Stanley Anderson, Battalion Chief (Ret.) and Training Consultant, Central Whidbey Island Fire & Rescue Craig Anderson, Lieutenant, Oak Harbor Fire Department Firefighters want to be challenged with realistic, relevant training evolutions. Our challenge is how to provide this safely and at an affordable cost. We hope to provide you with examples of training evolutions as well as realistic, affordable, training props for use on the drill ground and in classroom simulation.
INTRODUCTION How do we cover the basics of our ever-increasing variety of responses without our training becoming mundane and boring while operating within an ever-shrinking budget? The most difficult challenge a training officer faces is producing an environment that is interesting, educating, and realistic. We have all attended training programs at specialized facilities that are able to dedicate all their efforts and finances into one specific training field. Frustration occurs when the trainer returns to their department with a wealth of new information and ideas and attempts to replicate the realistic handson props within their department’s training budget. This presentation will furnish you with ideas that may trigger new approaches that you can build on.

Every training officer is faced with the same list of questions when they attempt to duplicate real world scenarios: 1. 2. 3. 4. What are the cost and space limitation factors? Can the hands-on training evolutions be performed safely? Are the basics being emphasized? Does the challenge persist while providing opportunity for a successful outcome?

Once these four questions have been answered your training ideas can now become reality.

DRILL GROUND PROPS A challenge in most fire departments is to build cost effective, realistic and
multi-use training props. In answering our four questions we must continually think out side the box. OVERCOMING BUDGET RESTRAINTS There are numerous ways to overcome budget restraints. Look to your hardware supply store for donated, used or low-grade materials, or purchasing materials at cost or at contractors’ prices. Contact on-site contractors for unused or scrap materials. City or county utility departments all have scrap piles that may contain lumber, concrete, metal and plastic materials. Wrecking yards all have used appliances and automobiles. (One man’s garbage is a training officer’s treasure.) Often these same departments that are allowing you to have their used materials will often deliver to your site. Getting your materials is only limited to the broadness of your imagination.

Very few organizations have limitless space; therefore our imagination must fit within the property borders. Designing a prop which can be changed for multiple uses often is the answer. Props designed with screws allow us to keep our imagination flexible. For example, SCBA confidence courses can be easily altered into confined space rescue props. A vertical ventilation prop can become a collapse void space. SAFETY IN DESIGN The safety factor must always be considered when designing and assembling training props. Always have a person who is removed from the design and construction review the components of the props at various stages of assembly. Consideration must be given to the fact that these props will be used multiple times by numerous people of various skill levels. We want the illusion of realism while providing a safe environment in which a mistake can be made without damage to equipment or injury to personnel. TEACHING THE BASICS WITH A CHALLENGE The props should be designed in which basic skills can be practiced, but as skills levels advance additional components of a prop or scenario can be added. For example, SCBA trailers can go from four walls to four walls with entanglements. Basic automobile extrications become more challenging as soon at the car is placed on its side. We must continually challenge a person’s skill level without breaking their desire to train and improve.

SEARCH AND RESCUE PROPS Search and rescue techniques and skills still prove to be one of the most dangerous aspects of firefighting. With actual structure fires becoming less, and yet the complexity of the fire fight increasing, the need for SCBA training and confidence is greater now then it has ever been. Confidence courses can be constructed to varying degrees of difficulty and from permanent to portable. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. NAS Trailer ESE Trailer Camano Trailer OHFD Attic Maze OHFD Dog Kennel Maze CWF&R Portable Maze Academy Portable Maze

AUTO ACCIDENT How many motor vehicle accidents do we respond to that require jaws to be used for patient extrication that have no damage to the vehicle? Why are we having people train on undamaged vehicles when learning the art of vehicle extrication? Training scenarios that involve removing the car from the patient should look like situations found on the street. Wrecking yards are full of pre-wrecked automobiles. Having the vehicle placed on its side or roof or into another vehicle possess a realistic challenging training scenario. Add mannequins or live victims and we now have real world evolution. The rescuer must now think of fluid run off, patient care, and vehicle extrication. Have a vehicle placed on the side of a hill and we have introduced vehicle stabilization into the scenario. Place the vehicle under a flatbed trailer and the evolution possesses yet a new challenge. All of these scenarios may be accomplished by one donated wrecked vehicle. AUTOMOBILE FIRES Any donated automobile becomes a car fire training prop with the addition of smoke. A smoke bomb or smoke machine placed in or beside a vehicle allows the user to practice all the basics of dealing with a car fire. A stripped down vehicle can be placed on an easily constructed LPG prop and the challenge of a true car fire awaits. LPG PROPS Liquid propane gas provides an environmentally friendly way of producing realistic fire training scenarios. Whether pre-plumbed into a vehicle, a dumpster, a burn room, or a mock LPG tank, authentic fire training scenarios result. Even with live fire training taking place, the amount of flames can be controlled through the turn of a valve, thus creating a challenge for the least experienced to the most advanced fire personnel.

PATIENT TRAUMA Any time a patient is added to a training evolution the complexity arises. Simply add a victim to be rescued from a window or a patient to be extricated from an automobile adds the need to practice the basics of victim removal. A challenge is added when the patient is impaled on a guardrail or trapped beneath a vehicle. Suddenly the need for extrication and medical patient care becomes a reality for all firefighters. SIMULATION AIDS Realism and the unexpected in any training scenario possess a challenge. This continues to keep rescue personnel aware of the dangers that could possibly await them in any kind of situation. There are numerous homemade cost-effective ways of producing realistic effects. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. MCI DRILLS As with any of our props the use is only limited to the imagination of the users. Any or all of the previous props can be combined for a mass causality incident that can challenge multiple agencies. Motor vehicles can be crushed and set beside a structure to simulate an external wall collapse. Debris can be placed on confined space props to simulate floor collapse. LPG fire props can be moved to the area of the training evolution to simulate a tank rupture. SCBA confidence courses become confined space entry areas. Remove the use of a door and it becomes a forcible entry or exit situation. Add the addition of multiple victims and is becomes a mass casualty incident. Bringing three or four basic props together and having them all operate at the same time can keep 30 to 50 rescue personnel challenged for two hours. One such evolution can provide invaluable feedback and training between fire, EMS, dispatch, and police agencies. CLASSROOM SIMULATIONS On-the-job training of fire ground size-up and tactical operations for initial company attack and the use of the incident command system is a difficult task for many officers. Fire ground simulations provide officers the opportunity to command a fire scene, and gain valuable ICS experience without jeopardizing lives or property. The goal is to provide a safe environment, where if mistakes are made, officers can be provided with on-the-spot evaluations, and constructive critiques. Using local buildings, response cards, and department operating procedures will bring about a heightened awareness of the Explosions – Milk Carton, Antifreeze Jug HazMat – Colored liquid, Dry Ice Gas Leak – SCBA Bottle Electrical Fire / Sounds – Laundry Plastic Flash Explosion – Flash Paper Sound Effects – Dogs, Babies screaming, Fire Scene sounds, Fires Smoke – Sugar and Salt Peter

dangers that exist in responding to unforeseen incidences in your local area. Mistakes made under simulated conditions will demonstrate how much we don’t know about buildings in our own response area. Buildings that were never given a second glance will now warrant a pre-incident plan review. These simulations can be as easy as marker drawings on transparencies or as complex as computer generated photos of your local buildings burning before your eyes. This portion of the presentation will demonstrate various methods of realistic classroom simulations to include: 1. 2. 3. 4. Overhead transparencies. Digital still photos. Digitally enhanced photos with animated smoke and fire. Video with inserted digitally enhanced photos.

All scenarios include the use of radio communications using multiple frequencies, preincident fire plans, and overheads of local response routes. TRAINING EVOLUTIONS Developing new and challenging training evolutions while not losing sight of the repetitious practice of the basics is a difficult task for any Training Officer. Continually donning a SCBA or raising a ladder becomes tedious work even to the most dedicated firefighter. We must develop a variety of creative methods that emphasize basic techniques while providing an exciting and competitive team-building atmosphere. Skill sheets and written scenario evolutions will be used to show how to train on the basics without the drill becoming basic. These evolutions include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pump operations and driving. SCBA training. Hose training. Equipment usage. Basic Firemanship. Officer Development.

The continual challenge for the fire service is to provide realistic hands-on training that emphasizes basic skills. By thinking outside the box and maintaining the attitude “Whatever It Takes”, we will develop the skills firefighters need in the real world. If it’s dreamable, it’s doable. We would like to leave this final thought to all training officers “The man with imagination is never alone.” If training officers would like a copy of the props, evolutions, and simulations or would like to contact us about anything please do so.

Dr. Stanley Anderson Box 460 Coupeville, WA 98239 360-678-4074 E-mail Lt. Craig Anderson 855 East Whidbey Ave Oak Harbor, WA 98277

RESOURCE PAGE Web Sites (send me more to add –
All will begin with www. Unless otherwise noted and you don’t need to capitalize the first letter as it is below
Excellent site with weekly commentaries and training topics. If you only go to one site this is the one. Also has quotes
Pump simulator material
Safety Powerpoints, games kids training, sog’s, etc.
A wealth of EMS material
Newsletters, strategies and tactics challenge, re search assignment, fire command and control e-magazine
Study guides for Firefighter I and II
Lesson plans for firefighter I and II
Preparation manual with reading for firefighter I and II certification
Oregon lesson plans, standards and certification, and guideline for live fire training 2002
Firefighter I and II certification preparation guide and pages for study
Firefighters cookbook online
Everything then some on ems
Good articles to read on extrication
Firemarshals sites
Good thought provoking commentaries
Links to fire departments by state and country
PowerPoint lessons
Training material
Past monthly training topics, picture of the month, rit instructors, rit drills, tips
FAST guide
Humor, scenarios, articles, quizzes

Fire-rescue village
Lesson plans, quiz, Crossword puzzles

Fire chief handbook with live fire manual
Physical standards, citizens fire academy, screensavers and wallpaper
Fun games, software
Entry to sites in England
Very good online magazine
Lesson plans, software, etc.
Good informative artricles
Articles, etc
Articles, etc
Lesson plans, quizzes
SOPs, fire safety material, training material
Firefighter deaths investigations

Good downloadable training (other available if you go to bottom of page and click on to back to main page click on back)
Good cross section pictures of anatomy
Fire investigation
Fire safety information
Medical acronyms

Useful links

Knightlite Rapid Fire - Fire Instructor Testing Software –

(has others sites of art along

Fire Studio – Emergency Services Interactive Simulators -

Adobe 7.0 Photoshop $699 Adobe Photoshop Elements $95 MS Picture-it $50 ScreenShot Delux 4.0 $20 Blue Squirrel ClickBook $30 Hp Photosmart S20 Photo Scanner Coral Draw Alien Skin’s Eye Candy $169 cheaper version of Photoshop Microsoft saves shots of monitor screen useful for making booklets $499 scans photo, slides, negatives fire and smoke filters for photoshop

Video Editing VideoWaveIII Dazzle MovieStar Pinnacle Studio PC to Video Grand Ultraview Grand Magicview

This is probably the best and easiest to use

see, or either sources from below Avermedia Averkey 500 Pro can obtain from for $209 or Incident Management Simulator 8-monitor simulation system with total image control – INCIDENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM TRAINING SIMULATOR - Approx $1900.00. For information – John Lapsansky, 19819 Jewell Rd., Bothell, WA , 98012. Ph. 206-755-0599 Printer Ink This is a good trustworthy site for printer ink. You can bUy good new ink cartridges for 5-7 dollars a cartridge. I have used it for 2-3 years with no problems

If you have any questions, comments, or new simulations or props. Anything, contact us Dr. Stan Anderson Box 460 Coupeville, WA 98239 360-678-4074 e-mail Lt. Craig Anderson 855 East Whidbey Ave. Oak Harbor, WA 98277 e-mail


SCBA MASK BLACKOUT METHODS 1. SHOWER CAP – These can be purchase in drugstores, grocery stores, etc. When you purchase make sure will not let images through. Some have cloth liner which will make opaque. Most will let light in but will look like in deep smoke condition and no image will show through. 2. BLACK PLASTIC – You can buy plastic bags and cut into squares that are larger than the viewing area of you face pieces. Some of the bags are thin and images will show through. Contractor bags are made of a heavier plastic and will not let light in. Some plastic rolls are thick enough to stop light. You can cut a number of pieces to fit the face piece and hold them on with # 84 rubber band. These can be purchased in bags in most office supply stores. This is a very cheap and quick method of blacking out your mask. 3. HOODS – You can turn your hood around and pull over the face piece to black out. Some of the hoods are thin enough to allow some image through. For these you can use blue painters tape in the center of the face piece to block light. This tape will not leave a residue on the mask and comes off easily. You can cover the whole face piece, but with the hood covering an area of 6x3 inches on the outside of the lens will be sufficient. 4. BLUE PAINTERS TAPE – You can tape the lens completely. Tape on the outside of the lens. This tape will come off readily and leave no residue. 5. WAX PAPER – Cut to size and hold on with #84 rubber band. This simulates a good smoke situation where you can see some shapes, light outlines and light.

AIR HISSING: Place SCBA bottle slightly open in a barrel. Make sure that there is a cap opening on the barrel and it is open or the barrel could explode if the air does not have an outlet. SMOKE OF FOG COMING FROM A CONTAINER: Placing a small amount of water in a barrel and dropping dry ice in the water will produce a fog coming from the container. Leave an opening in the barrel for the fog to exit. HAZMAT PLACARDS – You can find pictures of placards in the DOT Emergency Response Guidebook. If you will scan the picture into your computer, you can enlarge it and print it in color. You can also change the material identification number to what you want before you print the label. You can then place it on the containers or vehicle you want to use in your scenarios.

LIQUID LEAKING FROM CONTAINER – Place plain or colored water in a container and make small hole in container or place the cap on lose. Place container on side so will leak out. Use water colors if you want to make the water colored. Dye – LIQUID POWDER TRACING DYE – NORLAB, PO.BOX 380, AMHERST, OH. 44001, TEL:1-800-247-9422. It is non toxic and washable.

OLD CLOTHES - Gather old clothes (might obtain from a thrift store or solicit from members). Keep a supply to use to dress dummies or victims. This will protect the dummy and can be used to cut away from victims. AMPUTATION – To simulate a crushed or amputated arm or leg, use the arm or leg from an old cpr annie. Have the victim place his arm inside a shirt or jacket and use the dummy arm with the rest of the sleeve of the clothing. For a leg, dig a hole and have the victim place foot in hole. Use the lower part of the dummy leg with the appropriate clothing as the victim’s leg. WRECKED AUTOMOBLES – Most auto we obtain from junk yards for extrication purposes are just standard cars. How many times do you find a auto like this when we do an actual extrication. There are several methods you can use to make it more realistic: 1. Use a front end loader to crush the top or sides. Possibly a contractor or your county or city shop will help you out. 2. Find something like wrecker or loader to drop ecology block (large cement blocks) on the top and/or sides of the auto 3. With enough manpower, you can roll a vehicle on its side or top. 4. If you want to use a dummy in the exercise, place in the can and seat belt in before crushing. 5. If you have a slight incline you can toll several cars on top of each other. 6. Use a front end loader to lift and dump off. WOOD – Contact your city shops or contractors. At city shops can get 4x4s that are from traffic signs that have the base rotted off. The contractors throw away wood you can use to build props. FURNITURE – Contact your furniture stores. They haul off furniture from homes where they deliver new furniture. They are happy if you take it off their hands instead of hauling it to the dump. TARGETS – Use milk jugs or plastic bottles. You can fill with water mixed with food coloring to improve visibility if the bottle is clear. Another target is a toilet seat flipped up. VOMIT – in an ems situation the victim can start with a mouth full of dry oat meal and raisins. After a time it will simulate true vomit.

ELECTRICAL SHORT – Use sparklers. You can tape together to make last longer. You can lay on a simulated breaker box or insert. FILL A HOSE WITH AIR – In a situation where you want to use hose for searching or taking into a building but do not want to get anything wet, fill the hose with air. Place a closed standard nozzle on one end and a cap with an air filler tapped into it on the other end. You can use an air compressor or air bottle to fill the hose with air. The amount of air psi determines how stiff the hose will be. Use caution if using an air bottle without a regulator on it. To have a regulator use the set-up from an air chisel or like tool. The air filled hose can also be used to make boundaries of a search or prop or to lead people while doing a search. LPG TANK PROP

How often do actual LPG fires resemble the “Christmas tree appliance” type of massive training fire with a convenient valve at the base? Not very often In rural areas, the standard gas emergencies are a ruptured service line, a burning service line or relief valve, or a ruptured and burning household-size LPG tank. The normal size is about 500 gallons. With this in mind, the Georgia Fire Academy went to work on engineering a better gas training appliance. Lynn Pardue and Larry Williams of the Georgia Fire Academy got Ossie Delay, a part-time instructor, interested in the project. Delay then got in touch with other members of the Cherokee County fire departments, including Grady Pearson and Larry Collett, who both work with the Doxol Gas Company in Canton, and are members of the Ball Ground Volunteer Fire Department and the Circle 5 Fire Department, respectively. They in turn got together with Carl Popham of Ball Ground, J.T. Whidby of Circle 5, and Danny Hester of the Holbrook Campground Fire Department to decide what was needed. Plans were drawn up for a safe but effective training appliance that could be operated at a fire scene and give some variety to the training exercise. The Doxol Gas Company donated 500-gallon tank and the project was underway. The Georgia Fire Academy purchased about $470 worth of gas valves schedule 80 piping and various fitting needed for the operational piping. A hole approximately 3 feet square was cut in one side of the tank, both for access and to make sure a BLEVE would not occur during the training operation. The hole is on the back of the tank away from the student attack on the flaming gas. The relief valve, regulator and the line to a simulated rupture hole are manifolded together 30 feet from the tank itself, when an instructor operates the variables. As noted on the diagram, either gas or water/air mixture is available. The water/air mixture allows students to approach the tank in a vapor cloud but with out risking actual ignition. To control the vapor cloud, the regular service valve must be shut off. The operator also has the option o having a burning service line and suddenly opening the valve feeding the relief valve so that burning gas goes straight up. A third line feeds the simulated rupture in the side of the tank, which is 1/8 inch by 1 fool This line should not be

opened with students near the tank. It shoots gas out parallel to the ground about 15 feet any could injure someone, as a real rupture could. If the training attack is to be on a ruptured gas tank, then it should be burning prior to the suppression effort. Its operation valve has a safety pin to prevent accidents. The simulated rupture area is cut into the wall of the tank on the students' side. Behind this split or rupture, a leak box was constructed of 4-inch channel iron. The box measures 1 inch deep, 4 inches wide and 12 inches long to cover the entire split length. This box was then welded to the interior of the tank, with the split/rupture centered in the 4-inch width. Piping was then attached to the box and extended to the control manifold. The spring was removed from a standard tank relief valve, and the travel of the relief valve was restricted to 3/e inch. With the relief valve stem threaded and a lock nut arrangement used, the valve can be adjusted for clearance and the gas opening controlled as needed. Gas piping was mounted to the relief valve inside the tank and extended to the control manifold. Piping was also run to the standard service valve, with a bleeder and vapor equalizer valve from the interior of the tank. This valve must be operational, since the students will be using it to shut off the burning fuel. The service line connection on the valve is equipped with a piece of 1/2-inch copper tube, as is normally used on these installations. After a few tests on the appliance, it was noted that this line must be secured down to the side of the tank or the flow of gas will cause the line to bend and whip around. The easiest solution was to use a piece of tube long enough to go down under the side of the tank, around the foot and then extend up the side of the tank about 12 inches to an open end. The tank is engineered with all threaded piping so that it can be easily dismantled and moved for other training classes. The threading will also allow parts to be interchanged as needed due to normal wear and tear. The appliance was first used in October 1981 at a Ninth District Fire School in Canton. All operations went well but the operator took a beating from the heat. And the students soon learned that if they watched the operator they would be aware of when a relief valve flare-up was going to occur. This took away some of the planned surprise element of the training appliance. Soon the operator was behind a temporary barricade, and students were then watching the tank rather than the operator.From these initial operations it was also learned that the length of the piping between the manifold and the tank should be increased to keep the operator farther away from the heat and from the immediate vision of the students. With that exception, the entire operation went well and gave much more realistic training. The usual Christmas tree appliance will consume about 30 to 35 liquid gallons of propane a minute, while the gas tank appliance consumes about 10 to 17 gallons per minute. This depends on whether all gas valves are open to the rupture, service line and relief

valve. Therefore more burns can be made with the new appliance on the same amount of propane. The Doxol Gas Company supplied the fuel for the initial session and the Petrolane Gas Company of Cummings the fuel for the next session. Petrolane made available to the academy for a token fee a straddle buggy so that the appliance can be transported throughout the state for other district and individual department fire schools. Additional information on this tank appliance may be obtained from Larry Williams or Lyn Pardue at: The Georgia Fire Academy, 1112 Clay Street, Marietta, Ga. 30060;(404)424- 7315.0 0 This articled appeared in the October 1982 issue of Fire Engineering


Use tire chains fastened in the middle. Do not fasten tight so they will shift when dummy is moved. It will also add weight







2–½“ CAPS 1 ½ “ PLUG ½” X 1 ½” CONNECTOR









Command has everything at the table that would be present at an actual scene such as prefire plans, command board, etc. and a portable radio The computer is hooked to a projector or a tv set in front of the command table The overhead projector displays a plot plan or area plan on the magnetic dry erase board. Officer of each apparatus have a magnetic engine cut-out, portable radio and dry erase marker (different color for each apparatus). Dispatch has at table a portable radio and something to use to keep track of all transmissions ( note pad, pen/pencil, and possibly a tape recorder) For distractions, you might have a radio/tape deck in the center of the room playing fire scene sounds.

The computer operator has a powerpoint presentation of the fire scenes and printed pictures of the fire scenes. Play: The person assigned command is brought in and seated. A dispatch is given. We then play a video we produced of looking from the driver’s seat that would be seen while responding to the scene. At certain points in the video we show a still picture of what he would see toward the fire scene at that point. The video ends with command in the command post position and a scene of the fire that would be seen at that time. Apparatus arrive in a logical time sequence. The officer for the apparatus places the magnetic cut-out on the board where command has directed. The officer will trace the crew’s actions and hose laying with the dry erase chalk for that apparatus. All contact is with radio unless a face to face is requested. At that time the officer can go to the command table to confer. Command must have a person at the other side of the building for a report to be made from that area. When a report is requested, a photo of that side which corresponds to the view of the side command is observing, is given to the officer so a report can be given. Dispatch handles all traffic and records what is going on and all radio traffic. The computer operator runs the fire scenes and changes them as the situation unfolds. Afterwards a critique is held. It is not unusual for the officers to be going through the buildings that were used in the scenarios and discussing how to fight various fires in them.

I Wantabee A Firefighter Game – How to play and construct
1. 1-3 contestants at a time can play and an audience is necessary. 2. If more that one contestant, have pads and markers to that each can write the letter of the final answer down. 3. Each contestant gets a POLL THE AUDIENCE, 50/50, AND TALK TO A FRIEND. 4. Poll the Audience – Which ever contestant(s) use this can turn around and observe the audience. The host asks the audience to raise their hands when he gives the letter of what they think is the correct answer. 5. 50/50 – Whoever uses this looks at the screen while the others look away. A click of the mouse covers the first wrong answer and a second click covers the second wrong answer. If no one wants a 50/50 on the question then click on the next slide action button. 6. Ask a Friend – The contestant who requests this can select a friend in the audience and discuss the correct answer in private for 30 seconds. 7. Whoever is still in the game at certain points gets a prize. We use: 1000 points - a cookie

32,000 points – A candy bar or small pack of crackers or cookies. 1,000,000 points – Enough candy bars for their company or station 8. Test banks where you can get the questions are listed on the information sheet, or you can makeup your own. PRODUCING THE GAME 1. Use the template included. 2. Type questions and answers on the first slide. Then select all and copy them. To the second slide and paste. 3. After pasting on the second page, erase all answers but the right one. At the bottom of this page, make a text box and type in the reference for the answer (if you choose to use one) and then return to the first question page 4. On the first page draw an arrow over each question you want to block-out if 50/50 is chosen. Place an action button on the page that takes you to the next page. 5. Go to the custom animation and make so when click the question comes in, at the next click the answers come in, at the next click the first arrow comes in from the right, and at the next click the second arrow comes in to cover the answer. 6. To run the game: for question – click for answers – click for 50/50 next two clicks If 50/50 not chosen use the action button to advance to the answer slide after the final answer is chosen by the contestant(s) 7. Templates are included for the firefighter and officer games.

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