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Examine the contribution of each energy system for the athlete in your
chosen sport of event. (5 marks)
Each energy system (ATP/PC, Lactic, Aerobic) plays a role during a 1500m run.
Throughout a 1500m run, the energy system predominantly used is the aerobic
system. This system takes up 84% of the relative energy contribution in a 1500m
sprint (respectively). Not only do each energy system contribute to the overall speed
and performance of the athlete, but also assist with cital race tactics and final winning
The ATP/PC system (or phosphocreatine system) is the first energy system used
when racing. This system helps with quickly getting off the starting line to give the
athlete a head start. This system also contributes in race tactics and the last few
metres towards the finishing line.
The anaerobic system (or the lactic acid system) much like the ATP/PC system, also
produces energy (but not as quickly as the ATP/PC system). This energy system
assist the 1500m runner to maintain energy at a higher intensity.
The aerobic system is the predominant energy system in the 1500m event. It makes
up 84% of the energy contribution. This system provides a sustained energy source.

2. Explain how the principles of training are applied in the viewed sport/event for
improved performance on the athlete. (8 marks)
Principle of Training

How it is applied to a 1500m athlete

Progressive Overload: need to

constantly be increasing training load
and intensity as the body adapts to
current training methods.

The aerobic energy system relies on

oxygen to function. With this being said,
progressive overload will help increase
haemoglobin levels, provide larger
stroke volumes and larger cardiac
outputs. This assists in allowing the
body to adapt to training. If the body
continues to adapt and we dont make
any changes to our training programs,
the athletes body will become used to
the current intensity/duration/frequency
and will struggle to improve
performance. Our training needs to be

in the aerobic training zone to be able to

make physiological gains.
For example, if we have an athlete who
trains 3 days a week, on a flat surface
for 20 minutes per session for a couples
of weeks without change, the athletes
body will become used to those
conditions and the intensity has moved
below the aerobic training zone. By
increasing all of these variables (days
they train, intensity and duration of
training) and pushing the body back into
the aerobic training zone, physiological
gains will be achieved.
Specificity: making sure all training and
movements executed resemble
movements in sport.

Without training to the sports specific

needs, it will be hard to improve
performance. Our 1500m athlete should
be training aerobically for the majority,
as that energy system is predominantly
used in the 1500m event (84% approx.).
Ensuring that the athlete executes
training movements similar to those
executed in their sport will assist in
improving performance, as these
movements become natural.
For example, having a 1500m athlete
training their ATP/P system more than
their aerobic system will not assist in
improving overall performance, only a
small portion of it.

Reversibility: the reduction of any

muscle hypertrophy and cardiac
endurance built up during training by not
training or severely reducing training

Aerobic training reversibility generally

takes about 2 weeks to start. The
athlete will begin to lose cardiovascular
endurance. Reversibility aids to allow
the athlete a rest, but not too long for
reversibility to occur.

Variety: keeps athlete entertained and


Variety is quite important for a 1500m

athlete. With a continuous routine with
the same results and same training
structure, athletes may become
unenthused and not wanting to
participate/go to training. Due to 1500m
run being a closed skill (unlike events
such as triathlons, netball etc.), there
can only be one type of training. But, by
switching locations (e.g. run in the bush,
run on beach, hill runs etc.) this can
spice up the training program and assist
in the enthusiasm and motivation levels

of the athlete.


Training Thresholds: particular

intensities required in order for
physiological adaptations to occur.

For a 1500m athlete, training above the

aerobic training threshold will can
physiological adaptations to occur. It is
recommended that an athlete wanting to
improve aerobic performance works at a
rate of 70-75%. The trainer should
monitor the athlete and make sure the
athletes heart rate does not reach 85%,
as this begins to work the anaerobic

Warm-Up: before a training session,

allows body to get used to physical

Warming up must mimic actions

undertaken when participating in a
1500m event. This particular athlete
must warm up their whole body to
prepare themselves for the training
session ahead. Light jogging and cardio
based warm-ups are the best way to
prepare the body for what is to come.

Cool-Down: aids in bring the body back

to homeostasis

A cool-down is the opposite of a warmup. Cool-downs aim to return to body

back to a state called homeostasis
(return the body back to equilibrium, or
its normal state). A cool-down must be
less intense than the warm-up and
completed training session. The aim of
a cool-down is to remove waste
products (lactate) and stop blood
pooling. A cool-down also consists of
stretching to reduce muscle soreness
and helps the athlete be able to perform
closely after the training session.

Analyse the use of the types of training and recovery for the athlete to achieve peak
performance. (12 marks)
Both types of training and recovery can assist in an athletes journey to achieving
peak performance. Each training type (aerobic, anaerobic, flexibility, strength) can all
assist in a 1500m athlete reaching peak performance, as long as each recovery
strategy (physiological, neural, tissue damage and psychological) can aid in recovery
to assist in being able to train and achieve peak performance.
Aerobic training for a 1500m athlete has many benefits. As the name suggests, this
training type targets your aerobic system, as well as your cardiovascular (CV)
system, which is the base of your athletes fitness which improves the amount of
oxygen delivered to the lungs (improves stroke volume and cardiac output). For
noticeable results, it is recommended by the Department of Health and Human
Services to do 150 minutes a week (30 minutes per week day) to improve overall

aerobic fitness. This is to be conducted at no more than 70-80% maximum heart rate
(MHR). Here is how types of training can be helpful in achieving peak performance:
- Continuous training will help with overall fitness.
- Fartlek training will help with the transition from ATP/PC to
aerobic system when sprinting off the starting line.
- Circuit training can be helpful, only if focused on aerobic
training only. E.g. 5 min on a bike at 70%, swimming for 5 min at 75%, crosstrainer for 5 min at 80%, and 5 min on a rower at 75%.1
Anaerobic training can assist in the development in both anaerobic systems (ATP/PC
and lactic acid.) This type of training can be helpful in the removal of pyruvic acid,
which is a by-product of the lactic acid system from the production of hydrogen ions.
This training type also has the potential to increase the athletes PC stores, allowing
the ATP/PC energy system to replenish quicker and provide the athlete with more
bursts of speed.
Flexibility training increases the range of motion (ROM) of the joint/s, allowing them
to stretch further without acquiring an injury. Static, proprioceptive neuromuscular
facilitation (PNF) and dynamic stretching are all able to improve flexibility in any
athlete. Dynamic stretching helps loosen joints and also stretch major muscles used
in the sport. So, for our 1500m athlete, focusing on stretching the quadriceps, as well
as their hamstrings, soleus and gastrocnemius are very important, as theyre all
muscles engage when running. Hip flexors are also an important aspect of running,
but PNF stretching (which is stretching using a force and lengthening the contraction
each time you stretch again) is a much better way to stretch hip flexors.
Strength training can help muscle hypertrophy occur, which makes an athlete more
powerful and even faster. Strength training is used to either isolate certain major
muscles (e.g. a 1500m athlete would train their legs) but also build up the smaller,
surrounding muscles to further stabilise the movements performed.
After performing/competing, recovery is almost as important as training. Recovery
allows the athlete to return the body back to homeostasis and allow the athlete to
return to competition sooner. Without recovery, overtraining can occur.
Here are types of recovery strategies used by athletes and how they apply to a
1500m athlete.
Physiological recovery has 2 sections, cool-down and hydration.
Cool-down after training or competition allows any waste products, like pyruvic acid,
to be removed from the body and return the body back to homeostasis (the bodys
state pre-exercise) Cooling down must be less intense than the exercise just
completed and must target the major muscle groups used in the sport. For an athlete
who runs m, focusing on cooling down their leg muscles is quite important. Cooling
down may also allow the athlete to return back to competition soon after training.
1 Example from

Hydration is the act of drinking enough water after competing or training in order to
replenish any fluids lost during exercise (mainly through sweat). Water is vital in
restoring glycogen, which needs to be replenished after any exercise.
Neural recovery also has 2 sections, hydrotherapy and massage.
Hydrotherapy is the action of submerging of the athletes body into water. Contrast
immersion (constantly jumping from a hot pool to a cool pool) helps deliver nutrients
and remove waste products. Even temperature immersion (stays in warm water)
helps with the removal of any lactates and improves the athletes metabolism.
Massage is the rubbing and kneading of muscles and joints of the body with the
hands, especially to relieve tension or pain.2 Although there is no scientific evidence
put forward that massage helps with recovery, it is referred to as a mental relaxation
technique, which helps the athlete reduce muscle tension. An athlete constantly
running and competing in 1500m runs would benefit from the proposed benefits from
a massage, which include:
- Removal of waste products
- Increased nutrient delivery
- Mental relaxation
- Minimising the effects of fatigue
Tissue Damage Therapy (e.g. cryotherapy) attempts to repair damaged tissue through
ceasing the inflammatory response by constricting blood vessels. Cryotherapy is also said to
reduce the build up of any fluid in the body due to damage tissue.
Psychological recovery techniques include relaxation. Not only does this give the athlete a
rest from competing/training, but is also said to decrease heart and respiration rates. Taking
a few days off their sport can really assist the athlete the recover fully, ready to return to
intense training. This relaxation break must be long enough for the athlete to get rest, but not
too long that the reversibility principle will occur.

2 Definition from