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APSC 182

Topic 1:
Properties of Matter
Related Reading Material:
Petrucci et al., Sections 1.2-1.5, 2.1-2.3
Young and Freedman, Sections 17.1-17.4

First Assignment (due at the beginning of your first lab session):

WHMIS Training (Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System)

Before your first lab you must complete:


WHMIS and Chemical Safety Course
1. Go to http://riskmanagement.ubc.ca/node/554
2. Enrol in the WHMIS Course
3. Read the modules, and answer the quiz questions. You can try the quiz as many times as
you want, with no penalty.
4. Once all three modules are completed, you will be able to print a copy of the certificate.
Print this certificate and hand it to your TA during your first lab session.
5. This must be completed before the first lab. This will count as an assignment.

What is Matter?
Anything that occupies
space and displays properties
of MASS and INERTIA

Definition of Matter:
INERTIA:

Tendency for an object to remain at rest


or in uniform motion
Change will occur if external force
is applied

MASS:

Quantity of matter in an object

Why are we interested


in matter?
Curiosity !?
Modern knowledge: We can decompose matter
into its smallest components and reassemble
these components into materials that do not exist
naturally.

Example:
Petroleum
MOTOR FUEL
PLASTICS
SYNTHETIC FABRICS
PESTICIDES
PHARMACEUTICALS

So what is matter made up of?

ATOMS
If one had to reduce scientific
history to one important
statement it would beALL
THINGS ARE MADE OF ATOMS
Richard Feynman
(Caltech)

So what is matter made up of?

All matter consists of atoms, small particles that cannot be made any smaller and still behave
like a chemical system.

A substance that is made up of a single, characteristic type of atoms is called an element.

Each element has a type of atom different from those of any other element.

Substance can be made up of one or several types of atoms.

History of Atomic Theory


Democritus Atomism

Leucippus

Democritus Universe is constituted by


atoms and empty space.. The atoms are
unlimited in size and number, and they are
borne along in the whole universe in a vortex,
and thereby generate all composite things
fire, water, air, earth; for even those are
conglomerations of given atoms.All things
happen by virtue of necessity, the vortex being
the cause of the creation of all things.
Democritus
Diogenes Laertius Lives and Opinions of Eminent
Philosophers, Cambridge 1925.

Roger Joseph Boscovich

Daltons Atomic Theory (1808)


Theoretical foundation in chemistry

Daltons Atomic Theory (1808)


1. Each chemical element is composed of minute,
indestructible particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of an element are identical, but
different from atoms of other elements.
3. Elements forming compounds always combine
in a simple numerical ratio of atoms
e.g. 1 atom of A to 2 atoms of B, or
1 atoms of A to 1 atoms of B

A new feature: electrons

Michael Faraday invents the cathode ray tube, 1850s,


generating a negative ray.
In 1897, Joseph John Thomson establishes the ray consists
of negatively charged particles found in all atoms.
These are later called electrons.

Thomsons atomic model


First theoretical description of the structure of atoms
Known as the plum pudding model

At about the same time...


In 1910, Ernest Rutherford reported that atoms
were mostly empty.

www.usf.edu

At about the same time...


In 1910, Ernest Rutherford reported that atoms
were mostly empty.
Observations:

Most of the alpha particles pass straight


through the gold foil.
Some of the alpha particles get deflected
by very small amounts.

A very few get deflected greatly.


Even fewer get bounced of the foil and
back to the left.

Rutherfords explanation (1911)


1. Most of the atomic mass & all of
the positive charge were
concentrated in a tiny nucleus.
2. The magnitude of positive charge
was different for different atoms
and was about half the atomic
weight.
3. There are equal numbers of
electrons outside the nucleus as
units of positive charge within the
nucleus.

More particles...
Rutherford (1919) discovers the proton
Chadwick (1932) discovers the neutron

Rutherfords explanation
1. Most of the atomic mass & all
of the positive charge were
concentrated in a tiny
nucleus.
2. The magnitude of positive
charge was different for
different atoms and was
about half the atomic weight.
3. There are equal numbers of
electrons outside the nucleus
as units of positive charge
within the nucleus.

Definition of Matter:
COMPOSITION OF MATTER

Refers to parts or components of matter


and their relative proportion
PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Qualities of matter which can be used to
distinguish one sample of matter from others

Definition of Matter:
Physical and Chemical Changes
PHYSICAL CHANGE

Composition remains unchanged


CHEMICAL CHANGE
Change in composition

Definition of Matter:
Physical Changes example - WATER

Classification of Matter:
Substance is a single, pure form of matter.
Example: water, copper, sugar

Mixtures contain two of more substances mixed


together.
Example: air, steel, soda-pop
Mixtures can be:
Homogeneous mixtures
Heterogeneous mixtures

Classification of Matter:
Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures
A solution of salt in water is a homogeneous
mixture
The sample has a uniform composition throughout

Noodle soup is a heterogeneous mixture


Materials are not uniformly dispersed over the
whole sample

Classification of Matter:

PROPERTIES OF MATTER Fundamental Units


Before we can continue to discuss properties of matter, we first have
to agree on a common set of vocabulary which we can use to
describe these properties.
Unit Systems
SI
meter

CGS
centimeter

cm

Mass

kilogram

kg

gram

pound

lb

Time

second

second

second

Temperature
Amount of
substance

kelvin

Celsius

Fahrenheit

mole

mol

mole

mol

mole

mol

Length

Imperial
foot
ft

SI, or Systme International units, are considered standard in engineering,


and will therefore be used in all further discussions. However, since the US,
one of the worlds largest markets and supplier of engineering materials,
continues to use the Imperial system, it is important to be aware of
alternate units.

PROPERTIES OF MATTER Derived Units


Units formed as a combination of fundamental units
are called derived units.
Some useful examples:
Expressed as
fundamental
units
3
Volume
m (L also accepted)
--Concentration
kg/L or mol/L
--3
Density
kg/m
--Velocity
m/s
--Force
N
kgm/s2
Energy
J
Nm or kgm2/s2
Power
W
J/s or kgm2/s3
Pressure
Pa
N/m2 or kg/ms2
Thermal conductivity
W/mK
kgm/s3K
Heat Capacity
J/kgK
m2s2/K
Common derived SI
units

PROPERTIES OF MATTER Unit Conversions


Always make sure your units are compatible. Conversion tables available on the back cover of
Petrucci et al.

Examples of unit conversions:


You are designing a chemical plant. Your reactor can produce a final product at a concentration
of 25 g product/gallon of solution. If you product has a market value of 170$/lb of product, at
what rate, in L/h, do you have to produce your solution to make 1,000,000$ worth of product
per day?
Solution:

=

1,000,000$

()

Convert the units, and check that the appropriate rate is approximately 16,800 L/h.

PROPERTIES OF MATTER

Properties can be:

INTENSIVE independent of the mass


EXTENSIVE vary with the mass

Mass describes the quantity of matter in an object


What is the difference between mass and weight?

The object occupies


a certain volume

Mass
Density =
Volume

EXAMPLE: Find the volume of the beaker!

Density of water @ 20 oC r = 0.9982 g/cm3


Density of Methanol @ 20 oC r = 0.7920 g/cm3

EXAMPLE: Find the volume of the beaker!

Solution:
1. Mass of water m = 35.552-25.601 = 9.951 g
2. Density of water @ 20 oC r = 0.9982 g/cm3
3. Volume of beaker V = m / r = 9.968944 cm3
4. Use significant figures V = 9.968944 cm3 = 9.969 cm3

Solution using CH3OH:


1. Density of Methanol @ 20 oC r = 0.7920 g/cm3
2. Volume of beaker V = 9.961 cm3

EXAMPLE: Measuring density of solids


1st method:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Measure the mass of the solid


Drop solid in graduated cylinder with know volume of liquid
Measure the volume of the displaced liquid
Calculate density

2nd method (based on buoyancy and Archimedes principle)

PROPERTIES OF MATTER

PROPERTIES OF MATTER

eths202.org/soschem/home/bonding

PROPERTIES OF MATTER Definition of units


Standard unit of length
is a meter
Original definition:

1/10,000,000 of the distance between the Equator


and the North Pole (1791)
A prototype was built from a metal bar and kept in Paris

DIDNT WORK!!!!

..WHY?
whats wrong with Paris?

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
whats wrong with Paris?
Answer: NOTHINGon the contrary!!
Correct answer:
THE METAL BAR WAS TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE
New definition:

1 m is the distance traveled by light in a vacuum


in 1/299,792,458 of a second

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
THE METAL BAR WAS

TEMPERATURE SENSITIVE

WHY?

THERMAL EXPANSION
In general, solids and liquids expand when heated and contract
when cooled

USE OF THERMAL EXPANSION - Thermometers

PHYSICS OF THERMAL EXPANSION


Solids expand when heated and contract when cooled
The thermal expansion of solids has its origin in
lattice vibrations

PHYSICS OF THERMAL EXPANSION


The atoms or molecules in the lattice oscillate with a
certain amplitude about their equilibrium position
The intensity of lattice vibrations increases as the
temperature rises
The atoms and molecules move farther away in average
positions causing an increase in volume of the solids

COEFFICIENT OF LINEAR EXPANSION


For most solids there is a linear variation of expansion
with temperature which can be expressed as:

L L0T
An object of length L0 will be exposed to a change
in length L when its temperature changes by T

- coefficient of linear expansion

FIND UNITS for !

ANOMALIES IN THERMAL EXPANSION


ABRUPT CHANGES IN VOLUME

1. Polymorphic transformation
EXAMPLE: SiO2

2. Change in magnetic properties


EXAMPLE: Alloys with magnetic properties
bellow Curie temperature have low
coefficients of thermal expansion

Thermal Expansion - Examples

Steel train rails are laid in 12.0 m long segments placed end-to-end. The rails
are laid on a winter day when their temperature is -2.0 oC. How much space
must be left between adjacent rails if they are just to touch on a summer day
when their temperature is 33.0 oC?

Derive the equation for volumetric expansion

Thermal Expansion - Examples


A copper cylinder is initially at 20.0 oC. At what temperature will its
volume be 0.150% larger than it is at 20.0 oC?

PROPERTIES OF MATTER
OTHER PROPERTIES OF SOLID MATTER

WHICH DEPEND ON LATTICE VIBRATIONS


IN A SIMILAR WAY

- Electrical resistance

- Heat capacity