You are on page 1of 35

UNIT I - INTRODUCTION

Classification of signals Continuous time and Discrete time

signal, Energy and Power signal, Mathematical of signal.
Classification of systems Continuous time and Discrete time
system, Linear and Non linear system, Causal, Non causal and Anti causal
system, Stable and Unstable system, Static and Dynamic system, Recursive and
Non recursive system, Time variant and Invariant system.
Spectral density, Sampling techniques, Quantization, Quantization
error, Nyquist rate, Aliasing effect, Digital signal representation.

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS:
SIGNALS:
A Signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with respect
to one or more independent variables like time, space, frequency, etc..,
- It carries some information
- Mathematically, a signal can be defined as a function of two or
more independent variables.
- The real time examples of signals are,
ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)
EEG (Electro Encephalo Gram)
Seismic signals
Speech signals
AC power supply signal
Histogram signal
Image
Audio, Video signals.

CLASSIFICATIONS:
1. According to nature of time ie., Independent variable,

2.

3.

4.

5.

Continuous Time [CT] Signal:

(a) Continuous time continuous valued signal
[or] Analog Signal
(b) Continuous time Discrete valued signal [or]
Boxcar Signal
Discrete Time [DT] Signals:
(a) Discrete time continuous valued signal [or]
Digital Signal
(b) Discrete time discrete valued signal [or]
Sampled Data Signal
According to dimensions of independent variables,
(i)
One dimensional signal
(ii)
Two dimensional signal
(iii)
Multi dimensional signal
According to property of independent variable,
(i)
Energy and power signal
(ii)
Odd and Even signal
(iii)
Causal and Non causal signal
(iv)
Periodic and Aperiodic signal
According to source (Where the signals are generated)
(i)
Single channel signal
(ii)
Multi channel signal
Deterministic and Random Signal

CONTINUOUS TIME SIGNALS [CT]:

-The signals that are defined for every instant of time are
known as continuous time [CT] signals.
ie.., CT signals are defined for every value of time and
they take on values in the continuous interval.

Eg.., Speech signal

ECG,EEG signals
AC power supply signals
- It can be denoted as x(t)
DISCRETE TIME SIGNALS [DT]:
-The signals that are defined at discrete instants of time
are known as Discrete Time (DT) signals.
ie.., DT signals are defined only at certain specific values
of time. These time instants are usually taken at equally spaced
interval for computational convenience.
- It can be denoted as x(n)
Eg.., All histogram signals

Analog signal

Fig : Digital signal

ENERGY SIGNALS:
- A signal is said to be an energy signal if and only if the total energy
of the signal is finite.
Ie., Energy E = Finite and Power (P) = Zero

- The formula for finding an energy of a signal x(t) is given by, [ie., CT
signal]

E=

- The formula for finding an energy of a DT signal x(n) is

given by,

E=
Where T,N Fundamental Period

POWER SIGNALS:
- A signal is said to be a power signal if and only if the
average power of the signal is finite.
Eg.,

- The formula for finding the average power of DT signal

x(n) is given by,

P=

is given by,

P=

EVEN SIGNALS:

- A signal

is said to be an even signal if it satisfies the symmetry

property.
- Symmetry property of CT signal x(t) is given by,

X(-t) = [x(t)]
- Symmetry property of DT signal x(n) is given by,

X(-n) = x(n)
- Even signal is also known as SYMMETRY SIGNAL

ODD SIGNALS:
- A signal is said to be an odd signal if it satisfies the asymmetry
property.
- Assymmetric property of CT signal x(t) is given by,

X(-t) = -[x(t)]

X(-t) x(t)
- Assymmetric property of DT signal x(n) is given by,

X(-n) = -[x(n)]

X(-n) x(n)

NOTE:
EVEN COMPONENTS

ODD COMPONENTS

Xe (t) =

X0 (t) =

Xe (n) =

X0 (t) =

-A DT signal x(n) is said to be causal if its value is zero for n<0.

-A DT signal x(n) is said to be non causal if it has values for all time
n.
-A DT signal x(n) is said to be anti causal if its value is zero for n0.

PERIODIC SIGNALS AND APERIODIC SIGNALS:

- A signal is said to be periodic signal if it satisfies the periodicity
property.

PERIODICITY PROPERTY:
(i)
(ii)

For CT signals : x(t) = x(t +T)

For DT signals : x(n) = x(n + N)

- A signal said to be aperiodic or non periodic signal if it does

satisfy the periodicity property.
(i)
(ii)

For CT signals : x(t) = x(t + T)

For DT signals : x(n) = x(n + N)

BASIC ELEMENTARY SIGNALS:

CT signal
1. UNIT STEP SIGNAL:
It can be defined as,

DT signal
UNIT STEP SEQUENCE:
It can be defined as,

U(t) = 1; t 0

U(n) = 1; n o

0;t 0

0;n<0

2.UNIT IMPULSE SIGNAL:

It can be defined as,
S(t) = 1; t=0
0;t0

UNIT IMPULSE SEQUNCE:

It can be defined as,
S(n) =1; n=0
0; n0

not

3.UNIT RAMP SIGNAL:

It can be defined as,
r(t) = t; t 0
0;t < 0

UNIT RAMP SEQUENCE:

It can be defined as,
r(t) =n; n 0
0;n < 0

4.EXPONENTIAL SIGNALS:
- There are two types of exponential signals
(i)
(ii)

Real exponential signal

Complex exponential signal

e(t) = A

e(n) = A

- If a is positive then the exponential signal is called exponential

growing signal
- If a is negative then the exponential signal is known as
exponential decaying signal.
llly,

e(t) = A
e(n) = A

NOTE:
- The standard form sine and cosine signal can be represented as
mathematically,
- For CT signal,
X1(t) = A sin (t + )
X2(t) = A cos (t + )
- For DT signal,
X1(n) = A sin ( n + )
X2(n) = A cos ( n + )
- The standard form of real and complex exponential signal can be
represented as,
X1(n) = A

For DT signal

X2(t) = A

For CT signal

- The fundamental period of CT and DT sinusoidal signal can be

calculated by,
T=

sec for CT

N=

sec for DT

Time taken for the signal to complete its one full cycle is known as
FUNDAMENTAL PERIOD of that signal

1. Find whether the signals are power, energy or neither energy nor
energy signals.
(i)

X(n) = ( )n u(n)

(ii)
(iii)

X(n) =
X(n) =

u(n)

(iv)

X(n) = sin (

(v)
(vi)

X(n) = cos
n u(n)
U(n+2) u(n-2)

(i)

X(n) = ( )n u(n)
Given :
X(n) = ( )n u(n)
TO CHECK :
Energy (E) & Power (P)
SOLUTION:
E=
2

=
2

=
n

=
=

= 9/8

E = 9/8 ; Finite
W.K.T.,
P=
=

2
2

P= 0.
RESULT:
Given x(n) is an energy signal ie., E = 9/8
(finite); P=0.

(ii)

X(n) =
Given :
X(n) =

TO CHECK:
Energy (E) & Power (P)
SOLUTION:
2

E=

=
E=
2

P=
n

=
P = 1.
RESULT:

Given x(n) is a power signal . ie., P=1 ; E =

(iii)

X(n) =
u(n)
Given :
X(n) =
u(n)
TO FIND:
Energy (E) & Power (P)
SOLUTION:
E=
=
E=
+ + +.......+
E=
P=
=
P=0

2
2

RESULT :
Given x(n) is neither energy nor power signal.

(iv)x(n) = sin (
Given :
X(n) = sin (
TO CHECK :
Energy (E) & Power (P)
SOLUTION:
2

E=

=
=

={

E=
2

P=
=

=
P = .

RESULT :
Given signal x(n) is a Power signal.

(v)x(n) = cos
Given:
x(n) = cos
TO FIND:
Energy (E) & Power (P)
SOLUTION:
2

E=

=
=

=
=

E=
2

P=

=
=
=
P = .

RESULT:
The given system x(n) = cos

(vi)x(n) = u(n + 2) u(n-2)

CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS:
SYSTEMS:
- A system is a physical device or an algorithm that operates on
signal according to some well defined rule, to produce another signal as output.
- The systems are classified according to there nature, properties and
characteristics. They are
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)

Continuous Time and Discrete Time systems

Linear and Non linear systems
Causal and Non causal systems
Time variant and Time invariant systems
Static and Dynamic systems
Stable and Unstable systems
Recursive and Non recursive systems
FIR and IIR systems

CONTINUOUS TIME [CT] SYSTEMS:

- A continuous time system is a physical device of an algorithm thet
operates on a continuous time signal according to some well defined rule, to
produce another continuous signal y(t) as output.
- The relationship between x(t) and y(t) is given by,

Y(t) = T[x(t)]

Output signal
Continuous time system

Y(t)

DISCRETE TIME [DT] SYSTEM:

-A discrete time system is a device or an algorithm that
operates on a discrete time input signal x(n) according to some well defined
rule, to produce another discrete time signal y(n) as output signal.
- The relationship between x(n) and y(n) is given by,

Y(n) = T[x(n)]

X(n)

DT system

y(n)

LINEAR AND NON LINEAR SYSTEMS:

- If a system that satisfies the linearity property or superposition
principle then the system is called as linear system superposition principle.
- It states that the response of the system to a weighted sum of
signals should be equal to the corresponding weighted sum of the outputs of the
system to each of the individual input signals.
ie.,

T[a1x1(t) + a2x2(t)] = a1T[x1(t)] + a2T[x2(t)]

T[a1x1(n) + a2x2(n)] = a1T[x1(n)] + a2T[x2(n)]

-A

system that does not satisfy the superposition principle is called Non linear
system.

CAUSAL AND NON CAUSAL SYSTEM:

- A system is said to be causal if the output of the system at any
time depends only at present and past inputs.
- But does not depends on future inputs.
- A system is said to be non causal if the output of the system at
any time depends only on future input.

STATIC AND DYNAMIC SYSTEMS:

- A system is said to be static, if and only if its output at any time
depends on the input at the same time. Ie., Present time
- But not depends on past and future time of the input.
- It is also known as MEMORY LESS SYSTEM.
- A system is said to be dynamic, if its output at any time depends
on present and past inputs. [As well as future].
- It is also known as MEMORY SYSTEM.

TIME VARIANT AND TIME INVARIANT SYSTEMS:

- A system ia said to be TIME INVARIANT, if its characteristics do
not change with respect to time.
-Also known as SHIFT INVARIANT system.
-It can be denoted as,

-A system is said to be TIME VARIANT, if the output

characteristics of the system is varying with respect to time.
-Also known as SHIFT VARIANT system
-It can be represented mathematically,
Y(n,k) y(n-k) = T[x(n-k)]

STABLE AND UNSTABLE SYSTEMS:

-A system is said to be stable system if it satisfies the
BIBO stability condition .
-Otherwise, system is called UNSTABLE.
BIBO stability condition for CT,
dt

<

<

BIBO Bounded Input for Bounded Output

Where, h(t) and h(n) is a impulse response of CT and DT system
respectively.

RECURSIVE AND NON RECURSIVE:

-A system where output at a time depends on present and past
output value is called RECURSIVE system.
-A system where output at a time depends only on present and
past inputs but, does not depend on past output is called NON RECURSIVE
system.
NOTE:
- A system which satisfies both linearity and time invariant
properties called Linear Time Invariant [LTI] system.

1. Check whether the following systems are Linear of non linear.

(i) Y(n) = 2x(n) +
(ii) Y(n) = n x2(n)
(iii) Y(n) = n x(n)
(i)

Y(n) = 2 x(n) +
Given:
Input output characteristics equation : y(n) = 2 x(n) +
......(1)
TO CHECK:
Linearity
SOLUTION:
From eqn : (1)
Y1(n) = 2 x1(n) +

.........(2)

Y2(n) = 2 x2(n) +

.........(3)

y1(n) + y2(n) = 2 x1(n) +
Replace,

+ 2 x2(n) +

X(n) = x1(n) + x2(n) in eqn.....(1)

(1).....y(n) = 2[x1(n) + x2(n)] +
From eqns (4) & (5) we have,
Y(n) y1(n) + y2(n)
RESULT:
The given system Y(n) = 2 x(n) +

(ii)

is a Non linear system.

Y(n) = n x2(n)
Given:
Y(n) = n x2(n)
TO CHECK:
Linearity
SOLUTION:
From eqn ...(1)
Y1(n) = n x12(n)..........(2)
Y2(n) = n x22(n)............(3)
Y1(n) + Y2(n) = n x12(n) + n x22(n)
= n[x12(n) + x22(n)]
Replace x(n) = x1(n) + x2(n) in eqn......(1)
(1)........y(n) = n [x1(n) + x2(n)]2
= n [x12(n) + x22(n) +2 x1(n)x2(n)]
From eqns,....(4) & (5)
Y(n) y1(n) + y2(n).
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = n x2(n) is a NON LINEAR system.

(iii)

Y(n) = n x(n)
Given:
Y(n) = n x(n)
TO CHECK:

Linearity
SOLUTION:
From eqn....(1)
Y1(n) = n x1(n)......(2)
Y2(n) = n x2(n).......(3)
Y1(n) + Y2(n) = n x1(n) + n x2(n)
= n [x1(n) + x2(n)]
Replace

(1)..............y(n) = n[x1(n) + x2(n)]

From eqn (4) & (5)
Y(n) = y1(n) + y2(n)
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = n x(n) is a LINEAR system.

2.Check whether the following systems are static or dynamic.

(i) y(n) = x (2n)
(ii)y(n) = x(n) x(n-1)
(iii)y(n) = x2(n) + x(n)

(i)

Y(n) = x(2n)
Given:
Y(n) = x(2n)......(1)
TO CHECK:
Static or dynamic

SOLUTION:
Put, n= -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 in eqn.....(1)
(1)......y(-3) = x(-6)
y(-2) = x(-4)
Past inputs
y(-1) = x(-2)
y(0) = x(0)
Present input
y(1) = x(2)
y(2) = x(4)
Future inputs
y(3) = x(6)
- The output y of a system at any time depends on present,past
as well as future samples of input.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = x (2n) is a DYNAMIC or MEMORY
system.

(ii)

Y(n) = x(n) x(n-1)

Given:
Y(n) = x(n) x(n-1)
TO CHECK:
STATIC or DYNAMIC
SOLUTIN:
Put n = -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3
(1)...........
y(-3) = x(-3) x(-4)
y(-2) = x(-2) x(-3)
y(-1) = x(-1) x(-2)
y(0) = x(0) x(-1)
y(1) = x(1) x(0)
y(2) = x(2) x(1)
y(3) = x(3) x(2)

in eqn......(1)

Present & Past inputs

Present input
Present & Past inputs

The output of a system at any time depends on

present and past samples of input.

RESULT:
The given system y(n) = x(n) x(n-1) is a DYNAMIC
system
(iii)

Y(n) = x2(n) + x(n) = [x(n)]2 + x(n)

Given:
Y(n) = [x(n)]2 + x(n)
TO CHECK:
Dynamic or Static
SOLUTION:
Put n= -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 in eqn (1)
(1).........y(-3) = x2(-3) + x(-3)
y(-2) = x2(-2) + x(-2)
y(-1) = x2(-1) + x(-1)
y(0) = x2(0) + x(0)
y(1) = x2(1) + x(1)
y(2) = x2(2) + x(2)
y(3) = x2(3) + x(3)

Present input

The output of a system at any time depends only on present

time.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = x2(n) + x(n) is a STATIC system.

3. Check whether the following systems are causal or non causal

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

(i)

Y(n) = A x(n) + B
Y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1)
Y(n) = x(n2)

Y(n) = A x(n) + B
Given:

Y(n) = A x(n) + B
TO CHECK:
Causality
SOLUTION:
Put n= -2,-1,0,1,2 in eqn (1)
(1).........y(-2) = A x(-2) + B
y(-1) = A x(-1) + B
y(0) = A x(0) + B
y(1) = A x(1) + B
y(2) = A x(2) + B

Present inputs

The output of a system at any time depends on present

samples of input alone.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = A x(n) + B is a CAUSAL
system.

(ii)

Y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1)

Given:
Y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1)
TO CHECK:
Causality
SOLUTION:
Put n = -2,-1,0,1,2 in eqn (1)
(1)..........y(-2) = a x(-2) b x(-3)
y(-1) = a x(-) b x(-2)
y(0) = a x(0) b x(-1)
y(1) = a x(1) b x(0)
y(2) = a x(2) b x(1)

The output of system at any time depends on present and past

sample of inputs.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1) is CAUSAL system

Y(n) = x(n2)

(iii)

Given:
Y(n) = x(n2)
TO CHECK:
Causality
SOLUTION:
Put n= -2,-1,0,1,2,3 in eqn (1)
(1) ............ y(-2) = x[(-2)2)] = x(4)
y(-1) = x[(-1)2)] = x(1)
Future inputs
y(0) = x(0)
Present input
2
y(1) = x[(1) )] = x(1)
y(2) = x[(2)2)] = x(4)
Future inputs

The output of a system at any time depends on future

sample of inputs as well as present input.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = x(n2) is a NON CAUSAL
system.

4.C heck whether the following systems are time variant or not
(i) y(n) = n x(n)
(ii)y(n) = x(n2)
(iii)y(n) = x(-n)

(i)

Y(n) = n x(n)
Given:
Y(n) = n x(n)
TO CHECK:
Time variant or not
SOLUTION:
To introduce delay on input alone in eqn (1) ie..,Replace n
by (n-n0) on input alone
(1) ......y(n) = n x(n-n0)
Replace n by (n-n0) in eqn (1)
Y(n-n0) = (n-n0) x(n-n0)......(3)
From eqns (2) & (3)
Y(n) y(n-n0) ie., The output of a system varying w.r.to
time.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = n x(n) is a time variant system.

(ii)

Y(n) = x(n2)
Given:
Y(n) = x(n2)
TO CHECK:
Time variant or not
SOLUTION:
Replace n by (n-n0) on input in eqn.....(1)
(1).....y(n) = x[(n-n0)2]......(2)
Replace n by (n-n0) in eqn (1)
(1)........y(n-n0) = x [(n-n0)2].........(3)
From eqn (2) & (3)

Y(n) = y(n-n0) ie., The output of a system does not vary

w.r.to time.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = x(n2) is a time invariant system.

(iii)

Y(n) = x(-n)
Given:
Y(n) = x(-n)
TO CHECK:
Time variant or not
SOLUTION:
If the input is delayed by n0sec,
(1)...y(n) = x[-n-n0] ...... (2)
Replace n by (n-n0) in eqn (1)
(1).......y(n-n0) = x[-(n-n0)] = x[-n+n0].....(3)
From eqns (2) &(3),
Y(n) y(n-n0) ie., The output of a system varying w.r.to time.
RESULT:
The given system y(n) = x(-n) is a time variant system.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:
-The sampling is the process of conversion of a
continuous time signal into a discrete time signal
-It is performed by taking samples of CT signal at definite
intervals of time.
-The time interval between two successive samples is
called SAMPLING TIME [or] SAMPLING PERIOD and it is
denoted by T sec
-The inverse of sampling period is called SAMPLING
FREQUENCY and it is denoted by Fs HZ.

-Let xa(t) is an analog (or) continuous time signal and

x(n) is discrete time signal obtained by sampling xa(t).
Ie.,

x(n) = xa(t)
X(n) = xa(nT)
X(n) = xa( )
If xa(t) = A cos [
Where, 0 = 2
X(n) = A cos [2
nT + ]
X(n) = A cos [2

)n + ]

X(n) = A cos [2 F0n + ]

Ie., x(n) = A cos [ 0 n + ]

ALIASING EFFECT and NYQUIST RATE:

-SAMPLING THEROM states that the band limited CT
signal with highest frequency (BW) fm hz. Can be uniquely recovered
from its samples provided that the sampling rate Fs is greater than or
equal to twice the maximum input frequency (fm hz)

Fs

2 Fm

HZ

-The phenomenon of high frequency component

overlapping with low frequency component during sampling is called
ALIASING EFFECT.
-When sampling frequency Fs is called to 2Fm.The
sampling rate is called NYQUIST RATE.

Fs

2 Fm

HZ

To avoid ALIASING EFFECT, the sampling frequency should be

greater than 2Fm...ie., Fs > 2Fm.

1. Consider the analog signal xa(t) = 3 cos 100 t.

(a) Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing
(b) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs = 200 Hz.What is
the DT signal obtained after sampling?
Given :
Xa(t) = 3 cos 100
TO FIND :
(a) Fs to avoid aliasing
(b) X(n) when Fs = 200 Hz

SOLUTION:
W.K.T,

The standared form of sinusoidal signal is given by,

Xa(t) = A cos 2
Fro eqn...(1) & (2)
Fm = 50 Hz.
Sampling rate Fs 2 Fm

Fs 2 * 50
Fs 100 Hz
The minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing is Fs = 100 Hz.
(c) X(n) = 3 cos 100
X(n) = xa(t) =3 cos 100 [n/Fs]
= 3 cos 100 [n/200]
X(n) = 3 cos (

2.Consider the analog xa(t) = 3 cos 2000t + 5 sin 6000t + 10 cos

12,000 t.
(a)What is the nyquist rate for this signal?
Assume now that we sample this signal using a sampling rate Fs =
5000 samples/sec.What is the DT signal obtained after sampling?
Given:
xa(t) = 3 cos 2000t + 5 sin 6000t + 10 cos 12,000 t.
xa(t) = 3 cos 2000(2 * 1000 * )t + 5 sin 6000(2 * 3000 * )t + 10
cos 12,000 (2 * 6000 * )t...........(1)
TO CHECK:
(a) Nyquist rate Fw =?
(b) X(n) when Fs = 5000 Hz.
SOLUTION:
(a)W.K.T The standard form of sinusoidal signal is given by,

xa(t) = A1 cos [2Fmt ]+ A2 sin [2Fmt] + A3 cos [2

Fm]t..........(2)
From eqns (1) & (2) , We have
Fm = 1000 Hz,
Fm = 3000 Hz,
Fm = 6000 Hz.
The maximum input frequency is Fmax = 6KHZ
Nyquist rate Fn > 2 Fm (or) Fn = 2 Fm
Fn = 2* 6 KHZ

(b)X(n) = xa(t)
= 3 cos 2000 (n/5000) + 5 sin 6000

+ 10 cos

12,000 (n/5000)
Ie., x(n) = 3 cos (2 /5) n + 5 sin (6

/5) n

RESULT:
(a)Nyquist rate Fn = 12 KHZ
(b)x(n) = 3 cos (2 /5)n + 5 sin (6 /5) n+ 10 cos (12 /5)n

QUANTIZATION AND QUANTIZATION ERROR:

-The process of converting a DT continuous amplitude
signal ie., Sampled data sequence into a digital signal by expressing
each sample value as a finite number of digits is called QUATIZATION

-The error introduced in representing the continuous valued signal

by a finite set of discrete value is called QUANTIZATION ERROR [or]
NOICE.
-Let x(n) be the output of sampler, which is the input of quantizer
and xq(n) be the output of quantizer
Ie., xq(n) = Q [x(n)]
-The quantization error is a sequence eq(n) defined as the difference
between the quantized value and the actual sample value,
ie.,eq(n) = xq(n) x(n)

DIGITAL SIGNAL REPRESENTATION:

-The discrete time signal can be represented by the following
methods,
1.Functional representation:
In functional representation the signal is represented as a
mathematical equation.
X(n) = u(n) = 1 : n 0
0;n<0
2.Graphical Representation:
In graphical representation, the signal is represented in twodimensional plane.
The independent variable is represented in horizontal axis.ie.,
x axis
The dependent variable (ie., value of the signal) is represented
in vertical axis. ie., y axis.

3.Tabular Representation:
-In tabular representation, two rows of a table are used to
represent a DT signal.

n
X(n) =
u(n)

.............. -2
............... 0

-1
0

0
1

1
1

2
1

.........
.........

4.Sequence Representation:
In sequence representation, the DT signal is represented as a
one-dimensional arrey.
X(n) = u(n) = {...,0,0,1,1,1,1,.....}

SPECTRAL DENSITY: