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2.1. Introduction
Irrigation is the application of water to soil to supplement deficient rainfall to provide
moisture for plant growth.
The first use of irrigation by primitive man is lost in shadows of time; it must have an
important step forward in the march of civilization. Only about one-third of the earths surface
receives enough precipitation in a normal year to mature food crops, and much of this area is
unsuited for agriculture.

2.1.1. Purposes for Irrigation

To add water to soil to supply the moisture essential for plant growth.
To provide crop insurance against short duration droughts.
To cool the soil and atmosphere, thereby making more favorable environment for plant
To reduce the hazard of frost.
To wash out or dilute salts in the soil.
To reduce the hazard of soil piping.
To soften tillage pans and clods.

2.1.2. Importance of Irrigation

Insufficient rainfall
Uneven distribution of rainfall
Improvement of perennial crops
Development of agriculture in desert area

2.1.3. Advantages of Irrigation

Increase in food production
Optimum benefits
Elimination of mixed cropping
Improvement of cash crops
Source of revenue
General prosperity
2.2. Methods of Irrigation


There are five basic methods of applying irrigation water to fields: flooding, furrow
irrigation, sprinkling, trickle irrigation and; sub-irrigation.

2.2.1. Flooding Method

Water is allowed to cover the surface of land in a continuous sheet, the water standing
just long enough in the field for the soil to absorb the water applied to refill the root zone. A
properly designed size of irrigation stream aims at proper balance against the intake rate of soil,
the total depth of water to be stored in the root zone and the area to be covered so as to give
reasonably uniform coverage of water over the entire field.
Wild Flooding
It is also called uncontrolled flooding. It is the primitive and most inefficient method of
irrigation. In this method water is spread over the smooth or flat field without much control over
the flow or prior preparation. The water is spread into the field from the ditch excavated either on
the contour or up and down the slope. This method is applicable to inundation irrigation system
or for pastures or forage crops where water is available in abundance at the highest elevation and
is inexpensive or the crop values do not justify adoption of better method. The water distribution
is quite uneven. The method is suitable for all medium to fine texture soils. It has low cost and
does not interfere with tillage.
The disadvantages of the method are:
wasteful use of water,
non-uniform distribution of water,
excessive soil erosion on steeper slopes;
requires drainage arrangement to reduce ponding.
Controlled Flooding
Free flooding, also called ordinary flooding, is the commonly adopted method where
irrigation water is in abundance and cheap. It may be accomplished from field ditches or by use
of borders, checks, or basins. The land is divided into plots or kiaries of suitable size depending
on porosity of soil. Water is spread over the field from watercourse. The irrigation operation
begins at the higher area and proceeds towards the lower levels. The flow is stopped when the
lower end of the field has received the desired depth of water. The field watercourse is properly
spaced; the spacing depends on the topography, oil texture, depth of soil and size of stream. The
spreading may vary from less than 15 m to more than 60 m. Porous soil requires close spacing
than tight soil. The method is most suitable for soils of medium texture and with moderate




Subsidiary Ditch


Main Supply Ditch

Figure 9.1: Free Flooding (Plan View)
Border flooding
The border method of flooding requires that the land be divided into strips 10 to 20 m
wide and 100 to 400 m long. The strips are separated by low levees, or borders. Water is turned
into each strip through a head gate along one of the narrow sides and flows downhill the length
of the strip, Preparation of land for border strip irrigation is more expensive than for ordinary
flooding, but this may be offset by a decrease in water waste because of the improved control.
Time estimation of Border Flooding
t=2.3 log

t = time required for irrigation, min
y = depth of flow, m
f = infiltration capacity of the soil, m/hr
Q = discharge, m3/s
A = area for irrigation, m2


Figure 9.2: Border Flooding (Plan View)
Check flooding
Check flooding is accomplished by turning water into relatively level plots, or checks,
surrounded by levees. If the land is initially level, the plots may be rectangular but with some
initial slope the checks will usually follow the contours. Check flooding is useful in very
permeable soils where excessive percolation might occur near a supply ditch. It is also
advantageous in heavy soils where infiltration would be inadequate in the time required for the
flow to cross the field. In check flooding the check is filled with water at a fairly high rate and
allowed to stand until the water infiltrates.

Figure 9.3: Check Flooding (Plan View)

The basin-flooding method
The basin-flooding method is check flooding adapted to orchards. Basins are constructed
around one or more trees depending on topography, and the flow is turned into the basin to stand
until it infiltrates. Portable pipes or large hoses are often used in place of ditches for conveying
water to the basins.

Figure 9.4: Basin Flooding (Plan View)

2.2.2. Furrow irrigation
Furrow irrigation is widely used for row crops, and small furrows, called corrugations,
have been used for forage crops such as alfalfa. The furrow is a narrow ditch between rows of
plants. An important advantage of the furrow method is that only 0.2 to 0.5 as much surface area
is wetted during irrigation as compared with flooding, and evaporation losses are
correspondingly reduced. Furrow irrigation is adapted to lands of irregular topography.
Customarily the furrows are run normal to the contours, although this should be avoided on steep
slopes where soil erosion may be severe. Spacing of furrows is determined by the proper spacing
of the plants. Furrows vary from 3 to 12 in. deep and may be as much as 1500 ft long.
Excessively long furrows may result in too much percolation near the upper end and too little
water at the downslope end. Water may be diverted by an opening in the bank of the supply
ditch, but many farmers now use small siphons made out of 4-ft lengths of plastic or aluminum
tubing about 2in. in diameter. These siphons are easily primed by immersion in the ditch and
provide a uniform flow to the furrow without the necessity of damaging the ditch bank.
2.2.3. Sprinkler Irrigation


Sprinkler Irrigation offers a means of irrigating areas which are so irregular that they
prevent use of any surface-irrigation methods. By using a low supply rate, deep percolation or
surface runoff and erosion can be minimized. Offsetting these advantages is the relatively high
cost of the sprinkling equipment and the permanent installations necessary to supply water to the
sprinkler lines. Very low delivery rates may also result in fairly high evaporation from the spray
and the wetted vegetation. In recent years, high labor costs for surface irrigation have increased
the attractiveness of sprinkler irrigation. Sprinkling may be accomplished with fixed perforated
pipe, rotating sprinkler heads, or fixed sprinkler heads. It is impossible to get completely uniform
distribution of water around a sprinkler head, and spacing of the heads must be planned to
overlap spray areas so that distribution is essentially uniform.

2.2.4. Trickle irrigation

Trickle irrigation, sometimes referred to as drip irrigation, is a low-pressure system that
places water slowly and directly in the root zone of the desired plant, increasing the efficiency of
the water applied. Trickle irrigation can reduce water usage by 30 to 70 percent compared to
more traditional means of irrigation, such as overhead sprinklers or hand watering.
Trickle irrigation systems are operated at pressures between five and 15 pounds per
square inch (psi). Drip tape or trickle tubes are usually laid to the side of the plant row or
between two rows. Water seeps through small emitters that permit water to flow out of the pipe
at a very slow rate. Emitters are located every four to 24 inches along the drip tape, depending on
the desired wetting pattern and plant spacing

Benefits of Trickle Irrigation:
Water use is reduced. Plants need the same amount of water no matter what the delivery
method. Trickle irrigation places the water at the roots, where plants can use it best.
Fewer weeds germinate. Water is directed to the crop, leaving the area between the rows
dry, so weed seeds located there are less likely to germinate.
Fewer leaf diseases occur. Wet leaves encourage fungal and bacterial plant diseases.
Trickle irrigation does not wet leaves.
Wetting patterns are uniform. In contrast, overhead irrigation allows the wind to
evaporate water and distort wetting patterns.
Garden work can continue during watering. Only a small area around the row of plants is
irrigated. Walkways and between row areas remain dry.
Soil structure is not damaged from water falling on bare soil.
Insecticide and fungicide use is reduced. Trickle irrigation does not wash pesticides from
the foliage.
Disadvantages of Trickle Irrigation
Time is required for initial planning and installation.

It is more expensive than most sprinkler systems.

The tiny emission holes can become clogged with soil particles, algae or mineral
Insects and rodents may damage the trickle line emitters.
2.2.5. Sub-irrigation

Sub-irrigation is a type of irrigation method that provides water to a plant from beneath
the soil surface. This type of irrigation is also called "seepage irrigation," and it is often used to
grow various field crops. Tomatoes, peppers, and sugar cane are often grown with the help of
sub-irrigation. In addition, house plants can be maintained using this type of irrigation process.
The required conditions are a permeable soil in the root zone, underlain by an
impermeable horizon or a high water table. Water is delivered to the field in ditches spaced 50 to
100 ft apart and is allowed to seep into the ground to maintain the water table at a height such
that water from the capillary fringe is available to the crops. Low flow rates are necessary in the
supply ditches; and free drainage of water must be permitted, either naturally or with drainage
works, to prevent waterlogging of the fields. The irrigation water should be of good quality to
avoid excessive soil salinity. Sub-irrigation results in a minimum evaporation loss and surface
waste and requires little field preparation and labor.

2.3. Planning the Irrigation Project

No two irrigation projects are identical, and no absolute outline of procedure for project
design is feasible. The list which follows summarizes in general terms the steps which are
required for most projects.
Land classification
Estimate of irrigation water requirement
Determination of sources of available water
Analysis of chemical quality of available water
Design of storage reservoir to assure necessary water
Design of dam and spillway for storage reservoir or diversion works
Design of distribution works
Economic analysis of the project to determine whether the estimated cost is returnable
from the potential benefits, and financial analysis to establish a repayment plan
Establishment of legal title to water
Establishment of the organization which will operate the project. In some cases this is
necessary first step, since the operating organization may also design the project.
2.3.1. Land Classification


The first step in planning an irrigation project is to establish the capability of the land to
produce crops which provide adequate returns on the investment in irrigation works.
Arable Land is land which, when properly prepared for agriculture, will have a sufficient
yield to justify its development.
Irrigable Land is arable land for which a water supply is available.
Land slopes should be such that excessive erosion will not occur. Steep slopes are also
conducive to water losses by surface runoff unless the soil is quite permeable. Land on moderate
slopes but with an irregular surface may be leveled if the soil is sufficiently thick. Where the soil
is thin, the leveling operation may remove productive soil and leave areas of relatively barren
soil at the surface. Impermeable substrata may lead to a perched water table, which if close to the
surface may require expensive drainage facilities. Removal of excess water from the root zone is
essential to avoid accumulation of salts and permit the aeration required by most plants. Lands
located at depressions or valley floors may present drainage problems because of the lack of
natural drainage outlets.
The land should be located that irrigation is possible without excessive pumping or
transmission costs. The general layout and size of the area should be conducive to division into
field units which permit effective farming practices. The land should be adaptable to more than
one crop since changing economic or technological factors may force changes in cropping
practice. Climate is an important factor in land evaluation. A yea-round, frost-free period permits
double or triple cropping and correspondingly greater return per acre. A short growing season
limits the return and the types of crops which can be grown

2.3.2. Crop Water Requirements

Total water requirement consists of the water needed by the crop plus the losses
associated with the delivery and application of the water.
The best source on overall water requirements is often the experience of good irrigators
operating under conditions similar to those of the project area. Such information must be selected
with care since it is common practice to use excessive amounts of water if an abundant supply is
available. Dissimilarity in soil, climate, or underlying geology can also greatly change the total
water requirement.
Consumptive use may be determined experimentally by planting a crop in lysimeter or
tank of soil and keeping an accounting of water added and soil-moisture changes. The
consumptive use is equal to the water added plus or minus any change in soil moisture. The
consumptive use depends on the crop, soil fertility, available moisture, climate, and irrigation
methods and varies considerably from one study to another. The overall consumptive use for
large areas may be estimated by calculating the hydrologic balance for the area.
The Jensen - Haise formula :
(used to develop a linear relationship for estimating Et )
Et= (0.014T-0.37)Rs


where :
Et - is the potential evapotranspiration in inches per day and;
Rs -is the solar radiation expressed in inches per day based on 1487 cal/sq cm = 1 in.
T -is the mean air temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

2.3.3. Crop Irrigation Requirements

Crop Irrigation Requirement is that portion of the consumptive use which must be
supplied by irrigation. It is the consumptive use less the effective precipitation.
The effective growing season precipitation is the sum of the monthly values of effective
The average annual effective precipitation for the period of record is subtracted from the
estimated annual consumptive use to determine the annual crop-irrigation requirement. Modern
computer simulation procedure offers a much more realistic approach and an opportunity to
consider net consumptive requirements in terms of probability.
It is usually necessary to determine monthly increments of the crop-irrigation
requirement in order to design a distribution system capable of delivering the water required in
the period of highest demand.
CIR=U c Peff
CIR = crop irrigation requirement in meter/yr
U c =
consumptive use in meter/yr
Peff =

effective precipitation in meter/yr

2.3.4. Farm Delivery Requirements

It is virtually impossible to operate any irrigation project without waste or loss of water.
Losses at the farm soils without impermeable subsoil, a considerable amount of water may
percolate downward beyond the root zone and so become useless for crops. Percolation loss may
be minimized by applying small amounts of water at each irrigation so that the storage capacity
of the soil reservoir is not exceeded. Sprinkler irrigation may result in percolation losses as low
as 5 percent of applied water, while flooding over an extended period of time may result in loss
of three-fourths of the water. The usual range of percolation loss is from 15 to 50 percent of
applied water.
When irrigation water is applied at a rate in excess of the infiltration capacity of the soil,
it may flow across the field and be wasted as surface runoff at the down slope side. Steep slopes


or soils of low permeability favor high rates of surface runoff. Surface runoff should not exceed
about 5 percent of the applied water with proper irrigation methods
The amount of water
in meter/ year that must be delivered to the farm is:

1L f
CIR = crop irrigation requirement in meter/year
Lf - the farm loss expressed as a decimal.

Additional water may be necessary for leaching salts from the soil or to prevent salt
accumulation if the irrigation water is highly mineralized.
Farm efficiency is the ratio of the water consumed to qf .
Feff =
X 100
Average efficiencies are usually between 40 to 60 percent although with careful choice of
irrigation method, application rate, and irrigation frequency to fit the soil conditions, efficiencies
above 80 percent are possible under favorable conditions. As water shortages become more
severe, efficient irrigation practices will become more important if agriculture is to compete with
municipal and industrial uses for water.

2.3.5. Diversion Requirements

In addition to farm losses, some water will be loss in transit to the farm (conveyance
loss). This loss consists of evaporation from the canal, transpiration from vegetation along the
canal bank, seepage from the canal, and operational waste. Evaporation and transpiration losses
are ordinarily small and are usually neglected. Operational waste includes water discharged
through waste ways because of refusal by users to take the total flow, leakage past gates, and
losses from overflow or breakage of canal banks. The magnitude of operational waste depends
on the care that exercised in the operation of the system but should be less than 5 percent. The
largest factor in conveyance loss is seepage.
The diversion requirement may be taken as the sum of the farm delivery and the
estimated conveyance loss in hectare-meter.
As an alternative, conveyance losses may be estimated as a fraction of the diversion, and
the diversion requirement
in hectare-meter/yr is then:
q d=


qf A

Lc -is the conveyance loss in decimals
A -is the gross area irrigated in hectare
With open ditches, conveyance loss will usually range between 25 and 40 percent of the
diversion. Conveyance losses may be virtually eliminated by using a pipe system, and economy
would result if the added cost where offset by the value of the water saved.

2.3.6. Irrigation Water Quality

Not all water is suitable for irrigation use. Unsatisfactory water may contain:
1. Chemicals toxic to plants or to persons using the plants as food,
2. Chemicals which react with the soil to produce unsatisfactory moisture characteristics,
3. Bacteria injurious to persons or animals eating plants irrigated with the water.
Actually it is the concentration of a compound in the soil solution which determines the
hazard, and soil solutions are 2 to 100 times as concentrated as the irrigation water. Hence,
criteria based on the salinity of the irrigation water can only be approximated. At the beginning
of irrigation with undesirable water no harm may be evident, but with the passage of time the salt
concentration in the soil may increase as the soil solution is concentrated by evaporation. Free
drainage of soil allows the downward movement of salts and helps to prevent serious
accumulations. Artificial drainage of soil may be necessary for this reason if natural drainage is
High salt concentrations may sometimes be avoided by mixing the salty water with
better-quality water from another source so that the final concentration is within safe limits.
Precipitation during the non-growing reason will help to leach salts from the soil. It may,
however, become necessary to apply an excess of irrigation water so that deep percolation will
prevent undesirable salt accumulation in the soil. The salinity of the irrigation water is C and the
quantity applied is q, the total salt applied to the field is Cq. The salinity CS of the soil solution
after the consumptive use Uc is taken from the soil is

( q+ Peff U c )

Hence the theoretical quantity of water q of salinity C required to maintain the soil
solution at concentration Cs is:
C s ( U c P eff )
C sC


q = the amount of water applied in meter/yr

CS = salinity of the soil solution, mg/L

C = salinity of the irrigation water, mg/L
A large number of elements may be toxic to plants or animals. Traces of boron are
essential to plant growth, but concentrations above 0.5 mg/l are considered deleterious to citrus,
nuts, and deciduous fruits. Some truck crops, cereals, and cotton are moderately tolerant to
boron, while alfalfa, beets, asparagus, and dates are quite tolerant.
Even for the most tolerant crops a concentration of boron exceeding 4 mg/l is considered
unsafe. Boron is present in much soap and thus may become a critical factor in the use of
wastewater for irrigation. Selenium, even in low concentration, is toxic to livestock and must be
Salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium may also prove injurious in
irrigation water. In excessive quantities these salts reduce the osmotic activity of plants,
preventing the absorption of nutrients from the soil. In addition they may have indirect chemical
effects on the metabolism of the plant and may reduce soil permeability, preventing adequate
drainage or aeration. The effect of salts on the osmotic activity of plants depends largely on the
total amount in excess of 700 mg/l are harmful to some plants, and more than 2000 mg/l of
dissolved salts is injurious to almost all crops.
Most normal soils of arid regions have calcium and magnesium as the principal cations,
with sodium representing generally less than 5 percent of the exchangeable cations. If the sodium
percentage in the soil is increased to 10 percent or more, the aggregation of soil grains breaks
down the soil becomes less permeable, crusts when dry, and its pH increases toward that of
alkaline soils.
Since calcium and magnesium will replace sodium more readily than vice versa, irrigation water
with a low sodium-absorption ratio (SAR) is desirable. The SAR is defined as:
Ca+++ Mg + +


where the concentration of the ions is expressed in equivalents per million (epm). The SAR
indicates the relative activity of the sodium ions in exchange reactions with the soil. Irrigation
water with a high SAR will cause the soil to tighten up.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture has classified irrigation water into four groups with
respect to sodium hazard depending on the SAR value and the specific conductance. By adding
gypsum, CaSO4, to the water or directly to the soil, the SAR value can be reduced. Observations
of water quality in streams or groundwater may not be sufficient to judge their suitability for
irrigation. Evaporation from reservoirs increases salt concentration in surface water and leached
salts from irrigation may progressively raise the concentration of salts in groundwater. There
changes must be considered in the planning phase.


Bacterial contamination of water is normally not serious from the irrigation viewpoint
unless severely contaminated water is used on crops which are eaten uncooked. Raw wastewater
is used for irrigation in many countries, but in the United States its use is frowned upon except
for nursery stock, cotton, and other crops processed after harvesting. Most states have regulations
governing the use of wastewater for irrigation.

2.3.7. Irrigation Structures

Many structures are necessary for the effective operation of the complicated systems of
canals and ditches in an irrigation project. The principal structures encountered on the farm are
1. ditches and pipes for conveyance;
The elevation of farm ditches must be sufficient to permit gravity flow to the field.
Hence, they are rarely fully excavated but are made in broad, shallow dikes.
2. checks, dams, and gates to regulate the flow;
Gates for regulating flows in the ditch system may be of wood, steel, or concrete.
Steel or wooden gates are used for temporary installations where the gate is replaced each
time the ditch is rebuilt.
Permanent gates are often of concrete with wooden or metal flashboards. In order to raise
the level of the water in a ditch to make diversion into a field possible, a check may be required.
These may be wooden or steel dams, but often a timber laid across the channel and supporting a
piece of heavy canvas with its lower end weighted down with earth is sufficient.
3. dividers, to separate a stream into prescribed portions.
Division boxes may be used to distribute flow to several channels. If an accurate division
of flow is required, a symmetrical Y divider or a division weir may be used. For accurate flow
division, the divider must be installed in a long, straight channel in order that the velocity
distribution across the channel may be reasonably uniform. A proportional division of flow from
an underground pipe may be accomplished by bringing the water into a stilling basin with
overflow weirs discharging into separate channel.

2.3.8. Economic Aspects of Irrigation

The large water requirement inherent in irrigating large areas is augmented by wasteful
irrigation practices, conveyance losses, and leaching requirements.
Return flow is that part of the applied water which eventually returns to the stream after


Because of evaporative loss and additional salts leached from the soil, salt concentrations
in streams of irrigated regions tend to increase downstream.
The actual consumptive use of irrigation water is that part returned to the atmosphere by
evaporation and transpiration, diverted water less return flow and accretion to deep groundwater.
However, the water which is not consumptively used has been degraded by increased salt content
and has lost economic value.
2.3.9. Supplemental Irrigation
Even in humid regions where rainfall is usually adequate for crop growth, drought
periods of several days and longer do occur. Such droughts may have a serious effect on crop
production if they occur when seeds require moisture for germination or during other critical
periods in plant growth. Many farmers in humid regions of the country have installed equipment
for supplying irrigation water during droughts. Sprinkler irrigation is most common because it
can be introduced without prior preparation of the land. Row crops can often be irrigated by the
furrow method with perforated pipe in lieu of supply ditches. In some instances the return in
increased crops in a single year has repaid the investment. In general, however, supplemental
irrigation must be viewed as a long-term investment in insurance against serious drought.
Sprinkler equipment has in some instances been used as a means of frost protection. If a crop is
wet when freezing temperatures occur, the water must be frozen before the plant temperature can
be lowered below the freezing point.

2.4. Irrigation in the Philippines

The National Irrigation Administration (NIA) is the government agency in the Philippines
mandated to develop water resources for irrigation purposes. It is classified as a governmentowned and controlled corporation. It was created under Republic Act (RA) 3601 on June 1963.
Its charter was amended by Presidential Decree (PD) 552 on 11 September 1974 and PD 1702 on
17 July 1980. Both increased the capitalization and broadened the authority of the agency. It was
transferred to the Office of the President pursuant to Executive Order No. 22, dated 14
September 1992. Then, it was attached to the Department of Agriculture (DA) under
Administrative Order No. 17, dated 14 October 1992.
Irrigation systems in the Philippines are categorized according to how these are
developed and managed. There are three (3) types, namely: (a) National Irrigation Systems
(NIS), (b) Communal Irrigation Systems (CIS), and (c) Private Irrigation Systems (PIS). NISs
normally have a service area of 1,000 hectares or more, technically owned by the government
but jointly managed with Irrigators Associations (IA). CIS, on the other hand, are those schemes
with less than 1,000 hectares and whose construction was assisted by NIA but after project
completion, operation and maintenance (O&M), is fully handed over to the concerned IAs. With
the advent of Republic 7160 signed into law in 1991, the development and management of CIS
were devolved or transferred from the national government to the local government units. PIS


are schemes owned by private individuals or corporations, were constructed with or without
government assistance and unless the owners seek NIA assistance, the systems are managed
In all the years since its creation, NIAs operation was basically characterized by the
maxim doing-things-for-farmers. It implemented all the necessary planning, design,
construction and operation functions of irrigation systems according to its own pace and
discretion. It delivered water to the farmers lot on one hand while on the other hand, farmers
utilized the water to irrigate their crops and then paid fixed seasonal irrigation service fee (ISF)
in return.
For over a decade this had been the scenario until the mid 70s when the so-called
Participatory Approach Program or PAP in irrigation development and management was
introduced. Later on, PAP was institutionalized as a guiding principle in all NIAs irrigation
program. As implied, PAP is a concept of participation or involvement of all stakeholders in the
whole process of irrigation development and management - from project identification to O&M.

1. Determine the time required to irrigate a strip of land of 0.04 hectares in area from a tubewell with a discharge of 0.02 cumec. The infiltration capacity of the soil may be taken as 5
cm/h and the average depth of flow on the field as 10 cm. Also determine the maximum area
that can be irrigated from this tube well.
2. Assuming an annual consumptive use for cotton of 0.70 m/yr, monthly distribution
corresponding to that for Mesilla Valley, a farm efficiency of 48 percent and conveyance loss
of 30 percent, compute the annual water requirements hec.-m/yr for a 65 hec. farms. Assume
a growing season from April 1 to Sept. 30 and monthly precipitation as follows.













3. An irrigator applies 0.70 m/yr to a field during an irrigation season. The consumptive use was
0.9 m/yr. The effective precipitation is 0.3 m/yr and the salinity of the applied water was 520
a. Compute the resulting salinity of soil solution.
b. Compute the resulting farm irrigation efficiency if the irrigator wishes to maintain the soil
solution at 1500 mg/L

Kabir, M.R. Methods of Irrigation.


Ofrecio, Bayani P. Participatory Development and Management: A cornerstone of Philippine

Irrigation Program.
Linsley and Franzini, Water Resources Engineering.