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signal, Energy and Power signal, Mathematical of signal.

Classification of systems Continuous time and Discrete time

system, Linear and Non linear system, Causal, Non causal and Anti causal

system, Stable and Unstable system, Static and Dynamic system, Recursive and

Non recursive system, Time variant and Invariant system.

Spectral density, Sampling techniques, Quantization, Quantization

error, Nyquist rate, Aliasing effect, Digital signal representation.

CLASSIFICATION OF SIGNALS:

SIGNALS:

A Signal is defined as any physical quantity that varies with respect

to one or more independent variables like time, space, frequency, etc..,

- It carries some information

- Mathematically, a signal can be defined as a function of two or

more independent variables.

- The real time examples of signals are,

ECG (Electro Cardio Gram)

EEG (Electro Encephalo Gram)

Seismic signals

Speech signals

AC power supply signal

Histogram signal

Image

Audio, Video signals.

CLASSIFICATIONS:

1. According to nature of time ie., Independent variable,

2.

3.

4.

5.

(a) Continuous time continuous valued signal

[or] Analog Signal

(b) Continuous time Discrete valued signal [or]

Boxcar Signal

Discrete Time [DT] Signals:

(a) Discrete time continuous valued signal [or]

Digital Signal

(b) Discrete time discrete valued signal [or]

Sampled Data Signal

According to dimensions of independent variables,

(i)

One dimensional signal

(ii)

Two dimensional signal

(iii)

Multi dimensional signal

According to property of independent variable,

(i)

Energy and power signal

(ii)

Odd and Even signal

(iii)

Causal and Non causal signal

(iv)

Periodic and Aperiodic signal

According to source (Where the signals are generated)

(i)

Single channel signal

(ii)

Multi channel signal

Deterministic and Random Signal

-The signals that are defined for every instant of time are

known as continuous time [CT] signals.

ie.., CT signals are defined for every value of time and

they take on values in the continuous interval.

ECG,EEG signals

AC power supply signals

- It can be denoted as x(t)

DISCRETE TIME SIGNALS [DT]:

-The signals that are defined at discrete instants of time

are known as Discrete Time (DT) signals.

ie.., DT signals are defined only at certain specific values

of time. These time instants are usually taken at equally spaced

interval for computational convenience.

- It can be denoted as x(n)

Eg.., All histogram signals

Analog signal

ENERGY SIGNALS:

- A signal is said to be an energy signal if and only if the total energy

of the signal is finite.

Ie., Energy E = Finite and Power (P) = Zero

- The formula for finding an energy of a signal x(t) is given by, [ie., CT

signal]

E=

given by,

E=

Where T,N Fundamental Period

POWER SIGNALS:

- A signal is said to be a power signal if and only if the

average power of the signal is finite.

Eg.,

x(n) is given by,

P=

is given by,

P=

EVEN SIGNALS:

- A signal

property.

- Symmetry property of CT signal x(t) is given by,

X(-t) = [x(t)]

- Symmetry property of DT signal x(n) is given by,

X(-n) = x(n)

- Even signal is also known as SYMMETRY SIGNAL

ODD SIGNALS:

- A signal is said to be an odd signal if it satisfies the asymmetry

property.

- Assymmetric property of CT signal x(t) is given by,

X(-t) = -[x(t)]

X(-t) x(t)

- Assymmetric property of DT signal x(n) is given by,

X(-n) = -[x(n)]

X(-n) x(n)

NOTE:

EVEN COMPONENTS

ODD COMPONENTS

Xe (t) =

X0 (t) =

Xe (n) =

X0 (t) =

-A DT signal x(n) is said to be non causal if it has values for all time

n.

-A DT signal x(n) is said to be anti causal if its value is zero for n0.

- A signal is said to be periodic signal if it satisfies the periodicity

property.

PERIODICITY PROPERTY:

(i)

(ii)

For DT signals : x(n) = x(n + N)

satisfy the periodicity property.

(i)

(ii)

For DT signals : x(n) = x(n + N)

CT signal

1. UNIT STEP SIGNAL:

It can be defined as,

DT signal

UNIT STEP SEQUENCE:

It can be defined as,

U(t) = 1; t 0

U(n) = 1; n o

0;t 0

0;n<0

It can be defined as,

S(t) = 1; t=0

0;t0

It can be defined as,

S(n) =1; n=0

0; n0

not

It can be defined as,

r(t) = t; t 0

0;t < 0

It can be defined as,

r(t) =n; n 0

0;n < 0

4.EXPONENTIAL SIGNALS:

- There are two types of exponential signals

(i)

(ii)

Complex exponential signal

e(t) = A

e(n) = A

growing signal

- If a is negative then the exponential signal is known as

exponential decaying signal.

llly,

e(t) = A

e(n) = A

NOTE:

- The standard form sine and cosine signal can be represented as

mathematically,

- For CT signal,

X1(t) = A sin (t + )

X2(t) = A cos (t + )

- For DT signal,

X1(n) = A sin ( n + )

X2(n) = A cos ( n + )

- The standard form of real and complex exponential signal can be

represented as,

X1(n) = A

For DT signal

X2(t) = A

For CT signal

calculated by,

T=

sec for CT

N=

sec for DT

Time taken for the signal to complete its one full cycle is known as

FUNDAMENTAL PERIOD of that signal

1. Find whether the signals are power, energy or neither energy nor

energy signals.

(i)

X(n) = ( )n u(n)

(ii)

(iii)

X(n) =

X(n) =

u(n)

(iv)

X(n) = sin (

(v)

(vi)

X(n) = cos

n u(n)

U(n+2) u(n-2)

(i)

X(n) = ( )n u(n)

Given :

X(n) = ( )n u(n)

TO CHECK :

Energy (E) & Power (P)

SOLUTION:

E=

2

=

2

=

n

=

=

= 9/8

E = 9/8 ; Finite

W.K.T.,

P=

=

2

2

P= 0.

RESULT:

Given x(n) is an energy signal ie., E = 9/8

(finite); P=0.

(ii)

X(n) =

Given :

X(n) =

TO CHECK:

Energy (E) & Power (P)

SOLUTION:

2

E=

=

E=

2

P=

n

=

P = 1.

RESULT:

(iii)

X(n) =

u(n)

Given :

X(n) =

u(n)

TO FIND:

Energy (E) & Power (P)

SOLUTION:

E=

=

E=

+ + +.......+

E=

P=

=

P=0

2

2

RESULT :

Given x(n) is neither energy nor power signal.

(iv)x(n) = sin (

Given :

X(n) = sin (

TO CHECK :

Energy (E) & Power (P)

SOLUTION:

2

E=

=

=

={

E=

2

P=

=

=

P = .

RESULT :

Given signal x(n) is a Power signal.

(v)x(n) = cos

Given:

x(n) = cos

TO FIND:

Energy (E) & Power (P)

SOLUTION:

2

E=

=

=

=

=

E=

2

P=

=

=

=

P = .

RESULT:

The given system x(n) = cos

CLASSIFICATION OF SYSTEMS:

SYSTEMS:

- A system is a physical device or an algorithm that operates on

signal according to some well defined rule, to produce another signal as output.

- The systems are classified according to there nature, properties and

characteristics. They are

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

Linear and Non linear systems

Causal and Non causal systems

Time variant and Time invariant systems

Static and Dynamic systems

Stable and Unstable systems

Recursive and Non recursive systems

FIR and IIR systems

- A continuous time system is a physical device of an algorithm thet

operates on a continuous time signal according to some well defined rule, to

produce another continuous signal y(t) as output.

- The relationship between x(t) and y(t) is given by,

Y(t) = T[x(t)]

Output signal

Continuous time system

Y(t)

-A discrete time system is a device or an algorithm that

operates on a discrete time input signal x(n) according to some well defined

rule, to produce another discrete time signal y(n) as output signal.

- The relationship between x(n) and y(n) is given by,

Y(n) = T[x(n)]

X(n)

DT system

y(n)

- If a system that satisfies the linearity property or superposition

principle then the system is called as linear system superposition principle.

- It states that the response of the system to a weighted sum of

signals should be equal to the corresponding weighted sum of the outputs of the

system to each of the individual input signals.

ie.,

T[a1x1(n) + a2x2(n)] = a1T[x1(n)] + a2T[x2(n)]

-A

system that does not satisfy the superposition principle is called Non linear

system.

- A system is said to be causal if the output of the system at any

time depends only at present and past inputs.

- But does not depends on future inputs.

- A system is said to be non causal if the output of the system at

any time depends only on future input.

- A system is said to be static, if and only if its output at any time

depends on the input at the same time. Ie., Present time

- But not depends on past and future time of the input.

- It is also known as MEMORY LESS SYSTEM.

- A system is said to be dynamic, if its output at any time depends

on present and past inputs. [As well as future].

- It is also known as MEMORY SYSTEM.

- A system ia said to be TIME INVARIANT, if its characteristics do

not change with respect to time.

-Also known as SHIFT INVARIANT system.

-It can be denoted as,

characteristics of the system is varying with respect to time.

-Also known as SHIFT VARIANT system

-It can be represented mathematically,

Y(n,k) y(n-k) = T[x(n-k)]

-A system is said to be stable system if it satisfies the

BIBO stability condition .

-Otherwise, system is called UNSTABLE.

BIBO stability condition for CT,

dt

<

<

Where, h(t) and h(n) is a impulse response of CT and DT system

respectively.

-A system where output at a time depends on present and past

output value is called RECURSIVE system.

-A system where output at a time depends only on present and

past inputs but, does not depend on past output is called NON RECURSIVE

system.

NOTE:

- A system which satisfies both linearity and time invariant

properties called Linear Time Invariant [LTI] system.

(i) Y(n) = 2x(n) +

(ii) Y(n) = n x2(n)

(iii) Y(n) = n x(n)

(i)

Y(n) = 2 x(n) +

Given:

Input output characteristics equation : y(n) = 2 x(n) +

......(1)

TO CHECK:

Linearity

SOLUTION:

From eqn : (1)

Y1(n) = 2 x1(n) +

.........(2)

Y2(n) = 2 x2(n) +

.........(3)

y1(n) + y2(n) = 2 x1(n) +

Replace,

+ 2 x2(n) +

(1).....y(n) = 2[x1(n) + x2(n)] +

From eqns (4) & (5) we have,

Y(n) y1(n) + y2(n)

RESULT:

The given system Y(n) = 2 x(n) +

(ii)

Y(n) = n x2(n)

Given:

Y(n) = n x2(n)

TO CHECK:

Linearity

SOLUTION:

From eqn ...(1)

Y1(n) = n x12(n)..........(2)

Y2(n) = n x22(n)............(3)

Adding eqns (2) & (3)

Y1(n) + Y2(n) = n x12(n) + n x22(n)

= n[x12(n) + x22(n)]

Replace x(n) = x1(n) + x2(n) in eqn......(1)

(1)........y(n) = n [x1(n) + x2(n)]2

= n [x12(n) + x22(n) +2 x1(n)x2(n)]

From eqns,....(4) & (5)

Y(n) y1(n) + y2(n).

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = n x2(n) is a NON LINEAR system.

(iii)

Y(n) = n x(n)

Given:

Y(n) = n x(n)

TO CHECK:

Linearity

SOLUTION:

From eqn....(1)

Y1(n) = n x1(n)......(2)

Y2(n) = n x2(n).......(3)

Adding eqns (2) & (3)

Y1(n) + Y2(n) = n x1(n) + n x2(n)

= n [x1(n) + x2(n)]

Replace

From eqn (4) & (5)

Y(n) = y1(n) + y2(n)

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = n x(n) is a LINEAR system.

(i) y(n) = x (2n)

(ii)y(n) = x(n) x(n-1)

(iii)y(n) = x2(n) + x(n)

(i)

Y(n) = x(2n)

Given:

Y(n) = x(2n)......(1)

TO CHECK:

Static or dynamic

SOLUTION:

Put, n= -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 in eqn.....(1)

(1)......y(-3) = x(-6)

y(-2) = x(-4)

Past inputs

y(-1) = x(-2)

y(0) = x(0)

Present input

y(1) = x(2)

y(2) = x(4)

Future inputs

y(3) = x(6)

- The output y of a system at any time depends on present,past

as well as future samples of input.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = x (2n) is a DYNAMIC or MEMORY

system.

(ii)

Given:

Y(n) = x(n) x(n-1)

TO CHECK:

STATIC or DYNAMIC

SOLUTIN:

Put n = -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3

(1)...........

y(-3) = x(-3) x(-4)

y(-2) = x(-2) x(-3)

y(-1) = x(-1) x(-2)

y(0) = x(0) x(-1)

y(1) = x(1) x(0)

y(2) = x(2) x(1)

y(3) = x(3) x(2)

in eqn......(1)

Present input

Present & Past inputs

present and past samples of input.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = x(n) x(n-1) is a DYNAMIC

system

(iii)

Given:

Y(n) = [x(n)]2 + x(n)

TO CHECK:

Dynamic or Static

SOLUTION:

Put n= -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3 in eqn (1)

(1).........y(-3) = x2(-3) + x(-3)

y(-2) = x2(-2) + x(-2)

y(-1) = x2(-1) + x(-1)

y(0) = x2(0) + x(0)

y(1) = x2(1) + x(1)

y(2) = x2(2) + x(2)

y(3) = x2(3) + x(3)

Present input

time.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = x2(n) + x(n) is a STATIC system.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(i)

Y(n) = A x(n) + B

Y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1)

Y(n) = x(n2)

Y(n) = A x(n) + B

Given:

Y(n) = A x(n) + B

TO CHECK:

Causality

SOLUTION:

Put n= -2,-1,0,1,2 in eqn (1)

(1).........y(-2) = A x(-2) + B

y(-1) = A x(-1) + B

y(0) = A x(0) + B

y(1) = A x(1) + B

y(2) = A x(2) + B

Present inputs

samples of input alone.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = A x(n) + B is a CAUSAL

system.

(ii)

Given:

Y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1)

TO CHECK:

Causality

SOLUTION:

Put n = -2,-1,0,1,2 in eqn (1)

(1)..........y(-2) = a x(-2) b x(-3)

y(-1) = a x(-) b x(-2)

y(0) = a x(0) b x(-1)

y(1) = a x(1) b x(0)

y(2) = a x(2) b x(1)

sample of inputs.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = a x(n) + b x(n-1) is CAUSAL system

Y(n) = x(n2)

(iii)

Given:

Y(n) = x(n2)

TO CHECK:

Causality

SOLUTION:

Put n= -2,-1,0,1,2,3 in eqn (1)

(1) ............ y(-2) = x[(-2)2)] = x(4)

y(-1) = x[(-1)2)] = x(1)

Future inputs

y(0) = x(0)

Present input

2

y(1) = x[(1) )] = x(1)

y(2) = x[(2)2)] = x(4)

Future inputs

sample of inputs as well as present input.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = x(n2) is a NON CAUSAL

system.

4.C heck whether the following systems are time variant or not

(i) y(n) = n x(n)

(ii)y(n) = x(n2)

(iii)y(n) = x(-n)

(i)

Y(n) = n x(n)

Given:

Y(n) = n x(n)

TO CHECK:

Time variant or not

SOLUTION:

To introduce delay on input alone in eqn (1) ie..,Replace n

by (n-n0) on input alone

(1) ......y(n) = n x(n-n0)

Replace n by (n-n0) in eqn (1)

Y(n-n0) = (n-n0) x(n-n0)......(3)

From eqns (2) & (3)

Y(n) y(n-n0) ie., The output of a system varying w.r.to

time.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = n x(n) is a time variant system.

(ii)

Y(n) = x(n2)

Given:

Y(n) = x(n2)

TO CHECK:

Time variant or not

SOLUTION:

Replace n by (n-n0) on input in eqn.....(1)

(1).....y(n) = x[(n-n0)2]......(2)

Replace n by (n-n0) in eqn (1)

(1)........y(n-n0) = x [(n-n0)2].........(3)

From eqn (2) & (3)

w.r.to time.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = x(n2) is a time invariant system.

(iii)

Y(n) = x(-n)

Given:

Y(n) = x(-n)

TO CHECK:

Time variant or not

SOLUTION:

If the input is delayed by n0sec,

(1)...y(n) = x[-n-n0] ...... (2)

Replace n by (n-n0) in eqn (1)

(1).......y(n-n0) = x[-(n-n0)] = x[-n+n0].....(3)

From eqns (2) &(3),

Y(n) y(n-n0) ie., The output of a system varying w.r.to time.

RESULT:

The given system y(n) = x(-n) is a time variant system.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUES:

-The sampling is the process of conversion of a

continuous time signal into a discrete time signal

-It is performed by taking samples of CT signal at definite

intervals of time.

-The time interval between two successive samples is

called SAMPLING TIME [or] SAMPLING PERIOD and it is

denoted by T sec

-The inverse of sampling period is called SAMPLING

FREQUENCY and it is denoted by Fs HZ.

x(n) is discrete time signal obtained by sampling xa(t).

Ie.,

x(n) = xa(t)

X(n) = xa(nT)

X(n) = xa( )

If xa(t) = A cos [

Where, 0 = 2

X(n) = A cos [2

nT + ]

X(n) = A cos [2

)n + ]

Ie., x(n) = A cos [ 0 n + ]

-SAMPLING THEROM states that the band limited CT

signal with highest frequency (BW) fm hz. Can be uniquely recovered

from its samples provided that the sampling rate Fs is greater than or

equal to twice the maximum input frequency (fm hz)

Fs

2 Fm

HZ

overlapping with low frequency component during sampling is called

ALIASING EFFECT.

-When sampling frequency Fs is called to 2Fm.The

sampling rate is called NYQUIST RATE.

Fs

2 Fm

HZ

greater than 2Fm...ie., Fs > 2Fm.

(a) Determine the minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing

(b) Suppose that the signal is sampled at the rate Fs = 200 Hz.What is

the DT signal obtained after sampling?

Given :

Xa(t) = 3 cos 100

TO FIND :

(a) Fs to avoid aliasing

(b) X(n) when Fs = 200 Hz

SOLUTION:

W.K.T,

Xa(t) = A cos 2

Fro eqn...(1) & (2)

Fm = 50 Hz.

Sampling rate Fs 2 Fm

Fs 2 * 50

Fs 100 Hz

The minimum sampling rate required to avoid aliasing is Fs = 100 Hz.

(c) X(n) = 3 cos 100

X(n) = xa(t) =3 cos 100 [n/Fs]

= 3 cos 100 [n/200]

X(n) = 3 cos (

12,000 t.

(a)What is the nyquist rate for this signal?

Assume now that we sample this signal using a sampling rate Fs =

5000 samples/sec.What is the DT signal obtained after sampling?

Given:

xa(t) = 3 cos 2000t + 5 sin 6000t + 10 cos 12,000 t.

xa(t) = 3 cos 2000(2 * 1000 * )t + 5 sin 6000(2 * 3000 * )t + 10

cos 12,000 (2 * 6000 * )t...........(1)

TO CHECK:

(a) Nyquist rate Fw =?

(b) X(n) when Fs = 5000 Hz.

SOLUTION:

(a)W.K.T The standard form of sinusoidal signal is given by,

Fm]t..........(2)

From eqns (1) & (2) , We have

Fm = 1000 Hz,

Fm = 3000 Hz,

Fm = 6000 Hz.

The maximum input frequency is Fmax = 6KHZ

Nyquist rate Fn > 2 Fm (or) Fn = 2 Fm

Fn = 2* 6 KHZ

(b)X(n) = xa(t)

= 3 cos 2000 (n/5000) + 5 sin 6000

+ 10 cos

12,000 (n/5000)

Ie., x(n) = 3 cos (2 /5) n + 5 sin (6

/5) n

RESULT:

(a)Nyquist rate Fn = 12 KHZ

(b)x(n) = 3 cos (2 /5)n + 5 sin (6 /5) n+ 10 cos (12 /5)n

-The process of converting a DT continuous amplitude

signal ie., Sampled data sequence into a digital signal by expressing

each sample value as a finite number of digits is called QUATIZATION

by a finite set of discrete value is called QUANTIZATION ERROR [or]

NOICE.

-Let x(n) be the output of sampler, which is the input of quantizer

and xq(n) be the output of quantizer

Ie., xq(n) = Q [x(n)]

-The quantization error is a sequence eq(n) defined as the difference

between the quantized value and the actual sample value,

ie.,eq(n) = xq(n) x(n)

-The discrete time signal can be represented by the following

methods,

1.Functional representation:

In functional representation the signal is represented as a

mathematical equation.

X(n) = u(n) = 1 : n 0

0;n<0

2.Graphical Representation:

In graphical representation, the signal is represented in twodimensional plane.

The independent variable is represented in horizontal axis.ie.,

x axis

The dependent variable (ie., value of the signal) is represented

in vertical axis. ie., y axis.

3.Tabular Representation:

-In tabular representation, two rows of a table are used to

represent a DT signal.

n

X(n) =

u(n)

.............. -2

............... 0

-1

0

0

1

1

1

2

1

.........

.........

4.Sequence Representation:

In sequence representation, the DT signal is represented as a

one-dimensional arrey.

X(n) = u(n) = {...,0,0,1,1,1,1,.....}

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