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Bradley Mark BIO271

1. Which of the following is FALSE about respiratory systems?


a) Large multicellular organisms can use both bulk flow and diffusion for gas exchange.
b) O2 must first dissolve in its medium, before diffusion can occur.
c) Mitochondrial respiration involves the consumption of O2, leading to a production of CO2.
d) All of the above are true.
2. How many of the following variables will INCREASE flow in the mammillary circulatory system?
i) Taking a Nitric Oxide (NO) supplement to cause vasodilation of blood vessels.
ii) Increased viscosity of the blood.
iii) An increase in consumption of salted foods, leading to a rise in blood pressure.
iv) An increased amount of capillary beds.
a)
b)
c)
d)

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3. Which of the following equations will describe diffusion rate?


a) Henrys law
b) The Fick equation
c) Boyles law
d) Poiseuilles equation
4. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) In concurrent flow, PO2 in the blood can never have a greater PO2 than the medium as it
travels along the blood vessel.
b) Cephalopods use their muscular contractions of their gills to propel water unidirectionally,
and into the mantle cavity.
c) Lamprey is a type of jawless fish which can use both unidirectional ventilation, and tidal
ventilation.
d) Elasmobranchs must move continuously, otherwise respiration will not occur if they remain
in a static position.
5. Which of the following statements is FALSE about insect ventilation?
a) Insects have air-filled tubes called tracheae, which branch into hemolymph-filled tracheoles.
b) Insects can use ram ventilation.
c) Insects can use tidal ventilation and/or unidirectional ventilation.
d) It is well known how insects expand and collapse their trachea, just like humans lungs.
6. Which of the following statements is CORRECT in regards to discontinuous gas exchange of
insects?
a) In phase 1, air enters the trachea.
b) In phase 2, spiracles open and close in rapid succession.
c) In phase 3, CO2 is released and spiracles close.
d) All of the above are TRUE.

Bradley Mark BIO271


7. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT in regards to the ventilator cycle of teleost
fish?
a) The opercular valves are closed when water enters the buccal cavity.
b) When the buccal cavity is compressed, the mouth is closed.
c) Backflow occurs when both the buccal cavity and opercular valves are open.
d) All of the above are TRUE.
8. What are all of the functions of the conducting zone in a respiratory system?
a) Filtering air, gas exchange
b) Warming air, humidifying air, gas exchange
c) Filtering air, warming air, humidifying air
d) Gas exchange
9. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) Intrapleural pressure is always subatmospheric in healthy individuals.
b) Emphysema results in destruction of elastin, leading to a decrease in lung compliance.
c) In humans, paired lungs normally consume ~500mL O2 in a single inhalation.
d) Metalloproteins increase oxygen carrying capacity by 50-70 fold.
10. The function of surfactants is to:
a) Reduce surface tension by disrupting the cohesive forces between oxygen molecules.
b) Increase lung compliance
c) Prevent alveolar collapse
d) a and b
11. Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to metalloproteins (respiratory pigments)?
a) Hemoglobin has a low p50 value.
b) Hemerythrins appear blue when oxygenated.
c) Hemoglobin has 3 alpha subunits, and 1 beta subunit.
d) Hemocyanins contain iron directly bound to protein.
12. How many of the following statements are true about the oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC)?
i)
Hyperventilation would indirectly cause a left shift of the OEC.
ii)
Increased 2,3-DPG would cause a right shift of the OEC.
iii)
An individual with a fever will have a right shift of the OEC due to increased body
temperature.
iv)
The shape of the OEC is always sigmoidal.
a)
b)
c)
d)

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Bradley Mark BIO271


13. The Haldane effect suggests:
a) Deoxygenated blood can carry more CO2 than oxygenated blood.
b) CO2 is more likely to bind HCO3-, which prevents CO2 from contributing to the PCO2 in the
blood.
c) The shape of the carbon dioxide equilibrium curve depends on HCO3- formation.
d) HCO3- formation acts as a buffer.
14. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) A chloride shift is the result of HCO3- leaving a red blood cell, and Cl- entering the red blood
cell.
b) Carbonic anhydrase in red blood cells forms H2CO3- from HCO3- + H+.
c) Most CO2 is transported as HCO3-.
d) All of the above are TRUE.
15. Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
a) Medullary chemoreceptors are the main contributor to the central pattern generators of
ventilation.
b) Diving can result in hypoxia.
c) Animals living in hypoxia have reduced 2,3-DPG.
d) The Herring-Breuer inflation reflex occurs if we suddenly stop breathing, and allows us to
breathe more.
16. Which of the following structures do NOT have one way valves?
a) Veins surrounded by skeletal muscle
b) Sinus venosus of fish hearts
c) Atria and ventricles of a mammalian heart
d) Lymphatic ducts
17. Which of the following is TRUE in regards to circulatory systems?
a) Hemolymph is found only in closed circulatory systems.
b) Polychaetes have a closed circulatory system.
c) Accessory hearts of insects have very high resistance.
d) 33% of total body water in humans is composed of intracellular fluid, while 66% is
extracellular fluid.
18. Which of the following is TRUE about blood vessels?
a) Blood flows away from the heart in veins.
b) Veins have a larger lumen than arteries of similar size due to a lack of tunica media.
c) Capillaries lack a tunica intima and tunica media.
d) Sinusoidal capillaries are typically found in liver and bone marrow.
19. In a crustacean heart during systole
a) Volume increases, pressure decreases
b) Ostial valves open
c) Stretched ligaments pull on walls of the heart
d) Neurons of cardiac ganglion undergo spontaneous rhythmic depolarization

Bradley Mark BIO271


20. Which of the following is CORRECT in regards to circulatory systems?
a) All arthropods have open circulatory systems.
b) Cephalopods have open circulatory systems.
c) All annelids have closed circulatory systems.
d) All of the above are CORRECT.
21. How many of the following are INCORRECT statements?
i.
Elastic arteries are responsible for conduction of blood.
ii.
Muscular arteries are responsible for distribution of blood.
iii.
Dihydropyridines are used to treat hypotension.
iv.
Arterioles have a single layer of tunica media.
a)
b)
c)
d)

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22. Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to cardiac anatomy?


a) Birds have three chambered hearts.
b) Amphibians and non-crocodilian reptiles have one atria and two ventricles.
c) Water-breathing fish have a single-circuit circulatory system.
d) Crocodiles have three completely closed chambers in their circulatory system.
23. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) Resistors in series have a total resistance greater than any component.
b) Flow is inversely proportional to cross-sectional area.
c) Aneurysms increase stress of blood vessel walls.
d) Trabeculae in the ventricle of amphibian hearts help to prevent mixing of oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood in the ventricle.
24. Which of the following statements is CORRECT?
a) A right-to-left shunt in reptile hearts leads to oxygenated blood re-entering the pulmonary
circuit.
b) The left side of the mammillary heart contains the tricuspid valve which exists between the
atria and ventricles.
c) Separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood is complete in non-crocodilian reptiles
hearts.
d) Ephedrine and ephedra work to increase heart rate by opening more funny and T-type Ca2+
channels.
25. A healthy heart has both the sinoatrial (SA) node and atrioventricular (AV) node intact. What
will happen if the SA node becomes dysfunctional?
a) Tetanus will occur because a plateau phase can no longer occur without a functional SA
node.
b) The heart will stop beating since there is nothing to generate the pacemaker potential.
c) The AV node will take over, but the heart will beat much slower.
d) None of the above.

Bradley Mark BIO271


26. The electrocardiogram contains 3 segments. The QRS complex is the result of _____________.
a) Atrial depolarization
b) Ventricular depolarization
c) Atrial repolarization
d) Ventricular repolarization
27. Pressure in the heart is greatest during _____________.
a) Ventricular diastole
b) Isovolumetric contraction
c) Atrial systole
d) Ventricular systole
28. PKA is activated in a second messenger system when norepinephrine or epinephrine binds to
beta-1 adrenergic receptors. How many of the following statements are CORRECT?
i.
PKA phosphorylates L-type Ca2+ channels on the plasma membrane
ii.
PKA phosphorylates Ca2+ channels on the sarcoplasmic reticulum
iii.
PKA phosphorylates myosin
iv.
PKA phosphorylates Ca2+ ATPase on the plasma membrane
v.
PKA can either stimulate contraction, or decrease relaxation time
a)
b)
c)
d)

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29. Which of the following statements is FALSE in regards to the Frank-Starling effect?
a) The underlying mechanism is due to altered Ca2+ sensitivity after muscle stretch occurs.
b) Cardiomyocytes are shorter than their optimal length.
c) Increasing end diastolic volume leads to a more forceful contraction of the ventricle, leading
to an increase in stroke volume.
d) All of the above are TRUE.
30. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
a) Metabolic state of a tissue is more important than autoregulation.
b) A damaged tunica intima leads to a release of adenosine, leading to vasodilation.
c) Hypoxic cells release nitric oxide to cause vasodilation.
d) Both a and c.
31. Vasomotor tone suggests that
a) Arterioles are always slightly constricted.
b) Sympathetic stimulation and parasympathetic stimulation cancel each other out under
resting conditions.
c) Metabolic activity is an intrinsic factor.
d) None of the above are correct.

Bradley Mark BIO271


32. Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a) Vasopressin (ADH) and angiotensin II causes localized vasoconstriction.
b) Atrial natriueretic peptide (ANP) promotes generalized vasodilation.
c) Pressure and pulse decreases in arterioles due to high resistance.
d) All of the above are TRUE.
33. Which of the following statements is TRUE in regards to veins?
a) When skeletal muscle contracts, the valve furthest from the heart is closed while the valve
closest to the heart is open.
b) Veins have thin, compliant walls which allows them to hold more than 70% of blood.
c) Vein volume is controlled by autoregulation.
d) Respiratory pumps decrease volume of the thoracic cavity, and increase intrapleural
pressure.
34. The Starling principle describes the equation of net filtration pressure. Which of the following
would DECREASE net filtration pressure?
a) Increasing net hydrostatic pressure gradient.
b) Increasing oncotic pressure of the interstitial fluid.
c) Decreasing hydrostatic pressure of the blood.
d) Decreasing net oncotic pressure gradient.
35. Which of the following statements is CORRECT in regards to blood pressure?
a) When standing, pressure is greatest in the feet which leads to blood flowing to the feet.
b) Orthostatic hypertension is the result of inefficient regulation of blood pressure due to the
baroreceptor reflex being too slow upon standing up.
c) Skeletal muscle pumps and respiratory muscle pumps are crucial for directing blood from
the feet to the heart.
d) Both a and c are correct.