You are on page 1of 16

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

System of Equation :-

Q . Test for consistency and solve if consistent.


2x3y+7z=3
3x+y3z=13
2x+19y47z=32
Solution:
[A : B] =[


| ]

=[


| ]

+ , +

=[


| ]

=[


| ]

Rank =2
1

Matrices

System Of Equations

rank (A:B) = 3
The system is inconsistent

Q . Solve equation x + y + z = 3
x +2 y + 3z = 4
x + 4y + 9z = 6


| ]


| ]

3

[


| ]

Rank A=rank (A:B)=3


No. of solution
2z = 0
z=0
2

Solved Problems

Matrices

System Of Equations

y+2z=1
y=1
x+ y + z=3
x=2
Q . Test for consistency : 5 + + =
3 + + =
7 + + =


| ]

~[


| ]

+ , +

~[


| ]

() , ()

Solved Problems

Matrices

System Of Equations

~[

Solved Problems


| ]

~[


| ]

Rank A = 2 =rank[A:B] < no. of unknowns.


# L.I solution = nr =3 2 = 1
11 + =

(i)

+ =
Let = t
(i)

(tR)

(ii) = 14+3t49 { }

Q . Solve following equations : + + + =


+ + + =
+ =

(ii)

Matrices

System Of Equations


[A:B] =[

Solved Problems


| ]

~ [


| ]

~ [


| ]

Rank A = 3 =rank[A:B] < no. of unknowns.


System has infinitely many solution.
# L.I solution = nr =5 3 = 2
18 =
+ =

(i)
(ii)

+ + + = (iii)
Let = , =

= = 3

( , )

=2
= +
5

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

Q . for what value of will have no 3x 2y +z = 1


2x +y + z = 2
x + 2y z = 1
will equation have any solution for each value of

[A:B] = [


| ]



~ [


| ]

~ [


| ]

~ [

| ]

For no unique solution we must have


|| = 0

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

~ [
]

= 84 { } = 0
8= 4
For = 2 system here no unique solution

~ [

| ]

Rank A=2
Rank (A:B) =3
system has no unique solution.
Q . For what value of , equation have solution
x + y +z = 1
x +2y +4 z =
x + 4y +10z =
Equation have solution and find the solution in each case

[A:B]= [


| ]

,
7

Matrices

System Of Equations


~ [

| ]



~ [

]
|
+ +

Rank A =2
System has a solution is rank of [A:B] =2
i.e if + + =0
if = or 2
if =


| ]

rank A = 2 rank [A:B] < no. of unknowns.


Independent solution = n r =32 = 1
x + y + z = 1
x + 3y = 0
Let z=t

(ii)
(i)
tR

(i) y=3t
(ii) x = 1t+3t
8

Solved Problems

Matrices

System Of Equations

=1+2t

Solved Problems

tR

Q . For what value of and , equation have solution


x + y +z = 6
x +2y +3 z = 10
x + 2y +z =
(i) no solution
(ii) unique solution
(iii) Infinitely solution

[A:B]= [


| ]

,

~ [

| ]

~[

| ]

(i) If =3 , 10
9

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

Rank A = 2
Rank [A:B] = 3
No solution.
(ii) If 3 , for any value of
Rank A = 3 = rank [A:B]
= no. of solution
System has unique solution .
(iii) If 3 and =10
Rank A= 2= rank [A:B] < no. of solution.
system has infinite solution.

Q . Show that system of equation


3x + 4y +5z = a
4x +5y +6 z = b
5x + 6y +7z =c
Show that equation are consistent if a,b,c are in A.P

[


| ]


10

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems


~[

| ]

+ , +

~[

| ]

+
Rank A =2
System has solution if rank[A:B] =2
i.e if a+c-2b=0
+

i.e if b=

i.e if a ,b ,c are in A.P


consider Homogenous system.
AX=0
x=0 is always a solution .
Unique solution of AX=0 is X=0 itself

Q . For what value of , equation posses a non travial


solution determine solution in each case
2 x 2 y +z = x
11

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

2x 3y +2 z = y
x + 2y 0 = z
(2) x 2 y +z = x
2x+( 3y) +2 z = y
x + 2y z=0


] []=[]

System has a non trival solution if ||=0 ( ) ( +


)=0
=1 , 1 ,3
If =1


] X=0

, +


] X=0

Rank A =1 =r
# L.I solution = n r = 3 1=2
x2y+z=0
12

Matrices

System Of Equations

Let z = t
y= s

t,sR

x= t+2s
for =3

[

] X=0

+ ,

] X=0

] X=0

+ , +

[

]X=0

]X=0

13

Solved Problems

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

Rank 2 = r
# L.I solution = n r = 3 1=2

x+2y+3z=0
4y+8z=0
Let z=P
y=2P PR
x= 3P4P
x=P
Q . Show that system of equations
ax + by + cz =0
bx + cy + az = 0
cx + ay + bz = 0
has non trivial solution if either a+b+c =0 or a =b = c
a+by+c=0 or a = b = c

[

] X = 0

System has non-trivial solution

14

Matrices

System Of Equations

Solved Problems

|| = 0 + + =0
(a+b+c) ( + + abacbc)=0
a+b+c = 0 or + + abbcac=0
or + + 2ab2bc2ac=0
or [( + ) + ( + ) +(
+ ]=0
( ) +( ) +( ) = 0
i.e = = =
i.e a = b= c = 0
If a+b+c+ = 0
+ +
++ ++
~[

++
] X =0

bx+cy+az=0
Cx+ay+bz=0


|
|

=
|

=t z R

x=( )t
y=( )t
15

Matrices

System Of Equations

z=(ab )t
If a=b=c


] X =0

r= 1

Indepent solution = nr=31=2


a ( x + y + z) = 0 x + y + z = 0
Let z=t , y=s
x = ts

t, sR

16

Solved Problems