertainlevel,social
behaviourbreaksdown

Understandings
Carbondioxideandwatervapourarethemost
significantgreenhousegases.

Othergasesincludingmethaneandnitrogen
oxideshavelessimpact.

Theimpactofagasdependsonitsabilityto
absorblongwaveradiationaswellasonits
concentrationintheatmosphere.
ThewarmedEarthemitslongerwavelength
radiation(heat).
Longerwaveradiationisabsorbedby
greenhousegasesthatretaintheheatinthe
atmosphere.
Globaltemperaturesandclimatepatternsare
influencedbyconcentrationsofgreenhouse
gases.
Thereisacorrelationbetweenrisingatmospheric
concentrationsofcarbondioxidesincethestart
oftheindustrialrevolution200yearsagoand
averageglobaltemperatures.
Recentincreasesinatmosphericcarbondioxide
arelargelyduetoincreasesinthecombustionof
fossilizedorganicmatter.
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ApplicationsandSkills
Threatstocoralreefsfrom
increasingconcentrationsof
dissolvedcarbondioxide.

Correlationsbetweenglobal
temperaturesandcarbon
dioxide
concentrationsonEarth.
Evaluatingclaimsthathuman
activitiesarenotcausing
climate
change.

25

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Topic5:EvolutionandClassification
5.1EvidenceforEvolution

EssentialIdea:

Thereisoverwhelmingevidenceforthe
evolutionoflifeonEarth.

SyllabusConnections:
Physics
Topic7.1Discreteenergyandradioactivity
Geography
Part1.3Patternsinenvironmentalqualityand
sustainability/Biodiversityand
change
Environmentalsystemsandsocieties
Topic4Biodiversityinecosystems

NatureofScience:
Lookingforpatterns,trendsand
discrepanciestherearecommonfeaturesin
thebonestructureofvertebratelimbsdespite
theirvarieduse.

IBConnections:
Evolutionaryhistoryisanespecially
challengingareaofsciencebecause
experimentscannotbeperformedto
establishpasteventsortheircauses.

Understandings
Evolutionoccurswhenheritablecharacteristicsofa
specieschange.
Thefossilrecordprovidesevidenceforevolution.

ApplicationsandSkills
Developmentofmelanisticinsects
inpollutedareas.
Comparisonofthepentadactyl
limbofmammals,birds,
amphibiansandreptileswith
differentmethodsoflocomotion.

Selectivebreedingofdomesticatedanimalsshows
thatartificialselectioncancauseevolution.
Evolutionofhomologousstructuresbyadaptive

radiationexplainssimilaritiesinstructurewhenthere
aredifferencesinfunction.
Populationsofaspeciescangraduallydivergeinto

separatespeciesbyevolution.
Continuousvariationacrossthegeographicalrange

ofrelatedpopulationsmatchestheconceptof
gradualdivergence.
Notes

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5.2NaturalSelection

EssentialIdea:

Thediversityoflifehasevolvedand
continuestoevolvebynaturalselection.

SyllabusConnections:
Thereareinternationalcodesof
nomenclatureandagreementsastothe
principlestobefollowedinthe
classificationoflivingorganisms.

IBConnections:
NaturalSelectionisatheory.Howmuch
evidenceisrequiredtosupporta
theoryandwhatsortofcounterevidence
isrequiredtorefuteit?

NatureofScience:
Usetheoriestoexplainnatural
phenomenathetheoryofevolutionby
naturalselectioncanexplainthe
developmentofantibioticresistancein
bacteria.

Understandings
Natural selection can only occur if there is
variation among members of the same
species.
Mutation, meiosis and sexual reproduction
cause variation between individuals in a
species.
Adaptations are characteristics thatmakean
individualsuitedtoitsenvironmentandway
oflife.
Species tend toproducemoreoffspringthan
theenvironmentcansupport.
ndividuals that are better adapted tend to
survive and produce more offspring while
the less well adapted tend to die or produce
feweroffspring.
Individuals that reproduce pass on
characteristicstotheiroffspring.
Natural selection increases the frequency of
characteristics that make individuals better
adapted and decreases the frequency of
other characteristics leading to changes
withinthespecies.
Notes

ApplicationsandSkills

Changes in beaks of finches on


DaphneMajor.

Evolution of antibiotic resistance in


bacteria.

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5.3ClassificationandBiodiversity

EssentialIdea:

Speciesarenamedandclassifiedusingan
internationallyagreedsystem.

NatureofScience:
Cooperationandcollaborationbetween
groupsofscientistsscientistsusethe
binomialsystemtoidentifyaspeciesrather
thanthemanydifferentlocalnames.

SyllabusConnections:
Thereareinternationalcodesof
nomenclatureandagreementsastothe
principlestobefollowedinthe
classificationoflivingorganisms.

IBConnections:
Theadoptionofasystemofbinomial
nomenclatureislargelyduetoSwedish
botanistandphysicianCarolusLinnaeus

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
The binomial system of names for species is Classification of one plant and one
universal among biologists and has been
animalspeciesfromdomain
agreedanddevelopedataseriesofcongresses.
tospecieslevel.
Whenspeciesarediscoveredtheyaregiven
Recognitionfeaturesofbryophyta,
scientificnamesusingthebinomialsystem.
filicinophyta,coniferophytaand
angiospermophyta.
Taxonomistsclassifyspeciesusingahierarchy Recognitionfeaturesofporifera,
oftaxa.
cnidaria,platylhelmintha,
annelida,mollusca,arthropodaand
chordata.
Allorganismsareclassifiedintothree
Recognitionoffeaturesofbirds,
domains.
mammals,amphibians,reptiles
andfish.
Theprincipaltaxaforclassifyingeukaryotes
Constructionofdichotomouskeys
arekingdom,phylum,class,order,family,
foruseinidentifyingspecimens
genusandspecies.
Inanaturalclassification,thegenusand

accompanyinghighertaxaconsistofallthe
speciesthathaveevolvedfromonecommon
ancestralspecies.
Taxonomistssometimesreclassifygroupsof

specieswhennewevidenceshowsthata
previoustaxoncontainsspeciesthathave
evolvedfrom
differentancestralspecies.
Naturalclassificationshelpinidentificationof
speciesandallowthepredictionof
characteristicssharedbyspecieswithina
group.
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5.4Cladistics

EssentialIdea:

Theancestryofgroupsofspeciescanbe
deducedbycomparingtheirbaseoramino
acidsequences

NatureofScience:
Falsificationoftheorieswithonetheory
beingsupersededbyanotherplantfamilies
havebeenreclassifiedasaresultofevidence
fromcladistics.

SyllabusConnections:

IBConnections:
Amajorstepforwardinthestudyofbacteriawas
therecognitionin1977thatArchaeahavea
separatelineofevolutionarydescentfrom
bacteria.Famousscientists,objectedtothis
divisionoftheprokaryotes.

Understandings
Acladeisagroupoforganismsthathave
evolvedfromacommonancestor.
Evidenceforwhichspeciesarepartofaclade
canbeobtainedfromthebasesequencesofa
geneorthecorrespondingaminoacid
sequenceofaprotein.
Sequencedifferencesaccumulategraduallyso
thereisapositivecorrelationbetweenthe
numberofdifferencesbetweentwospecies
andthetimesincetheydivergedfroma
commonancestor.
Traitscanbeanalogousorhomologous.
Cladogramsaretreediagramsthatshowthe
mostprobablesequenceofdivergencein
clades.
Evidencefromcladisticshasshownthat
classificationsofsomegroupsbasedon
structuredidnotcorrespondwiththe
evolutionaryoriginsofagrouporspecies.
Notes

IB2016studentguides.doc

ApplicationsandSkills

Cladogramsincludinghumansand
otherprimates.
Reclassificationofthefigwort

familyusingevidencefrom
cladistics.

Analysisofcladogramstodeduce
evolutionaryrelationships.

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Topic6:HumanPhysiology

6.1DigestionandAbsorption

EssentialIdea:

Thestructureofthewallofthesmallintestine
allowsittomove,digestandabsorbfood.

NatureofScience:
Usemodelsasrepresentationsofthereal
worlddialysistubingcanbeusedtomodel
absorptionintheintestine

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.1Moleculestometabolism
Topic2.5Enzymes

IBConnections:
Somehydrolyticenzymeshaveeconomic
importance.

Understandings
Thecontractionofcircularandlongitudinal
muscleofthesmallintestinemixesthefood
withenzymesandmovesitalongthegut.
Thepancreassecretesenzymesintothelumen
ofthesmallintestine.
Enzymesdigestmostmacromoleculesinfood
intomonomersinthesmallintestine.
Villiincreasethesurfaceareaofepithelium
overwhichabsorptioniscarriedout.

Villiabsorbmonomersformedbydigestionas
wellasmineralionsandvitamins.
Differentmethodsofmembranetransportare
requiredtoabsorbdifferentnutrients.

Notes

ApplicationsandSkills
Processesoccurringinthesmall
intestinethatresultinthedigestionof
starchandtransportoftheproductsof
digestiontotheliver.
Useofdialysistubingtomodel
absorptionofdigestedfoodinthe
intestine.
Productionofanannotateddiagramof
thedigestivesystem.
Identificationoftissuelayersin
transversesectionsofthesmall
intestine
viewedwithamicroscopeorina
micrograph.

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6.2TheBloodSystem

EssentialIdea:

Thebloodsystemcontinuouslytransports
substancestocellsandsimultaneously
collectswasteproducts.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.2Water
Topic2.3Carbohydratesandlipids
Topic6.4Gasexchange
Topic6.6Hormones,homeostasisand
reproduction

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
TheoriesareregardedasuncertainWilliam
Thesocialimplicationsofcoronaryheart
Harveyoverturnedtheoriesdevelopedbythe
diseasecouldbediscussed.
ancientGreekphilosopherGalenon

movementofbloodinthebody.

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
Arteries convey blood at high pressure from William Harveys discovery of the
theventriclestothetissuesofthebody.
circulationofthebloodwith
theheartactingasthepump.
Arteries have muscle cellsandelasticfibresin Pressure changes in the left atrium,
theirwalls.
left ventricle and aorta during the
cardiaccycle.
The muscle and elastic fibres help maintain Causes and consequences of
bloodpressurebetweenpumpcycles.
occlusionofthecoronaryarteries.
Blood flows through tissues in capillaries. Identification of blood vessels as
These have permeable walls that allow
arteries,capillariesorveinsfromthe
exchange of materials between cells in the
structureoftheirwalls.
tissueandthebloodinthecapillary.
Veinscollectbloodatlowpressurefromthe
Recognitionofthechambersand
tissuesofthebodyandreturnittotheatriaof
valvesoftheheartandtheblood
theheart.
vesselsconnectedtoit.
Valvesinveinsandtheheartprevent

backflow.
Thereisaseparatecirculationforthelungs.

Theheartbeatisinitiatedbyagroupof

specializedmusclecellsintheright
atriumcalledthesinoatrialnode.
Thesinoatrialnodeactsasapacemaker.

Thesinoatrialnodesendsoutanelectrical

signalthatstimulatescontractionasitis
propagatedthroughthewallsoftheatriaand
thenthewallsoftheventricles.
Theheartratecanbeincreasedordecreased

byimpulsesbroughttotheheartthroughtwo
nervesfromthemedullaofthebrain.
Epinephrineincreasestheheartratetoprepare
forvigorousphysicalactivity.

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6.3DefenceagainstInfectiousDisease

EssentialIdea:

Thehumanbodyhasstructuresandprocesses
thatresistthecontinuousthreatofinvasionby
pathogens.

NatureofScience:
Risksassociatedwithscientific
researchFloreyandChainstestsonthe
safetyofpenicillinwouldnotbecompliant
withcurrentprotocolontesting

SyllabusConnections:
Topic5.2Naturalselection
Chemistry
TopicD2Aspirinandpenicillin

IBConnections:
Thesocialaswellastheeconomic
benefitsofthecontrolofbacterial
diseasesaroundtheworldshouldbe
stressed.

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
The skin and mucous membranes form a Causes and consequences of blood clot
primary defence against pathogensthatcause
formationincoronaryarteries.
infectiousdisease.
Cutsintheskinaresealedbybloodclotting. Florey and Chains experiments to test
penicillinonbacterialinfectionsinmice.
Clottingfactorsarereleasedfromplatelets.
EffectsofHIVontheimmunesystem and
methodsoftransmission.
The cascaderesultsintherapidconversionof
fibrinogentofibrinbythrombin.
Ingestion of pathogens by phagocytic white
blood cells gives nonspecific immunity to
diseases.
Production of antibodies by lymphocytes in
response to particular pathogens gives
specificimmunity.
Antibiotics block processes that occur in
prokaryoticcellsbutnotineukaryoticcells.
Viruses lack a metabolism and cannot
therefore be treated with antibiotics. Some
strains of bacteria have evolved with genes
that confer resistance to antibiotics and some
strainsofbacteriahavemultipleresistance.

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6.4GasExchange

EssentialIdea:

Thelungsareactivelyventilatedtoensure
thatgasexchangecanoccurpassively

NatureofScience:
Obtainevidencefortheories,
epidemiologicalstudieshavecontributedto
ourunderstandingofthecausesoflung
cancer

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.4Membranetransport
Topic1.6Celldivision
Topic6.2Thebloodsystem

IBConnections:
Thesocialconsequencesoflungcancer
andemphysemacouldbediscussed.

Understandings
Ventilationmaintainsconcentration
gradientsofoxygenandcarbondioxide
betweenairinalveoliandbloodflowingin
adjacentcapillaries.
TypeIpneumocytesareverythinalveolar
cellsthatareadaptedforgasexchange.
TypeIIpneumocytessecreteasolution
containingsurfactantthatcreatesamoist
surfaceinsidethealveolitopreventthe
sidesofthealveolusadheringtoeachother
byreducingsurfacetension.
Airiscarriedtothelungsinthetracheaand
bronchiandthentothealveoliin
bronchioles.
Musclecontractionscausethepressure
changesinsidethethoraxthatforceairin
andoutofthelungstoventilatethem.
Differentmusclesarerequiredfor
inspirationandexpirationbecausemuscles
onlydoworkwhentheycontract.

IB2016studentguides.doc

ApplicationsandSkills
Causesandconsequencesoflung
cancer.

Causesandconsequencesof
emphysema.
Externalandinternalintercostal
muscles,anddiaphragmand
abdominalmusclesasexamplesof
antagonisticmuscleaction.

Monitoringofventilationin

humansatrestandaftermildand
vigorousexercise.

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6.5NeuronsandSynapses

EssentialIdea:

Neuronstransmitthemessage,synapses
modulatethemessage.

NatureofScience:
Cooperationandcollaborationbetween
groupsofscientistsbiologistsare
contributingtoresearchintomemoryand
learning

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.4Membranetransport

IBConnections:
Thesocialeffectsoftheabuseof
psychoactivedrugscouldbe
considered,ascouldtheuseofthe
neurotoxin
Botoxforcosmetictreatments.

Understandings
Neuronstransmitelectricalimpulses.

ApplicationsandSkills
Secretion
and
reabsorption
of
acetylcholinebyneuronsatsynapses.
The myelination of nerve fibres allows for Blocking of synaptic transmission at
saltatoryconduction
cholinergic synapses in insects by binding
of
neonicotinoid
pesticides
to
acetylcholinereceptors.
Neurons pump sodium and potassium ions Analysis of oscilloscope traces showing
across their membranes to generate aresting
restingpotentialsandactionpotentials.
potential.
An action potential consists of
depolarization and repolarization of the
neuron.
Nerve impulses are action potentials
propagatedalongtheaxonsofneurons.
Propagation of nerve impulses is the result
of local currents that cause each successive
part of the axon to reach the threshold
potential.
Synapses are junctions between neurons and
between neurons and receptor or effector
cells.
When presynaptic neurons are depolarized
they release a neurotransmitter into the
synapse.
A nerve impulse is only initiated if the
thresholdpotentialisreached.

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6.6Hormones,HomeostasisandReproduction

EssentialIdea:

Hormonesareusedwhensignalsneedtobe
widelydistributed

SyllabusConnections:
Topic3.2Chromosomes
Topic3.3Meiosis
Topic10.1Meiosis

IBConnections:

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsinapparatusWilliamHarveywas
hamperedinhisobservationalresearchinto
reproductionbylackof
equipment.Themicroscopewasinvented17years
afterhisdeath

Scientistsareawarethatthedrugswomentakein
fertilitytreatment
posepotentialriskstohealth.Shouldscientific
knowledgeoverride
compassionateconsiderationsintreatinginfertile
couples?

Understandings
Insulinandglucagonaresecretedby
andcellsofthepancreasrespectivelyto
controlbloodglucoseconcentration.
Thyroxinissecretedbythethyroidgland
toregulatethemetabolicrateandhelp
controlbodytemperature.
Leptinissecretedbycellsinadipose
tissueandactsonthehypothalamusofthe
braintoinhibitappetite.
Melatoninissecretedbythepinealgland
tocontrolcircadianrhythms.

ApplicationsandSkills
CausesandtreatmentofTypeIand
TypeIIdiabetes.

AgeneontheYchromosomecauses
embryonicgonadstodevelopastestes
andsecretetestosterone.
Testosteronecausesprenatal
developmentofmalegenitalia,sperm
productionanddevelopmentofmale
secondarysexualcharacteristicsduring
puberty.
Estrogenandprogesteronecauseprenatal
developmentoffemalereproductive
organsandfemalesecondarysexual
characteristicsduringpuberty.
Themenstrualcycleiscontrolledby
negativeandpositivefeedback
mechanismsinvolvingovarianand
pituitaryhormones.

IB2016studentguides.doc

Testingofleptinonpatientswith
clinicalobesityandreasonsforthe
failuretocontrolthedisease.
Causesofjetlaganduseofmelatonin
toalleviateit.

TheuseinIVFofdrugstosuspendthe
normalsecretionofhormones,
followedbytheuseofartificialdoses
ofhormonestoinducesuperovulation
andestablishapregnancy.
WilliamHarveysinvestigationof

sexualreproductionindeer.

Annotatediagramsofthemaleand

femalereproductivesystemtoshow
namesofstructuresandtheirfunctions.

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Topic7:NucleicAcids

7.1DNAStructureandReplication

EssentialIdea:

ThestructureofDNAisideallysuitedtoits
function.

NatureofScience:
MakingcarefulobservationsRosalind
FranklinsXraydiffractionprovidedcrucial
evidencethatDNAisadoublehelix

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.6StructureofDNAandRNA

IBConnections:
Highlyrepetitivesequenceswereonce
classifiedasjunkDNAshowinga
degreeofconfidencethatithadnorole.

Understandings
NucleosomeshelptosupercoiltheDNA.

ApplicationsandSkills
RosalindFranklinsandMaurice
WilkinsinvestigationofDNA
structurebyXraydiffraction.
DNAstructuresuggestedamechanismfor
Useofnucleotidescontaining
DNAreplication.
dideoxyribonucleicacidtostop
DNAreplicationinpreparationof
samplesforbasesequencing.
DNApolymerasescanonlyaddnucleotides TandemrepeatsareusedinDNA
tothe3endofaprimer.
profiling.
DNAreplicationiscontinuousonthe
AnalysisofresultsoftheHershey
leadingstrandanddiscontinuousonthe
andChaseexperimentproviding
laggingstrand.
evidencethatDNAisthegenetic
material.
DNAreplicationiscarriedoutbyacomplex Utilizationofmolecular
systemofenzymes.
visualizationsoftwaretoanalysethe
association
betweenproteinandDNAwithina
nucleosome.
SomeregionsofDNAdonotcodefor

proteinsbuthaveotherimportantfunctions.

Notes

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7.2TranscriptionandGeneExpression

EssentialIdea:

Utilizationofmolecularvisualization
softwaretoanalysetheassociationbetween
proteinandDNAwithinanucleosome.

NatureofScience:
Lookingforpatterns,trendsand
discrepanciesthereismountingevidence
thattheenvironmentcantriggerheritable
changesinepigeneticfactors.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.7DNAreplication,transcription
andtranslation

IBConnections:
Thenatureversusnurturedebate
concerningtherelativeimportanceofan
individualsinnatequalitiesversusthose
acquiredthroughexperiencesis
stillunderdiscussion.

Understandings
Transcriptionoccursina5to3direction.

ApplicationsandSkills
Thepromoterasanexampleof
noncodingDNAwithafunction.
AnalysisofchangesintheDNA
methylationpatterns.

Nucleosomeshelptoregulatetranscription
ineukaryotes.
EukaryoticcellsmodifymRNAafter
transcription.
SplicingofmRNAincreasesthenumberof
differentproteinsanorganismcanproduce.
Geneexpressionisregulatedbyproteins

thatbindtospecificbasesequencesin
DNA.
Theenvironmentofacellandofan

organismhasanimpactongeneexpression.

Notes

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7.3Translation

EssentialIdea:

InformationtransferredfromDNAto
mRNAistranslatedintoanaminoacid
sequence.
NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsincomputingtheuseof
computershasenabledscientiststomake
advancesinbioinformaticsapplications
suchaslocatinggeneswithingenomesand
identifyingconservedsequences.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.7DNAreplication,transcription
andtranslation
OptionB:Biotechnology

IBConnections:

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills
Initiationoftranslationinvolvesassembly tRNAactivatingenzymesillustrate
ofthecomponentsthatcarryout
enzymesubstratespecificityandthe
theprocess.
roleofphosphorylation.
Synthesisofthepolypeptideinvolvesa
Identificationofpolysomesinelectron
repeatedcycleofevents.
micrographsofprokaryotesand
eukaryotes.
Disassemblyofthecomponentsfollows
Theuseofmolecularvisualization
terminationoftranslation.
softwaretoanalysethestructureof
eukaryoticribosomesandatRNA
molecule.
Freeribosomessynthesizeproteinsfor

useprimarilywithinthecell.
Boundribosomessynthesizeproteins

primarilyforsecretionorforusein
lysosomes.
Translationcanoccurimmediatelyafter

transcriptioninprokaryotesdueto
theabsenceofanuclearmembrane.
Thesequenceandnumberofaminoacids
inthepolypeptideistheprimary
structure.
Thesecondarystructureistheformation
ofalphahelicesandbetapleated
sheetsstabilizedbyhydrogenbonding.
Thetertiarystructureisthefurtherfolding
ofthepolypeptidestabilizedby
interactionsbetweenRgroups.
Thequaternarystructureexistsinproteins
withmorethanonepolypeptidechain.

Notes

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Topic8:Metabolism,CellRespirationandPhotosynthesis

8.1Metabolism

EssentialIdea:

Metabolicreactionsareregulatedin
responsetothecellsneeds.

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsincomputingdevelopments
inbioinformatics,suchastheinterrogation
ofdatabases,havefacilitated
researchintometabolicpathways.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.7DNAreplication,transcription
andtranslation

IBConnections:
Manyenzymeinhibitorshavebeenused
inmedicine.
Manymetabolicpathwayshavebeen
describedfollowingaseriesofcarefully
controlledandrepeatedexperiments.

Understandings
Metabolicpathwaysconsistofchains
andcyclesofenzymecatalysed
reactions.
Enzymeslowertheactivationenergyof
thechemicalreactionsthattheycatalyse.
Enzymeinhibitorscanbecompetitiveor
noncompetitive.
Metabolicpathwayscanbecontrolledby
endproductinhibition

ApplicationsandSkills
Endproductinhibitionofthepathway
thatconvertsthreoninetoisoleucine.

Notes

Useofdatabasestoidentifypotential
newantimalarialdrugs.
Calculatingandplottingratesof
reactionfromrawexperimentalresults
Distinguishingdifferenttypesof
inhibitionfromgraphsatspecified
substrateconcentration.

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8.2CellRespiration

EssentialIdea:

Energyisconvertedtoausableformincell
respiration.

NatureofScience:
Paradigmshiftthechemiosmotictheory
ledtoaparadigmshiftinthefieldof
bioenergetics

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.8Cellrespiration
Chemistry
Topic9.1Oxidationandreduction

IBConnections:
PeterMitchellschemiosmotictheory
encounteredyearsofoppositionbefore
itwasfinallyaccepted.

Understandings
ApplicationsandSkills

Cellrespirationinvolvesthe
Electrontomographyusedto
oxidationandreductionofelectroncarriers.
produceimagesofactive
mitochondria.
Phosphorylationofmoleculesmakesthem
Analysisofdiagramsofthe
lessstable.
pathwaysofaerobicrespirationto
deducewheredecarboxylationand
oxidationreactionsoccur.
Inglycolysis,glucoseisconvertedto
Annotationofadiagramofa
pyruvateinthecytoplasm.
mitochondriontoindicatethe
adaptationstoitsfunction.
GlycolysisgivesasmallnetgainofATP

withouttheuseofoxygen.
Inaerobiccellrespirationpyruvateis

decarboxylatedandoxidized,andconverted
intoacetylcompoundandattachedto
coenzymeAtoformacetylcoenzymeAin
thelinkreaction.
IntheKrebscycle,theoxidationofacetyl

groupsiscoupledtothereductionof
hydrogencarriers,liberatingcarbondioxide.
Energyreleasedbyoxidationreactionsis

carriedtothecristaeofthemitochondriaby
reducedNADandFAD.
Transferofelectronsbetweencarriersinthe
electrontransportchaininthemembraneof
thecristaeiscoupledtoprotonpumping.
Inchemiosmosisprotonsdiffusethrough

ATPsynthasetogenerateATP.
Oxygenisneededtobindwiththefree

protonstomaintainthehydrogengradient,
resultingintheformationofwater.
Thestructureofthemitochondrionis

adaptedtothefunctionitperforms.

Notes

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8.3Photosynthesis

EssentialIdea:

Lightenergyisconvertedintochemical
energy.

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsinapparatussourcesof
14CandautoradiographyenabledCalvinto
elucidatethepathwaysofcarbonfixation.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.9Photosynthesis
Topic4.2Energyflow
Topic4.3Carboncycling

IBConnections:
Thelollipopexperimentusedtowork
outthebiochemicaldetailsoftheCalvin
cycleshowsconsiderablecreativity.

Understandings
Lightdependentreactionstakeplaceinthe
intermembranespaceofthethylakoids.
Lightindependentreactionstakeplaceinthe
stroma
ReducedNADPandATPareproducedinthe
lightdependentreactions.
Absorptionoflightbyphotosystemsgenerates
excitedelectrons.
Photolysisofwatergenerateselectronsforuse
inthelightdependentreactions.
Transferofexcitedelectronsoccursbetween
carriersinthylakoidmembranes.
ExcitedelectronsfromPhotosystemIIareused
tocontributetogenerateaprotongradient.
ATPsynthaseinthylakoidsgeneratesATP
usingtheprotongradient.
ExcitedelectronsfromPhotosystemIareused
toreduceNADP.
Inthelightindependentreactionsacarboxylase
catalysesthecarboxylationofribulose
bisphosphate.
Glycerate3phosphateisreducedtotriose
phosphateusingreducedNADPandATP.
TriosephosphateisusedtoregenerateRuBP
andproducecarbohydrates.
RibulosebisphosphateisreformedusingATP.
Thestructureofthechloroplastisadaptedtoits
functioninphotosynthesis.

Notes

ApplicationsandSkills
Calvinsexperimenttoelucidate
thecarboxylationofRuBP.
Annotationofadiagramto
indicatetheadaptationsofa
chloroplasttoitsfunction.

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Topic9:PlantBiology

9.1TransportinPlantxylem

EssentialIdea:

Structureandfunctionarecorrelatedinthe
xylemofplants.

NatureofScience:
Usemodelsasrepresentationsofthereal
worldmechanismsinvolvedinwater
transportinthexylemcanbeinvestigated
usingapparatusandmaterialsthatshow
similaritiesinstructuretoplanttissues.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic2.2Water
Topics2.9and8.3Photosynthesis

IBConnections:
Theintroductionofimageprocessing
softwareanddigital
microscopesincreasesfurthertheability
togathermoredatatoensure
reliability.

Understandings
Transpirationistheinevitable
consequenceofgasexchangeintheleaf.
Plantstransportwaterfromtherootsto
theleavestoreplacelossesfrom
transpiration.

ApplicationsandSkills
Adaptationsofplantsindesertsandin
salinesoilsforwaterconservation.
Modelsofwatertransportinxylem
usingsimpleapparatusincluding
blottingorfilterpaper,porouspotsand
capillarytubing.
Drawingthestructureofprimary
xylemvesselsinsectionsofstems
basedonmicroscopeimages.
Measurementoftranspirationrates
usingpotometers.

Thecohesivepropertyofwaterandthe
structureofthexylemvesselsallow
transportundertension.
Theadhesivepropertyofwaterand
evaporationgeneratetensionforcesin
leafcellwalls.
Activeuptakeofmineralionsintheroots
causesabsorptionofwaterbyosmosis.

Notes

Designofanexperimenttotest
hypothesesabouttheeffectof
temperatureorhumidityon
transpirationrates.

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9.2TransportinPlantPhloem

EssentialIdea:

Structureandfunctionarecorrelatedinthe
phloemofplants.

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsinapparatusexperimental
methodsformeasuringphloemtransport
ratesusingaphidstyletsandradioactively
labelledcarbondioxidewereonlypossible
whenradioisotopesbecameavailable

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.4Membranetransport

Understandings
Plantstransportorganiccompoundsfrom
sourcestosinks.
Incompressibilityofwaterallowstransport
alonghydrostaticpressuregradients.

ApplicationsandSkills
Structurefunctionrelationshipsof
phloemsievetubes
Identificationofxylemandphloem
inmicroscopeimagesofstemand
root.
Analysisofdatafromexperiments
measuringphloemtransportrates
usingaphidstyletsandradioactively
labelledcarbondioxide.

IBConnections:

Activetransportisusedtoloadorganic
compoundsintophloemsievetubesatthe
source.
Highconcentrationsofsolutesinthe
phloematthesourceleadtowateruptake
byosmosis.
Raisedhydrostaticpressurecausesthe
contentsofthephloemtoflowtowards
sinks.

Notes

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9.3GrowthinPlants

EssentialIdea:

Plantsadapttheirgrowthtoenvironmental
conditions.

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsinanalysisanddeduction,
improvementsinanalyticaltechniques
allowingthedetectionoftraceamountsof
substanceshasledtoadvancesinthe
understandingofplanthormonesandtheir
effectongeneexpression.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic3.5Geneticmodificationand
biotechnology

IBConnections:
Plantscommunicatechemicallyboth
internallyandexternally.
Micropropagationisusedforrapid
bulkingupofnewvarietiesofplant.

Understandings
Undifferentiatedcellsinthemeristemsof
plantsallowindeterminategrowth.

ApplicationsandSkills
Micropropagationofplantsusing
tissuefromtheshootapex,nutrient
agargelsandgrowthhormones.
Mitosisandcelldivisionintheshootapex Useofmicropropagationforrapid
providecellsneededforextension
bulkingupofnewvarieties,
ofthestemanddevelopmentofleaves.
productionofvirusfreestrainsof
existingvarietiesandpropagationof
orchidsandotherrarespecies.
Planthormonescontrolgrowthintheshoot
apex.
Plantshootsrespondtotheenvironmentby
tropisms.
Auxineffluxpumpscansetup

concentrationgradientsofauxininplant
tissue.
Auxininfluencescellgrowthratesby

changingthepatternofgeneexpression.

Notes

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9.4ReproductioninPlants

EssentialIdea:

Reproductioninfloweringplantsis
influencedbythebioticandabiotic
environment.
NatureofScience:
Paradigmshiftmorethan85%ofthe
worlds250,000speciesoffloweringplant
dependonpollinatorsforreproduction.This
knowledgehasledtoprotectingentire
ecosystemsratherthanindividualspecies.

SyllabusConnections:

IBConnections:

Understandings
Floweringinvolvesachangeingene
expressionintheshootapex.
Theswitchtofloweringisaresponsetothe
lengthoflightanddarkperiodsinmany
plants.
Successinplantreproductiondependson
pollination,fertilizationandseeddispersal.
Mostfloweringplantsusemutualistic
relationshipswithpollinatorsinsexual
reproduction.

ApplicationsandSkills
Methodsusedtoinduceshortday
plantstofloweroutofseason
Drawinginternalstructureofseeds.

TheUniversityofGttingenconductedan
extensivereviewofscientificstudiesfrom200
countriesfor115oftheleadingglobalcropsin
2005.Theyfoundthat87ofthecropplants
dependtosomedegree
uponanimalpollination,includingbees.This
accountsforonethirdofcrop
productionglobally.

Notes

Drawingofhalfviewsof
animalpollinatedflowers.
Designofexperimentstotest
hypothesesaboutfactorsaffecting
germination.

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Topic10:Genetics

10.1Meiosis

EssentialIdea:

Meiosisleadstoindependentassortmentof
chromosomesanduniquecompositionof
allelesindaughtercells.

NatureofScience:
Makingcarefulobservationscareful
observationandrecordkeepingturnedup
anomalousdatathatMendelslawof
independentassortmentcouldnotaccount
for.ThomasHuntMorgandevelopedthe
notionoflinkedgenestoaccountforthe
anomalies.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.6Celldivision
Topic3.3Meiosis
Topic11.4Sexualreproduction

IBConnections:
Stainingoflilyanthersorothertissue
containinggermlinecellsand
microscopeexaminationtoobservecells
inmeiosisarepossibleactivities.

Understandings
Chromosomesreplicateininterphasebefore
meiosis.
CrossingoveristheexchangeofDNA
materialbetweennonsisterhomologous
chromatids.
Crossingoverproducesnewcombinations
ofallelesonthechromosomesofthe
haploidcells.
Chiasmataformationbetweennonsister
chromatidscanresultinanexchangeof
alleles.
Homologouschromosomesseparatein
meiosisI.
SisterchromatidsseparateinmeiosisII.
Independentassortmentofgenesisdueto
therandomorientationofpairsof
homologouschromosomesinmeiosisI.

Notes

ApplicationsandSkills
Drawingdiagramstoshow
chiasmataformedbycrossingover.

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10.2Inheritance

EssentialIdea:

Genesmaybelinkedorunlinkedandare
inheritedaccordingly.

NatureofScience:
Lookingforpatterns,trendsanddiscrepancies,
Mendelusedobservationsofthenaturalworldtofind
andexplainpatternsandtrends.Sincethen,scientists
havelookedfordiscrepanciesandaskedquestions
basedonfurtherobservationstoshowexceptionsto
therules.Forexample,Morgandiscovered
nonMendelianratiosinhisexperimentswith
Drosophila.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic3.4Inheritance

IBConnections:
Thelawofindependentassortmentwas
soonfoundtohaveexceptions
whenlookingatlinkedgenes.
Anunderstandingofinheritanceallowed
farmerstoselectivelybreedtheir
livestockforspecificcharacteristics.

Understandings
Genelociaresaidtobelinkedifonthe
samechromosome.

ApplicationsandSkills
Morgansdiscoveryof
nonMendelianratiosin
Drosophila.
Unlinkedgenessegregateindependentlyas CompletionandanalysisofPunnett
aresultofmeiosis.
squaresfordihybridtraits.
Variationcanbediscreteorcontinuous.
Polygenictraitssuchashuman
heightmayalsobeinfluencedby
environmentalfactors.
Thephenotypesofpolygeniccharacteristics Calculationofthepredicted
tendtoshowcontinuousvariation.
genotypicandphenotypicratioof
offspringofdihybridcrosses
involvingunlinkedautosomalgenes.
Chisquaredtestsareusedtodetermine
Identificationofrecombinantsin
whetherthedifferencebetweenan
crossesinvolvingtwolinkedgenes.
observedandexpectedfrequency
distributionisstatisticallysignificant.

Useofachisquaredtestondata
fromdihybridcrosses.

Notes

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10.3GenepoolsandSpeciation

EssentialIdea:

Genepoolschangeovertime.

NatureofScience:
Lookingforpatterns,trendsand
discrepanciespatternsofchromosome
numberinsomegeneracanbeexplainedby
speciationduetopolyploidy.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic5.1Evidenceforevolution

IBConnections:
Punctuatedequilibriumwaslongconsideredan
alternativetheoryofevolutionandachallengeto
thelongestablishedparadigmofDarwinian
gradualism.
Manycropspecieshavebeencreatedtobe
polyploid.Polyploidyincreasesallelicdiversity
andpermitsnovelphenotypestobegenerated.It
alsoleadstohybridvigour.

Understandings
Agenepoolconsistsofallthegenesand
theirdifferentalleles,presentinan
interbreedingpopulation.
Evolutionrequiresthatallelefrequencies
changewithtimeinpopulations.
Reproductiveisolationofpopulationscan
betemporal,behaviouralorgeographic.
Speciationduetodivergenceofisolated
populationscanbegradual.
Speciationcanoccurabruptly.

Notes

ApplicationsandSkills
Identifyingexamplesofdirectional,
stabilizinganddisruptiveselection.

SpeciationinthegenusAlliumby
polyploidy.
Comparisonofallelefrequenciesof
geographicallyisolatedpopulations.

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Topic11:AnimalPhysiology

11.1AntibodyProductionandVaccination

EssentialIdea:

SyllabusConnections:
Immunityisbasedonrecognitionofselfand
Topic6.3Defenceagainstinfectious
destructionofforeignmaterial.
disease

Topic11.4Sexualreproduction

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Considerethicalimplicationsof
TheWorldHealthOrganizationinitiated
researchJennertestedhisvaccinefor
thecampaignfortheglobal
smallpoxonachild.
eradicationofsmallpoxin1967.The
campaignwasdeemedasuccessin1977,
only10yearslater.

Understandings
Everyorganismhasuniquemolecules
onthesurfaceofitscells.
Pathogenscanbespeciesspecific
althoughotherscancrossspecies
barriers.
BlymphocytesareactivatedbyT
lymphocytesinmammals.

ApplicationsandSkills

Smallpoxwasthefirstinfectiousdisease
ofhumanstohavebeeneradicatedby
vaccination
MonoclonalantibodiestoHCGareused
inpregnancytestkits.

ActivatedBcellsmultiplytoform
clonesofplasmacellsandmemorycells.
Plasmacellssecreteantibodies.
Antibodiesaidthedestructionof
pathogens.
Whitecellsreleasehistaminein
responsetoallergens.
Histaminescauseallergicsymptoms.
Immunitydependsuponthepersistence
ofmemorycells.
Vaccinescontainantigensthattrigger
immunitybutdonotcausethedisease.
Fusionofatumourcellwithan
antibodyproducingplasmacellcreatesa
hybridomacell.
Monoclonalantibodiesareproducedby
hybridomacells.

Antigensonthesurfaceofredblood
cellsstimulateantibodyproductionina
personwithadifferentbloodgroup.
Analysisofepidemiologicaldatarelated
tovaccinationprogrammes.

Notes

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11.2Movement

EssentialIdea:

Therolesofthemusculoskeletalsystemare
movement,supportandprotection.

NatureofScience:
Developmentsinscientificresearchfollow
improvementsinapparatusfluorescent
calciumionshavebeenusedtostudythe
cyclicinteractionsinmusclecontraction.

SyllabusConnections:

IBConnections:

Understandings
Bonesandexoskeletonsprovideanchorage
formusclesandactaslevers.
Synovialjointsallowcertainmovementsbut
notothers.
Movementofthebodyrequiresmusclesto
workinantagonisticpairs.
Skeletalmusclefibresaremultinucleateand
containspecializedendoplasmicreticulum.

ApplicationsandSkills
Antagonisticpairsofmusclesinan
insectleg
Annotationofadiagramofthe
humanelbow.
Drawinglabelleddiagramsofthe
structureofasarcomere.
Analysisofelectronmicrographsto
findthestateofcontractionof
musclefibres.

Musclefibrescontainmanymyofibrils.
Eachmyofibrilismadeupofcontractile
sarcomeres.
Thecontractionoftheskeletalmuscleis
achievedbytheslidingofactinandmyosin
filaments.
ATPhydrolysisandcrossbridgeformation
arenecessaryforthefilamentstoslide.
Calciumionsandtheproteinstropomyosin
andtroponincontrolmusclecontractions.

Notes

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11.3TheKidneyandOsmoregulation

EssentialIdea:

Allanimalsexcretenitrogenouswaste
productsandsomeanimalsalsobalance
waterandsoluteconcentrations.

NatureofScience:
Curiosityaboutparticular
phenomenainvestigationswerecarriedout
todeterminehowdesertanimalsprevent
waterlossintheirwastes.

SyllabusConnections:
Topic1.3Membranestructure
Topic1.4Membranetransport

IBConnections:
Theremovalofkidneystonesbyultra
soundtreatment.

Understandings
Animalsareeitherosmoregulatorsor
osmoconformers.
TheMalpighiantubulesystemininsectsand
thekidneycarryoutosmoregulationand
removalofnitrogenouswastes.
Thecompositionofbloodintherenalarteryis
differentfromthatintherenalvein.
Theultrastructureoftheglomerulusand
Bowmanscapsulefacilitateultrafiltration.
Theproximalconvolutedtubuleselectively
reabsorbsusefulsubstancesbyactivetransport.
TheloopofHenlemaintainshypertonic
conditionsinthemedulla.
ADHcontrolsreabsorptionofwaterinthe
collectingduct.
ThelengthoftheloopofHenleispositively
correlatedwiththeneedforwaterconservation
inanimals.
Thetypeofnitrogenouswasteinanimalsis
correlatedwithevolutionary
historyandhabitat.

ApplicationsandSkills
Consequencesofdehydration
andoverhydration.
Treatmentofkidneyfailureby
hemodialysisorkidney
transplant.
Bloodcells,glucose,proteinsand
drugsaredetectedinurinarytests
Drawingandlabellingadiagram
ofthehumankidney.
Annotationofdiagramsofthe
nephron.

Notes

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11.4SexualReproduction

EssentialIdea:

SyllabusConnections:
Sexualreproductioninvolvesthe
Topic3.3Meiosis
developmentandfusionofhaploidgametes.
Topic6.6Hormones,homeostasisand

reproduction

NatureofScience:
IBConnections:
Assessingrisksandbenefitsassociatedwith
Disputesovertheresponsibilityfor
scientificresearchtheriskstohumanmale
frozenhumanembryos.
fertilitywerenotadequatelyassessedbefore
steroidsrelatedtoprogesterone

andestrogenwerereleasedintothe
environmentasaresultoftheuseofthe
femalecontraceptivepill.

Understandings
Spermatogenesisandoogenesisboth
involvemitosis,cellgrowth,twodivisions
ofmeiosisanddifferentiation.

ApplicationsandSkills
Theaverage38weekpregnancyin
humanscanbepositionedonagraph
showingthecorrelationbetween
animalsizeandthedevelopmentof
theyoungatbirthforother
mammals.
Processesinspermatogenesisandoogenesis Annotationofdiagramsof
resultindifferentnumbersofgameteswith
seminiferoustubuleandovaryto
differentamountsofcytoplasm.
showthestagesofgametogenesis.
Fertilizationinanimalscanbeinternalor
Annotationofdiagramsofmature
external.
spermandeggtoindicatefunctions.
Fertilizationinvolvesmechanismsthat

preventpolyspermy.
Implantationoftheblastocystinthe

endometriumisessentialforthe
continuationofpregnancy.
HCGstimulatestheovarytosecrete

progesteroneduringearlypregnancy.
Theplacentafacilitatestheexchangeof

materialsbetweenthemotherandfetus.
Estrogenandprogesteronearesecretedby

theplacentaonceithasformed.
Birthismediatedbypositivefeedback

involvingestrogenandoxytocin.

Notes

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