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Behavioral perspective an approach that focuses on external,

environmental influences on behavior


Behaviorism a school of thought in psychology that emphasizes the study
of observable behavior over the study of the mind
Biological Perspective an approach that focuses on physical causes of
behavior
Case study an in-depth observation of one participant
Casual Hypothesis an educated guess about how one variable will
influence another variable
Cognition mental processes such as reasoning and problem solving; the
way in which we use and store information in memory
Cognitive perspective thought that tends to be pessimistic and negative
Confidentiality ethical principle that researchers do not reveal which data
were collected from which participant
Confounding variables any factor other than the independent variable
that affects the dependent measure
Control group the group of participants who do not receive the
manipulation that is being tested
Correlation the average product of z scores calculated on pairs of scores;
describes the degree to which the scores in the pairs are linearly related
Critical thinking thought processes used to evaluate and analyze
information and apply it to other situations
Debriefing the ethical principle that after participating in an experiment
involving deception participants be fully informed of the nature of the study
Dependent Variables the variable in an experiment that measures any
effect of the manipulation
Double-blind studies an experiment in which neither the experimenters
nor the participants know to which group (experimental or control)
participants have been assigned
Eclectic approach an approach that integrates and combines several
perspectives when explaining behavior

Evolutionary perspective an approach that focuses on how evolution


and natural selection influence behavior
Experiment a research method that is used to test causal hypotheses
Experimental group the group of participants who receive the
manipulation that is being tested
Functionalism an early psychological perspective concerned with how
behavior helps people adapt to their environment
Generalizability how well a researchers findings apply to other
individuals and situations
Humanism a psychological perspective that emphasizes the personal
growth and potential of humans
Humanistic perspective an approach that focuses on how an individuals
view of him- or herself and the world influences behavior
Hypothesis an educated guess
Independent variable the variable in an experiment that is manipulated
Informed consent the ethical principle that research participants be told
about various aspects of the study, including any risks, before agreeing to
participate
Institutional Review Board a committee that reviews research proposals
to ensure that ethical standards have been met
Introspection observing ones own thoughts, feelings, or sensations
Naturalistic observation observing behavior in the environment in which
the behavior typically occurs
Negative correlation a relationship in which increases in one variable
correspond to decreases in the other variable
Neuroscience a field of science that investigates the relationships
between the nervous system and behavior/mental processes; the study of
how the brain and nervous system affect mental processes and behavior
Placebo effect a measurable change in participants behavior due to the
expectation or belief that a treatment will have certain effects

Population of interest the entire universe of animals or people that could


be studied
Positive correlation a relationship in which increases in one variable
correspond to increases in the other variable
Positive psychology the study of factors that contribute to happiness,
positive emotions, and well-being
Prediction an expected outcome of how variables will relate
Predictive hypothesis an educated guess about the relationships among
variables
Pseudopsychology psychological information or conclusions that sound
scientific but that have not been systematically tested using the scientific
method
Psychoanalytic theory Sigmund Freuds view that emphasizes the
influence of unconscious desires and conflicts on behavior
Psychodynamic perspective an approach that focuses on internal
unconscious mental processes, motives, and desires that may explain
behavior
Psychology the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Quasi-experiment a research study that is not a true experiment because
participants are not randomly assigned to the different conditions
Random assignment a method of assigning participants in which they
have an equal chance of being placed in any group or condition of the study
Response an organisms reaction to a stimulus
Sample the portion of the population of interest that is selected for a study
Scientific method a systematic process used by psychologists for testing
hypotheses about behavior
Sociocultural perspective an approach that focuses on societal and
cultural factors that may influence behavior
Stimulus any object or event that is perceived by our senses

Structuarlism an early psychological perspective concerned with


identifying the basic elements of experience
Surveys a research method that asks a large group of people about their
attitudes, beliefs, and/or behaviors
Theory - an explanation of why and how a behavior occurs
1.1 Quiz Yourself
1. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Psychology is just common sense.
b. Psychologists study only abnormal behavior.
c. Psychologists know why people behave the way that they do.
d. Psychologists test ideas about behavior according to the
scientific method.
2. Which of the following topics would a psychologist most likely study?
a. Weather patterns in Africa
b. Memory changes in adults
c. Causes of the Vietnam War
d. All of the above
3. Which of the following statements is not a pseudopsychology claim?
a. Transplant organs carry personality traits that are always
transferred from donors to receivers.
b. Walking on hot coals without burning ones feet requires
paranormal abilities.
c. You can make a blood clot in your brain disappear by humming.
d. Several studies show a relationship between academic
achievement and self-esteem.
1.2 Quiz Yourself
1. When we know that two events regularly occur together, which goal of
psychology can be met?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Predicting behavior
Changing behavior
Understanding behavior
Explaining behavior

2. Dr. Hincapie wants to test the hypothesis that stress increases ones
blood pressure. What type of hypothesis is Dr. Hincapie interested in
testing?
a. Predictive
b. Causal
c. Correlational
d. Biological
3. In an experiment on attitudes, participants are given either positive or
negative information about a speaker and then asked to evaluate the
effectiveness of the speaker. In this experiment, which is the
independent variable?
a. The effectiveness of the speaker
b. The type of information the participant is given
c. Attitude change
d. The speaker
4. The more hours that students work, the less successful they are
academically. This is an example of what type of correlation?
a. zero
b. positive
c. perfect
d. negative
5. Dr. Duarte is studying bullying behavior in children. Every day, he goes
to the local playground at 3 P.M., sits on the sidelines, and records the
number of times one child bullies another, the sex of the children
involved in the bullying, and the duration of the bullying. Dr. Duarte is
using which research method in his study?
a. An experiment
b. A case study
c. A naturalistic observation
d. A quasi-experiment
1.3 Quiz Yourself
1. What is the rule for deceiving participants in a psychological study?
a. Deception is never allowed in psychological research. It is against
the law in every state.
b. Deception is allowed only when using animals.
c. Deception is allowed when alternative procedures are
unavailable and when participants are debriefed at the end of
the study.
d. Deception can be used under any circumstances.

2. Dr. Kwan is performing case study research. She should be most


concerned with which of the following ethical principles?
a. Deception
b. Physical harm
c. Debriefing
d. Confidentiality
3. Which of the following is not an ethical guideline that psychologists
must follow when conducting research?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Paying participants for their participation


Informed consent
Freedom from harm
Confidentiality

1.4 Quiz Yourself


1. Javier wants to know how aggression helps a person adapt to the
environment. Which historical approach is Javier emphasizing?
a. Structuralism
b. Psychoanalysis
c. Functionalism
d. Humanism
2. Which of the following persons would be least likely to emphasize the
influence of stimuli and responses on behavior?
a. John Watson
b. Carl Rogers
c. Rosalie Rayner
d. B. F. Skinner
3. Which modern psychological perspective emphasizes the importance
of thought processes for understanding behavior?
a. Behavioral
b. Humanistic
c. Sociocultural
d. Cognitive
4. Which of the following professionals is most likely to prescribe
medication for a mental health disorder?
a. A clinical psychologist
b. A psychiatrist
c. A biopsychologist
d. An experimental psychologist
5. A psychologist who studies individual differences in shyness is probably
from which specialty area?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Cognitive
Social
Developmental
Personality

What Do You Know?


1. Which of the following is not true about psychology?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Psychology is just common sense.


Psychology is just the study of mental illness.
Psychology has no connection with everyday life.
All of the above are not true.

2. Which of the following topics would a psychologist have the least


interest in?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Learning
Sexuality
Employment trends
Color perception

3. Which of the following is not a goal of psychology?


a.
b.
c.
d.

To
To
To
To

describe behavior
change behavior
explain behavior
practice behavior

4. Which of the following best defines the nature of a theory?


a.
b.
c.
d.

An explanation of why a behavior occurs


A statement of fact
An untestable assumption
A prediction

5. The hypothesis that the number of rapes will increase during the
summer months is an example of a(n) hypothesis.
a.
b.
c.
d.

causal
predictive
untestable
nonscientific

6. Dr. Vaz conducted an experiment in which she randomly assigned


her participants to one of two conditions. In the first condition, the
participantswere shown visual images of common objects and then
1 hour later asked to recall as many of the objects as they could

remember. In the second condition, the participants heard the


names of the same objects and then 1 hour later were asked to
recall as many of the objects as they could. Dr. Vaz then compared
the number of items recalled for these two groups of participants. In
this experiment, the independent variable is .
a.
b.
c.
d.

the number of items recalled


whether the participants saw or heard the objects
the sex of the participants
the room in which the participants were tested

7. Dr. Pi wants to test the hypothesis that smoking marijuana impairs


ones ability to remember information. What type of hypothesis is
Dr. Pi interested in testing?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Predictive
Causal
Correlational
Biological

8. Dr. Ling is studying helping behavior in children. Every day, he goes


to the local playground at 3 p.m., sits on the sidelines, and records
the number of times one child helps another, the sex of the child
who helps, and the sex of the child who is helped. Dr. Ling is using
which research method in his study?
a.
b.
c.
d.

An experiment
A case study
A naturalistic observation
A quasi-experiment

9. A confounding variable .
a.
b.
c.
d.

measures the effect of the independent variable


is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter
has no effect on the dependent variable
is any factor other than the independent variable that affects
the dependent variable

10. The longer the commute for a student to a college campus, the
less likely he or she is to complete a degree. This is an example of
a.
a.
b.
c.
d.

positive correlation
negative correlation
zero correlation
case study

11. Dr. Eden tells potential participants of any risks they may
experience prior to their participation in his research study. He is
following the ethical guideline of .
a.
b.
c.
d.

deception
confidentiality
informed consent
debriefing

12. The perspective in psychology stresses the importance of


looking at the influence of unconscious drives and motives on
behavior and mental processes.
a.
b.
c.
d.

functionalism
cognitive
psychodynamic
behavioral

13. Dr. Babar is a psychologist who studies how peoples eating


habits help them adapt to and survive in their environments. Dr.
Babar is emphasizing which psychological perspective?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Evolutionary
Biological
Humanistic
Behavioral

14. Many modern psychologists follow the approach to psychology,


in that they do not adhere strictly to any one psychological
perspective.
a.
b.
c.
d.

pragmatic
functional
common sense
eclectic

15. Which of the following is the most likely educational attainment


of the majority of psychologists?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Doctorate degree
Masters degree
Bachelors degree
Associates degree

16. Dr. Warren is a psychologist who studies chemicals in the brain.


Dr. Warren is approaching psychology from the perspective.

a.
b.
c.
d.

cognitive
eclectic
biological
sociocultural

17. Dr. Barrios is a psychologist who studies how people change over
time. Dr. Barrios is most likely a psychologist.
a.
b.
c.
d.

cognitive
biological
social
developmental

18. Dr. Grogan studies how psychological principles can be applied in


the workplace. Dr. Grogan is most likely a(n) psychologist.
a.
b.
c.
d.

industrial/organizational
clinical
social
health

19. The first African American to earn a doctorate in psychology


was .
a.
b.
c.
d.
20.

Karen Horney
Mary Calkins
Gilbert Haven Jones
Sidney Beckham

Today, who earns most of the doctorates in psychology?


a.
b.
c.
d.

Men
Women
African Americans
Asian Americans

Quiz One Before Class:


1. Which of the following best illustrates an application of the principles of
behaviorism?
b. A parent is using "time out" as a consequence for bad behavior.
2. Dr. Moosbichler is a psychologist who believes that the best way to
understand the mind is to look at how specific mental processes and
behaviors help an organism live in and adapt to its environment. Dr.
Moosbichler's point of view is most compatible with the approach to
psychology known as
d. functionalism.

3. Similar to Wilhelm Wundt, if you were to use a self-observation


technique to analyze the basic elements of your thought processes,
you would most likely be using a method called
a. introspection.
4. Dr. Ramel is a psychologist who believes that the best way to
understand the mind is to break it down into its smallest elements,
much as a chemist understands matter by breaking it down into its
elemental components. Dr. Ramel's point of view is most compatible
with the approach to psychology known as
b. structuralism.
5. Dr. Wolfe spent the last year studying a man named Jeremy. Jeremy
had a stroke that destroyed a part of his brain called the hippocampus.
Since his injury, Jeremy cannot create new memories of anything that
has happened to him. The type of research Dr. Wolfe is engaged in is
a(n)
a. case study.
6. Consider an experiment in which participants take a pill that is either a
medication or a placebo. The researchers want to determine the effect
of the medication on depression. In this example, the control group
would be
b. the participants receiving the placebo.
7. Consider an experiment in which participants watch various types of
TV programs and are then observed while playing a physical game to
determine the number of aggressive acts they emit. In this example,
the independent variable would be the
c. type of TV programs watched.
8. Dr. Ford wants to test the hypothesis that room color can affect
memory. To test this, he randomly assigns 10 students to a condition
where they study a written passage while seated in a room that is
painted a lilac color. The other 10 students study the passage while
seated in an identical room that is painted bright orange. After both
groups studied the passage for 1 hour, they were given a multiplechoice test over the material. Dr. Ford then calculated how many
questions the students in both groups got right. In Dr. Ford's study, the
dependent variable is the
d. the students' test scores.
9. Consider an experiment in which participants take a pill that is either a
medication or a placebo. The researchers want to determine if the

medication has an effect on depression. In this example, the


experimental group would be
e. the participants receiving the medication.
10.
The statement, "We expect our study to show that students who
sleep fewer than five hours the night before the exam will perform
more poorly than those who sleep more than five hours," would be
considered a(n)
c. hypothesis.
11.
A research study done through surveys showing that psychology
faculty at 4-year colleges are more likely to be male than female would
be an example of a(n)
d. correlational study.
12.
Your best friend has signed up for a psychology class, but she
does not really know what to expect from this course. You want to help
her by explaining what psychology is. What should you tell her?
e. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
13.
Dr. Portillo is conducting a study in order to test a causal
hypothesis. What type of study must she conduct?
d. an experiment
14.
Dr. Sandburg has been collecting data for the last six months.
Every day she measures how much food her rats eat and how much
they weigh. Now that she has collected all of her data, the next step in
the scientific method for Dr. Sandburg is to
f. analyze her data.
15.
Dr. Rea is a psychologist who is about to conduct a study using
human participants. The first thing Dr. Rea should have his participants
do when they arrive at the lab is
d. read and sign an informed consent form.