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MM3HTR: Advanced Heat transfer: Coursework

Due date 25th April 2016 at 3pm


This coursework is a test of your ability to use some of the techniques outlined in the lecture
as well as an opportunity for you to start your revision early. It is also meant to assess your
ability to use your general knowledge as well as fact finding skills. The majority of the
information is given in the three pdf documents provided, but you are expected to look
elsewhere for information needed for the work and to be able to reference correctly where
you get the information. There are some marks in each question for clarity and conciseness of
presentation. Answer each question as a separate question clearly labelled with short
paragraph conclusion summarising result. Too much detail or not enough detail will lose you
marks. Equations and images should be smart and completed electronically. Submission will
be on moodle as a pdf document only.
Assessment objectives:
By the end of this coursework you should:
Be able to choose, justify your choice and use empirical correlations for determination
of heat transfer coefficient
Be able to use Heisler charts for 3D problems
Understand View factor algebra and be able to use it.
Understand how to set up a iterative transient problem
Be able to comment on a model and use to provide solution of a problem.
Be able to clearly and concisely provide coherent information that can easily be
comprehended by the reader.
Be able to understand and interpret solutions with minimal help from authority.
Relevant files on Moodle:
This document
Coursework solutions from 2014-15
Matlab model (2015b)
Empirical correlations document.
Heisler charts

Why do so many roasting recipes say to let the meat stand at room temperature for up
to an hour before cooking?
To take the chill off the meat's surface so it browns better. Meat is typically refrigerated at
about 2.4C, but browning doesn't begin to occur until about 131C. Letting meat sit out of the
refrigerator gradually raises the meat's surface temperature, so when it hits the hot oven, it
quickly reaches browning temperature and then develops a thick crust. (Cold meat won't
brown as quickly or as easily.) Small roasts (less than 3 pounds) will lose their surface chill in
less than 30 minutes, while large roasts can rest at room temperature for up to an hour. (This
isn't a food safety issue as long as the meat doesn't stay out for more than two hours.)
The meat at the centre needs to be cooked at 51C for 3 minutes to kill the bacteria.
0.15 m

10 mm

Figure 1: dimensions of steak medallion

A medallion of lean beef steak with dimension shown in figure 1 is taken from a refrigerator
which has an internal temperature of 2.4 C and left standing in a room with temperature 20C.
Follow the guidance below to determine what the centre temperature will be after 2 minutes?
(a) Using the correlations sheet on moodle, calculate the maximum heat transfer
coefficient of the air with the top surface of the medallion.
(10 marks)
(b) Using a combination of the infinite plate and infinite cylinder solution (page 57 in
notes), calculate the centre temperature after 2 minutes. (Note the different lengths
scales needed)
(10 marks)

The medallion steak is then placed in an oven. The walls and air in the oven are at 180C.
The dimensions of the oven is given in figure 2.
0.55 m

0.4 m

1 = 0.5
2 = 0.9

0.4m

Figure 2: dimensions of oven


(c) Assume that the medallion steak is at a constant temperature over its surface (call surface
1). Also assuming that the oven is at a constant temperature (call surface 2). Calculate or
state all four view factors between the two surfaces.
(6 marks)
(d) Using the definition of the Fourier number, approximately how long will it take in seconds
for the medallion to feel the heat at the centre?
(3 marks)
(e) If the heat transfer coefficient between the air and the medallion is 50 /2 , what will
be the maximum thickness of slices that you can use to accurately simulate the temperature
distribution? How many layers should you split the problem into?
(5 marks)
(f) In the appendix to this file, the equation for the surface node is calculated (equation A:1). In
a similar manner, explaining each reasonable step in sufficient detail, derive the equation for
the centre node of the medallion.
(8 marks)
(g) With reference to equation (A:1), define the minimum time step allowable to solve this
transient problem.
(5 marks)
(h) Sketch and clearly label the resistance network showing the convective heat entering the
base and top of the medallion and the resistance and capacitance of all the layers you have
chosen. Ignore radiation exchange with the oven wall.
(10 marks)
(i) The problem is set-up in Matlab Simscape in the downloadable file. This includes radiation
exchange between the wall of the oven and the medallion as well as convection between
the air and wall. The model only considers heat flow from one direction. Why is it possible to
put an insulation block in this model?
(3 marks)
(j) Take a moment to check that you understand the input parameters to the model. Then
design a set of numerical experiments to estimate the temperature that the oven should be
set to and the time that the medallion needs to be in the oven, so that the surface of the
medallion is just browned after the centre has been sterilised of germs by cooking for 3
minutes at a temperature above 51C. (This is for a rare steak).
a. Explain and table your choice of oven temperatures to test.
(6 marks)
b. Show a graph comparing the centre temperature only against time for different
temperatures. Annotate to identify important features and explain the meaning of
graph.
(10 marks)
c. Show a graph comparing the surface temperature only against time for different
oven temperatures. Annotate to identify important features and explain the
meaning of graph.
(10 marks)

d. Write a short summary paragraph highlighting advice you would give to the novice
chef who wishes to cook the perfect rare steak. Consider the effect of leanness of
the meat on the result.
(14
marks)

Appendix:
Table 1A: material properties of lean and fatty steak.

Type of meat

Lean beef
Fatty beef

Density (3 )

1060
1000

Specific heat
capacity (J/KgK)
3032
2500

Thermal
conductivity
k(/2 )

Thermal
diffusivity

0.45
0.3

0.0014
0.0012

2
)

Derivation of the surface note temperature in dimensionless units


The surface node is heated by convection and conducts to node 2. Air temperature is called and
temperatures of the surface and first node are 1 and 2 respectively. The distance from surface
node to node 1 is and the volume of the surface node is /2, where is the area
perpendicular to the line connecting the nodes.
In this case the energy balance is given by:

( 1 )

= ( 1 ) +

2
Substituting the expression for the volume and expanding the time derivative gives:

0
( 10 )

(11 10 ) = ( 10 ) +
2
2
This is the explicit formulation of the differential term. It is possible to cancel out the Area, normalise
11 and collect the temperatures together.
2
2
2
2 0
11 = 10 (1

)+
+

2 2

We can use = 2 , and = in this equation to simplify the expression.


11 = 10 (1 2 2) + 2 + 220

(: 1)

How to use the Simscape model in MAtlab.


Open the model in Matlab. You can see the variables set by selecting the model properties as shown
in Figure A and selecting the correct tab and function callback as shown in Figure 1A. You need to set
two values on matlab. See comment in model for how to set these values.

Length of time of
model

Select model
properties

Double click to see


values set

Figure 1A: how to view the model properties.

Figure 1A: Select Initfcn ( the asterisk means it has code present) in the callbacks to see where the variables are set.

You can access the data for each run from the variable simout. This is a structure and contains all
the data as elements for that structure. To plot the data for the wall temperature for example, type:
plot(simout.Time, simout.Data(:,1),+k);

You can rename simout for something more memorable. For example:
Oven_temperature_150=simout;

Rerun program for a different temperature, say 160C and then type
Oven_temperature_160=simout;

To plot more than one line on the graph, you can use:
plot(Oven_temperature_150.Time, oven_temperature_150.Data(:,5),+k);
hold on;
plot(Oven_temperature_160.Time, oven_temperature_160.Data(:,5),+k);

hold off;
xlabel(Time in seconds (s));
ylabel(Temperature in C);

Double click on an element on the graph to change it graphically. Once you are happy with the graph
format, you can use File-> Generate code to save the graph format as an executable file that can
be used on any similar data set. You can also save as a .fig format for later edit.
Guidance on final summary:
In your final summary you are required to consider what information that a novice chef needs. Make
a decision based on your results as to whether it is better to cook slowly at lower temperature of
quickly at higher temperature. Remember that water will evaporate from the surface and add a
discussion dryness of meat in your discussion. If you are struggling for something to say, try the
experiment yourself and include your personal experience. Put in pictures. (Not suitable for
vegetarians).