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Turbine

A turbine is a hydro-mechanical machine, which uses the energy


of flowing water and converts it into mechanical energy. This
mechanical energy is used in running an electrical generator that
is directly coupled to the shaft of the hydraulic turbine.

Classification of Turbines
1) According to Direction of Flow
Tangential flow
: Pelton wheel
Axial Flow
: Propeller Turbines
Mixed Flow
: Francis Turbine
Radial Flow
: Old Francis Turbine

Turbine

Reaction Turbine
Turbine

Impulse
(Pelton Wheel)

Francis Mixed Flow Propeller

Fixed Blade

Adjustable blade

(Sp. Speed 250-500)


(Sp. Speed 300-1000)

High Speed

Medium Head

Kaplan

Low Speed

Inlet dia < Outlet dia Inlet dia = Outlet dia


Inlet dia > Outlet dia
Low Specific Speed
Medium specific spe
Specific Speed
50
150
300
High Head
Medium Head
Head

High

Low

Difference between Impulse and Reaction Turbine


Aspects
Conversion of Fluid
Energy
Water tight Casing
Installation of Units

Impulse
In to K.E
Not required
Always installed
Above TWL
Not used

Draft Tube
Flow Regulation

By means of Spear
valve or deflector
Low (7-20)

Specific Speed

According to name of Inventor


Pelton wheel
Francis Turbine
Propeller and Kaplan Turbine
Deraiz Turbine

According to Head
High Head

Pelton

Medium Head

Low Head

Kaplan Series

Francis

Some terms and Definitions

Reaction
Partly in KE And
Partly in PE
Essential
Can be installed
below TWL
Necessary to
recover lost energy
Wicket gates (Guide
vanes)
Moderate to High
(50-300: Francis)
(240-920: Kaplan)

Turbine Efficiency

Hydraulic Efficiency:
h=

Power developed by runner


net power supplied at the runner

Mathematically,
Where, Mathematically,

h=

h=

H H
H

H H
H

H = the net head utilized


H= Head not effectively utilized over the blade

Mechanical Efficiency:
m=

Power availableat theturbine shaft


P ower developed by the runner

Mathematically,

m=

Where,
Ps = Shaft Power
Pm= Mechanical Power loss
P = power produced by the turbine

Volumetric Efficiency:

PsPm
P

Quantity of the water supplied


Quantity of water actually striking therunner
v=
the turbine

Mathematically,

v=

Q
Q+ Q

Overall Efficiency ( o ) = hmv

Synchronous Speed
If the turbine is directly connected to the generators, producing electricity the
turbine speed, N, must correspond to the nearest synchronous speed for a.c.
machines. For turbine speed , N, to be a synchronous , the following equation must
be fulfilled

N=

120 f
Np

Where,
N = Rotational speed
f = frequency in Hz
Np = No of generator poles

If the net head varies < 10% choose the next greater
synchronous speed
If the net head varies >10% Choose the next lower
synchronous speed

Runaway Speed
If the external load on the machine suddenly drops to zero (Sudden rejection) and
the governing mechanism fails at the same time, the turbine will tend to race up to
the maximum possible speed, known as runaway speed.

Type of Runner

Impulse
(Pelton)
Francis
Propeller

Runaway
speed (% of
normal Speed)
170-190

Acceptable head variation (% of


design head)
Minimum
Maximum
65
125

200-220
250-300

50
50

150
150

Specific Speed
The specific speed of a turbine is defined as a speed of
geometrically similar turbine that would develop 1 KW under 1m
head.
The entire geometrically similar turbine (irrespective of size)
will have same specific speed when operating under same
head.
The specific speed , Ns, is given by
Ns=

N P
H5/4

Specific Speed for different type of turbines


Ns=

2400
1 /2
H

For Francis Turbine

Ns=

1080
H 1/ 4

For Fixed blade propeller turbine

Ns=

1475
1 /3
H

For Adjustable blade propeller (Kaplan) turbine