This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Y.K. Chin, W.M. Arshad, T. Bäckström & C. Sadarangani
Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)
Department of Electrical Engineering
Teknikringen 33, SE100 44
Stockholm, Sweden
Tel: + 46 8 790 7757 Fax: + 46 8 205 268
Email: Robert.chin@ekc.kth.se
URL: www.ekc.kth.se/eme/
Keywords: Brushless Drive, Thermal design, EMF.
Abstract – Applications such as emergency breakers,
protective devices in explosive environments, emergency
exit openings etc. fall into a broad category that can be
grouped under a general term transient applications. This
paper presents a compact brushless permanent magnet
(BLDC) motor design for those short time operations.
Design procedures for both interior and exterior rotor
BLDC configurations are described. Design analysis is
verified by testing and building a prototype motor. It is
found that the most critical design criterion is to avoid
magnet demagnetisation. A thermal check on the design is
always advisable although thermal loading is negligible.
List of principal symbols
Ephase = back EMF per phase, V
T = rated torque, Nm
I = phase current, A
ωm = mechanical angular speed, rad/s
kE = backEMF constant, V.s/rad
kT = torque constant, Nm/A
kw = winding factor
Z = total number of conductors
p = number of poles
Br = remanent magnetic flux density, T
Bg = airgap flux density, T
Biron = iron back saturation flux density, T
g = physical airgap size, m
ge = effective airgap, m
lm = magnet thickness, m
hrr = rotor back height, m
hrs = stator back height, m
L = machine active length, m
D = airgap diameter,m
Dr = rotor diameter, m
hs = height of stator slot, m
m = number of phases
q = number of slots per polephase
nphase = number of conductors per phase
kslot = slot fill factor
bts = width of stator teeth, m
p = pole pitch, m
s = slot pitch, m
µ0 = permeability of air = 4π.·10
7
, Vs/Am
µr = relative permeability,
Aslot = slot area, m
2
Aconductor = area of conductor, m
2
Smax = maximum current loading allowed, A/m
I. INTRODUCTION
The majority of motors in the market are designed and
used in either continuous or intermittent applications. It is
possible in some cases to select an appropriate offthe
shelf motor for transient applications [1]. However, the
choice for a suitable solution is limited. The induction
motor can be an acceptable solution as long as the motor is
not overdimensioned [2]. A new motor design has to be
considered if the offtheshelf selection is not available or
not compact enough. Therefore in this paper, a design
approach on BLDC motors for transient applications is
outlined. Selection of the BLDC motor configuration
depends on the application requirements.
This paper only deals with radial flux BLDC motor
topology. Design procedures for both interior rotor and
exterior rotor configurations, as shown in Fig. 1, are
presented. In general, exteriorrotor brushless motors are
used in continuous applications that require constant high
to medium speed. Nonetheless, for an application requires
rapid acceleration and deceleration of the load, it is
desirable that the torque/inertia ratio is as high as possible
[3]. In this case, the interiorrotor designs with high
energy magnets are preferred. A BLDC prototype motor
presented in this paper is an interiorrotor design,
specifically for short time operation. Measurement results
and thermalcheck approaches on the prototype design are
also described.
Fig. 1: Brushless permanent magnet motor: a) Exteriorrotor; b)
Interiorrotor.
a) b)
II. INTERIORROTOR BLDC DESIGN
The number of phases, poles, stator slots as well as
winding configuration must be selected based on the
application requirements. The choice of pole number
depends upon many factors such as inertia requirements,
magnet material, effect of cogging and rotation speed
etc. [3]. The required thickness of the stator back is
reduced by one half if the number of poles is doubled, so
is the case with the rotor back height (1). For a given
magnetic and electric loading with a specified rotor
diameter, the overall machine diameter can be reduced
by increasing the pole number.
iron
r g
rs rr
B p
D B
h h
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅ ⋅
= =
2 2
π
(1)
With a certain magnet radial thickness selected, the
airgap flux density B
g
can be calculated by (2) as
described in [4],
m
e
r
r
g
l
g
B
B
⋅ +
=
u 1
(2)
and effective airgap (g
e
) is defined as,
r
m
c e
l
g g
u
+ =
(3)
where g
c
is the airgap with the slotting being considered.
The stator inner diameter (D
is
) is then,
) ( 2 g l D D
m r is
+ ⋅ + = (4)
The width of the stator teeth is found by using (5),
iron
g is
ts
B Q
B D
b
⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
π
(5)
For a compact motor design, a high surface current
loading (S
1
) is very desirable. However, the current
loading must always be smaller than the maximum
allowed current loading (S
max
) given by (7), to avoid the
demagnetisation of the permanent magnet.
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
⋅
=
w g
k L B D
T
S
2
1
2
2
3
π
[A/m] (6)
( )
p
D
B B k g
S S
D g w e
⋅
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
− ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
= <
α u sin 2
2
0
1
max 1
[A/m] (7)
where B
D
is the demagnetisation flux density limit and α
is half of the magnet span in electric degrees.
The active length of the machine is calculated as,
⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
1
2
3
S B D
T
L
g
π
(8)
The number of conductors per slot is found as,
q p
Z
n
s
⋅ ⋅
=
3
(9)
where Z is the total number of conductors, it can be
obtained by (10) for a threephase machine.
w g
k B I L D
T
Z
⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅
⋅
=
3
(10)
In addition, the torque constant k
T
can be derived from
(10) as,
 
w g T
k B L D Z
I
T
k ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = =
3
1
[Nm/A] (11)
The backEMF E
phase
of the motor can be approximated by
(12),
g w s phase
B k L D n q E ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ = ω
(12)
The area of stator slot is found with a certain slot height
(h
s
) selected,
s ts
is
s
is
slot
h b
D
h
D
Q
A ⋅ −

.

\

− 
.

\

+ ⋅ =
2 2
2 2
π
(13)
The copper area and area of single conductor in the slot
can simply be found with (14) and (15) respectively,
fill slot cu
k A A ⋅ =
(14)
s
cu
conductor
n
A
A =
(15)
Lastly, the stator outer diameter D
os
is then,
( )
rs s is os
h h D D + ⋅ + = 2
(16)
Fig. 2: Copper area available in the stator slot.
A
conductor
A
slot
A
cu
h
S
τ
s
The external dimension of the machine is dependent on
the stator frame and endwindings. The length of the end
winding is dependent upon the winding configuration.
III. EXTERIORROTOR BLDC DESIGN
The design procedure for the exteriorrotor topology is
very similar to the one described for the interiorrotor
design. However, as it has shown in Fig. 1(a), the
machine dimensions are different. In the following, only
these differences are highlighted.
With a specified rotor diameter, the pole pitch of the
exteriorrotor design is calculated as,
( )
p
h D
rr or
p
⋅ − ⋅
=
2 π
τ
(17)
where h
rr
is obtained as,
iron
g p
rr
B
B
h
⋅
⋅
=
2
τ
(18)
Combining of (17) and (18),
⋅
+
⋅
=
iron
g
or
p
B
B
p
D
π
π
τ
(19)
The inner diameter of the rotor D
ir
and outer stator D
os
are found as,
) ( 2
m rr or ir
l h D D + ⋅ − = (20)
g D D
is os
⋅ − = 2 (21)
The stator teeth at the arigap is then,
iron
g os
ts
B p
B D
b
⋅
⋅ ⋅
=
π
(22)
The stator back height is designed to carry the same flux
as the rotor back, as shown in (18). In contrast to the
interiorrotor design, the diameter of the stator is limited
due to the space available. With the constant stator teeth,
the height of the stator slot h
s
is,
⋅
⋅
− =
π 2 2
ts os
s
b Q D
h
(23)
The available copper area in the stator slot is then,
( ) ( )  
⋅ − ⋅ − − ⋅
⋅
⋅ =
ts s s os os fill cu
b h h D D
Q
k A
2 2
2
4
π
(24)
Fig. 3: Simple schematic of exteriorrotor design stator
The exteriorrotor design follows the same step as that of
the interiorrotor design as far as the electric design is
concerned.
IV. THERMAL CHECK
Despite the fact that the thermal loading is not a critical
factor in the design for transient application, a thermal
check on the design is nevertheless advisable. Most of the
heat is generated as the conducting loss in the stator
conductors. It is therefore sufficient to analyse the stator
structure only. The thermal model for the machine stator is
shown in Fig. 4. Stator is divided into three thermal
regions as slot, teeth, and stator back. Thermal capacitance
has to be taken into account for the transient applications.
To calculate the temperature rise in respective regions,
differential equations (25, 26, 27) are derived from the
equivalent circuit. Adiabatic conditions are assumed.
1
12 1 2 1
) (
C
Y T T P
dt
dT
cu
⋅ − +
=
(25)
( ) ( )
2
23 2 3 12 2 1 2
C
Y T T Y T T P
dt
dT
teeth
⋅ − + ⋅ − +
=
(26)
( )
3
23 3 2
3
C
Y T T P
dt
dT
fe
⋅ − +
=
(27)
Fig. 4: Thermal equivalent circuit of the stator.
h
s
b
ts
A
slot
D
os
P
cu
= copper losses, W
P
teeth
, P
back
= iron losses in stator teeth and back, W
C
i
= thermal capacitance, W/K
Y
ij
= thermal conductance between region i and j, Ws/K
Fig. 5: Stator thermal regions: teeth, windings and back.
V. PROTOTYPE MOTOR
A. Design
A prototype motor for transient applications based on the
design procedures described in II has been built. The
prototype is shown in Fig. 6. The stator consists of 60
0.5mm DK70 steel laminations stacked together.
NeodymiumIronBoron magnets (B
r
~ 1.1T) are used
and glued on the rotor shaft. Bandage around the
magnets is found not necessary. Moreover, magnets are
skewed by one slot pitch to minimize the cogging torque.
The dimensions and properties of the prototype are
presented in TABLE I.
TABLE I. Dimensions and properties of the prototype motor.
PARAMETER SYMBOL FIGURE
Number of phases m 3
Number of poles p 4
Number of slots Q 12
Airgap g 0.5 mm
Rated torque T 0.4 Nm
Airgap flux density B
g
~ 0.4 T
Rated speed ω
m
7500 RPM
BackEMF E
ph
11.9 V
Rotor diameter D
r
20 mm
Airgap diameter D 22.5 mm
Stator inner diameter D
is
23 mm
Stator outer diameter D
os
52.8 mm
Tooth width b
ts
3 mm
Rotor back height h
rr
4.4 mm
Stator back height h
rs
4.4 mm
Magnet thickness l
m
1 mm
Copper area A
cu
~ 32.5 mm
2
No. of conduc. / slot n
s
28
Slot height h
s
10 mm
Active motor length L 30 mm
End winding length L
end
9 mm
Current density J ~ 10 A/mm
2
Max. temperature T
max
~ 61.2
o
C
Diameter of conduc. A
conductor
1.1 mm
Current loading S
1
47.5 kA/m
Max. current loading S
max
85.1 kA/m
Centrifugal force
on magnets
F
centrifugal
7.6 N
Mass of copper M
copper
~ 170 g
Mass of magnet M
magnet
~ 144 g
Mass of iron M
iron
~ 310 g
Fig. 6: BLDC motor prototype: a) Transversal view; b)
Longitudinal View.
B. Measurements
The back EMF of the prototype is measured and is
illustrated in Fig. 7. The phase current waveform is
observed as shown in Fig. 8. The machine constants, k
T
and k
E
, are defined as,
I
T
k
T
=
(28)
m
LL
E
E
k
ω
=
(29)
where E
LL
is the linetoline backEMF.
The constants can also be calculated directly [3] from the
motor dimensions and the magnet properties by (30). In an
ideal case with no saturation, no resistance and no voltage
drops in the controller, the two constants are equal.
π α ⋅
⋅ Φ ⋅
= =
p Z
k k k
g
w T E
3
2
(30)
where Φ
g
is the airgap flux per pole due to the magnet,
B
p
L D
g
⋅
⋅
⋅ ⋅
⋅ = Φ
2
π
α
(31)
Fig. 9 and Fig. 10 show the measurements for k
E
and k
T
respectively, and the bestfit line drawn from graph is used
for calculating k
E
and k
T
. Comparisons of machine
constants obtained by measurements and calculation are
presented in TABLE II.
a)
b)
Fig. 7: BackEMF waveforms of the prototype motor.
Fig. 8: Phase current waveform with the Hallswitch signal.
VI. CONCLUSIONS
It is possible to obtain a compact motor design solution
for transient applications with the proposed procedure. It
is found that the magnet demagnetization is the most
critical design criterion. A thermal check on the obtained
design is nevertheless suggested, although the thermal
loading is negligible. The BLDC motor prototype built
for short time operations as a design example shows
satisfactory results. The measured machine constants, k
E
and k
T
, agrees with the calculated values. A brushless
permanent magnet motor can be one of the preferred
solutions from a cost and design effort perspective, when
a new motor design is required for transient applications.
TABLE II. Comparison of machine constants, k
E
and k
T
: a)
Measured; b) Calculated.
MEASURED CALCULATION
k
E
[Vs/rad] ~ 0.042 0.04
k
T
[Nm/A] ~ 0.044 0.04
The graph of back emf versus speed
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 750 1500 2250 3000 3750 4500 5250 6000 6750
Speed (rpm)
B
a
c
k
e
m
f
(
v
o
l
t
s
)
Fig. 9: Measurements for k
E.
The graph of torque versus current
0,08
0,03
0,02
0,07
0,12
0,17
0,22
0,27
0,32
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
DC Current (A)
T
o
r
q
u
e
(
N
m
)
Fig. 10: Measurements for k
T
.
REFERENCES
[1] Chandur Sadarangani, Electrical machines – Design
and Analysis of Induction and Permanent Magnet
Motors, KTH 2000
[2] Arshad, W.M., Chin, Y.K., Soulard, J., Bäckström, T.,
Östlund, S., Sadarangani, C., On Finding Compact
Motor Solutions for Transient Applications,
IEMDC’2001, Cambridge, MA USA.
[3] Hendershot, J.R. and Miller, T.J.E., Design of
Brushless PermanentMagnet Motors, Magna Physics
Publishing, 1994, Oxford.
[4] Sebastian, T., Slemon, G.R., Rahman, M.A., Design
Considerations for Variable Speed Permanent Magnet
Motors, Part 3. p.p. 1099~1102, ICEM, September,
1986.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.