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3.

PID Control

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PID Control

Table of Contents
Module Objective....................................................................................3-5
Proportional Controller..........................................................................3-6
Integral Controller................................................................................3-14
Proportional Plus Integral Controller (PI)..........................................3-17
Derivative Controller............................................................................3-21
Proportional Plus Derivative Controller (PD).....................................3-23
Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID).............................3-28
Choosing the Correct Controller..........................................................3-29
Self-Regulation......................................................................................3-31
LAB PID Control...............................................................................3-35
Introduction................................................................................................3-35
Objectives....................................................................................................3-35
Lab procedure.............................................................................................3-35
Proportional-Only Controller in the Open Loop....................................3-35
Proportional Only Controller in the Closed Loop..................................3-37
Proportional Plus Integral Control in the Open Loop.............................3-38
Proportional Plus Integral Control Integral Wind up..............................3-41
Summary.....................................................................................................3-42

Review Questions..................................................................................3-43

PID Control

Module Objective
In this module, using the available documentation, you will be able to satisfy all of the
criteria for course objective.
The enabling objectives that support this module objective are as follows:
1. Explain the differences in operation of control algorithms including:
a. On-Off control
b. Proportional controller
c. Integral controller
d. Proportional and Integral controller
e. Proportional, Integral, and Derivative controller
2. Analyze both Open and Closed loop responses for the above control algorithms.
3. Define the condition of Integral Windup and determine the best method available in
resolving this control problem.
4. Select the appropriate control algorithm for various types of Feedback control
applications.

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Proportional Controller
The proportional controller is the minimum controller configuration which will tend to damp
out oscillations in the loop, which is its primary job. As you will see, it will stop the
measurement from oscillating, but not necessarily return it to the setpoint. Suppose you have
a liquid level as shown in Figure 1 and you desire to control only to the extent that you do
not want the tank to overflow or run dry.

Figure 1 Level Application

If

FI FO

so the level remains constant as shown in Figure 1. Suppose the sight glass is

watched for any changes in level. If the outflow,

FO

increases such that

FO FI

then the

level will begin to drop. In order to stop the level from dropping, FI needs to increase, such

F FO
that I
. As the level drops, increase FI , watching the sight glass, while increasing the
inflow.
When

FI FO

, the level stops dropping, but it is no longer at the initial level, it has dropped.

The amount dropped depends on how much the inflow valve was open to make
similar situation could occur if
adjusted to equal the outflow.

FO FI

FI FO

.A

, only in this case the level will rise until the inflow is

This is called proportional action. It is exactly what a Proportional Controller would do if it


was connected to the liquid level tank. In general, the output of a proportional controller is
proportional to the error (that is, deviation of the measurement from the setpoint).
me

PID Control

Or removing the proportionality,

m Ke
Where, K is the controller gain.
Note: The proportional controller is nothing but an amplifier. Its output is the error
multiplied by a gain K.
Apply this controller to the process shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2 Level Control Loop

Suppose the controller is in the Manual mode and manually adjusts the level in the
F FO
tank to equal to the setpoint. With I
the level should remain at the setpoint.
F FO 50% c r 50%
Assume I
and adjust K 2 .
,

Now if the controller is placed in Auto mode, what will be its output?
Assume

FI FO 50% c r 50%
and adjust K 2 .
,

The error e 0 and because c r


The controller output would be m 2(50 50) 0

If the controller output is 0, what will the level do?


It will begin to go down
How can you stop the level from going down?

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You need to make

FI FO 50%

again

How can this be done?


Assuming a linear relationship between the controller output and the inflow
You want FI 50% and m 50% .so m must = 50%
Since m Ke 2e 2( r c ) 2(50 c )

For

m 50% m 50% , e 50% e must be 25%

Now m 2(50 25) 50%

The controller output will reach 50% when the measurement drops by 25%, creating
F FO 50%
a 25% error, and the I
.
So for this case, in order to stop the level from dropping, it had to drop by 25% to
F FO
create a large enough error so the controller could make I
.
Assume that the controller is adjusted so that K 4 and m 4e .
The error now would only need to be +12.5% for m 4(12.5) 50% .
Note: It seems that the larger you make the controller gain, the smaller the error will be, if K
is very large, the error will be very small.
The false conception here is that as K gets larger to make the error small, the gain of the
controller, K, is multiplied along with the gains of other components and if the K becomes
large enough, the loop gain, GL, will be greater than 1 and the loop will become unstable. So
you cannot just randomly increase K to minimize the error e.
There is another way, under certain circumstances, where you might be able to make the
error zero. Suppose you add another term to your control equation.
For example, call this term the bias. Now the equation becomes m Ke b .
Where, b is the bias and it is simply defined as the output of the controller when the error is
zero.

F FO 50%
Assume K 2 and manually adjust c r 50% , and I
, also adjust b 50% .

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Now when you put the controller in the Auto mode, what will happen?
Since c r , then e 0
2(e) 2(0) 0 , there will be no proportional contribution to the output, because
m b 50%
Since FO 50% and m FI 50% the level will stay right where it is.
,
The level will stay right where it is

Previously when b 0 , it ended up with e 25% , now with b 50% , e 0 .


Note: In general, if the bias equals the load (
zero.

b FO

in this case), the error will always be

F
Suppose now O goes to 75%, in order to stop the level from dropping
m FI 75% now
Since m 2( e) 50% 2(50 c ) 50% and c must drop to 37.5%
Then m 2(50 37.5) 50 2(12.5) 50 75% .

The level would stop dropping at c 37.5%


This would also work if
If

FO 25%

FO

decreased.

then the level would rise until m FI 25% .

This will require m 2(50 62.5) 50 2( 12.5) 50 25%


The level will stop rising at c 62.5% .
Note: The error can get smaller by increasing K, but be careful that increasing K too much
will make the loop unstable.
Notice how fast the controller output is changing to stop the measurement. It is changing as
fast as the error is changing. The error is changing as a function of the rate of change of
measurement, which is a function of the size of the tank, among other things.
Therefore if you make K such a value that the loop gain is equal to 1, the loop will oscillate
at a period which is a function of the natural characteristics of the process. This is called the
natural period. The natural period is defined as the period of oscillation under proportional
control only control.

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F
If K is adjusted such that the loop gain is equal to 0.5 and then changing O ; the
measurement will quarter amplitude will dampen out with a period approximately equal to
the natural period. It will also stop with an offset which is a function of both the gain K and
the bias. This is the type of response expected from a loop under proportional control
(Figure 3).

Figure 3 Proportional Only Closed Loop Response

Look at the equation for a P-only controller again.


m Ke b

Recall that the gain of a device is defined as:


G

output
input

Figure 4 shows the block diagram of a proportional controller.

Figure 4 Proportional Controller Functions

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Recall also that there is a 1:1 relationship between c and e, only a -180 phase difference if
the controller is in I/D mode. So the gain of the proportional controller is:
GK

m
e

The gain is the ratio of the change in controller output to the change in error, but you can
also say that:
If e c
Then

m
c

The gain is also defined as a change in controller output to a change in the measurement.
Assume that you have a linear relationship between c and m as shown in Figure 5.

Figure 5 Proportional Gain

So you can say that:

m 100%

c
c

Or the gain K is the amount that the measurement must change to make the controller output
change by 100%.
As you can recall, the gain of a transmitter is given by the following equation:
G

out 100%

in
span

The input of the transmitter changes the amount of the input span (Span = upper range value
- lower range value) to make the transmitter output change by 100%.

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In the case of the controller there is a similar situation, but instead of calling C the span as
in the case of the transmitter, it is called the proportional band. In other words the
proportional band can be defined as the that change in measurement which will cause the
output of the controller to change by 100%.
m 100%

c PB%

If the PB setting was adjusted on the controller to PB = 40% the output of the transmitter
(which is the measurement to the controller) changes over 40% of its output span, the output
of the controller will change by 100% or the gain, K, will be:
100%
2.5
40%

Some manufacturers have a gain adjustment and some have a proportional band adjustment.
Remember only that:
1
PB

Or as the PB gets larger, the gain gets smaller and vice versa. The proportional controller
equation can be written as:
m

100
eb
PB

Where:

e r c( I / D)

e c r(I / I )

b bias

The equation can be solved for the error and this will give you an idea of where a
proportional controller can be applied.
e

PB
( m b)
100

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This equation gives the error as a function of PB, m, and b.


In order to make the error = 0:
1. Set PB 0 ( K )
2. Set b m
Either one of these steps will make the above equation go to zero. The first step is not
reasonable as PB 0 , K the loop becomes unstable. Furthermore, it is not possible to
set PB 0 .
On many controllers the minimum setting is usually 1% - 5%. However, if PB is very small
(for example, PB 2% ) the error will certainly be minimized under the condition that the
loop is stable (Figure 6).

Figure 6 Loop Gain

GV GP GT

If the
stability.

1
50 then the loop will be stable since GL 1 is the condition of

If a process has a very low gain, a higher gain can be reached (smaller PB) in the controller
and thus minimize the error. One type of process where this is true is very large capacity
such as a large liquid level tank.
Due to its low gain, you can successfully use a P-only controller. Also, some controllers
have an adjustable bias.
e

PB
( m b)
100

Adjusting b = m in the equation, the error will go to zero. This is possible to be done on any
process but preferably one which has few load upsets, since you will have to re-adjust the
bias every time there is a new load upset (recall that there will be no error as long as the bias

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is equal to the load), so if the process has infrequent load upsets, which allows you to readjust the bias for zero error, you will be able to make good use of a P-only controller.

In general, a Proportional Controller gives a fast response ( n ) compared to other controllers


but a sustained error is its primary characteristic. To eliminate any error which might exist,
you need to investigate a different control mode.

Integral Controller
The action of the integral control mode is to remove any error which can exist. As long as
there is an error present, the output of this controller continues to move in a direction to
eliminate this error. The equation for an Integral Controller is:

Where,

1
e
I dt mo

mo

is the controller output before integration on a given error.

m 0
Initially o
when power is first applied to the controller. Investigating the action of the
above algorithm for a given error, (assume I/D action).

Figure 7 Integral Only Open Loop Response

Figure 7 shows that the measurements increase in a step-wise fashion at t t1 and then
return to the setpoint at t t 2 , the output will ramp over the interval t1 t t 2 , since this is
the effect of integrating the step input.
When the measurement returns to r at t t2 , the output will hold the integrated value, since
that it is the correct value to bring the measurement to the setpoint. The rate at which the

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controller output ramps is a function of two things; the integral time, I, and the magnitude of
the error.

Figure 8 Integral Controller Functions

Note: The controller output m, will ramp in the opposite direction if the measurement
moved below the setpoint.
The integral time, I, is defined as the amount of time taken for the controller output to
change the amount of error; that is, the amount of time required to repeat the error. Thus,
I is sometimes measured in minutes per repeat.
The equation for controller output is:
m

1
e
I dt

Because of this some manufacturers measure I in repeats per minute since:


1
1

rep / min
I min/ rep

Because of this reciprocal relationship, note that if the controller is adjustable in min/ rep ,
then increasing the adjustment gives you less integral action; whereas, if in rep / min ,
increasing the number gives you greater integral action. For I in min/ rep is shown in Figure
9., where I1< I2< I3.

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Figure 9 Integral Only Open Loop Response (I1<I2<I3)

Usually I is treated as a gain adjustment. Remember whether increasing the value of I will
give greater gain ( rep / min ) or less gain ( min/ rep ). Another consideration is that for a
fixed I, the rate of change of m will also depend on the magnitude of e (Figure 10).

Figure 10 Integral Only Open Loop Response (Fixed I)

The rate of change for controller output is a function of both I and e. When adjusting an
Integral Controller for optimum response, I is adjusted in the same way as the PB for the
Proportional Controller.
Considering the difference in response time of the Integral and Proportional controller, as
mentioned before, the output of the P-only controller changes as quickly as the
measurement changes (Figure 11):

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Figure 11 Proportional Only Open Loop Response

So if the measurement changes as a step, the controller output will also change as a step in n
K

100
PB . Recall that with a step input to an Integral

amount depending on the gain


Controller, the output does not change instantaneously but at a rate which is affected by I
and e.
Putting these two types of controllers in a loop to control a process provides different types
of responses. The Integral Controller will drive the mechanism to return the measurement
back to the setpoint.
Due to the additional lag introduced by this mechanism, the overall response of this loop
will be much slower than that under proportional control. So the trade off made here is that
if you require a return to the setpoint and use the Integral Controller, you must be satisfied
with a slower period of response (Figure 12).

Figure 12 Closed Loop Responses

The period of response for the measurement under integral control CI can be about 10 n .

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If you require a return to setpoint (that is no sustained error) and would like a faster response
time, you need to investigate the control mode which is composed of both proportional and
integral action.

Proportional Plus Integral Controller (PI)


Using a PI Controller will give a return to setpoint at a response period which is longer than
a P-only Controller but much shorter than an I-only controller (Figure 13).

Figure 13 Closed Loop Responses

The response period of a measurement under PI Control (Cp+1) is approximately 50% longer
than that of the P-only response period (1.5 n). Because this response is much faster than IOnly, and only somewhat longer than P-only control, the majority of controllers found in a
plant will be PI Controllers.
The equation for a PI controller is as follows:
m

100
1
(e e
dt )
PB
I

-orm

100
100 1
e
e
PB
PB I
dt

Note that the proportional gain has an effect not only on the error, but also on the integral
action as well. Compare the above equation to that of a Proportional Controller:

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100
eb
PB

You will recognize that the bias term in the Proportional Controller has been replaced by the
integral term in the PI Controller.
b

100 1
e
PB I
dt

Recall that one way of eliminating offset in the proportional controller is to manually adjust
the bias to equal the load. In this case, the integral action provides a bias which is
automatically adjusted to eliminate any existing error.
The PI Controller is faster in response than the I-only controller. As it turns out, it is due to
the addition of the proportional action (Figure 14).

Figure 14 Open Loop Response

Previously it took I minutes for the output of the I-only controller to repeat the error. As
shown above, due to proportional action you immediately get a proportional step and then
the integral action.
Moreover, because of the proportional effect on the I time, the integral time I is defined to
be the amount of time it takes for the integral portion of the controller to repeat the
proportional action. When the measurement is returned to the setpoint, the proportional
action is lost (since e 0 ) and the controller output is held only by the integral circuit.
PB and I both can be simply treated as gains which vary the overall controller gain and are
used to adjust the controller gain to give the PI loop response. Note that in the equation for
the PI Controller:

PID Control

100
100 1
e
e
dt
PB
PB I

The equation consists of the sum of two components gains, the proportional gain
and the effective integral gain

100
PB ,

100 1

PB I .

The overall controller gain is the sum of these two gains. It is not a straight arithmetic sum.
There is a phase difference between the proportional and integral action and therefore the
gain sum is a vector sum (Figure 15).

Figure 15 Vector Diagram

P I is the phase angle of the controller which contributes to the overall loop phase shift. In
adjusting a controller to give quarter amplitude damped loop response, you need to select a
value of PB and I which will give a suitable GP I for the desired response.
Looking at the vector diagram you can see that almost any values of PB and I will give us a
useable GP I . If you arbitrarily choose a PB, you can then select an I which will make GP I
sufficient to give quarter amplitude damping, but at varying phase angles P I .
The important thing to remember here is that as the phase angle, P I changes, while the
damping remains constant, the period of response also varies. Suppose I is set to , this will

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make G I 0 , regardless of the setting of PB and then K GP I , and you will have a
proportional controller with P I 0 .
In effect the response period will be that of a P-only controller and equal to n with a
sustained error. Since you cannot set I , you can set I to a very large number in min/rep
and therefore minimize integral action.
On the other hand, suppose I is set to very small value, then GP I will approach GI since

G I K and P I will approach -90. The control action in the loop will now be that of
integral control only, that is a return to setpoint with a long response period.
These are the two extremes. Somewhere in between 0 P I 90 is a phase angle which
will give a return to setpoint with a period of response equal to 1.5 n . This angle is about
-30. This will be discussed more in the tuning controllers section.
In general, if you start at P I 0 or proportional action only action and as you add more
integral action, the measurement begins returning to the setpoint. You only need enough
integral gain to get back to the setpoint, since a phase angle P I greater than this will only
serve to slow down the response period. Remember also, that as you add more integral gain
by reducing I in min/rep you need to compensate for this added gain by reducing the
proportional gain through widening the Proportional Band.
Remember that the value of P I has an effect on the response period while GP I has an
effect on the damping.
Note that adjusting I will have an effect on the GI above and will thus affect GP I and P I ,
which will in turn affect both damping and period of response. Adjusting PB affects both

GI and K equally; thus, PB only has an effect on GP I which affects the damping and not
the period of response.
Although the period of response of a loop under PI Control is only 50% longer than a loop
under P-only Control, this can in fact be too long if n is three or four hours. In order to
increase the speed of response (decrease response period) of the loop you need to investigate
another control mode.

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Derivative Controller
While you can sometimes run into an I-only Controller, it is not very often used due to the
large increase in response period which it produces. A derivative only controller does not
even exist. Its minimum configuration is with proportional action, but before going further
you should investigate what derivative action is.
In D

d
din
out D
dt
dt

If there is a derivative block, its output is a gain factor, D (called derivative time), multiplied
by the derivative of rate of change in the input. Figure 16 investigates how the output from
the derivative block would look like for different inputs and a fixed Value of D.

Figure 16 Derivative Open Loop Response

Note: As the rate of change of the input increases, the output also increases.
Since the slope of each of these input signals is constant, the output for each constant rate
input will be constant. Notice, however, what happens as the slope approaches infinity (a
step which rises in zero time) you would theoretically get a pulse out that was 0 time long
and infinite amplitude.
You will not ever physically have an output like this, since a perfect step with zero rise time
is physically unrealizable. Although you might get a signal which has short rise and fall
times; therefore, the output from the derivative block would be a series of positive and
negative pulses trying to drive the final actuator.

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This would result in accelerated wear on the valve. Consider a temperature measurement
with small amplitude, fast rise and fall time, and with noise riding on it (Figure 17).

Figure 17 Signal Noise

You might think that since the noise is such small amplitude in comparison with the
temperature signal that it will not be noticed by a controller. This is true if the controller
does not have derivative action in it, then there would be no problem. However, if the
controller contains derivative action, remember that derivative does not consider the
magnitude of measurement; but rather its rate of change.
Since the rise time and fall time of noise is very short, the temperature signal would be
totally masked by the noise in the derivative circuit of the controller. Therefore, the
controller output would be a series of large amplitude pulses, which totally mask any output
contributed by the other control modes. In this case, the noise is either easily filtered out or
can be eliminated if the installation of the primary sensor is incorrect and is modified.
There are cases where noise is inherited to the measurement and the rise and fall times of the
noise have the same magnitude as that of the measurement itself. In this case, filtering would
only serve to degrade the accuracy of the measurement as well as filter the noise. A good
example of a situation like this is flow control.
Flow measurement is noisy by nature; therefore, whenever you encounter a noisy
measurement such as this, you cannot usefully apply derivative action. It is good practice
not to attempt to apply a controller containing derivative action to this situation. Later you
will experience that in many cases you are not advised to use derivative action in a loop. It
will not help even if you can apply it.

Proportional Plus Derivative Controller (PD)


Investigate the minimum configuration controller containing derivative action. This is the
Proportional plus Derivative controller. It is not used very often (primarily applied in batch
pH control loops), but it will help you to define the derivative time D, mentioned earlier.
The equation for the PD controller is as follows:

PID Control

100
de
(e D ) b
PB
dt

Observe this equation you will find that there is a bias. There will be a bias in any control
algorithm which does not have an integral action; since integral action is in effect an
automatically adjusting bias. Also you will find that the proportional gain acts on the error as
well as the derivative time D, in a very similar manner to that seen in the PD controller.
Consider this controller and what its output would look like if you applied some test signals
to it while it was on the bench (Figure 18 and Figure 19).

Figure 18 PD Controller Diagram

Figure 19 PD Open Loop Responses

Where:

mp is the proportional portion of the output

mD is the derivative portion

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The measurement changes with a fixed rate of change; therefore, the derivative portion of
de
the output is constant depending on the rate of change of measurement dt , the derivative
time D, and the proportional gain.
The proportional output is also a ramp whose slope is a function of the proportional gain.
Add mp and mD to get the actual output due to both modes (Figure 20).

Figure 20 Combined PD Open Loop Responses

Notice that for a ramp input it takes some period of time for the proportional action to reach
the amount of the derivative action. This period of time is called the derivative time D,
measured in minutes. Increasing the derivative time D increases mD, so you can consider D
as a gain factor.
Another consideration is that in the equation for the PD controller:
m

100
de
(e D ) b
PB
dt

Notice that the derivative action is on the error


e r c (For I/D)

dr
dc
de
dt can be a function of both dt and dt

de dr dc

dt dt dt

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If you get a load upset to the process, this in turn causes the measurement to change at some
dc
de dc
dr

0
dt since there is no setpoint change so dt
rate dt which in turn gives dt
. Now if
you make a setpoint change of even a few percent and the setpoint is changed quickly then
dr
dt can become very large and a large pulse could be generated at the output of the
controller. To overcome this possible problem many controllers do not recognize a setpoint
change.
de dr dc

dt dt dt
de dc

dt
dt
m

100
dc
(e D ) b
PB
dt

You will get no derivative action on a setpoint change, only proportional action. On a load
upset you will get both proportional and derivative action. This is the way many controllers
get derivative action to work.
Figure 21shows Figure 21compares in comparison the response of a control loop to a load
upset both under P-only and PD Control.

Figure 21 Closed Loop Responses

The response of the measurement under PD control, ( C P D ), is faster and ends up with a
smaller offset than the loop under P-only control. This faster response is due to the nature of
the derivative action. You can also add the proportional and derivative gains together to get
the total gain of the controller similar to the method used in the PI case.

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Once again it is a vector sum except that the derivative gain is at a +90 phase angle from
the proportional gain (Figure 22).

Figure 22 Vector Diagram

You can see that the derivative time D, has an effect on both the damping and response
period since it in turn affects the resultant vector GP D and the phase angle P D , while
proportional band has an effect only on damping since it affects only the length of the
resultant.
As the phase angle, P D , gets larger the response periods get shorter, and as the gain is
more and more derivative in nature (larger P D ) the controller becomes hypersensitive to
noise generated in its own circuits and control is lost.
dc
Note: Derivative action is made up of the derivative time D, and dt .
In the PI Controller, to minimize the integral action you would set I to a large number of
minutes/repeat. This would not make the integral gain vector, GI go to zero, but would be a
very small value and the controller would be essentially P-only.
In the PD Controller, if you set D to a very small value, there is a possibility that you might
dc
still get a sizable derivative contribution if you get noisy input (so that dt is large).
On electronic controllers you can turn derivative action off and derivative is effectively
eliminated. In a pneumatic controller you cannot turn the derivative off, only to a certain
minimum value (approximately 0.01 minutes) so if you attempted to use this controller on a

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flow loop you could still get considerable derivative action due to the noisy flow
measurement.
It is therefore important to make sure that the controller contains no derivative circuitry
when applying a pneumatic controller to a noisy loop, such as a flow loop. The reason of
being interested in derivative action is that you can combine it with proportional and integral
action to get a three mode PID controller.

Proportional Integral Derivative Controller (PID)


The PID three mode controllers are used to provide with a response period the same as with
proportional control but with a return to setpoint. The derivative action adds the additional
speed required to overcome the slowing down of the response resulting when integral action
was added to remove the offset caused by proportional control.
The equation for the three mode PID controller is as follows:
m

100
1
dc
(e e dt D )
PB
I
dt

This is a combination of the three control actions studied. The total gain of this controller is
the vector sum of the three gains (Figure 23).

Figure 23 Vector Diagram

Depending on which is larger GI or GD , this resultant can fall in either the first ( GD G I )
or fourth quadrants ( G I G D ). When the controller is adjusted correctly G I G D and the

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resultant falls on the X-axis with the phase PID 0 . This will give the speed of
proportional response with a return to setpoint.
Compare the various responses to a load upset (Figure 24).

Figure 24 Closed Loop Responses

The addition of the derivative mode has once more given you the response of P-only with
the return to setpoint provided by integral action. Adjusting the controller will be covered
when the controller tuning for optimum response is discussed.

Choosing the Correct Controller


After investigating the various control modes, it might be appropriate for you to choose a
particular control mode for your process (Figure 25). Starting from the top, you come to a
decision block which asks if an offset can be tolerated.
If the answer is yes, you can use a P-only controller. If the answer is no, the next block asks
if noise is present. If there is noise, you are required to use PI control; if noise is absent,
proceed to the next block.
Then you come to a block which asks if dead time is excessive. If the ratio of dead time to
capacity time constant in the process is greater than 0.5; you can assume the process to be
dead time dominant.
In this case you need to use a PI controller since derivative action is intended primarily to
cancel out lag effect on slow response due to dead time if the process does not have
excessive dead time.

PID Control

Then the next block asks if the capacity is extremely small. If yes then use a PI controller. If
you have short dead time and small capacity you do not need derivative action to speed up
the response, it is already fast enough.
For example, in a flow loop you might consider an I-only controller since the loop is so fast.
slSlowing down the response through use of integral only action will still provide fast
enough response for the majority of applications. Finally if the capacity is large, you can put
a PID controller to good use.
Recall that it was mentioned earlier that the PI controller is the most common controller
found in the plant. Looking at this decision diagram (Figure 25) you can see why there are
three possible ways to get to PI, while you are required to proceed through four decision
blocks before getting to PID.

Figure 25 Choosing the Correct Controller

PID Control

Remember that while the PID action seems to be the most versatile, it is not always required
and you should not try to apply it where it cannot effectively be used.
For example, some people may say they have applied PID control successfully to a flow
loop. whatWhat they have probably done is this (Figure 26).

Figure 26 Vector Diagrams

They have probably added derivative action. But in order to make the controller stable, they
have added twice as much integral gain to swamp out the derivative gain. The result is the
same phase angle and length as if they had no derivative gain and half the integral gain.
Remember, if someone is applying a controller in an unconventional manner they are
probably trading off somewhere else. , To to the point where the response is not improved
over what it should be if they had applied it according to the decision chart.

Self-Regulation
Self-regulation is a desirable property for a process to exhibit. Not because automatic
control is then made unnecessary it usually is not but because it is made easier. For an
illustration on how a process is self-regulating, Figure 27 shows a tank with an outflow set at
a constant rate by a flow controller and with an inflow manipulated to control liquid level.
If the inflow and outflow are not exactly equal, the level will either rise or fall at a constant
rate until the tank overflows or empties. Thus, this kind of process cannot be left unattended
at any time, because it is impossible to match the two flows exactly. The non-self-regulating
process has no steady state.

PID Control

Figure 27 Non-Self Regulating Loop

If the driving force for outflow is simply the static head of liquid, self-regulation can be
achieved simply by placing the outflow controller in Manual mode (although this may not
satisfy the downstream process). An increase in inflow will now only raise the level to the
point where the outflow will be increased again to match the inflow.
Self-regulation exists if the tank is neither overflowing nor completely empty under the full
range of flows that can pass through it, level control may not be necessary.
But in the majority of installations, the outflow is either pumped or pressured with gas, such
that very little self-regulation exists.
Flow control loops are highly self-regulating in that a new valve position will bring about a
new steady state flow almost instantaneously.
Liquid pressure responds very much like flow and, therefore is also self-regulating. Digital
blending systems are not, since volume rather than flow is the controlled variable, just as in
liquid level control.
Gas pressure behaves more like liquid level in that a certain amount of self-regulation is
exhibited, but it varies with flow. At zero flow out of a vessel, for example, a small flow into
it will raise the pressure gradually until the full supply pressure is reached or a relief device
is actuated. At higher rates, the flowing pressure drop across the inlet valve limits the steadystate pressure.
Types of self-regulation are the following:

Little self-regulation
It appears in the outflow which is either pumped or pressured with gas and
that appears in the majority of installations

PID Control

Gas pressure behaves more like liquid level. A certain amount of selfregulation is exhibited, but it varies with flow
For example, when there is zero flow out of a vessel a small flow into it
will raise the pressure gradually until the full supply pressure is reached or
a relief device is actuated. At higher rates, the flowing pressure drop
across the inlet valve limits the steady-state pressure

High self-regulation
It appears in flow-control loops due to a new valve position which will
bring about a new steady state flow at once
Liquid pressure responds very much like flow; and therefore, it is also a
highly self-regulating
Digital blending systems are not, since volume rather than flow is the
controlled variable, just as in liquid level control

Temperature processes tend to be quite self-regulating as an increase in heat input will


eventually produce a new steady-state outlet temperature. Exothermic chemical reactors can
actually have negative self-regulation; however, increasing temperature increases the rate of
heat evolution.
Their control systems must be carefully designed, cascading reactor temperature to coolant
temperature for the most stable performance. Control over composition is generally selfregulating. A pH measurement, for example, will not continue to rise or fall following a
change in reagent flow but will seek a corresponding steady state.
The one exception to this rule appears when reagent left over from a reaction is recycled.
The excess tends to accumulate with time, resulting in an overall non-self-regulating
response of composition with respect to fresh reagent feed rate.
The difference in response between self-regulating processes and those that are not under
simple proportional control is not very large. However, when reset action is added, the nonself-regulating process begins to show its true colors.
In fact, reset-only control cannot be used at all with non-self-regulating processes, although
it is entirely stable. A reset controller on a non-self-regulating process oscillates uniformly
regardless of the setting on the controller or the time constant of the vessel.
Adjusting the reset time only changes the period of the oscillation, without affecting the
damping. Figure 28 shows that Non-self-regulating processes have no steady state. Even
with a proportional-plus-reset controller, the non-self-regulating process goes unstable if
there is any hysteresis in the loop.

PID Control

Figure 28 Non-self and Self Regulating Responses

PID Control

All control valves have a certain amount of hysteresis.

If they are randomly applied with a proportional-plus-reset controller on a liquid


level or gas pressure process, a limit cycle will result.

One solution to this problem is the use of a positioner on the valve to overcome
the hysteresis.

An even more effective solution is to set the manipulated flow in cascade, as done
with boiler feed water for drum level control.

Alternately, a proportional-only controller could be used, although the offset that is occurs
due to load changes is not often acceptable. Nothing Very little can be done to give selfregulation to a process that has none. But you can recognize its existence and recommend
the right controller or cascade loop to avoid the instability beforehand.

PID Control

LAB PID Control


Introduction
In this lab you will become familiar with the Proportional Only controller, Integral only
controller, and the PI controller.

Objectives
In this lab, you will perform the following tasks:
1 Demonstrate the action of the proportional control mode and the influence of the
proportional band setting in the open loop.
5. Demonstrate offset and its relationship to process load and proportional band setting in
the closed loop.
6. Demonstrate the action of the Proportional plus Integral controller modes in the open
loop.
7. Investigate integral windup.

Lab procedure
Proportional-Only Controller in the Open Loop
1 Select START from the Side Menu bar.
2

Click Intro box to turn it from ON to OFF.

Click LAB1 box to turn it from OFF to ON.

Select LABl_PART1 from the Side Menu Bar.


Note: With this display, you can adjust the measurement received by the
proportional-only controller by selecting the MEAS box and entering a value
in the data entry box. The controller is set for Increase/Decrease action
( e r c ).

8. Set the initial conditions:

9.

Controller in Auto

Meas (c - controlled variable) = 50%

Setpoint (r) = 50%

Bias (b) = 50%

What isRecord the value of the manipulated variable (m)?


__________________________________________________________________

PID Control

Output =_____ %

Note: This value is the bias in the controller equation since the error seen by the
controller is zero. The P-Only Equation is as follows:
m

100
eb
PB

10. Verify the effect of the proportional band adjustment by making changes in the
Measurement from Setpoint and recording the change in Controller Output in the
table below.
PB

100

200

500

25

50

Starting
Measurement

50

50

50

50

50

New
Measurement

60

30

80

55

45

50

50

50

50

50

Measurement
Difference
Starting
Output
New Output
Output
Difference
Kc (actual)

Kc

OUT
IN

Kc (expected)

KC

100
PB

You should also observe that the controller response occurs simultaneously with and
in the same opposite direction as the change in error. From this observation you can
conclude the following:
c = ________________

PID Control

Proportional Only Controller in the Closed Loop


11. Select LAB1_PART2 from the Side Menu bar.
Note: This display will allow you to verity the role of loads in creating offset in loops
under proportional-only control
12. Set the initial conditions:

Controller in Auto

Setpoint (r) = 50%

PB = 100%

Bias (b) = 50%

Note:
This controller will control the level in the tank. The tank is a Non-SelfRegulating (NSR) process.
The load (q) on this process is the pump in the outflow pipe. For this
process, an increase in load will cause a decrease in the Measurement.
To complete the below table, set the BIAS to 50 % and the LOAD as
specified in the table.
After you have determined and recorded the offset, attempt to zero the error
by adjusting the BIAS value.
Record the value in the below table. Return the BIAS to 50% before
determining the offset for the next LOAD value.
LOAD (q) %

10

25

50

75

90

50

50

50

50

50

m Output
c Meas.
r Setpoint
e Offset
(b = 50%)
b Bias
(e = 0)

PID Control

13. To complete the table below, set the BIAS to 50% and the Load to 75%.
PB %

25

50

100

200

50

50

50

50

m Output
c Meas.
r Setpoint
e Offset

Proportional Plus Integral Control in the Open Loop


It has been shown that the P-only control mode responds to an error by altering the
controller Output to some value proportional to that error. Also, controller action stops
when the error stops changing, not necessarily when the Measurement and the Setpoint are
equal.
Integral action, on the other hand, will continue to drive the Output in the proper direction
until the Measurement is forced to equal the Setpoint (error = 0%), or the final actuator
has reached a limit. This action can be demonstrated as follows:
14. Select PI Operation from Side Menu bar.
Note: The screen provides a block diagram of a Proportional plus Integral controller.
This display will allow you to investigate the actions of the proportional and
integral controller modes in the open loop.
15. Review the various dialog boxes and entry fields available on the display.
Dialog Boxes /
Entry Fields

Description

DISPLAY
ON / OFF

Activates the display

OPEN
/CLOSED

Puts the control loop in the open


(no feedback) or in the closed
(normal feedback) format

r field

Allows Setpoint entry

c field

In the open loop, allows entry of


Measurement values

m field

In the manual mode, allows entry


of controller Output values

LIMITS

Allows entry of Output clamping


values

PID Control

AUTO /
MANUAL

Allows A/M transfer of the


controller

PBAND

Allows entry of Proportional Band


values

INT

Allows entry of integral Integral


time settings

DERIV

Allows entry of integral Derivative


time settings

PROCESS
LOAD

Permits the entry of process load


parameters

PID BLOCK

Calls up a static block diagram of a


PID controller

16. Set up the following initial conditions with the loop CLOSEDOpen, in Manual and
Display On.
a

Adjust the PB to 50%.

f. Adjust the integral time to 1.0 minute.


g. With the controller in Manual, adjust the Setpoint, Controller Output, and
Measurement to 50%.
h. Turn the display ON.
i. Ensure that the controller has lined out ( c r m 50% ).
j. Open the control loop by selecting the OPEN/CLOSED dialog box.
k. Place the controller into the Automatic mode, no control action should occur.
l. Change the Setpoint from 50% to 60%
17. Observe the Output for 1.0 minute on the trend display.
18. Return the Setpoint to 50% and observe the change.
19. Make the following adjustments and observations. After each trial, place the controller
in manual and readjust the Output, Setpoint, and Measurement to 50%.
20. Return the controller to automatic and proceed with the next trial entering the new
values indicated.

PID Control

PB

ITIM
E

NEW
SETP

MEAS

ERRO
R

OINT

1 MIN
OUTPUT
ATOUTPUT
AT

PROP.
CONTRIB

INT
CONTRIB

POINT

1MIN
CAL
C
50

1.0

60%

50%

100

1.0

60%

50%

200

1.0

60%

50%

PB

ITIME

NEW
SETP
OINT

MEAS

ERRO
R

CAL
C

100

0.5

60%

50%

100

2.0

60%

50%

100

10.0

60%

50%

ITIME

NEW
SETP
OINT

MEAS

ACT

CAL
C

ACT

PROP.
CONTRIB

INT

ERRO
R

ACT

OUTPUT AT
1 MIN

CAL
C

ACT

CAL
C

PROP.
CONTRIB

ACT

INT
CONTRIB

POIN
T

CAL
C

100

1.0

60%

50%

100

1.0

70%

50%

100

1.0

40%

50%

100

1.0

30%

50%

OUTPUT AT
1 MIN

CAL
C

CONTRIB

POINT

PB

ACT

ACT

CALC

ACT

What effect does the PB have on the integral response?

CAL
C

ACT

PID Control

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
m. What effect does the error have on the integral response?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
n. What effect does the integral time setting have on the integral response?
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
Proportional Plus Integral Control Integral Wind up
In the P-only portion of this lab you discovered that P-only control action can result in
having a sustained error under steady state conditions (offset). Integral control action is used
to resolve this problem. Integral action provides the controller Output with a variable bias
term that is changed as required to remove error from the control loop.
This action is accomplished by applying a positive feedback mechanism to the calculated
controller Output signal. Integral windup or saturation can occur within any controller that
utilizes the integral control mode. Saturation implies that the controller is no longer capable
of responding to error conditions present in the loop. Generally, there are two possible
causes for integral wind up, which are as follows:

Sustained error present in the controller. This implies that the controller Output
signal has no impact on manipulating the final control element

The PI controller has been improperly tuned because the integral time is too fast
for a given process. Since integral is a Time based parameter, consideration must
be given to the process characteristics of capacity and dead time to derive the
correct integral time setting

Note: The following steps demonstrate an Integral Time that is too fast for the
existing process.
Implement the following conditions for the next portion of this lab:
21. Put the controller into the Manual mode.
22. Insure that the control loop is closedopen.
23. Line out the controller so that r = c = m = 50%.
24. Adjust the PB to 100% and the integral time to 0.01 minutes.
25. Place the controller into the Automatic mode. No control action should occur.
26. Place the control loop to Closed.

PID Control

27. Step the controller Setpoint from 50% to 60% and observe the results.
What is the present state of the control loop?

_____________________________________________________________________
Note:
_____________________________________________________________________
The following steps demonstrate Integral Windup when an open loop condition
exists.
exists:
28. Adjust integral time to 0.5 minutes.
29. Open the control loop by selecting the OPEN/CLOSE dialog box on the display.
30. Place the controller into the Manual mode, and re-align the controller to 50% (r = c =
m = 50%).
31. Place the controller into the Automatic mode, and step the controller Setpoint from
50% to 60%
Observe the results.
32. Enter the value of the controller Output after 0.5 minutes, after 1.0 minute, after 2.0
minutes.
Time

Output Value

0.5 MIN
1.0 MIN
2.0 MIN

33. Place the controller into Manual, re-align the controller at 50% (r = c= m = 50%).
34. Turn off the display by selecting the DISPLAY ON/OFF dialog box on the display.

Summary
In this lab, you performed the following tasks:

Demonstrated the action of the proportional control mode and the influence of the
proportional band setting in the open loop

PID Control

Demonstrated offset and its relationship to process load and proportional band
setting values in the closed loop

Demonstrated the action of the Proportional plus Integral controller modes in the
open loop

Investigated integral windup

PID Control

Review Questions
1

Most controllers are configured with one or a combination of three controller modes.
These three modes are:
a

__________________________________________________________________

o. __________________________________________________________________
p. __________________________________________________________________

35. What is the major disadvantage associated with use of proportional only control of a
process?
a

Provides a system response that is linear with error generated in system.

Provides a mechanism for attaining a damped response rather than one which will
continuously oscillate.

Can result with a control response that generates offset or sustained error in the
system.

36. Why would the integral or reset control mode be used for control of a process?
a

To provide an immediate controller response to any error existing in system.

To speed up or decrease the period of oscillation in a process control system.

To eliminate any error in system, always acting on controller Output until


Measurement is brought back to setpoint.

PID Control

37. What is the major disadvantage of incorporating the integral or reset mode in a process
control scheme?
a

Reset or integral mode can result in erratic controller response if there are
significant amounts of noise on the Measurement signal.

Period of response of control loop increases significantly.

During normal operation, an upset to the process can result in offset, or sustained
error.

38. The derivative control mode responds in the following matter:


a

Generates a controller Output response with regard to the period length of time
and error which exists in the control loop.

q. Generates a controller output response strictly as a function of the magnitude of


the error signal input from controller front end.
r. Generates a controller Output response as a function of the rate of change of
Measurement signal as it deviates from setpoint.

39. A proportional plus derivative controller always results in a controller response where
Measurement is equal to setpoint.
a

True

False

40. When applying derivative action in a control scheme it is important that ___________
to ensure that there is no erratic control response in the system.
a

The control variable of the system should be free from noise.

The process gain should be very high.

The period of oscillation of system should be very fast. For example Tn = 1 to 10


sec.

41. The phase angle of a PI controller can fall between ______ degrees and
______degrees.

42. The length of the controller gain vector affects the ____________ of an automatic
control loop.

PID Control

43. The phase angle of a controller affects the __________ of ___________ of a control
loop.
Problem #2

Given the following process:


The range of the level transmitter is 0 to 70, the controller is proportional only with
PB=75%, b = 50%, and r = 40. The load, Q = 3.5 GPM. The valve pressure drop P, is
constant, the valve has a linear characteristic and delivers 6 GPM at 100% stroke.

What is the Steady State Level?


_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

PID Control