Naval architecture

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Naval architecture

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 37

S C Misra

Law of Floatation:

Equilibrium requires

Weight = Buoyancy

LCB = LCG

Types of Equilibrium

Stable Equilibrium

Unstable Equilibrium

Neutral Equilibrium

Transverse Equilibrium - Equilibrium in

Transverse Plane heel

Longitudinal Equilibrium Equilibrium in

Longitudanal Plane - Trim

Equilibrium

(a) Equilibrium in static position

(b) Stable

(c) Unstable

Neutral Equilibrium

(a)

(b)

External Forces and Moments

Extrnal Forces and Moments can be

Static or Dynamic

Steady or unsteady

Examples

waves in a seaway

wind force

turning of a vessel

collision

grounding

grain shifting etc.

Assumptions

•

Due to proportions of vessel dimensions, heel is large

compared to trim. So stability normally means transverse

stability whereas trim is necessary for vessel equilibrium.

•

In this chapter we ignore the dynamic aspects and consider

only static effects due to external forces and moments

acting on the ship.

•

Normally heel and trim act together on the ship. But for

convenience we consider heel and trim separately at this

stage.

Metacentre and Righting Arm

SHIP

Transverse Stability at Small Angles

Heel Angle is small, say where → →0

M: Metacentre intersection of vertical lines through

B in the original position and through B in its heeled

position

GZ: Righting Lever

.GZ: Righting Moment

GM : Transverse Metacentric Height

GZ = GM .sin

Transverse Stability at Small Angles

The ship will come back to its original position or has

positive stability if

GZ > 0.0 or

GM > 0.0 or

metacenric height is positive or

M is above G

Transverse Metacentre

Transverse Metacentre

Transverse metacentre, M , is the intersection of the

vertical line through the CB in undisturbed condition and

through the CB in the inclined position.

Port and starboard sides being symmetrical in a ship, the

CB and hence , M , is on a fixed centre line

p

lane at various

draughts.

M is fixed for small angles of inclination in the transverse

plane.

The height of M above CB or CG is not large and therefore

stability in the transverse plane could be a matter of

concern.

The trans. metacentric height GM is necessary to calculate

the heel of the vessel.

Calculation of GM

Undisturbed waterline WL and inclined water line

W L intersect at a point F on the ship s centre plane

since the ship is symmetrical about the centre plane. It

is assumed that the ship is wall sided in the vicinity of

water lines WL and W L .

Let the inclination be small denoted by .

The volume of the immersed wedge must be equal to

the volume of the emerged wedge.

Also the moment due to shift of wedge volume

through g g must be equal to the moment due to shift

of CB from B to B

Calculation of GM

Ship s centre of buoyancy will move:

in a direction parallel to a line connecting g and g

a distance, BB equal to v.g g /vol. Of displacement.

As →0, → BB will tend to become parallel to the

inclined water line

Calculation of BM

Equating moment of shifting of wedge volume to

the moment due to shift of CB

BB

vg

.

g

1

12

BM

tan

tan

L

1

2

vg

.

g

yy

tan

2.

yd x

12

2

3

0

L

vg

.

g

2

12

3

yd x

Or

= I

tan

3

0

I

Thus, →0 ,

T

BM

Righting Moment

GM = KB + BM - KG

= KM - KG

GZ = GM . sin = GM .

This is true only if is small.

Righting Moment = .GZ

= .GM . at small angles

Stability of Submerged Bodies

POSITIVE STABILITY

NEGATIVE STABILITY

(a) RIGHTING MOMENT WHEN HEELED

(b) HEELING MOMENT

WHEN HEELED

SURFACE SHIP

POSITIVE STABILITY

NEGATIVE STABILITY

(c) RIGHTING MOMENT WHEN HEELED

(d) HEELING MOMENT

WHEN HEELED

SUBMERGED

SUBMARINE

Longitudinal Metacentre

Longitudinal metacentre, M , is the intersection of the

vertical line through the CB in undisturbed condition and

through the CB in the inclined position.

Fore and aft not being symmetrical in a ship, the CB and

hence , M , is not on a fixed transverse plane at various

draughts.

Like M ,M is fixed for small angles of inclination in the

longitudinal plane.

The height of M above CB or CG is generally large and

therefore stability in the longitudinal plane is always

positive.

The long. metacentric height GM is necessary to calculate

the trim of the vessel.

Longitudinal Stability

Calculation of GM

Undisturbed waterline WL and inclined water line

W L intersect at a point F. Since the ship is not

symmetrical fore and aft, F is not at mid ship. But the

volume of the immersed wed g e must be e q ual to the

volume of the emerged wedge.

Let the inclination be

small denoted by .

Also the moment due to shift of wedge volume

through g g must be equal to the moment due to shift

of CB from B to B

Trimming about LCF

Volume of the emerged wedge =

Q

v

yx

tan

dx

0

Volume of the immersed wedge =

LQ

v

yx

tan

dx

0

Q

LQ

Then

tan

d

xy dx

tan

xy dx

0

0

Q

LQ

oror

xy dx

xy dx

0

0

Hence F is LCF

Longitudinal Metacentric Radius

BB

vg

.

g

1

12

BM

L

tan

tan

v. gg

m

m

12

1

2

Q

Q

2

m

yx tan

x

dx tan

xy dx

1

0

0

LQ

m

tan

2

xy dx

2

0

m

m

vg

.

g

I

tan

1

2

12

L

vg gI

.

Then

12

L

0

BM

L

tan

Moment to change trim

Moment to change trim by angle

= .GM . Tan = .GM . (trim/L)

where trim = draught ford. draught aft.

Then moment to change trim by 1 cm,

MCT 1cm = .GM / (100 L)

So for a longitudinal heeling moment,

trim (cm) = moment / MCT 1cm

Trim ford = trim* dist. Of LCF from ford. end/L

Trim aft =-(trim trim ford)

Draught ford. or aft. = original draught + trim

Rolling Period

Period = Const. x k / GM

Where k: mass radius of gyration about long. Axis through

CG and then,

Period

= c x B / GM

Where c = 0.72 to 0.91 with mean at 0.80 for surface ships and

0.67 for submarines

(case of ore carrier 0.69 for loaded condition and 0.94 for

ballast condition)

High GM low period, fast rolling, acceleration high,

uncomfortable

Normally period should be between 12 to 18 seconds.

Loss of Initial Stability due to free surface

•Liquid with free surface in a

tank in the ship

•With small angle heel the CG

of liquid moves from B to B

•Perpendiculars through B nd B

intersect at metacentre M as if

CG of the weight has shifted

from b to M

•The rise of CG of liquid from B

to M

= i / v

where v is the volume of liquid

in the tank and i

is the m.i. Of

the free surface.

Loss of Initial Stability due to free surface

•

Increase mass moment due to rise in CG of the tank liquid = v / .

i / v =i /

where is the specific volume of liquid = m³ / kg

•

Virtual rise in CG of the ship = (i / ) / V

where V: volume of displacement of the ship

•

GM

=

KB

+

BM

KG

-( i /) /

V

where (i / ) / V is the free surface correction which does not

depend on the amount of liquid.

Loss of stability due to f.s. can occur during voyage tank

consumables reduce during voyage at arrival port

Loss of stability due to f.s. can occur at port due to loading and

unloading of ballast water

Loss of stability due to f.s. can occur during voyage ballast water

management at sea

Effect of Suspended Weight

•Loading and unloading of

cargo on and from the ship

•Shift of cargo from one side

to other

•Crane barge

•The weight swings about the

point of suspension which acts

like metacentre

•The virtual CG of ship moves

to point of suspension.

•The corrected GM and GZ can

be calculate.

•This can happen during

loading and unloading at port

Effect of Loading on Ships

Capacity carriers such as passenger ships, RORO ferries

and similar vessels have high superstructure and hence

high CG. During design and construction this is taken

into account for adequate stability.

Vessels such as container vessels, passenger ships and

timber carriers are loaded with weight above deck. Care

should be taken while loading, eg., container ships

should be loaded with light containers on top tiers.

Therefore, in such vessels, stability must be evaluated

during loading operation.

It may be necessary to load ballast water at lower levels

of the ship to bring down the CG.

Stability of Multibody Systems

Moment of Inertia of Waterplane about system

longitudinal axis =

Own M.I. About its own long. Axis + Transfer of MI to

system long. Axis. Thus

Trans M.I. = (own M.I. + Awp.d²)

where d: distance between the body long. Axis and

systen long. axis

High BM, KG can be high

Examples catamarans, trimarans, pentamarans,

SWATH vessels, floating semi-submersibles.

Training on Catamaran

CATAMARAN - Ferry

Trimaran Artist s Impression

Hydrofoil

SWATH Vessel

Semi-submersible platform

Thunder Horse, USA

Inclining experiment

Purpose : To determine the light ship weight and it CG position

Environmental Condition : Calm weather, no wind, waves or

current, preferably hip floating in dry dock

Ship condition : Ship nearly complete in all respects prior to

delivery

Experiment : Read Ta and Tf. Get ship displacement and LCB

pos t on an

ii

d KM f rom

hd y rostat i cs.

Th

en

light ship weight = Displacement and LCG = LCB

Move weight w though a distance d from one side of ship to the

other.

Measure heel angle (small) .

Then w . d = . GM . Tan and GM can be calculated and

KG = KM GM

Take usual expt. precautions repeat readings, take average and

make corrections for addition and removal of weights.

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