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Week

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Fall 2016

Welcome to Human Anatomy 208 Laboratory!



This will be an exciting and very busy semester. This lab book serves as your study guide: ALL
structures/organs/markings/openings, etc., listed in this lab book or on the lab whiteboard
are what you need to know for quizzes and tests. The Anatomy Team at CSULB is
committed to your success; we want you to make sure that you know exactly what you will
need to learn in this challenging and exciting laboratory.

Please check your calendar now to make sure that you can make EACH laboratory session this
semester! We move quickly, and because there are no open laboratories, if you miss one lab
you may never catch up L. Attendance in lab is not optional; you cannot make up your lab
by attending another lab without PRE-approval by the lab coordinator Dr. Gardner.

Previous students have asked us to tell you that this is not a class to take with a heavy
schedule! Students who earn passing grades report studying an average of 12-20 hours each
week for this class alone. Your success depends on you staying on top of the material; due to
the volume of new material covered each week, it is critical that you do not fall behind in this
class!

This is a working laboratory; for your protection no food or drink is allowed in the room. Please
leave food and drink (this includes water bottles) outside the room or keep them covered in
your backpack at all times while in the laboratory. Also for your safety, no gum or mints are
allowed. You may wish to bring and wear a laboratory coat for protection; non-latex gloves will
be supplied. Closed toes shoes are strongly suggested. Be sure to read in the laboratory
syllabus the policy regarding electronic devices (including cell phones) in the anatomy lab.
Electronic devices are not to be used in the laboratory. As the optimal room temperature for
our human tissue is in the 60s, you may want to bring a sweater, long-sleeve shirt, or lab coat
to wear on your lab days.

Our goal is to have EVERY student gain a deep understanding of human anatomy to use in
future courses and careers. To do this will take a sincere effort on your part, but doing well in
this class and really comprehending the material IS an achievable goal J!

CHECKLIST to bring to
EACH laboratory!
Your Atlas
Your Lab Manual (in a three
ring binder) COMPLETELY filled
out with drawings, pictures, and
questions answered!!

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Fall 2016

Directions for the Laboratory Exercises


Consider your laboratory manual your study guide for the lab. We have written the material
in a manner to provide you with knowledge you will not only use in this course, but also future
courses. EVERY TERM written in this book is a possible test question. All models, cadavers,
and soft tissue preparations in the lab can be used for exams and quizzes. It will be up to you to
correctly identify structures as well as learn selected innervations, actions, and functions. This
lab manual is your word bank for any quiz or test. As spelling structures correctly does
matter in many careers requiring this course, spelling does count! You will not get full credit for
misspelled words (you may get partial credit), so please practice (APR is a great way to ensure
you know your spelling).
Be sure to check BeachBoard to see what has been posted for study aids. We also strongly
suggest that you meet with your lab instructor early in the semester, especially during office
hours that have models for viewing. If you find that what you are doing is not working for you
to earn the grade you desire, please see you lab instructor as soon as possible!
You are responsible for all of the terms in this manual. We have found that when students
take the time to personally (not copying from another manual!) work through and fill in their
manual BEFORE lab, they learn a significant amount and have an advantage on quizzes and
exams. Therefore, you are responsible for filling it in completely BEFORE you come to lab.
Please ensure you write and draw accurate information that will help you identify and locate
structures in lab. Your text and atlas have the correct material you need to learn. If there are
typos/mistakes in the text/atlas, we will notify you at the appropriate time. Since we cannot
control the accuracy of internet sources, please limit your use of them (dont count on them
for spelling)! It will be SO helpful for you to BOTH hand-draw (even if you are a terrible artist)
and print and paste in BLANK pictures from other sources!
For each lab, use your books to fill out your lab worksheets BEFORE the lab begins. Use the
space provided to draw and describe the structure (and location) in terms that YOU will
understand (e.g., radial tuberosity = lump on side of radius, or thyroid gland = gland in throat
area that looks like a butterfly). While it may seem easier to copy words from the text or
atlas, or share answers with other students, these activities dont help you learn. In
contrast, looking at pictures/videos and reading explanations then describing in YOUR OWN
words will help you remember and understand J.

Although this may be a new concept, we require that you identify all structures and complete
all manual questions BEFORE your lab. Since weve started this requirement, grades have
increased. It is up to you to do the work to learn the material; you CAN do it J !
So hit the books! Get your anatomy text and atlas open and use them to start filling in this
manual. Dont forget to bring your atlas and laboratory manual pages in a divided binder.
These are both REQUIRED for EACH laboratory session. You may lose points if you do not
bring your atlas. Your laboratory manual is part of your grade. Lets do this!

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Fall 2016

Anatomical Terminology

You will be using anatomical terms throughout the class. Please learn these terms to prepare
yourself for the semester; you will encounter many of these terms on quizzes and exams in
both the lecture and laboratory. Remember, these are anatomical terms - use the anatomical
definitions from your BIO208 TEXTBOOK!! (Dont make up your own or use other sources for
terminology). More terms will appear in later sections.

Directional Terms: Please use pages 11-13 of your textbook to fill out this section.
Anatomical position
Medial

Lateral

Proximal



NOTE: This term IS used for the structures in the extremities.



NOTE: This term IS used for the structures in the extremities.

Superior

Distal

NOTE: This term is NOT used for structures in the extremities.

Inferior

Superficial


(closer to the surface of the body) this definition is okay too (but please also
write in your book definition)

Deep
Anterior


(furthest from the surface of the body) this definition is okay too (but please also
write in your book definition)

Posterior

Ventral

Dorsal

NOTE: This term is NOT used for structures in the extremities.

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Fall 2016

Use arrows to practice labeling the directional terms (from the previous page) on the
woman below:

QUESTION: Why is the p icture below NOT in full anatomical position?


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Bony Structural Terms: Please use pages 166-167 of your textbook to fill out this
section.

Fossa
Foramen

]
(What is the plural of foramen?)

Condyle

Sinus

Planes of the Body: Please use page 11 of your textbook to fill out this section.
NOTE: We filled in some terms for you. Please use the terms that we filled in if they are
there J
Extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right
Sagittal
and left sides (II to the midsagittal plane but either to the left or right of it)

Midsagittal

Extends down the midline of the body or organ vertically and divides the
structure into right and left halves

Coronal

Transverse

Identify the planes on the pictures below. Which of the four planes is not pictured?
Draw the missing fourth plane in on any of the figures below:

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Body Regions: Please use pages 13-14 of your textbook to fill out this section, indicating
between which two joints the specific body region is found.

arm (brachium)
forearm
(antebrachium)
thigh

leg

These terms will be used on lecture and laboratory quizzes & exams for the entire semester,
so commit them to memory now for your success!
[BELOW IS GOOD SPACE TO DRAW THINGS AND GLUE IN BLANK PICTURES TO LABEL!!]

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Osteology of the Appendicular Skeleton and Thorax



Anatomical Terminology: Please use your textbook to fill out this section (roots, prefixes,
and suffixes are on the very last page of your textbook behind the index).
NOTE: We filled in some terms for you. Please use the terms that we filled in if they
are there J

A joint
Articulation
Epi-

Infra-

Inter

Sub-

Sulcus

Narrow groove

Supra-

Identify the following bones and bony landmarks (structures located on a specific bone).
Some bones are marked with N to indicate that you must be able to differentiate
between the right side and the left side. All items are written in the single form; unusual
plural forms can be found in parentheses however, be sure to write the singular form
when labeling (identifying) one structure.

On ALL lab quizzes and exams, to receive credit, you MUST write the bone name for each
bony landmark (structure on the bone). If you only write the landmark, or if you write the
correct landmark with the incorrect bone, your answer will be marked wrong L. This applies
to ALL structures, whether or not the bone name is written next to the bony landmark in
your lab manual.

Clavicle
Sternal end of clavicle
Acromial end of clavicle

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Fall 2016

NScapula

Spine of scapula
Acromion
Coracoid process
Glenoid cavity
Medial border of scapula
Supraspinous fossa
Infraspinous fossa
Subscapular fossa

NHumerus

Head of humerus
Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle
Intertubercular sulcus
Deltoid tuberosity
Medial epicondyle of humerus
Lateral epicondyle of humerus
Capitulum
Trochlea
Olecranon fossa



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Ulna

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Fall 2016

Olecranon
Trochlear notch
Coronoid process of ulna
Styloid process of ulna

Radius

Head of radius
Radial tuberosity
Styloid process of radius

Carpals
Learn these eight bones as a group, not their individual names J

Metacarpals I-V

Phalanx (phalanges = plural)


Proximal phalanx

Middle phalanx
Distal phalanx
Pollex

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NCoxal bone
NOTE: The coxal bone is composed of three named bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis.
Acetabulum
Obturator foramen

Ilium

Iliac crest

Anterior superior iliac spine


Greater sciatic notch
Pubis

Ischium
Ischial spine
Ischial tuberosity

Pubic symphysis

Subpubic angle (pubic arch)


Pelvic brim



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NFemur

Head of femur
Neck of femur
Greater trochanter
Lesser trochanter
Linea aspera
Medial condyle of femur
Lateral condyle of femur
Medial epicondyle of femur
Lateral epicondyle of femur

Patella

Anterior surface of patella


Posterior surface of patella

NTibia

Medial condyle of tibia


Lateral condyle of tibia
Tibial tuberosity
Anterior border of tibia
Medial malleolus
Fibula

Lateral malleolus

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Fall 2016

Tarsals
In general, know these seven bones as one group called the tarsals, even though they each
have their own names. However, please learn the two tarsal bones listed below.

Calcaneus
Talus

Metatarsals I-V


Phalanx (phalanges = plural)

Proximal phalanx
Middle phalanx
Distal phalanx
Hallux


Sternum
Note: The sternum is composed of three named bones: manubrium of sternum, body of
sternum, and xiphoid process of sternum.

Manubrium of sternum

Jugular notch of sternum (suprasternal notch of sternum)

Body of sternum


Xiphoid process of sternum






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Fall 2016




Ribs
Note: We do not use the terms true ribs and false ribs in this class. Learn which specific ribs fall
into the categories listed below. Write in the rib numbers in the blank space within the
parentheses for each category. Rib #I (first rib) is the most superior rib.


Vertebrosternal rib (____________)
First rib
Vertebrochondral rib (____________)
Floating rib (____________)

Rib landmarks:
Head of rib

Tubercle of rib

Costal groove

Rib accessory structures:

Costal cartilage
[BELOW IS GOOD SPACE TO DRAW THINGS AND GLUE IN BLANK PICTURES TO LABEL!]

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Fall 2016

List the three rib categories on the lines below (we can never practice spelling enough J!)
- _____________________________
- _____________________________
- _____________________________

In the picture below, number each rib bone and indicate with brackets, which bones belong to which
category.

Use arrows to indicate the rib landmarks and rib accessory structures on the picture b elow:
- head of rib
- tubercle of rib (label this on rib II because the other ones it is hard to see)
- costal groove (draw this in on any rib! HINT: is it on the superior or inferior border or the rib?)
- costal cartilage

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Week 1

Name:

Fall 2016


Check Your Understanding: A great way to make sure that you really know the
material, and are ready for lab!

1. List the bony landmarks of the lower extremity that are located posteriorly. Dont forget to
write the bone for each structure!


2. These questions are regarding the capitulum of the humerus.
A. Is the capitulum of the humerus medial or lateral in its location?

B. With which bone and bony landmark does the capitulum articulate?


3. The scapula and clavicle articulate with each other. Name the bony landmarks (and their
bones) found in this articulation.

4. The distal portion of which specific bone forms the ball of your foot?

5. Which bony landmark of the coxal bone is always in a posterior location, and thus will always
help orient you?

6. Which bones form a joint with the talus?

7. Which ribs are vertebrochondral?


8. Using an anatomical term, in anatomical position, in what direction does the palm face?

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Fall 2016
Apply What You Learned: These questions require more than just rote memorization, and
represent concepts you will use in your career.


1. Identify the bones of this x-ray. Remember, to receive credit, you must use numbers as well
as specific bone name for each phalangeal bone! (Always use Roman numerals.) If done
correctly, you will have written 22 labels.

2. When you lean on a table with your elbow, which bony landmark and bone do you press on?


3. EXTRA CREDIT OPPORTUNITY!! On the skeleton drawings that follow label the structures
listed in the box on the next page DIRECTLY ON THE BONE (not in the margins around the bone,
because you will cut out and assemble the skeleton)!

If a structure is not already drawn, you must draw it in the correct location. However, please
double-check BEFORE you draw in a bony landmark as almost all of them are already there!

COMPLETING THIS = 1 POINT OF EXTRA CREDIT J !!

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Week 1

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acromial end of right clavicle
coracoid process of left scapula
intertubercular groove of right humerus
right proximal phalanx I
anterior superior iliac spine of left ilium
linea aspera of left femur
label each vertebrochondral rib

Fall 2016

acromion of right scapula


lesser tubercle of left humerus
left talus
ischial spine of right ischium
lateral condyle of right tibia
draw in the pelvic brim
jugular notch of the manubrium of sternum





If you have more time, test your knowledge by labeling ALL the bones & bony landmarks from
this weeks lab, and assemble your skeleton!

COMPLETING ALL OF WEEK 1 LAB STRUCTURES = 2 POINTS OF EXTRA CREDIT J J !!

There will be a little competition


in each lab class for who has the
best-dressed assembled
skeleton!! So if you have a little
extra time, join the competition
for some humerus (paha) fun! J

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Post-Lab Questions: Appendicular Skeleton & Thorax


Now that you have had a lab session on this material and thus have had an opportunity to really
understand the material, please just think about each question without using the internet or
your references. Write what you think AND how you reached that answer.


1. How many joints (bones that articulate with each other) are involved in the formation of the
pelvis? Name each joint and identify the bones that form each articulation.






2. What structure forms the prominent bump on the medial surface of your wrist?


3. A nerve, artery and vein travel in the costal groove. If access to the chest cavity is needed, in
order to not cut any of these structures, should the chest wall be cut just above the surface of a
rib, or just below the surface of the rib? Please explain your reasoning using anatomical
knowledge.




4. In order to determine if a bone is a right or a left, you need to determine medial/lateral,
anterior/posterior, and superior/inferior (or proximal/distal if in an extremity). For the scapula,
name specific bony landmarks which you would use to determine each of these three
orientations. Be sure to indicate which orientation each landmark would indicate.






5. What is the name of the digit in your foot that does not contain a middle phalanx?
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Week 1

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Fall 2016

THE NEXT TWO PAGES ARE BLANK ON PURPOSE FOR YOU TO FILL WITH DRAWINGS, PICTURES, AND NOTES!
Your lab instructor will expect these two pages to be filled out to receive credit for completing your manual
this week. This space is for YOU so fill it in with things that help YOU best J

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ALMOST DONE!! Utilize this final page!! J CONGRATULATIONS ON COMPLETING YOUR


FIRST WEEK OF YOUR LAB MANUAL!!

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