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computer network CSE:306
Topic:- Digital subscriber line (DSL) is a family of technology that provides digital data
transmission Over the wire of local telephone network .DSL origially stood for digital subscriber loop.
Sumitted to:Mr.Dinesh Sir
Sumitted by:Ravi kumar Roll no.-B38 Reg.no.- 10804644 Sec:-C2802
First and foremost I thank my teacher Mr. Dinesh Sir who has assigned me this term paper to bring out my creative capabilities. I express my gratitude to my parents for being a continuous source of encouragement for all their financial aid. I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided to me by the library staff of LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY. My heartfelt gratitude to my class-mates and for helping me to complete my work in time.
1. Introduction 2. Design of DSL 3. History 4. Types of services 5. Advantage & disadvantage 6. Reference
Digital subscriber line is the transmission of digital information, usually on a copper wire pair. Although the transmitted information is in digital form, the transmission medium is usually an analog carrier signal (or the combi- nation of many analog carrier signals) that is modulated by the digital infor- mation signal. DSL transmission allows high-speed data transmission over existing twisted pair telephone wires. This has the potential providing high-speed data services without the burden of installing new transmission lines. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) is a family of technologies that provides digital data transmission over the wires of a local telephone network. DSL originally stood for digital subscriber loop. In telecommunications marketing, the term Digital Subscriber Line is widely understood to mean Asymmetric Digital
Subscriber Line (ADSL), the most commonly installed technical varieties of DSL. DSL service is delivered simultaneously with regular telephone on the same telephone line as it uses a higher frequency band that is separated by filtering. The data throughput of consumer DSL services typically ranges from 384 KB/s to 20 MB/s in the direction to the customer, depending on DSL technology, line conditions, and service-level implementation. Typically, the data throughput in the reverse direction, i.e. in the direction to the service provider is lower, hence the designation of asymmetric service, but the two are equal for the Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) service. This demand for data services has created a significant market opportunity for providers that are willing and able to invest in technologies that maximize the copper infrastructure. Both incumbent and competitive Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs and CLECs) are capitalizing on this opportunity by embracing such
technologies. The mass deployment of high-speed Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) has changed the playing field for service providers. DSL, which encompasses several different technologies, essentially allows the extension of megabit bandwidth capacities from the service provider central office to the customer premises. Utilizing existing copper cabling, DSL is available at very reasonable costs without the need for massive infrastructure replacement. These new DSL solutions satisfy the business need to provision the network in a fast, cost-effective manner, while both preserving the infrastructure and allowing a planned migration into newer technologies. DSL has the proven ability
to meet the customer demand for high bandwidth right now, at costs that make sense. ADSL, or Asymmetric DSL, has emerged as thetechnology of choice for delivering greater throughputto the desktop. Currently, the ADSL Lite specification,also known as g.lite, is expected to be standardized bythe end of June, 1999 as a low-cost, easy-toinstallversion of ADSL specifically designed for the consumer marketplace. While g.lite is expected to become the predominant standard for consumer services, HDSL2 is becoming the protocol of choice for business services
DESIGN OF DSL
Implementation of Digital Subscriber Line technology originally was part of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) specification published in 1984 by the CCITT and ITU as part of
Recommendation I.120, later reused as ISDN Digital Subscriber Line (IDSL). Engineers have developed higher-speed DSL facilities such as High bit rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) and Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) to provision traditional Digital Signal 1 (DS1) services over standard copper pair facilities. Consumer-oriented Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL), first tested at Bellcore in 1988, was designed to operate on existing lines already conditioned for BRI ISDN services, which itself is a switched digital service (non-IP), though most incumbent local exchange carriers (ILECs) provision Rate-Adaptive Digital Subscriber Line (RADSL) to work on virtually any available copper pair facility—whether conditioned for BRI or not. The development of DSL, like many other forms of communication, can be traced back to Claude Shannon's seminal 1948 paper: A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Employees at Bellcore (now Telcordia Technologies) developed ADSL in 1988 by placing wide-band digital signals above the existing baseband analog voice signal carried between telephone company central offices and customers on conventional twisted pair cabling facilities. Contrary to its name, while a DSL circuit provides digital service, it is actually not a digital signal. The underlying technology of transport across DSL facilities uses high-frequency sinusoidal carrier wave modulation, which is an analog signal transmission. A DSL circuit terminates at each end in a modem which modulates patterns of bits into certain high-frequency impulses for transmission to the opposing
modem. Signals received from the far-end modem are demodulated to yield a corresponding bit pattern that the modem retransmits, in digital form, to its interfaced equipment, such as a computer, router, switch, etc. Unlike traditional dialup modems, which modulate bits into signals in the 300–3400 Hz baseband (voice service), DSL modems modulate frequencies from 4000 Hz to as high as 4 MHz. This frequency band separation enables DSL service and plain old telephone service (POTS) to coexist on the same copper pair facility. Generally, higher bit rate transmissions require a wider frequency band, though the ratio of bit rate to bandwidth are not linear due to significant innovations in digital signal processing and digital modulation methods.
TYPES OF DSL SERVICE USE IN LOCAL TELEPHONE NETWORK :
ADSL:- which is asymmetric data service to the Customer’s premises. The downstream bandwidth (to the Customer from the network) is larger than the upstream bandwidth (to the network from the Customer). The Customer eligibility for these bandwidths depends upon the distance the user is from the Central Office. ADSL is offered in two ways:
o ADSL Line-share service is provided over a voice
telephone line at Customer’s premises.
ADSL Direct service (commonly known as dry loop or dedicated ADSL) is provided over a dedicated line without any telephone voice services to the
Customer’s premises. In lieu of a POTs number, a Fictitious Telephone Number (FTN) is assigned to the DSL circuit. This service is only available using AT&T owned facilities in a specific geographic footprint.
IDSL:- which is a symmetric data service providing up to 144 Kbps transfer rates in each direction and is provided via an ISDN grade dedicated data line from the EndUser’s premises to DSL equipment located in a nearby Central Office. IDSL allows for longer distances between Customer locations and the central office.
SDSL:- which is symmetric data service and is provided via a dedicated data line from the EndUser’s premises to DSL equipment located in a nearby Central Office. The downstream bandwidth is equivalent to the upstream bandwidth. The maximum speed varies depending upon the distance of Customer location from the Central Office. The further the distance from the Central Office,
the slower the bandwidth and/or speed.
• Integration: DSL will easily interface with ATM, Nx64, and WAN technology. Telecommuting may get even easier. • High bandwidth
DSL Advantages and Disadvantages
• Cheap line charges from the phone company. • Good for "bursty" traffic patterns
Each prospective user should be aware of the issues associated the technology and method they are using to be better informed. You need to know if what you are purchasing is the best choice for what you wish to accomplish. Remember that with everything there are tradeoffs between price, performance and reliability. DSL is a low price option for an internet "access and transport" method.
• No current standardization: A person moving from one area to another might find that their DSL modem is just another paperweight. Customers may have to buy new equipment to simply change ISPs. Expect standardization within 1-2 years. Currently in U.S. West territory the version of DSL being implemented is RADSL or Rate Adaptive DSL.
• Independent services: Loss of high speed data does not mean you lose your telephone service. Imagine your telephone, television, and Internet access going out when a cable company amplifier/repeater dies.
• Expensive: Most customers are not willing to spend more than $20 to $25 per month for Internet access. Current installation costs, including the modem, can be as high as $750. Prices should come down within 1-3 years. As with all computer technology, being first usually means an emptier wallet.
• Security: Unlike cable modems, each subscriber can be configured so that it will not be on the same network. In some cable modem networks, other computers on the cable modem network are left visibly vulnerable and are easily susceptible to break ins as well as data destruction.
• Distance dependence: The farther you live from the DSLAM (DSL Access Multiplexer), the lower the data rate. The longest run lengths are 18,000 feet, or a little over 3 miles.
• Access: Once again, rural areas get shorted. These markets are not as profitable for the Telco. • Asymmetry. Downstream/Upstream ratios may be unacceptably high (3 or more). There is nothing new here, as X.90 (56kbs) and cable modems also suffer in this area. Expect this to improve within 23 years. • Limited availability • Very new technology • Low or no CIR (Committed Information Rate). This means that as traffic across the telco switch increases your data could in effect, be locked out, until call volumes and other traffic subsides. • Downtime after line failure could be weeks compared with days for ISDN and
hours for data circuits such as Frame Relay and Point to Point circuits. • U S West DSL service is tarrifed as a "consumer grade" product. "Commercial grade" DSL is being planned, but is not yet defined or available. • Reliability and potential down time issues makes DSL a very risky choice for mission critical systems unless backup / fail over links are put in place. • Reliability and potential down time issues makes DSL a very risky choice for mission critical systems unless backup / fail over links are put in place. • DSL may not be a good choice for you.
http://www.it.jcu.edu.au/Subjects/cp2240/2006-2/Summaries/Chapter 4-2.doc www.really-fine.com/DSL.htm infodev-study.oplan.org/the.../7.../7-5-digital-subscriber-line/ http://www.iol.unh.edu/services/testing/dsl/training/DSL_Crosstalk_ Simulation_and_Calibration.doc en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Subscriber_Line www.informit.com/library/content.aspx?b=Planet...16
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