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PID control loop

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PID Control

Page

PID Control

Table of Contents

Module Objective....................................................................................3-5

Proportional Controller..........................................................................3-6

Integral Controller................................................................................3-14

Proportional Plus Integral Controller (PI)..........................................3-17

Derivative Controller............................................................................3-21

Proportional Plus Derivative Controller (PD).....................................3-23

Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID).............................3-28

Choosing the Correct Controller..........................................................3-29

Self-Regulation......................................................................................3-31

LAB PID Control...............................................................................3-35

Introduction................................................................................................3-35

Objectives....................................................................................................3-35

Lab procedure.............................................................................................3-35

Proportional-Only Controller in the Open Loop....................................3-35

Proportional Only Controller in the Closed Loop..................................3-37

Proportional Plus Integral Control in the Open Loop.............................3-38

Proportional Plus Integral Control Integral Wind up..............................3-41

Summary.....................................................................................................3-42

Review Questions..................................................................................3-43

PID Control

Module Objective

In this module, using the available documentation, you will be able to satisfy all of the

criteria for course objective.

The enabling objectives that support this module objective are as follows:

1. Explain the differences in operation of control algorithms including:

a. On-Off control

b. Proportional controller

c. Integral controller

d. Proportional and Integral controller

e. Proportional, Integral, and Derivative controller

2. Analyze both Open and Closed loop responses for the above control algorithms.

3. Define the condition of Integral Windup and determine the best method available in

resolving this control problem.

4. Select the appropriate control algorithm for various types of Feedback control

applications.

PID Control

Proportional Controller

The proportional controller is the minimum controller configuration which will tend to damp

out oscillations in the loop, which is its primary job. As you will see, it will stop the

measurement from oscillating, but not necessarily return it to the setpoint. Suppose you have

a liquid level as shown in Figure 1 and you desire to control only to the extent that you do

not want the tank to overflow or run dry.

If

FI FO

so the level remains constant as shown in Figure 1. Suppose the sight glass is

FO

FO FI

then the

level will begin to drop. In order to stop the level from dropping, FI needs to increase, such

F FO

that I

. As the level drops, increase FI , watching the sight glass, while increasing the

inflow.

When

FI FO

, the level stops dropping, but it is no longer at the initial level, it has dropped.

The amount dropped depends on how much the inflow valve was open to make

similar situation could occur if

adjusted to equal the outflow.

FO FI

FI FO

.A

, only in this case the level will rise until the inflow is

was connected to the liquid level tank. In general, the output of a proportional controller is

proportional to the error (that is, deviation of the measurement from the setpoint).

me

PID Control

m Ke

Where, K is the controller gain.

Note: The proportional controller is nothing but an amplifier. Its output is the error

multiplied by a gain K.

Apply this controller to the process shown in Figure 2.

Suppose the controller is in the Manual mode and manually adjusts the level in the

F FO

tank to equal to the setpoint. With I

the level should remain at the setpoint.

F FO 50% c r 50%

Assume I

and adjust K 2 .

,

Now if the controller is placed in Auto mode, what will be its output?

Assume

FI FO 50% c r 50%

and adjust K 2 .

,

The controller output would be m 2(50 50) 0

It will begin to go down

How can you stop the level from going down?

PID Control

FI FO 50%

again

Assuming a linear relationship between the controller output and the inflow

You want FI 50% and m 50% .so m must = 50%

Since m Ke 2e 2( r c ) 2(50 c )

For

The controller output will reach 50% when the measurement drops by 25%, creating

F FO 50%

a 25% error, and the I

.

So for this case, in order to stop the level from dropping, it had to drop by 25% to

F FO

create a large enough error so the controller could make I

.

Assume that the controller is adjusted so that K 4 and m 4e .

The error now would only need to be +12.5% for m 4(12.5) 50% .

Note: It seems that the larger you make the controller gain, the smaller the error will be, if K

is very large, the error will be very small.

The false conception here is that as K gets larger to make the error small, the gain of the

controller, K, is multiplied along with the gains of other components and if the K becomes

large enough, the loop gain, GL, will be greater than 1 and the loop will become unstable. So

you cannot just randomly increase K to minimize the error e.

There is another way, under certain circumstances, where you might be able to make the

error zero. Suppose you add another term to your control equation.

For example, call this term the bias. Now the equation becomes m Ke b .

Where, b is the bias and it is simply defined as the output of the controller when the error is

zero.

F FO 50%

Assume K 2 and manually adjust c r 50% , and I

, also adjust b 50% .

PID Control

Now when you put the controller in the Auto mode, what will happen?

Since c r , then e 0

2(e) 2(0) 0 , there will be no proportional contribution to the output, because

m b 50%

Since FO 50% and m FI 50% the level will stay right where it is.

,

The level will stay right where it is

Note: In general, if the bias equals the load (

zero.

b FO

F

Suppose now O goes to 75%, in order to stop the level from dropping

m FI 75% now

Since m 2( e) 50% 2(50 c ) 50% and c must drop to 37.5%

Then m 2(50 37.5) 50 2(12.5) 50 75% .

This would also work if

If

FO 25%

FO

decreased.

The level will stop rising at c 62.5% .

Note: The error can get smaller by increasing K, but be careful that increasing K too much

will make the loop unstable.

Notice how fast the controller output is changing to stop the measurement. It is changing as

fast as the error is changing. The error is changing as a function of the rate of change of

measurement, which is a function of the size of the tank, among other things.

Therefore if you make K such a value that the loop gain is equal to 1, the loop will oscillate

at a period which is a function of the natural characteristics of the process. This is called the

natural period. The natural period is defined as the period of oscillation under proportional

control only control.

PID Control

F

If K is adjusted such that the loop gain is equal to 0.5 and then changing O ; the

measurement will quarter amplitude will dampen out with a period approximately equal to

the natural period. It will also stop with an offset which is a function of both the gain K and

the bias. This is the type of response expected from a loop under proportional control

(Figure 3).

m Ke b

G

output

input

PID Control

Recall also that there is a 1:1 relationship between c and e, only a -180 phase difference if

the controller is in I/D mode. So the gain of the proportional controller is:

GK

m

e

The gain is the ratio of the change in controller output to the change in error, but you can

also say that:

If e c

Then

m

c

The gain is also defined as a change in controller output to a change in the measurement.

Assume that you have a linear relationship between c and m as shown in Figure 5.

m 100%

c

c

Or the gain K is the amount that the measurement must change to make the controller output

change by 100%.

As you can recall, the gain of a transmitter is given by the following equation:

G

out 100%

in

span

The input of the transmitter changes the amount of the input span (Span = upper range value

- lower range value) to make the transmitter output change by 100%.

PID Control

PID Control

In the case of the controller there is a similar situation, but instead of calling C the span as

in the case of the transmitter, it is called the proportional band. In other words the

proportional band can be defined as the that change in measurement which will cause the

output of the controller to change by 100%.

m 100%

c PB%

If the PB setting was adjusted on the controller to PB = 40% the output of the transmitter

(which is the measurement to the controller) changes over 40% of its output span, the output

of the controller will change by 100% or the gain, K, will be:

100%

2.5

40%

Some manufacturers have a gain adjustment and some have a proportional band adjustment.

Remember only that:

1

PB

Or as the PB gets larger, the gain gets smaller and vice versa. The proportional controller

equation can be written as:

m

100

eb

PB

Where:

e r c( I / D)

e c r(I / I )

b bias

The equation can be solved for the error and this will give you an idea of where a

proportional controller can be applied.

e

PB

( m b)

100

PID Control

In order to make the error = 0:

1. Set PB 0 ( K )

2. Set b m

Either one of these steps will make the above equation go to zero. The first step is not

reasonable as PB 0 , K the loop becomes unstable. Furthermore, it is not possible to

set PB 0 .

On many controllers the minimum setting is usually 1% - 5%. However, if PB is very small

(for example, PB 2% ) the error will certainly be minimized under the condition that the

loop is stable (Figure 6).

GV GP GT

If the

stability.

1

50 then the loop will be stable since GL 1 is the condition of

If a process has a very low gain, a higher gain can be reached (smaller PB) in the controller

and thus minimize the error. One type of process where this is true is very large capacity

such as a large liquid level tank.

Due to its low gain, you can successfully use a P-only controller. Also, some controllers

have an adjustable bias.

e

PB

( m b)

100

Adjusting b = m in the equation, the error will go to zero. This is possible to be done on any

process but preferably one which has few load upsets, since you will have to re-adjust the

bias every time there is a new load upset (recall that there will be no error as long as the bias

PID Control

is equal to the load), so if the process has infrequent load upsets, which allows you to readjust the bias for zero error, you will be able to make good use of a P-only controller.

but a sustained error is its primary characteristic. To eliminate any error which might exist,

you need to investigate a different control mode.

Integral Controller

The action of the integral control mode is to remove any error which can exist. As long as

there is an error present, the output of this controller continues to move in a direction to

eliminate this error. The equation for an Integral Controller is:

Where,

1

e

I dt mo

mo

m 0

Initially o

when power is first applied to the controller. Investigating the action of the

above algorithm for a given error, (assume I/D action).

Figure 7 shows that the measurements increase in a step-wise fashion at t t1 and then

return to the setpoint at t t 2 , the output will ramp over the interval t1 t t 2 , since this is

the effect of integrating the step input.

When the measurement returns to r at t t2 , the output will hold the integrated value, since

that it is the correct value to bring the measurement to the setpoint. The rate at which the

PID Control

controller output ramps is a function of two things; the integral time, I, and the magnitude of

the error.

Note: The controller output m, will ramp in the opposite direction if the measurement

moved below the setpoint.

The integral time, I, is defined as the amount of time taken for the controller output to

change the amount of error; that is, the amount of time required to repeat the error. Thus,

I is sometimes measured in minutes per repeat.

The equation for controller output is:

m

1

e

I dt

1

1

rep / min

I min/ rep

Because of this reciprocal relationship, note that if the controller is adjustable in min/ rep ,

then increasing the adjustment gives you less integral action; whereas, if in rep / min ,

increasing the number gives you greater integral action. For I in min/ rep is shown in Figure

9., where I1< I2< I3.

PID Control

Usually I is treated as a gain adjustment. Remember whether increasing the value of I will

give greater gain ( rep / min ) or less gain ( min/ rep ). Another consideration is that for a

fixed I, the rate of change of m will also depend on the magnitude of e (Figure 10).

The rate of change for controller output is a function of both I and e. When adjusting an

Integral Controller for optimum response, I is adjusted in the same way as the PB for the

Proportional Controller.

Considering the difference in response time of the Integral and Proportional controller, as

mentioned before, the output of the P-only controller changes as quickly as the

measurement changes (Figure 11):

PID Control

So if the measurement changes as a step, the controller output will also change as a step in n

K

100

PB . Recall that with a step input to an Integral

Controller, the output does not change instantaneously but at a rate which is affected by I

and e.

Putting these two types of controllers in a loop to control a process provides different types

of responses. The Integral Controller will drive the mechanism to return the measurement

back to the setpoint.

Due to the additional lag introduced by this mechanism, the overall response of this loop

will be much slower than that under proportional control. So the trade off made here is that

if you require a return to the setpoint and use the Integral Controller, you must be satisfied

with a slower period of response (Figure 12).

The period of response for the measurement under integral control CI can be about 10 n .

PID Control

If you require a return to setpoint (that is no sustained error) and would like a faster response

time, you need to investigate the control mode which is composed of both proportional and

integral action.

Using a PI Controller will give a return to setpoint at a response period which is longer than

a P-only Controller but much shorter than an I-only controller (Figure 13).

The response period of a measurement under PI Control (Cp+1) is approximately 50% longer

than that of the P-only response period (1.5 n). Because this response is much faster than IOnly, and only somewhat longer than P-only control, the majority of controllers found in a

plant will be PI Controllers.

The equation for a PI controller is as follows:

m

100

1

(e e

dt )

PB

I

-orm

100

100 1

e

e

PB

PB I

dt

Note that the proportional gain has an effect not only on the error, but also on the integral

action as well. Compare the above equation to that of a Proportional Controller:

PID Control

100

eb

PB

You will recognize that the bias term in the Proportional Controller has been replaced by the

integral term in the PI Controller.

b

100 1

e

PB I

dt

Recall that one way of eliminating offset in the proportional controller is to manually adjust

the bias to equal the load. In this case, the integral action provides a bias which is

automatically adjusted to eliminate any existing error.

The PI Controller is faster in response than the I-only controller. As it turns out, it is due to

the addition of the proportional action (Figure 14).

Previously it took I minutes for the output of the I-only controller to repeat the error. As

shown above, due to proportional action you immediately get a proportional step and then

the integral action.

Moreover, because of the proportional effect on the I time, the integral time I is defined to

be the amount of time it takes for the integral portion of the controller to repeat the

proportional action. When the measurement is returned to the setpoint, the proportional

action is lost (since e 0 ) and the controller output is held only by the integral circuit.

PB and I both can be simply treated as gains which vary the overall controller gain and are

used to adjust the controller gain to give the PI loop response. Note that in the equation for

the PI Controller:

PID Control

100

100 1

e

e

dt

PB

PB I

The equation consists of the sum of two components gains, the proportional gain

and the effective integral gain

100

PB ,

100 1

PB I .

The overall controller gain is the sum of these two gains. It is not a straight arithmetic sum.

There is a phase difference between the proportional and integral action and therefore the

gain sum is a vector sum (Figure 15).

P I is the phase angle of the controller which contributes to the overall loop phase shift. In

adjusting a controller to give quarter amplitude damped loop response, you need to select a

value of PB and I which will give a suitable GP I for the desired response.

Looking at the vector diagram you can see that almost any values of PB and I will give us a

useable GP I . If you arbitrarily choose a PB, you can then select an I which will make GP I

sufficient to give quarter amplitude damping, but at varying phase angles P I .

The important thing to remember here is that as the phase angle, P I changes, while the

damping remains constant, the period of response also varies. Suppose I is set to , this will

PID Control

make G I 0 , regardless of the setting of PB and then K GP I , and you will have a

proportional controller with P I 0 .

In effect the response period will be that of a P-only controller and equal to n with a

sustained error. Since you cannot set I , you can set I to a very large number in min/rep

and therefore minimize integral action.

On the other hand, suppose I is set to very small value, then GP I will approach GI since

G I K and P I will approach -90. The control action in the loop will now be that of

integral control only, that is a return to setpoint with a long response period.

These are the two extremes. Somewhere in between 0 P I 90 is a phase angle which

will give a return to setpoint with a period of response equal to 1.5 n . This angle is about

-30. This will be discussed more in the tuning controllers section.

In general, if you start at P I 0 or proportional action only action and as you add more

integral action, the measurement begins returning to the setpoint. You only need enough

integral gain to get back to the setpoint, since a phase angle P I greater than this will only

serve to slow down the response period. Remember also, that as you add more integral gain

by reducing I in min/rep you need to compensate for this added gain by reducing the

proportional gain through widening the Proportional Band.

Remember that the value of P I has an effect on the response period while GP I has an

effect on the damping.

Note that adjusting I will have an effect on the GI above and will thus affect GP I and P I ,

which will in turn affect both damping and period of response. Adjusting PB affects both

GI and K equally; thus, PB only has an effect on GP I which affects the damping and not

the period of response.

Although the period of response of a loop under PI Control is only 50% longer than a loop

under P-only Control, this can in fact be too long if n is three or four hours. In order to

increase the speed of response (decrease response period) of the loop you need to investigate

another control mode.

PID Control

Derivative Controller

While you can sometimes run into an I-only Controller, it is not very often used due to the

large increase in response period which it produces. A derivative only controller does not

even exist. Its minimum configuration is with proportional action, but before going further

you should investigate what derivative action is.

In D

d

din

out D

dt

dt

If there is a derivative block, its output is a gain factor, D (called derivative time), multiplied

by the derivative of rate of change in the input. Figure 16 investigates how the output from

the derivative block would look like for different inputs and a fixed Value of D.

Note: As the rate of change of the input increases, the output also increases.

Since the slope of each of these input signals is constant, the output for each constant rate

input will be constant. Notice, however, what happens as the slope approaches infinity (a

step which rises in zero time) you would theoretically get a pulse out that was 0 time long

and infinite amplitude.

You will not ever physically have an output like this, since a perfect step with zero rise time

is physically unrealizable. Although you might get a signal which has short rise and fall

times; therefore, the output from the derivative block would be a series of positive and

negative pulses trying to drive the final actuator.

PID Control

This would result in accelerated wear on the valve. Consider a temperature measurement

with small amplitude, fast rise and fall time, and with noise riding on it (Figure 17).

You might think that since the noise is such small amplitude in comparison with the

temperature signal that it will not be noticed by a controller. This is true if the controller

does not have derivative action in it, then there would be no problem. However, if the

controller contains derivative action, remember that derivative does not consider the

magnitude of measurement; but rather its rate of change.

Since the rise time and fall time of noise is very short, the temperature signal would be

totally masked by the noise in the derivative circuit of the controller. Therefore, the

controller output would be a series of large amplitude pulses, which totally mask any output

contributed by the other control modes. In this case, the noise is either easily filtered out or

can be eliminated if the installation of the primary sensor is incorrect and is modified.

There are cases where noise is inherited to the measurement and the rise and fall times of the

noise have the same magnitude as that of the measurement itself. In this case, filtering would

only serve to degrade the accuracy of the measurement as well as filter the noise. A good

example of a situation like this is flow control.

Flow measurement is noisy by nature; therefore, whenever you encounter a noisy

measurement such as this, you cannot usefully apply derivative action. It is good practice

not to attempt to apply a controller containing derivative action to this situation. Later you

will experience that in many cases you are not advised to use derivative action in a loop. It

will not help even if you can apply it.

Investigate the minimum configuration controller containing derivative action. This is the

Proportional plus Derivative controller. It is not used very often (primarily applied in batch

pH control loops), but it will help you to define the derivative time D, mentioned earlier.

The equation for the PD controller is as follows:

PID Control

100

de

(e D ) b

PB

dt

Observe this equation you will find that there is a bias. There will be a bias in any control

algorithm which does not have an integral action; since integral action is in effect an

automatically adjusting bias. Also you will find that the proportional gain acts on the error as

well as the derivative time D, in a very similar manner to that seen in the PD controller.

Consider this controller and what its output would look like if you applied some test signals

to it while it was on the bench (Figure 18 and Figure 19).

Where:

PID Control

The measurement changes with a fixed rate of change; therefore, the derivative portion of

de

the output is constant depending on the rate of change of measurement dt , the derivative

time D, and the proportional gain.

The proportional output is also a ramp whose slope is a function of the proportional gain.

Add mp and mD to get the actual output due to both modes (Figure 20).

Notice that for a ramp input it takes some period of time for the proportional action to reach

the amount of the derivative action. This period of time is called the derivative time D,

measured in minutes. Increasing the derivative time D increases mD, so you can consider D

as a gain factor.

Another consideration is that in the equation for the PD controller:

m

100

de

(e D ) b

PB

dt

e r c (For I/D)

dr

dc

de

dt can be a function of both dt and dt

de dr dc

dt dt dt

PID Control

If you get a load upset to the process, this in turn causes the measurement to change at some

dc

de dc

dr

0

dt since there is no setpoint change so dt

rate dt which in turn gives dt

. Now if

you make a setpoint change of even a few percent and the setpoint is changed quickly then

dr

dt can become very large and a large pulse could be generated at the output of the

controller. To overcome this possible problem many controllers do not recognize a setpoint

change.

de dr dc

dt dt dt

de dc

dt

dt

m

100

dc

(e D ) b

PB

dt

You will get no derivative action on a setpoint change, only proportional action. On a load

upset you will get both proportional and derivative action. This is the way many controllers

get derivative action to work.

Figure 21shows Figure 21compares in comparison the response of a control loop to a load

upset both under P-only and PD Control.

The response of the measurement under PD control, ( C P D ), is faster and ends up with a

smaller offset than the loop under P-only control. This faster response is due to the nature of

the derivative action. You can also add the proportional and derivative gains together to get

the total gain of the controller similar to the method used in the PI case.

PID Control

Once again it is a vector sum except that the derivative gain is at a +90 phase angle from

the proportional gain (Figure 22).

You can see that the derivative time D, has an effect on both the damping and response

period since it in turn affects the resultant vector GP D and the phase angle P D , while

proportional band has an effect only on damping since it affects only the length of the

resultant.

As the phase angle, P D , gets larger the response periods get shorter, and as the gain is

more and more derivative in nature (larger P D ) the controller becomes hypersensitive to

noise generated in its own circuits and control is lost.

dc

Note: Derivative action is made up of the derivative time D, and dt .

In the PI Controller, to minimize the integral action you would set I to a large number of

minutes/repeat. This would not make the integral gain vector, GI go to zero, but would be a

very small value and the controller would be essentially P-only.

In the PD Controller, if you set D to a very small value, there is a possibility that you might

dc

still get a sizable derivative contribution if you get noisy input (so that dt is large).

On electronic controllers you can turn derivative action off and derivative is effectively

eliminated. In a pneumatic controller you cannot turn the derivative off, only to a certain

minimum value (approximately 0.01 minutes) so if you attempted to use this controller on a

PID Control

flow loop you could still get considerable derivative action due to the noisy flow

measurement.

It is therefore important to make sure that the controller contains no derivative circuitry

when applying a pneumatic controller to a noisy loop, such as a flow loop. The reason of

being interested in derivative action is that you can combine it with proportional and integral

action to get a three mode PID controller.

The PID three mode controllers are used to provide with a response period the same as with

proportional control but with a return to setpoint. The derivative action adds the additional

speed required to overcome the slowing down of the response resulting when integral action

was added to remove the offset caused by proportional control.

The equation for the three mode PID controller is as follows:

m

100

1

dc

(e e dt D )

PB

I

dt

This is a combination of the three control actions studied. The total gain of this controller is

the vector sum of the three gains (Figure 23).

Depending on which is larger GI or GD , this resultant can fall in either the first ( GD G I )

or fourth quadrants ( G I G D ). When the controller is adjusted correctly G I G D and the

PID Control

resultant falls on the X-axis with the phase PID 0 . This will give the speed of

proportional response with a return to setpoint.

Compare the various responses to a load upset (Figure 24).

The addition of the derivative mode has once more given you the response of P-only with

the return to setpoint provided by integral action. Adjusting the controller will be covered

when the controller tuning for optimum response is discussed.

After investigating the various control modes, it might be appropriate for you to choose a

particular control mode for your process (Figure 25). Starting from the top, you come to a

decision block which asks if an offset can be tolerated.

If the answer is yes, you can use a P-only controller. If the answer is no, the next block asks

if noise is present. If there is noise, you are required to use PI control; if noise is absent,

proceed to the next block.

Then you come to a block which asks if dead time is excessive. If the ratio of dead time to

capacity time constant in the process is greater than 0.5; you can assume the process to be

dead time dominant.

In this case you need to use a PI controller since derivative action is intended primarily to

cancel out lag effect on slow response due to dead time if the process does not have

excessive dead time.

PID Control

Then the next block asks if the capacity is extremely small. If yes then use a PI controller. If

you have short dead time and small capacity you do not need derivative action to speed up

the response, it is already fast enough.

For example, in a flow loop you might consider an I-only controller since the loop is so fast.

slSlowing down the response through use of integral only action will still provide fast

enough response for the majority of applications. Finally if the capacity is large, you can put

a PID controller to good use.

Recall that it was mentioned earlier that the PI controller is the most common controller

found in the plant. Looking at this decision diagram (Figure 25) you can see why there are

three possible ways to get to PI, while you are required to proceed through four decision

blocks before getting to PID.

PID Control

Remember that while the PID action seems to be the most versatile, it is not always required

and you should not try to apply it where it cannot effectively be used.

For example, some people may say they have applied PID control successfully to a flow

loop. whatWhat they have probably done is this (Figure 26).

They have probably added derivative action. But in order to make the controller stable, they

have added twice as much integral gain to swamp out the derivative gain. The result is the

same phase angle and length as if they had no derivative gain and half the integral gain.

Remember, if someone is applying a controller in an unconventional manner they are

probably trading off somewhere else. , To to the point where the response is not improved

over what it should be if they had applied it according to the decision chart.

Self-Regulation

Self-regulation is a desirable property for a process to exhibit. Not because automatic

control is then made unnecessary it usually is not but because it is made easier. For an

illustration on how a process is self-regulating, Figure 27 shows a tank with an outflow set at

a constant rate by a flow controller and with an inflow manipulated to control liquid level.

If the inflow and outflow are not exactly equal, the level will either rise or fall at a constant

rate until the tank overflows or empties. Thus, this kind of process cannot be left unattended

at any time, because it is impossible to match the two flows exactly. The non-self-regulating

process has no steady state.

PID Control

If the driving force for outflow is simply the static head of liquid, self-regulation can be

achieved simply by placing the outflow controller in Manual mode (although this may not

satisfy the downstream process). An increase in inflow will now only raise the level to the

point where the outflow will be increased again to match the inflow.

Self-regulation exists if the tank is neither overflowing nor completely empty under the full

range of flows that can pass through it, level control may not be necessary.

But in the majority of installations, the outflow is either pumped or pressured with gas, such

that very little self-regulation exists.

Flow control loops are highly self-regulating in that a new valve position will bring about a

new steady state flow almost instantaneously.

Liquid pressure responds very much like flow and, therefore is also self-regulating. Digital

blending systems are not, since volume rather than flow is the controlled variable, just as in

liquid level control.

Gas pressure behaves more like liquid level in that a certain amount of self-regulation is

exhibited, but it varies with flow. At zero flow out of a vessel, for example, a small flow into

it will raise the pressure gradually until the full supply pressure is reached or a relief device

is actuated. At higher rates, the flowing pressure drop across the inlet valve limits the steadystate pressure.

Types of self-regulation are the following:

Little self-regulation

It appears in the outflow which is either pumped or pressured with gas and

that appears in the majority of installations

PID Control

Gas pressure behaves more like liquid level. A certain amount of selfregulation is exhibited, but it varies with flow

For example, when there is zero flow out of a vessel a small flow into it

will raise the pressure gradually until the full supply pressure is reached or

a relief device is actuated. At higher rates, the flowing pressure drop

across the inlet valve limits the steady-state pressure

High self-regulation

It appears in flow-control loops due to a new valve position which will

bring about a new steady state flow at once

Liquid pressure responds very much like flow; and therefore, it is also a

highly self-regulating

Digital blending systems are not, since volume rather than flow is the

controlled variable, just as in liquid level control

eventually produce a new steady-state outlet temperature. Exothermic chemical reactors can

actually have negative self-regulation; however, increasing temperature increases the rate of

heat evolution.

Their control systems must be carefully designed, cascading reactor temperature to coolant

temperature for the most stable performance. Control over composition is generally selfregulating. A pH measurement, for example, will not continue to rise or fall following a

change in reagent flow but will seek a corresponding steady state.

The one exception to this rule appears when reagent left over from a reaction is recycled.

The excess tends to accumulate with time, resulting in an overall non-self-regulating

response of composition with respect to fresh reagent feed rate.

The difference in response between self-regulating processes and those that are not under

simple proportional control is not very large. However, when reset action is added, the nonself-regulating process begins to show its true colors.

In fact, reset-only control cannot be used at all with non-self-regulating processes, although

it is entirely stable. A reset controller on a non-self-regulating process oscillates uniformly

regardless of the setting on the controller or the time constant of the vessel.

Adjusting the reset time only changes the period of the oscillation, without affecting the

damping. Figure 28 shows that Non-self-regulating processes have no steady state. Even

with a proportional-plus-reset controller, the non-self-regulating process goes unstable if

there is any hysteresis in the loop.

PID Control

PID Control

level or gas pressure process, a limit cycle will result.

One solution to this problem is the use of a positioner on the valve to overcome

the hysteresis.

An even more effective solution is to set the manipulated flow in cascade, as done

with boiler feed water for drum level control.

Alternately, a proportional-only controller could be used, although the offset that is occurs

due to load changes is not often acceptable. Nothing Very little can be done to give selfregulation to a process that has none. But you can recognize its existence and recommend

the right controller or cascade loop to avoid the instability beforehand.

PID Control

Introduction

In this lab you will become familiar with the Proportional Only controller, Integral only

controller, and the PI controller.

Objectives

In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:

1 Demonstrate the action of the proportional control mode and the influence of the

proportional band setting in the open loop.

5. Demonstrate offset and its relationship to process load and proportional band setting in

the closed loop.

6. Demonstrate the action of the Proportional plus Integral controller modes in the open

loop.

7. Investigate integral windup.

Lab procedure

Proportional-Only Controller in the Open Loop

1 Select START from the Side Menu bar.

2

Note: With this display, you can adjust the measurement received by the

proportional-only controller by selecting the MEAS box and entering a value

in the data entry box. The controller is set for Increase/Decrease action

( e r c ).

9.

Controller in Auto

__________________________________________________________________

PID Control

Output =_____ %

Note: This value is the bias in the controller equation since the error seen by the

controller is zero. The P-Only Equation is as follows:

m

100

eb

PB

10. Verify the effect of the proportional band adjustment by making changes in the

Measurement from Setpoint and recording the change in Controller Output in the

table below.

PB

100

200

500

25

50

Starting

Measurement

50

50

50

50

50

New

Measurement

60

30

80

55

45

50

50

50

50

50

Measurement

Difference

Starting

Output

New Output

Output

Difference

Kc (actual)

Kc

OUT

IN

Kc (expected)

KC

100

PB

You should also observe that the controller response occurs simultaneously with and

in the same opposite direction as the change in error. From this observation you can

conclude the following:

c = ________________

PID Control

11. Select LAB1_PART2 from the Side Menu bar.

Note: This display will allow you to verity the role of loads in creating offset in loops

under proportional-only control

12. Set the initial conditions:

Controller in Auto

PB = 100%

Note:

This controller will control the level in the tank. The tank is a Non-SelfRegulating (NSR) process.

The load (q) on this process is the pump in the outflow pipe. For this

process, an increase in load will cause a decrease in the Measurement.

To complete the below table, set the BIAS to 50 % and the LOAD as

specified in the table.

After you have determined and recorded the offset, attempt to zero the error

by adjusting the BIAS value.

Record the value in the below table. Return the BIAS to 50% before

determining the offset for the next LOAD value.

LOAD (q) %

10

25

50

75

90

50

50

50

50

50

m Output

c Meas.

r Setpoint

e Offset

(b = 50%)

b Bias

(e = 0)

PID Control

13. To complete the table below, set the BIAS to 50% and the Load to 75%.

PB %

25

50

100

200

50

50

50

50

m Output

c Meas.

r Setpoint

e Offset

It has been shown that the P-only control mode responds to an error by altering the

controller Output to some value proportional to that error. Also, controller action stops

when the error stops changing, not necessarily when the Measurement and the Setpoint are

equal.

Integral action, on the other hand, will continue to drive the Output in the proper direction

until the Measurement is forced to equal the Setpoint (error = 0%), or the final actuator

has reached a limit. This action can be demonstrated as follows:

14. Select PI Operation from Side Menu bar.

Note: The screen provides a block diagram of a Proportional plus Integral controller.

This display will allow you to investigate the actions of the proportional and

integral controller modes in the open loop.

15. Review the various dialog boxes and entry fields available on the display.

Dialog Boxes /

Entry Fields

Description

DISPLAY

ON / OFF

OPEN

/CLOSED

(no feedback) or in the closed

(normal feedback) format

r field

c field

Measurement values

m field

of controller Output values

LIMITS

values

PID Control

AUTO /

MANUAL

controller

PBAND

values

INT

time settings

DERIV

time settings

PROCESS

LOAD

parameters

PID BLOCK

PID controller

16. Set up the following initial conditions with the loop CLOSEDOpen, in Manual and

Display On.

a

g. With the controller in Manual, adjust the Setpoint, Controller Output, and

Measurement to 50%.

h. Turn the display ON.

i. Ensure that the controller has lined out ( c r m 50% ).

j. Open the control loop by selecting the OPEN/CLOSED dialog box.

k. Place the controller into the Automatic mode, no control action should occur.

l. Change the Setpoint from 50% to 60%

17. Observe the Output for 1.0 minute on the trend display.

18. Return the Setpoint to 50% and observe the change.

19. Make the following adjustments and observations. After each trial, place the controller

in manual and readjust the Output, Setpoint, and Measurement to 50%.

20. Return the controller to automatic and proceed with the next trial entering the new

values indicated.

PID Control

PB

ITIM

E

NEW

SETP

MEAS

ERRO

R

OINT

1 MIN

OUTPUT

ATOUTPUT

AT

PROP.

CONTRIB

INT

CONTRIB

POINT

1MIN

CAL

C

50

1.0

60%

50%

100

1.0

60%

50%

200

1.0

60%

50%

PB

ITIME

NEW

SETP

OINT

MEAS

ERRO

R

CAL

C

100

0.5

60%

50%

100

2.0

60%

50%

100

10.0

60%

50%

ITIME

NEW

SETP

OINT

MEAS

ACT

CAL

C

ACT

PROP.

CONTRIB

INT

ERRO

R

ACT

OUTPUT AT

1 MIN

CAL

C

ACT

CAL

C

PROP.

CONTRIB

ACT

INT

CONTRIB

POIN

T

CAL

C

100

1.0

60%

50%

100

1.0

70%

50%

100

1.0

40%

50%

100

1.0

30%

50%

OUTPUT AT

1 MIN

CAL

C

CONTRIB

POINT

PB

ACT

ACT

CALC

ACT

CAL

C

ACT

PID Control

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

m. What effect does the error have on the integral response?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

n. What effect does the integral time setting have on the integral response?

__________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________

Proportional Plus Integral Control Integral Wind up

In the P-only portion of this lab you discovered that P-only control action can result in

having a sustained error under steady state conditions (offset). Integral control action is used

to resolve this problem. Integral action provides the controller Output with a variable bias

term that is changed as required to remove error from the control loop.

This action is accomplished by applying a positive feedback mechanism to the calculated

controller Output signal. Integral windup or saturation can occur within any controller that

utilizes the integral control mode. Saturation implies that the controller is no longer capable

of responding to error conditions present in the loop. Generally, there are two possible

causes for integral wind up, which are as follows:

Sustained error present in the controller. This implies that the controller Output

signal has no impact on manipulating the final control element

The PI controller has been improperly tuned because the integral time is too fast

for a given process. Since integral is a Time based parameter, consideration must

be given to the process characteristics of capacity and dead time to derive the

correct integral time setting

Note: The following steps demonstrate an Integral Time that is too fast for the

existing process.

Implement the following conditions for the next portion of this lab:

21. Put the controller into the Manual mode.

22. Insure that the control loop is closedopen.

23. Line out the controller so that r = c = m = 50%.

24. Adjust the PB to 100% and the integral time to 0.01 minutes.

25. Place the controller into the Automatic mode. No control action should occur.

26. Place the control loop to Closed.

PID Control

27. Step the controller Setpoint from 50% to 60% and observe the results.

What is the present state of the control loop?

_____________________________________________________________________

Note:

_____________________________________________________________________

The following steps demonstrate Integral Windup when an open loop condition

exists.

exists:

28. Adjust integral time to 0.5 minutes.

29. Open the control loop by selecting the OPEN/CLOSE dialog box on the display.

30. Place the controller into the Manual mode, and re-align the controller to 50% (r = c =

m = 50%).

31. Place the controller into the Automatic mode, and step the controller Setpoint from

50% to 60%

Observe the results.

32. Enter the value of the controller Output after 0.5 minutes, after 1.0 minute, after 2.0

minutes.

Time

Output Value

0.5 MIN

1.0 MIN

2.0 MIN

33. Place the controller into Manual, re-align the controller at 50% (r = c= m = 50%).

34. Turn off the display by selecting the DISPLAY ON/OFF dialog box on the display.

Summary

In this lab, you performed the following tasks:

Demonstrated the action of the proportional control mode and the influence of the

proportional band setting in the open loop

PID Control

Demonstrated offset and its relationship to process load and proportional band

setting values in the closed loop

Demonstrated the action of the Proportional plus Integral controller modes in the

open loop

PID Control

Review Questions

1

Most controllers are configured with one or a combination of three controller modes.

These three modes are:

a

__________________________________________________________________

o. __________________________________________________________________

p. __________________________________________________________________

35. What is the major disadvantage associated with use of proportional only control of a

process?

a

Provides a mechanism for attaining a damped response rather than one which will

continuously oscillate.

Can result with a control response that generates offset or sustained error in the

system.

36. Why would the integral or reset control mode be used for control of a process?

a

Measurement is brought back to setpoint.

PID Control

37. What is the major disadvantage of incorporating the integral or reset mode in a process

control scheme?

a

Reset or integral mode can result in erratic controller response if there are

significant amounts of noise on the Measurement signal.

During normal operation, an upset to the process can result in offset, or sustained

error.

a

Generates a controller Output response with regard to the period length of time

and error which exists in the control loop.

the error signal input from controller front end.

r. Generates a controller Output response as a function of the rate of change of

Measurement signal as it deviates from setpoint.

39. A proportional plus derivative controller always results in a controller response where

Measurement is equal to setpoint.

a

True

False

40. When applying derivative action in a control scheme it is important that ___________

to ensure that there is no erratic control response in the system.

a

sec.

41. The phase angle of a PI controller can fall between ______ degrees and

______degrees.

42. The length of the controller gain vector affects the ____________ of an automatic

control loop.

PID Control

43. The phase angle of a controller affects the __________ of ___________ of a control

loop.

Problem #2

The range of the level transmitter is 0 to 70, the controller is proportional only with

PB=75%, b = 50%, and r = 40. The load, Q = 3.5 GPM. The valve pressure drop P, is

constant, the valve has a linear characteristic and delivers 6 GPM at 100% stroke.

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

PID Control

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