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Chemical Engineering Department

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Chemical Process Equipment Design and


Drawing

Subject
Subject
code

PEDD

Credit
D

L-T-P

4
3

Shell and tube heat exchangers are the most widespread and commonly used basic
heat exchanger configuration in the process industries.
The reasons for this general acceptance are several.
The shell and tube heat exchanger provides a comparatively large ratio of heat transfer
area to volume and weight.
It provides this surface in a form which is relatively easy to construct in a wide range
of sizes.
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Faculty: Y K Suneetha , Associate Professor, Chemical Engg. Dept. ,BMSCE

Chemical Engineering Department

PEDD

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It is essential for the designer to have a good working knowledge of the mechanical
features of STHEs and how they influence thermal design.
The principal components of an STHE are:
shell; shell cover;
tubes; tubesheet;
baffles; and nozzles.
Other components include tie-rods and spacers, pass partition plates, impingement
plate, longitudinal baffle, sealing strips, supports, expansion bellows and foundation.

Cross Baffles
a.
b.
c.
d.

Baffles serve two purposes:


Divert (direct) the flow across the bundle to obtain a higher heat transfer coefficient.
Support the tubes for structural rigidity, preventing tube vibration and sagging.
When the tube bundle employs baffles,
the heat transfer coefficient is higher than the coefficient for undisturbed flow around

tubes without baffles.


e. For a baffled heat exchanger the higher heat transfer coefficients result from the
increased turbulence.
f. the velocity of fluid fluctuates because of the constricted area between adjacent tubes
across the bundle.

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Faculty: Y K Suneetha , Associate Professor, Chemical Engg. Dept. ,BMSCE

Chemical Engineering Department

PEDD

Question Bank

1. Estimate the size of shell and tube heat exchanger (1-2) required to cool 66700 kg/h of
ethylene glycol from 120C to 103C using toluene as coolant. The toluene is to be heated
from 27C to 63C. Use steel tubes of inch 14 BWG, 2.43 m long in a triangular pitch of 1
inch. The shell contains 25% cut segmental baffles spaced 152 mm apart. Let the ethylene
glycol flow through the tubes, as it is more corrosive. Calculate the pressure drop for each
fluid. For the initial trial, U = 500 kcal/h m2 K can be assumed. Draw to scale: (a) sectional
front view showing all the details and (ii) tube sheet layout.
2. Crude oil at a rate of 37.5 kg/s is to be heated from 22C to 57C by heat exchange with
the bottom product from a distillation unit flowing in the shell, which is to be cooled from
147C to 107C, flowing at a rate of 29.6 kg/s. A tubular 1 2 heat exchanger is available
with 0.6 m ID shell. The tube bundle consists of 324 tubes, 19 mm OD, 3.65 m length and
wall thickness 2.1 mm arranged on a 25 mm square pitch and supported by baffles with a
25% cut, spaced at 0.23 m intervals.
Cross sectional area is given by: A = (shell ID clearance baffle spacing)/pitch
Shell side heat transfer coefficient is given by: Nu = 0.33 Ch NRe0.6 NPr0.3, where Ch is a
geometrical factor and can be taken as 1. Check if the exchanger is suitable for the process.
Data
Crude oil Distillation product
Density kg/m3
824
867
2
3
Viscosity N s/m
2.9 10
5.2 103
Specific heat kJ/kg K
1.986
2.205
Thermal conductivity W/m K
0.136
0.119
Draw to scale: (a) sectional front view showing all the details and (b) tube sheet layout.
3. A 42 API kerosene leaves the bottom of a distillation column at a rate of 19,900 kg/h at
200C and is to be cooled to 93C by 67,650 kg/h of a 34 API crude coming from
storage at 38C and heated to 77C. A pressure drop of 70 kPa is permissible for both the
streams and a combined dirt factor of 3.5 104 m2 K/W should be provided. Available
for this service is a 21 in. ID exchanger having 158 number of 1 in. 13 BWG tubes of3
Faculty: Y K Suneetha , Associate Professor, Chemical Engg. Dept. ,BMSCE

Chemical Engineering Department

PEDD

Question Bank

16 feet long laid out on 1 in. square pitch. The bundle is arranged for four passes and
baffles are spaced 5 in. apart. Will the exchanger be suitable? What is the dirt factor?
Properties CP (kJ/kg K)
Kerosene
Crude

k (W/m K)

(cP)
0.4
3.6

2.48
2.06

0.132
0.133

4. A shell and tube exchanger is to be used to cool 20,000 kg/h of kerosene from 200C to
90C using 70,000 kg/h of light crude oil coming from a storage tank at 40C. Design the
exchanger. The following data are available.
Shell side (kerosene): Film coefficient = 1280 W/m2 K; dirt coefficient = 5000 W/m2 K
Tube side (crude oil) : Film coefficient = 395 W/m2 K; dirt coefficient = 3300 W/m2 K
Number of passes: 14; tubes: 15.75 mm ID, 19.05 mm OD, and 4.83 m length; baffle
spacing = 140 mm.
5. A 33.5 API oil leaves a distillation column at 181C and is to be used in an absorption
process at 38C at a rate of 22,520 kg/h. Cooling will be achieved by water available at
32C and maximum permissible temperature increase is 49C. Pressure drop allowance of
70 kPa may be used on both streams along with a combined dirt factor of 7.04 104 m2
K/W. Available for this service from a discontinued operation is a 890 mm ID 2 6 shell
and tube heat exchanger having 456 tubes of 1 in. 11 BWG, 3.66 m laid out on 1 inch
square pitch. The bundle is arranged for 6 passes. Vertically cut baffles spaced at 178 mm
apart are used. The longitudinal baffles are welded to the shell. Is it necessary to use 26
exchanger ? Will this exchanger fulfill the requirement? Data is given as follows.
Properties (kg/m3) CP (kJ/kg K)
Oil
Water

6.

800
1000

2.289
4.2

(cP)
1.12
0.73

k (W/m K)
0.127
0.620

Chloro benzene at a pressure of 3 kgf/cm2 is to be cooled from 110

to 40

at a rate of

5500 kg/h. Cooling water is to used as cooling medium and is available at 32


10

with a

range. Using inch tubes of 14 BWG of 3000 mm long on a 1 inch triangular pitch.
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Faculty: Y K Suneetha , Associate Professor, Chemical Engg. Dept. ,BMSCE

Chemical Engineering Department

PEDD

Question Bank

a. Design a suitable 1-4 fixed tube shell and tube heat exchanger with a baffle
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

spacing of 0.25 Ds.


Verify the design.
Estimate the pressure drop on tube and shell side.
Estimate the nozzle dimensions.
Draw to scale the sectional elevation of the exchanger.
Draw the tube plate layout.
Neatness, dimensioning and labeling.

25
15
10
08
25
07
10

7. Light distillate product coming out from a fractionating column at a rate of 2700 kg/h at a
temperature of 80

is required to be cooled to 40

in a 2-4 shell and tube heat

exchanger. Cooling water enters the heat exchanger at 30


exchanger at 35

and comes out of the heat

. 25 mm OD tubes of 17 BWG and 3 m long are readily available and

are to be used. A dirt factor of 0.003 m2

/w is to be provided for both types of fluids.

Permissible pressure drop of 60 kN/m2 for both fluids is allowed.


A) Determine the suitable type and size of heat exchanger required.
B) Draw the above type of heat exchanger showing i. Full sectional elevation ii.
Tube sheet iii. Tube layout details iv. Side view of HE
Properties of light distillate: Cp = 1.4 kJ/kg K, viscosity = 0.4 10-3 kg/m s,
conductivity k= 0.096 w/m K and density,

= 780 kg/m3

8. Calculate the size of 1-2 shell and tube heat exchanger required to cool 75,000 kg/h of
ethylene glycol from 120
25

to 60

to 100

using toluene as the coolant. Toluene is heated from

. Use steel tubes 14 BWG (Birmingham Wire Gauge) thickness having an

OD of inch. Tubes with length of 8 feet are laid on a triangular pitch of 1inch. The shell
contains 25% cut segment baffles spaced 152 mm apart. Let the ethylene glycol flow
through the tubes since it is more corrosive liquid.
g. Design the HE details.
h. Estimate the pressure drop on each side.
i. Draw to scale the sectional elevation of the exchanger.
j. Draw to scale the details of the tube sheet.

Faculty: Y K Suneetha , Associate Professor, Chemical Engg. Dept. ,BMSCE

Chemical Engineering Department

PEDD

Question Bank

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Faculty: Y K Suneetha , Associate Professor, Chemical Engg. Dept. ,BMSCE