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Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education
LEYTE NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL
Tacloban City

RECYCLED PAPER USED AS A MATERIAL IN THE PRODUCTION OF


PLY BOARD

A Research Proposal Submitted


in Partial Fulfilment of the
Subject Research II
School Year 2016-2017

Presented by:
LEILA NATASCHA G. AGOTE
MARIA CHRISTEEN DAGAMI
JULLIANNE JASMINE D. NICER
JACKIE LOU P. PATAN-AO
ARRON JOHN L. SEQUITO
IRIS MADEL L. TOBIS
10-GALILEO

Presented to:
ANGELINE BESA
Research Adviser

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

I.

Background of The Study


Due to the Philippines geographical location, over 25% of the Philippines is covered
with dense forests. This serves as a livelihood to those living nearby mountainsides and forests.
One of the many products that trees produce is ply board. A Ply board is a sheet material
manufactured from thin layers of wood veneer that are glued together with adjacent layers. It is
an engineered wood from the family of manufactured boards. The Ply Board has many
benefits, a ply board resists impact, chemical, moisture and fire. It is also very flexible and can
be used as an insulating material.

Paper is used in a day-to-day basis thus making the manufacture of paper one the
largest industries worldwide. It is said that an average person consumes 48 kilograms of paper
per year. Because of this, paper is being wasted which emits methane gas that is 25 times more
toxic than Carbon Dioxide which contributes to global warming and pollution.

Illegal logging and deforestation is common these days because products obtained
through illegal means are cheaper than most, but because of this lumber and wood is not as
abundant as it used to be. Prices have rocketed thus emptying the wallets of many. Through this
study, the researchers aim to utilize Recycled Paper and use it as a material in making a Ply
board. The compressed layer of papers would make the Ply board more durable and longlasting.

II.

Statement of The Problem


Main Problem:
Are recycled paper an efficient material in producing paper ply board?
Sub Problems:
1) How many sheets of recycled paper will be consumed in producing paper ply board?
a. 100 sheets
b. 150 sheets
c. 200 sheets
2) Is there a difference on the ply board made with the varying amount of used recycled
paper?
3) Is there a difference in the durability of ply board made with recycled sheets and made
with wood?

III.

Hypothesis
Null hypotheses:
1) There is no significant difference on the ply board made with the varying amount of used
recycled paper.
2) There is no significant difference in the durability of ply board made with recycled sheets
and made with wood.

IV.

Objectives of The Study


This study aimed to determine if recycled papers is an efficient material in producing
paper ply board. Specifically, the study would like to:
1) determine if how many sheets of recycled paper will be consumed in producing paper ply
board?
a) 100 sheets
b) 150 sheets
c) 200 sheets
2) find out if there is a difference on the ply board made with the varying amount of used
recycled paper?
3) compare if there a difference in the durability of ply board made with recycled sheets and
made with wood?

V.

Scope and Delimitation


Out of all kinds of paper we use in our everyday life, short bond papers are used as a
material in conducting the study.
The study is therefore limited to use of recycled paper, specifically, short bond papers.
Short bond papers will be used to determine if it will pass the standards of a ply board, then
subsequently turning it as a furniture.
The study consider the people who cannot afford normal ply board in construction
related activities, but also making it a low cost ply board where anyone can easily afford.

VI.

Significance of The Study


Due to the vast amount of paper being manufactured and produced every day; paper
is being wasted and therefore contributes to the global problem, pollution. A ply board is one
of the many practical products a tree can give us; usually used as a material for making
houses and furniture. But due to the illegal logging; lumber, wood and Ply board is not as
abundant as it used to be. Prices have rocketed thus emptying the wallets of many. The
researchers have decided to conduct a study about Recycled Paper used as a material in
making a Ply board. The compressed layer of papers would make the Ply board more durable
and long-lasting. The researchers utilize recycled papers, thus decreasing the wasted paper
and gradually helping Mother Earth.

VII.

Definition of Terms

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This section includes literature concerning the topic that the researchers deemed important and
relevant. It encompasses some background on paper and the process of plyboard making. Also, it
includes local studies on tiles made from locally available materials.

Paper
According to Webster Dictionary, paper is a felted
sheet of usually vegetable fibers laid down on a fine screen
from a water suspension. It is a similar sheet of other material
(as plastic). Paper is an incredibly versatile substance made from naturally occurring plant fibres
called cellulose. Originally derived from cloth rags and grasses, paper is now predominantly
made with wood (in Europe, non-wood based pulp accounts for just 1.3% of pulp production)
(http://www.paperonline.org/home/what-is-paper). Similarily, this wood comes from surplus
materials or wood scraps generated when sawing lumber or from timber produced by forest
thinning. It also comes from trees planted in forests that are sustainably managed to maintain the
natural environment. These materials are processed to extract wood fiber, which is called
pulp.( http://www.kppc.co.jp/en/aboutus/paper.html). Paper is a major product of the forestry
industry, and is used widely in our society. Paper products are used not only in their obvious

applications in the publishing industry and for writing on, but also in a variety of specialty
papers, cardboards, brown papers etc (http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/forestry/4C.pdf). Pulp
and paper are made from cellulosic fibers (i.e., fibers from trees) and other plant materials,
Figure 1: image of paper

although some synthetic materials may be used to impart

special qualities to the finished product. Most paper is made from wood fibers, but rags, flax,
cotton linters, and bagasse (sugar cane residues) are also used in some papers
(https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1989/8931/893104.PDF). The earliest paper was papyrus,
made from reeds by the ancient Egyptians. Paper was made by the Chinese in the second century,
probably by a Chinese court official named Cai Lun. His paper was made from such things as
tree bark and old fish netting. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was 500
years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. Papermaking was known in the
Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A.D (http://www.madehow.com/Volume2/Paper.html#ixzz4JXyIwAfx).

Paperboard

Paperboard is a thin and flat material in sheet form made up from an


interlaced network of cellulose fibres. It is usually made in several layers, combined together in
the wet state. A white mineral pigmented coating is applied in one or more layers, on one or both
Figure 2: image of paperboard

surfaces, enhancing whiteness and smoothness and

providing a surface for printing and varnishing (https://www.iggesund.com/en/knowledge/howto-choose-paperboard/why-paperboard/). Paperboard is a recyclable, biodegradable and
renewable packaging material possessing certain advantages over plastic-based materials
(Vishtal, A., et. Al, 2013).

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

This section includes the details how the study will be conducted, that is, the plans for different
stages, experimentation, tools, special procedures or techniques.
Research Design
Phase I: Preparation of Paper Ply Board from Used and Discarded Short Bond Papers 8.5 x 11
Gathering of Used and Discarded Short Bond Papers 8.5 x 11

Preparation of samples (different number of sheets of paper)

Experimental
A
B
C

Layer by layer sticking


Pressing Tightly

Drying
Final Product
Phase II: Testing of Physical Properties

Phase I: Preparation of Paper Ply Board from Used and Discarded Short Bond Papers 8.5
x 11

Gathering of Used and Discarded Papers


The researchers will gather rims of used and discarded papers at schools, offices or even
0.5 in

at their own homes. The researchers will only gather used short bond papers.

Preparation of samples (different number of sheets of paper)


After gathering the papers, the researchers will arrange the number papers according to
8 in
8 in

the samples. Sample A will have 100 sheets of paper, Sample B will have 150 sheets, and Sample
C will have 200 sheets.

Layer by Layer Sticking


The researchers will start the process of making paper ply board. The process is done by
hand by having one paper first and then applying glue between two sheets of paper and then it
will be done repeatedly until the papers per sample are consumed.

Pressing tightly
The researchers will use a rolling pin to press tightly the samples.

Drying
The samples are sun-dried. The samples are left to dry under the sun for (estimated) 5
hours.
Phase II: Testing of Physical Properties
Determination of Nails and Screw Holding Power
The test shall be conducted by hand with an arrangement to pull the screw and nails so as
to measure the maximum load required for complete withdrawal. 3.2 Nails shall be 50 mm long
and 2.5 mm shank and shall be bright, galvanized, diamond pointed and shall have plain heads.
3.3 Screws shall be of 4 mm size and 5 cm in length. 3.4 Each nail and screw shall be used only
once. The specimen shall be placed on the testing machine and the nail or screw shall be
withdrawn one at a time at a uniform rate of 2 mm/min until the nail or screw is pulled out
completely. Maximum load for complete withdrawal of nail or screw shall be recorded.

Impact Resistance Test


3.1 Equipment 3.1.1 Steel Ball The ball required for dropping on the surface of
plywood shall be of 5 cm diameter and weighing 450 25 g. 3.1.2 Dial Gauge The dial gauge
shall have least count of 0.01 mm and shall be suitably fixed on a plane surface so as to measure
maximum indentation, that is, depression perpendicular to the plane of the surface. 3.2 Test
Specimen The specimen of plywood shall be 20 20 cm in size and shall be preconditioned
to a constant mass at a relative humidity of 65 5 percent and at a temperature of 27 2C. 3.3
Procedure The specimen shall be placed horizontally on a plane smooth platform. The
steelball shall be allowed to fall freely from a height of 100 cm at any 5 different points on the
surface of plywood. If any indentation is noticed that shall be measured by the dial gauge. 3.4

Report Maximum indentation shall be reported and any cracking, tearing, etc, shall also be
noted. The panel shall be freely supported along all four edges and the hemisphere shall be
made to strike the centre of the panel. The rod shall be dropped through heights increasing in
increments of 10 mm until fracture of the panel occurs. Fracture is indicated when the
hemispherical end has penetrated the panel and is arrested by the flange of the cone. 4.4 The
height of drop required to produce fracture shall be taken as the panel impact strength. 4.5 In
case, the specimen does not fail with 5 kg mass from height up to 1 000 mm, the mass shall be
increased to 10 kg and the test be repeated from the height of 500 mm.

Long Time Loading Test of paper ply board strips


The object of this test is to study the creep behaviour of plywood as well as adhesives
used in plywood. 2.2 Test Specimen The specimen shall be rectangular and its thickness shall
be the thickness of the plywood. The width shall be 2.5 cm for thickness less than 6 mm and 5
cm for thickness 6 mm or more. The length shall be 48 times the thickness plus 5 cm, and the
grain direction of the face plies shall be parallel to the length. The specimen shall be conditioned
to a constant mass at 65 5 percent relative humidity and at a temperature of 27 2C. The
dimensions shall be measured to an accuracy of 0.1 mm and mass shall be taken to an accuracy
of 0.01 g. 2.3 Procedure 2.3.1 The test specimen shall be simply supported on horizontal parallel
iron rollers having a radius of about 5 mm placed at a distance centre-to-centre of 48 times the
nominal thickness of the specimen. Loading shall be done at the centre of the span and along a
line parallel to the end either by means of suitable lever arrangement ( see Fig. 1 ) or simply by
means of an iron roller of about 5 mm diameter and carrying a stirrup ( see Fig. 2 ). The total
mass of the roller and stirrup shall not be more than 250 g. The position assumed under this

initial load after a period of 30 seconds shall be treated as the zero condition. 2.3.2 When the test
is to be conducted at an elevated temperature the apparatus including specimen (preferably
wrapped in polyethylene sheet) shall be kept in the conditioning chamber maintained at the
desired temperature and humidity. 2.3.3 Additional weights such that the total load is equal to 30
percent of maximum load, calculated on a similar type of specimen shall then be suspended from
the stirrup directly or by means of lever arrangements and instantaneous deflection at the midpoint of the span (preferably at the neutral axis) shall be noted by means of a cathetometer or dial
gauge placed suitably at the mid-point of the span.

REFERENCES

Websites
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/paper
http://www.kppc.co.jp/en/aboutus/paper.html
http://www.madehow.com/Volume-2/Paper.html
http://www.paperonline.org/home/what-is-paper
https://www.princeton.edu/~ota/disk1/1989/8931/893104.PDF
http://nzic.org.nz/ChemProcesses/forestry/4C.pdf
https://www.iggesund.com/en/knowledge/how-to-choose-paperboard/why-paperboard/
Vishtal, A., Hauptmann, M., Zelm, R., Majschak, J., Retulainen, E. (2013). 3D Forming of
Paperboard: The Inuence of Paperboard Properties on Formability. Packaging
Technology

and

Science.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pts.2056/epdf?

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