You are on page 1of 135

EBC Site Remediation & Redevelopment Program:

Sediment Dredging at
Remediation Sites

Welcome
Jonathan Kitchen
Chair, EBC Site Remediation &
Redevelopment Committee
Senior Project Manager
Civil & Environmental Consultants, Inc.

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Introduction
Kris Carbonneau

Joe Jeray, P.E.

Program Co-Chair

Program Co-Chair

Sediment Technologist
CH2M

Geotechnical Engineer
Geosyntec Consultants

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Permitting of Dredging Projects:


FAQs and How-Tos

Norm Farris
Ecologist
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Evaluation of Dredging Projects


for Disposal in New England
Waters

Charles N. Farris

Ecologist,
Regulatory
Division
USACE, New
England District
September 13,
2016

US Army Corps of Engineers

BUILDING STRONG

Dredging and Disposal in New England Waters


Disposal Evaluation
Disposal Monitoring and Compliance
Disposal Area Management

BUILDING STRONG

Evaluation of Dredging Projects in Waters of the US


Gage environmental impact of disposal
Interagency review process
Formal analytical process
Evaluation based on two laws
Clean Water Act (CWA)
Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA)
Interagency review
State DEP
EPA
NMFS, USFWS (courtesy)

BUILDING STRONG

Active open water disposal sites

BUILDING STRONG

Project Review Flowchart

BUILDING STRONG

Sequence for Sampling Plan


CWA and MPRSA Dredging Projects
Request for Review

Starts evaluation by MAS


Information Review

Sources include: old project files,


adjacent projects, consultation w/
agencies
Draft Sampling Plan (dSAP)

Interagency review

Final Sampling Plan (SAP)


MAS reviews any agency comments, finalizes plan

SAP sent to PM and


applicant

BUILDING STRONG

Sequence for Suitability determinations

BUILDING STRONG

Testing requirements
Sec 404 CWA vs Sec 103 MPRSA
Disposal Sites

Sec 404
Disposa
Chemical testing
Metals
- cadmium,
l Sites
mercury, others
PAH carcinogens,
others
PCBs
Pesticides

Sec 103
Disposa
Biological
Testing
l Sites
10-day
acute
toxicity
Suspended
phase
elutriate
testing
28-day
bioaccumulati
on

BUILDING STRONG

Testing requirements, continued

Sec 404
Disposa
Physical testing
(grain
size,
l
Sites
moisture)

Sec 103
Physical Disposa
Compositing (if needed)
l Sites
10-day acute toxicity tests

Compositing (if
needed)
Chemical testing

If 10 day toxicity is good:


Suspended phase elutriate testing risk
model run depending on LC50
28-day bioaccumulation
Risk assessment model run on bio
accumulation

BUILDING STRONG

Open Water Disposal Sites


(designated by USACE and EPA)

Connecticut
Central Long Island Sound
(CLDS)
Cornfield Shoals (CSDS)
New London (NLDS)
Western Long Island Sound
(WLDS)
Maine
Cape Arundel (CADS)
Portland (PDS)
Rockland (RDS)
Massachusetts
Cape Cod Bay (CCBDS)
Massachusetts Bay (MBDS)
Rhode Island
Rhode Island Sound (RISDS)

Section 404 CWA Sites


Connecticut (under 25,000 cu yds, nonfederal projects)
RDS, CCBDS

Section 103 MPRSA Sites

CADS
PDS
MBDS
RISDS
Connecticut DS
Ambro Amendment
(>25,000 cu yds,
all federal projects)

BUILDING STRONG

Disposal Monitoring
Coordinated disposal of
dredged material
Ensures compliance
with permit conditions,
CWA, MPRSA
National Dredging
Quality Management
Program (DQM)
DQM software - track
disposal trips
Enforcement phase

BUILDING STRONG

Dredging Plants Mechanical

Split
hull
scow

Pocket
scow

BUILDING STRONG

Dredging Plants - Hydraulic

Hopper Dredge Currituck

BUILDING STRONG

Dredging Plants - Hydraulic

Pipeline Dredge

BUILDING STRONG

Dredging Plants - Hydraulic

Cutterhead
dredge
BUILDING STRONG

Disposal Compliance and Enforcement


DQM
National Dredging Quality Management Program

National program
Mobile, AL office
Maintain database and
software
Certifies disposal
scows
Provides technical
support

BUILDING STRONG

Disposal Area Management

Disposal Area
Monitoring
System
(DAMOS)
Applied research
and surveying
Manages
disposal sites
Disposal

BUILDING STRONG

Any questions.
Dredging Program http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/Missions/Regulatory/DredgedMaterialProgram.a
spx
DAMOS http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/Missions/DisposalAreaMonitoringSystem(DAMO
S).aspx
Disposal Compliance http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/Missions/Regulatory/DredgedMaterialProgram/D
isposalCompliance.aspx
DQM - https://dqm.usace.army.mil/

BUILDING STRONG

Planning Guidelines for Owners with


Infrastructure and Maintenance Dredging
Projects on Boston Harbor

Bob Garrity, P.E.


Principal Engineer
CH2M

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Waterfront Development:
Planning Guidelines for Owners
with Infrastructure
Robert Garrity P.E.
Principal Engineer

Ports & Maritime Group


Engineering News Record Rankings 2016
#2 in the Ports & Maritime Industry
Specializing in maritime and coastal
engineering solutions that advance business,
stakeholder, and community goals

Our Primary Markets

Oil & gas

Containers

General cargo

Dry bulk

Cruise and ferries

Military and defense

Urban waterfronts

Shipyards

Marinas

#1 Question:
How long should owners plan in advance?
Time from conception to dredging 2 YRS
Local, State and Federal Permits
Environmental Considerations
Navigational Considerations
Structural Considerations

State Permit - Chapter 91 When Required?


Structures - Placement or construction of any structure
Filling - Placement of any unconsolidated materials
Dredging - Removal of materials, including but not limited
to rocks, bottom sediments, debris
Change in Use - Any use of the authorized premises or
structures for a purpose unrelated to the authorized use
Structural Alteration - Any change in the dimensions of a
structure or fill
Demolition/Removal of Structures - Approval is required for
removal of any unauthorized structure

Chapter 91 Permit Type Required/How Long?


Chapter 91 Water Dependent License (BRP WW 01)
construct a structure or facility that requires direct access to or location in
water 276 days
Chapter 91 Waterways License: Full, Partial,
Municipal Harbor Plan, or Joint MEPA/EIR Application (BRP WW 14, BRP WW
15, BRP WW 16, BRP WW 17) waterfront location but does not require close
proximity to water to exist or function 191 to 311 days
Chapter 91 Waterways Permit (BRP WW 01)
Amendment to Chapter 91 License or Permit (BRP WW 03) existing Chapter
91 Waterways licensed or permitted facility/use extensions and
modifications 276 days

Preliminary Investigation:
Project Viability and Costs
Nearby Projects
Last Dredge
Adjacent Structures Types, Conditions, Change in Use
Dredge Material
Disposal Options (contamination, reuse, and handling)
Nearby Outfalls and Intakes
Essential Habitat
Designated Port Area
Remediation Required
Design Vessel
Site Exposure, Wind, Wave, Current, Rate of Sedimentation
Historic Site

Hydrographic Survey , Sub-Bottom Profiling, Debris or Munitions or


Explosives, Magnetometer Survey
29

Structural investigation - above and below water necessary

Change In UseChange in Loads


Review of Design Drawings
Structural Evaluation
Geotechnical Evaluation

Rehabilitation Design

30

Global Stability
Soil Shear Failure

31

Reference: Fig 7-17

*FM 3-34.343 (FM 5-446)

Field Manual
No. 3-34.343

Headquarters
Department of the Army
Washington, DC, 12 February 2002

THE LINE LOADS ARE BASED ON PILE LOADS DISTRIBUTED OVER A WIDTH OF 3 FT (2 X SIDE WIDTH)
PILE LOAD = DEAD LOAD + 100 PSF LIVE LOAD ON DECK
3.0

FENDER LINE
OUTBOARD PILE
Material Properties

Material: Or. Clayey Silt


Saturated Unit Weight: 80
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 200 psf
Material: Shale 1
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 1500 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

GLOBAL MINIMUM FS = 2.07

-20

Material: Shale 2
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 2000 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

Or. CLAYEY SILT (Very Soft)

Material: Shale 3
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 3000 psf
Friction Angle: 20 degrees

10700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
11200.00lbs/ft

El. -34.5
-40

-38 (Inboard Pile tip El)


2.070
2.070

-42 (Outboard Pile tip El)

SHALE 1 (Very Poor Rock)

3.0

El. -42.0

El. -47.5
SHALE 2 (Poor Rock)

-60

SHALE 3 (Fair Rock)

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

Project

Drawn By
Date
SLIDEINTERPRET
32
6.031

30

40

50
Analysis Description

Scale

1:150

Company
File Name

OBP Tip -42 Dredge -42.slim

60

THE LINE LOADS ARE BASED ON PILE LOADS DISTRIBUTED OVER A WIDTH OF 3 FT (2 X SIDE WIDTH)
PILE LOAD = DEAD LOAD + 100 PSF LIVE LOAD ON DECK
3.0

FENDER LINE
OUTBOARD PILE
Material Properties

Material: Or. Clayey Silt


Saturated Unit Weight: 80
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 200 psf
Material: Shale 1
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 1500 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

GLOBAL MINIMUM FS = 1.85

-20

Material: Shale 2
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 2000 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

Or. CLAYEY SILT (Very Soft)

Material: Shale 3
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 3000 psf
Friction Angle: 20 degrees

10700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
11200.00lbs/ft

El. -34.5
-40

-38 (Inboard Pile tip El)


1.853
1.853

-42 (Outboard Pile tip El)

SHALE 1 (Very Poor Rock)

El. -43.0
3.0

El. -47.5
SHALE 2 (Poor Rock)

-60

SHALE 3 (Fair Rock)

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

Project

Drawn By
Date
SLIDEINTERPRET
33
6.031

30

40

50
Analysis Description

Scale

1:150

Company
File Name

OBP Tip -42 Dredge -43.slim

60

THE LINE LOADS ARE BASED ON PILE LOADS DISTRIBUTED OVER A WIDTH OF 3 FT (2 X SIDE WIDTH)
PILE LOAD = DEAD LOAD + 100 PSF LIVE LOAD ON DECK
3.0

FENDER LINE
OUTBOARD PILE
Material Properties

Material: Or. Clayey Silt


Saturated Unit Weight: 80
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 200 psf
Material: Shale 1
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 1500 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

GLOBAL MINIMUM FS = 1.79

-20

Material: Shale 2
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 2000 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

Or. CLAYEY SILT (Very Soft)

Material: Shale 3
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 3000 psf
Friction Angle: 20 degrees

10700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
11200.00lbs/ft

El. -34.5
-40

-38 (Inboard Pile tip El)


1.788
1.788

-42 (Outboard Pile tip El)

SHALE 1 (Very Poor Rock)

El. -44.0
3.0

El. -47.5
SHALE 2 (Poor Rock)

-60

SHALE 3 (Fair Rock)

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

Project

Drawn By
Date
SLIDEINTERPRET
34
6.031

30

40

50
Analysis Description

Scale

1:150

Company
File Name

OBP Tip -42 Dredge -44.slim

60

THE LINE LOADS ARE BASED ON PILE LOADS DISTRIBUTED OVER A WIDTH OF 3 FT (2 X SIDE WIDTH)
PILE LOAD = DEAD LOAD + 100 PSF LIVE LOAD ON DECK
3.0

FENDER LINE
OUTBOARD PILE
Material Properties

Material: Or. Clayey Silt


Saturated Unit Weight: 80
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 200 psf
Material: Shale 1
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 1500 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

GLOBAL MINIMUM FS = 1.67

-20

Material: Shale 2
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 2000 psf
Friction Angle: 15 degrees

Or. CLAYEY SILT (Very Soft)

Material: Shale 3
Saturated Unit Weight: 155
lb/ft3 Cohesion: 3000 psf
Friction Angle: 20 degrees

10700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
14700.00lbs/ft
11200.00lbs/ft

El. -34.5
-40

-38 (Inboard Pile tip El)


1.666
1.666

-42 (Outboard Pile tip El)

SHALE 1 (Very Poor Rock)

El. -45.0
3.0

El. -47.5
SHALE 2 (Poor Rock)

-60

SHALE 3 (Fair Rock)

-60

-50

-40

-30

-20

-10

10

20

Project

Drawn By
Date
SLIDEINTERPRET
35
6.031

30

40

50
Analysis Description

Scale

1:150

Company
File Name

OBP Tip -42 Dredge -45.slim

60

Case 1 - No dredging within 3 ft of dock


Case 2 - No dredging within 6 ft of dock

36

Minimize # of bents that need protection


Minimize construction time

37

Thank You

Urban Dreding: Sediment


Management on Urban Waterways

Jim Brinkman, P.E.


Senior Engineer
Geosyntec Consultants

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Sediment Management Challenges and


Solutions for Urban Waterways
September 2016

Experience

Significant nationwide sediment


management/ports and harbors
practice
Experience at many of the largest
and most complex sediment sites in
the US and overseas

Personal/corporate experience

Berrys Creek

New Bedford Harbor

Muddy Cove

Savannah Harbor

Troy Chemical

Great Lakes

Newtown Creek

Hunter River (AU)

Gowanus Canal

Sydney Harbor (AU)

Ports of New York/


New Jersey

Portland Harbor

San Diego Harbor

Lower Delaware River

Lower Passaic River


Fox River

Agenda

The challenges associated with sediment removal in


Urban environments
Handling and disposal of dredged materials from urban
environments
Lessons learned

Sediment Removal

Dredging
Material Transport
Material Handling/
Processing

Off-Site Disposal

Urban Environment

Why Dredge?

New Construction
Deepening and/or widening a project
Economic development

Maintenance
Scheduled dredging to restore the authorized dimensions

Environmental
Removal of contaminated sediments

Emergency
After significant storm or flood event.

Urban Issues

Design Considerations
Site Staging
Debris

Environmental

Physical Constraints
Bulkheads
Bridges
Limited Draft

Staging Site Needs

Bulkhead Reinforcement & Repair


Sediment Processing
Water Treatment
Marine Equipment Docking
Administration/Labor Logistics
Shipping/Receiving
Environmental Monitoring

Ideal Situation

Urban Reality

Design Considerations: Staging Areas

How are staging areas used?

How big do they need to be?

Where is the available space?

How much available space?

Is there enough space?

Design Considerations: Debris

Our Experience:
Failure to consider debris removal impacts
is the single largest cause of significant
cost and budget overruns on sediment
remediation projects.

Effect of Debris on Production

Area with Light Debris

Area With Heavy Debris

Assume $20/cy dredging cost at 85% uptime


At 60% uptime, dredging costs increase approximately 42% ($28.35/cy)

Design Considerations: Debris

Debris Surveys

Design Considerations - Environmental

Community
Truck Traffic
Impacts to local business

Environmental
Water Quality
Air/Odor
Noise

Physical Constraints - Bulkheads

Wall Stability Concerns


Set backs
Access Rights
Evaluation
Design

Wall Reconstruction
Coordination among parties,
including owner and developer

Physical Constraints - Bridge Openings

Clearance
Vertical
Horizontal

Operations
Lift Restrictions

Maintenance

Physical Constraints Limited Draft

Impacts site access and


daily production rates

Off-Site Disposal

Urban sediments can have


unique mixtures of compounds
Dioxins, metals, PCBs, VOCs,
etc.
Stormwater sources

Generally represent majority of

project cost
Identify disposal facility during
project feasibility phase
Collect sufficient information to
create waste profiles at disposal
facilities

Lessons Learned

Develop a Risk Management Matrix

Identify all potential projects risks (H&S, Regulatory, Technical, Operational)

Identify an approach for mitigating each site specific risk

Health & Safety


Regulatory
Technical
Operational
Environmental
Causes
Impacts
Controls (Design & Construction)

Update regularly as the project progresses from planning through design to


construction

Begin with the end in mind (i.e. disposal requirements)

Lessons Learned

Look for alternatives that have realistic feasibilities


Learn from other projects
Learn from other EPA Regions/USACE Districts
Consider technologies with an emphasis on beneficial use and
sustainability
Communicate with Vendors and Contractors
Look for expanded opportunities to cost-share

Innovate with your own ideas Think Outside the Box

Lessons Learned

Perform an honest Assessment of Project Needs


Make sure there is a full understanding of regulatory conditions

Disposal options are particularly important

Tailor characterization sampling to potential disposal sites;


go beyond the minimum

Compare to today, not what used to be


How important is the projects implementation?

What costs can the project bear?


Was the project properly scoped or was it based on outdated or
unrealistic factors?
Can you live with the project not being done?

Thank you for your time.

James Brinkman
jbrinkman@geosyntec.com
(978) 206 5741
Geosyntec Consultants
289 Great Road, Suite 202
Acton, Massachusetts 01720

Using Bioavailability to Define the


Scope of Environmental Dredging
Projects

Dr. Steve Clough


Senior Environmental Toxicologist
Haley & Aldrich, Inc.

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Sediment Remediation:
Using Bioavailability to Define the Scope
of Environmental Dredging Projects
Dr. Stephen R. Clough, Ph.D., DABT
Senior Environmental Toxicologist, Haley & Aldrich, Inc
Tuesday, September 13, 2016
McLane Middleton, Woburn, MA

64

ITRC Web-based Document: Remedy Selection for


Contaminated Sediments
Step 1 - Review of Site Characteristics
Step 2 - Remedial Zone Identification and
Mapping
Step 3: Screening of Remedial Technologies
MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY
IN SITU TREATMENT
CAPPING
DREDGING
Step 4 - Evaluation of Remedial Technologies
Step 5 - Development of Remedial Action
Alternatives
Step 6 - Evaluation of Remedial Action
Alternatives

http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds_remedy-selection/
65

ITRC Web-based Document: Incorporating


Bioavailability Considerations into the Evaluation of
Contaminated Sediment Sites
Introduction and background on bioavailability

Overview of bioavailability processes


Bioavailability pathway exposure assessment
Screening
Background
Pathway exposure assessment

Benthic invertebrates
Fish and water column invertebrates
Wildlife
Plants
Human health

Risk management decision-making

http://www.itrcweb.org/contseds-bioavailability/

66

Doing Your Homework: Scoping Your Site

Site history
Site boundaries (extent of
contamination)
ID all contaminants of
potential concern (COPC)
Conceptual site model (CSM)

67

What is Bioavailability?
individual physical, chemical, and biological interactions that determine
the exposure of plants and animals to chemicals associated with soils and
sediment (National Research Council, 2003).
Bioavailability addresses the fact that only a fraction of the contaminant
concentration present in the environment may be taken up and result in an
effect on an organism!

Risk = Exposure x Toxicity


Hg Exposure (~50%), Risk = COSTS!!

68

Chemical and Physical Processes


Control Bioavailability
Sediment

Insoluble

Dissolved

69

Porewater

Organism

Three Approaches to Benthic Bioavailability:


Chemical, Biological, Predictive Models

70

Sediment Quality Triad: Gold Standard for


Assessing Impact to Benthic Invertebrates

COCs
Grain Size
TOC
(8 oz)

Toxicity

Chemistry

Growth,
Survival
(6L)

Biology

Chemistry: Compare bulk sediment COCs to SQVs


Toxicity: Growth, Survival, Reproduction
Biology: community endpoints (e.g. abundance, richness, % dominance)
71

Acid Volatile Sulfide Reduces Metal


Bioavailability in Sediment
Most sediments
are ANOXIC

S-2 + Fe2+ FeS

106 X stronger

1018 X stronger

72

Iron Sulfides in Natural Sediment

73

Tool to Assess Benthic Bioavailability


Metal Binding by AVS
SEM/AVS
Simultaneously
Extracted Metals/
Acid Volatile Sulfides

SEM-AVS/fOC

No Toxicity
(<130 umoles/goc)

Toxicity Uncertain
(130 3000 umoles/goc)

Toxicity
(>3000 umoles/goc)
74

From EPA-600-R-02-011, 2005

Sampling for AVS/SEM

75

AVS and SEM Laboratory Reports


Provide Easy Interpretation

76

Tools to Assess the Benthic Pathway - Porewater

Porewater (Direct)
Centrifugation (lab)
Syringes/suction devices
Piezometers
Ultraseep/Trident probe
SPME (solid phase microextraction;
EPA SW-846 8272; ASTM D73-6307)

Porewater (Indirect)
Peeper
SPMD (semi-permeable membrane

77

device) / dialysis bags


Diffusion in thin films
SPME, POM (Polyoxymethylene)
film, PE (Polyethylene) strips
GORE Module
Diffusive flux

Surface Water

Oligochaete Worm
Sediment
Surface
Sediment
Particles

Porespace filled
with water
(porewater)

H&A Case Study: VOCs in Sediment at Farm Pond


(Framingham)

Problem: Elevated VOCs & lily pad roots (difficult


sampling & cannot run toxicity test on VOCs)
Solution: Design an innovative pore water
sampler to minimize silt intrusion, maximize
sample volume
78

Bioavailability of VOCs in Fine Sediment Direct Suction Device

79

Airstone Before

Airstone After

Bioavailability of Dioxins in Surface Water


Semipermeable Membrane Devices (Maine)

SPMD Before
80

SPMD After

Passive Sampler for PCBs and PAHs SPME


(Solid Phase Micro Extraction)
Syringe

Sample Vial

81

Sediment Toxicity Tests

Hyalella azteca
FRESHWATER

Neanthes
arenaceodentata
BRACKISH OR
SALTWATER

Chironomus dilutus
Eohaustorius estuarius
82

Macroinvertebrate Surveys
Pollution Sensitive

83

Pollution Tolerant

Benthic Metrics: Abundance, Richness, %EPT, %Dominance, %Chironomids,


Hilsenhoffs or Shannon-Weiner Diversity Indices

Community Metrics
Minimally Disturbed Stream

Photos courtesy of Susan


Davies, Maine DEP

84

Community Metrics
Urban Stream (Shopping Mall)

Photos courtesy of Susan


Davies, Maine DEP

85

Pollution Sensitive Organisms


At a Coal Tar Site?

86

Predictive Tools for Bioavailability


Sediment Pore Water Exposure

Equilibrium partitioning
Narcosis model
SEM-AVS/fOC
Biotic ligand model

Sediment
Carbon

Ca2+
Na+
H
Competing Cations
(pH, Hardness)

Biotic Ligand Model

M2+

M-DOC

Pore
Water

Equilibrium partitioning

M-Biotic
Ligand

Free
Site of Action (Gill)
Metal
Ion
MOH+
MHCO3+
MCl+
Tipping, 1994
Metal Complexation (electrolytes)

Organic Matter
(Sediment TOC)

87

Biota

Bioavailability to Wildlife Indirect Measures


Wildlife effects
(already known)
Bulk sediment
(mg/kg)
Literature BAFs
Percent of diet
Calculate: dose (mg/kg/day)

Freshwater (Mallard)

Saltwater (Sandpiper)

Compare: to Toxicity Reference Value (TRV)


Pass?
Yes NFA
No SLERA/BERA
Exposure/effect:
bioaccessibility in
sediment
88

Dose (mg/kg/day) = % Sediment (in diet)

CSED (mg/kg) x %diet (kg/day) = mg/kg/day

logW-PBET gizzard Pb
(mg kg-1)

Bioavailability to Wildlife
Physiologically-Based Extraction Test (Indirect)

4
3

2
1
0

Blood Pb
(mg kg-1, wet weight)
Photo courtesy of Nick Basta, Soil & Envir. Chemistry,
Ohio State Univ.

Furman et al., J. Environ. Qual. 35: p. 450


https://www.soils.org/publications/
jeq/articles/36/3/899
89

H&A Case Study: Naturally High Cr and Ni in


Serpentine Sediments (San Francisco Bay)

California State Rock

Very high in Heavy Metals


- % levels of Cr, Co, Fe, Mg, Ni,

Low in Nutrients
- Ca, Mo, N, P, K, TOC

Serpentine High Chaparral


contain RT&E species and nickel
hyperaccumulator plants (>1000
ppm)
90

HRA Passed; ERA Needs Additional Work?


HRA (soils)
Background Metals

ERA (sediments)
Background Metals

Analyte Mean
Co
76
Cr
408
Ni
1410
Ag
0.94

Analyte Mean
Co
22
Cr
125
Ni
358
Ag
0.61

COPCs: All four metals


excluded from HRA due
to compounds naturally
present in serpentinite
rock.
91

COPCs: All four metals


included based on the
statistical comparison to
background concs.

Identifying the Source: Upland Serpentine Soils

92

Validating the Source: Ni vs. Cr in CA Bays

93

Bioavailability of Metals Validated with AVS/SEM

94

H&A Case Study: Identify Remedial Goals for


Lower Waban Brook

95

Sediment Quality Triad - Chemistry

Toxicity

Chemistry

Biology

96

Conceptual Site Model for Lower Waban Brook


Source - lead chromate is virtually insoluble in water

Based on Ksp, we anticipated very low bioavailability (ergo low risk)


97

Metals Correlation in LWB Validates CSM


(i.e. the metals are Site-related)
10000
y = 0.24x + 23.5

Chromium (mg/kg)

R2 = 0.94

1000

100

10
PEC = 128 ppm

1
10

98

Cr = 52 0.25
Pb = 207

100
Reference

1,000
Lead (mg/kg)
LWB

Historical Data

10,000

How should Pb chemistry affect benthic organisms?

TEC

PEC

99

Sediment Quality Triad - Toxicity

Toxicity

Chemistry

Biology

100

101

Sediment Testing: Lead vs. Survival

Survival (% of Control)

120%

100%

80%

Lab Control = 78% Survival


60%

40%

20%

0%
0

500

1000

1500

Lead (mg/kg)
Reference

102

Site

2000

2500

Sediment Testing: Lead vs. Growth


(Mean Growth >2x Control)
1.4

Growth (mg/organism)

1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
Lab Control = 0.44 mg
0.4

0.2
0.0

500

1000

1500

Lead (mg/kg)
Reference

103

Site

2000

2500

Sediment Quality Triad - Biology

Toxicity

Chemistry

Biology

104

Found Species Used in Standard Toxicity Tests


Receptors - In stream bioassessment revealed sensitive organisms
(Daphnia, amphipods, caddisflies, mayflies, dragonflies)
Amphipod

Caddisfly

Blackworm

Presence of sensitive receptors confirms COCs present NSR


105

Conclusions
Chemistry
LWB samples >>>> published PEC (Probable Effect Concentration)
Strong correlation between Pb and Cr (R2 = 0.97) validates CSM
Toxicity
No adverse effect on growth (stimulatory response)
No adverse effect of on survival
Toxicity bioassay appears to be the strongest leg of the SQT

Biology
No apparent differences in community endpoints (abundance, richness, %
dominance)

SQT Weight of Evidence

LOW BIOAVAILABILITY OF Pb and Cr = NO SIGNIFICANT RISK TO BENTHIC


MACROINVERTEBRATES
106

Questions?

107

Networking Break

Dredge Disposal: Long-Term


Liability Management

Lew Conley
Senior Project Manager
J.F. Brennan Company, Inc.

Environmental Business Council of New England


Energy Environment Economy

Presented to:

September 13th, 2016

Long-Term Liability Management


What is Liability?
The state of being legally responsible for
something : the state of being liable for
something
Something (such as the payment of
money) for which a person or business is
legally responsible
Someone or something that causes
problems

Long-Term Liability Management


Superfund Liability
The Superfund law (officially the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, "CERCLA")
imposes liability on parties responsible for, in whole or in part, the presence of hazardous substances at a site.
Superfund Liability is:
Retroactive - Parties may be held liable for acts that happened before Superfund's enactment in 1980.
Joint and Several - Any one potentially responsible party (PRP) may be held liable for the entire cleanup of the site (when
the harm caused by multiple parties cannot be separated).
Strict - A PRP cannot simply say that it was not negligent or that it was operating according to industry standards. If a PRP
sent some amount of the hazardous waste found at the site, that party is liable.
Superfund liability is triggered if:
Hazardous wastes are present at a facility,
There is a release (or a possibility of a release) of these hazardous substances,
Response costs have been or will be incurred, and
The defendant is a liable party.
A PRP is potentially liable for:
Government cleanup costs,
Damages to natural resources (e.g., to a fishery),
The costs of certain health assessments, and
Injunctive relief (i.e., performing a cleanup) where a site may present an imminent and substantial endangerment.

Long-Term Liability Management

What are we doing today that will have some


negative effect on our environment in the future?

Long-Term Liability Management


Sediment Remediation

Subaqueous Caps and Covers


Hydraulic dredging
Mechanical dredging
Debris management
Amphibious dredging
Hydraulic and barge transport
Habitat Restoration

Long-Term Liability Management


Subaqueous Caps and Covers
-Sands and Gravels
-Carbon (PAC & GAC)
-Organoclay
-Blends
-Other available products

Long-Term Liability Management


Installation of Subaqueous Caps
Broadcast Capping System
(BCS)
Low Energy Installation
Minimizes impacts to underlying
layers
Accurate and precise

Long-Term Liability Management

Cap Armament
Rock placement
Mechanical
BCS System

Pre-cast articulating block


mats
Fabric formed, grout filled
articulating block mats

Long-Term Liability Management


Managing the 5Rs of
Environmental Dredging
-Removal (Sediment)
-Resuspension (Sediment)
-Release (of Contaminants)
-Residuals
-Risk

Long-Term Liability Management

Surgical Hydraulic Dredging


RTK-GPS computer systems allows
for highly accurate dredging
Use of the right tool to minimize
resuspension and residuals

Long-Term Liability Management


Hydraulic Transport
Efficient, cost effective method of
transport

Reduces multiple transfers


Reduces equipment needs
Fully enclosed system
Used for short, or long distances
Slurry can be pumped over 10 miles!

Very effective around navigable


channels

Requires and increased dewatering


capacity

Long-Term Liability Management


Dewatering
Mechanical Dewatering

Thickener Systems
Weirs
Vibratory screens
Hydro-cyclones
Sand wheel

Passive Dewatering
Geotextile tubes
Settling basins

Long-Term Liability Management

Precision Mechanical Dredging


Excavators

Digging bucket
Rotary clamshell
Rock bucket
Environmental digging bucket

All outfitted with RTK-GPS


systems

Long-Term Liability Management

Material Transport
Barge transport

Material barges
Lined roll-off containers
Hopper barges
Sectional platforms
Dump scows

Vessels range from 250 HP to 1800


HP

Long-Term Liability Management


Diver Assisted Micro-Dredging
Use of a 6-inch hydraulic system
to remove lightweight sediment
from around critical structures
Material is usually pumped to
geotextile tubes
Can remove material from the top
of engineered caps

Long-Term Liability Management

Sediment Management
Thickening
Post-dredge stabilization using
approved agents (ex. Portland
Cement)

Load out and transport


Logistical coordination
Lined truck beds
Scales, tire washes

Disposal
Coordination with landfill

Long-Term Liability Management


Debris Management
Environmental digging bucket
(G-bucket)
Rotary clamshell
Diver assistance if necessary
Steel cutting (underwater burning)
Micro-dredging
Specialty removal

Long-Term Liability Management


Disposal Options
-Beneficial Reuse
-On-Site Reuse
-Confined Disposal Facility (CDF)
-Confined Aquatic Disposal (CAD)
-Landfills
-Thermal Treatment

Long-Term Liability Management


Beneficial Reuse
Landfill Closure Projects
Brownfields Reclamation Projects
Like on Like Contamination

On-Site Reuse/Containment
Pre-Planning is the key here

Long-Term Liability Management


Indiana Harbor CDF (East Chicago, Indiana)

Long-Term Liability Management


Confined Aquatic Disposal (CAD) Cells

Long-Term Liability Management


Landfills

Long-Term Liability Management


Thermal
Desorption
Removes contaminants
from soil and sediments
by volatilizing them with
heat
Treated sediments are
recycled and reused in a
variety of applications on
residential to industrial
properties.

Long-Term Liability Management


Recognize your liability
Understand all of your options
Develop the remedy that fits your project and
tolerance for risk
Develop the right team to implement your remedy
Utilize the Best Management Practices

EBC Site Remediation & Redevelopment Program:

Sediment Dredging at
Remediation Sites