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HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE

LECTURE 4

Greek Architecture

Abhishek K. Venkitaraman

Assistant Professor

Map of Ancient Greece

Athens

Miletus

Crete

Between 1200-800 B.C, there was much warfare affecting Crete and Greece. • Up to and before 6th Century B.C., there is not much evidence of planned towns in Greece. • From 6th century B.C till 4th century B.C i.e. Alexander’s period, a number of cities were founded and developed on systematic lines and advanced the cause of civic structure. • Earlier, king was the dominating figure but later power gradually shifted to the wealthy land owning nobles who became the ruling class.

GREEK PERIOD: Chronological Development

The ruling class was were dependent on the support of the farmers and the merchants; Importance of palace reduced and there was emergence of the middle class; During 5th century, democracy took root in city states a new form of political organization of the community developed.

Government, By law, determined by people.

Discovery of freedom through democracy brought impetus to search the truth-leading to- development of philosophy, science, mathematics, logic and law. Freedom and spiritual values were symbolized in temples;

Freedom of speech led to Houses of People or council chambers; The community needs led to Assembly Houses, OATs and the Agora or the market place; Geographical situation of Greece with sea on there sides encourages trade and transportation by sea; The climate varied between rigorous cold and relaxing heat .

The hot sun and sudden showers were causes for buildings with colonnaded porticos. • Greece has ample supply of good building stones. • Their religion was based on worship of natural phenomena.

THE TOWN PLANNING

The ancient Greek towns were divided into three parts:

  • Places for Gods

  • Administration

  • Dwelling Houses

The Town had to justify the requirements of :

  • Hygiene

  • Defense

  • Circulation

Three Classes of people

  • Craftsmen

  • Soldiers

  • Workers

The heart of the city: Or the central place was to occupy 5 % of the city area and comprise of the temple, the assembly hall , the council chambers, council hall, the Agora and the Agora square.

All major roads were to meet the Agora Square.

Streets were paved and there were underground drains beneath the streets.

Maintained reservoirs, but no water distribution system. Orientation with respect to the climate, Principal rooms faced the south and opened on private courtyard.

Determinants for Ancient Greek city development

Regional topography Climate Construction Material

Acropolis

Greek City States

Greeks had a clearly defined territorial organization. Cities emerged as separate city states, instead of a single unified nation.

The disperse nature of fertile area was only available in form of isolated valley, plains and plateau. These conditions favored an arrangement of :

  • 1. Urban nucleus.

  • 2. Surrounded by country side

  • 3. Surrounded by subordinated agricultural village community.

Regional Topography

City State” and “Polis”- “Urban” and “Rural” • Polis is more than a city state/ urban / the nucleus • City state is the Greek City ( the Urban Nucleus) with its clearly defined limits, compact urban form and superficially at least- integrated social life. • Town and country were closely knit- except in those remote parts of Arcadia and Western Greece • Greek city states were founded upon agriculture and remained independent on it. • During warfare notably against Persia city states joined together to face the common enemy.

Climate

Greece through out the year it was generally both agreeable and reliable- Greece is one of those countries which have a climate and not merely weather; • This attractive situation encouraged an open air, communally oriented attitude to life, which assisted the development of Greek democracy.

But in direct contrast, however , the domestic Greek world was that of privacy within the ubiquitous courtyard house;

Meeting took place in open air, new indoor meeting places such as assembly hall ( ecclesiasteron), council hall (bouleuterion) were designed with an advent of advanced construction Technique;

• Large scale open air theatrical ceremonies were also performed initially at the foot of conveniently sloping natural auditoria.

Construction Material

The ancient Greek architectural characters has a great impact because of readily availability of high quality marble.

• Worked on a fine details, marble was the medium by which Greek architecture attained standards of perfection seldom reached in later history.

• The importance of civic buildings were conceived as three dimensional, free standing sculptural objects.

• Unlike the civic buildings minimal effort and concern for domestic comfort.

• Direct contrast to civic buildings houses were rudimentary and either grouped by chance or rigidly organized along basic grid line.

Emergence of Greek Civilization

Aegean period till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period 1400 to 1100 B.C. Hellenic Period 800 to 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 B.C.

Aegean period – till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period – 1400 to 1100 B.C. Hellenic Period –

Early Greek Civilization

Contributions in City Planning

Colonizing movement

Use of Grid-iron layout.

Urban form components.

Evolution of:

Acropolis: Religious Centre Agora: The city center, the multi-purpose everyday heart. Clear distinction between Developed city districts and organic growth.

Colonizing Movement

This process involved the Greeks in the creation of new city states. They imposed a limit on population. Each colony was an independent city state which was well organized socially and economically.

Greek urban form component The Acropolis The enclosing city wall The Agora Residential districts One or more leisure and cultural area A religious precinct The harbors and ports Industrial district

Urban form component

Priene: Port and Industrial District Miletus: Acropolis were sometimes situated outside the city limits. City walls were more demanded.

There was a policy of limiting population by founding new cities. The agora, shrines, the theatres, gymnasia are occupied site determined by traditional sanctity and houses filled the rest of the space.

Urban form component Priene: Port and Industrial District Miletus: Acropolis were sometimes situated outside the city

Athens

The Organic Growth

Athens was never planned as a whole; • Destroyed and reconstructed again over the old city; • Two main groups of civic building 1) Acropolis, 2)Agora;

• It is considered as the best natural fortress of the ancient world; • It rises some 300 feet above the general level of the plain, irregularly shaped roughly 350 yards by 140 yards and the long dimension oriented east-west;

The Athenian Acropolis started as Neolithic Village Nucleus; Humans have been attracted to the area by the presence of natural spring and in 1581 BC worship of Athena was established on Acropolis.

• Agora area developed from a market and meeting place;

Ancient Athens

Ancient Athens

Prominent features

A powerfully assertive landscape influenced the Urban planning.

The high points of the city were

treated as sacred.

In

case

of

place was

Athens, the high originally a

fortified hilltop which became the Acropolis: The site for the

temples of

Gods,

their

treasures and artifacts.

The

city

developed

below

Acropolis.

 

ARCHITECTURE

Hellenistic period

classical orders

public buildings

geometry and symmetry in their buildings

Acropolis

Agora

Temples

tombs and house forms.

Aegean period till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period 1400 to 1100 B.C.

Hellenic Period 800 to 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 B.C.

Aegean period till 1100 B.C. Mycenaean period 1400 to 1100 B.C.

A r c h it e c t u r e

A r c h it e c t u r e Mycenaean Period • Also called
A r c h it e c t u r e Mycenaean Period • Also called

Mycenaean Period

Also called Pelasgic, Cyclopean or Primitive period

Rough walling of large stone blocks

Corbel system, true arch evolved

Hellenic Period

Trabeated style developed

Refinement from Mycenaean influence

Slender columns with refined mouldings

Principles of design

Correction of optical illusion

B a rro w To mbs
B a rro w
To mbs
 

4 10 0

BCE

The first architectural expression Preserved memories of clan lineage

Served as place for gathering, trade and rituals

Architecture

Chamber (circular mound) built of stone slabs

Narrow passageway

In some cases fortified by retaining walls

An artificial mound created on top

Sometimes side chambers surround the main chamber

P r e - My c e n a e a n (Ae g e a
P r e - My c e n a e a n
(Ae g e a n )
Pe rio d
 

3000

- 1 3 0 0

B CE

Turmoil in Mesopotamia benefitted the economies of the eastern Mediterranean (mostly Minoans on Crete island) World’s first maritime trading economy

Peaceful trading- hence no defensive installations

Worshipped bull Zeus, the fertilityGod Rituals in open landscape or in front of palace theatre-like

 

setting Large scale drinking and feasting, joyful festivals

No separate temple (part of Palace)

 

Largest Palace at Knossos- residences, kitchens, storage rooms,

bathrooms, ceremonial rooms, workshops

Ground water conduits and basementstorage

P r e - My c e n a e a n

a n d

M y c e n a e a n

Pe rio d

Minoan Palace at Knossos (Crete)

Courtyard surrounded by verandas at upper level in palace

2000

B CE

Three kind of masonry for walls:

1.Cyclopean- masses of rock roughly quarried piled on each other, with clay mortar.

stones

The

interstices

between

the

larger

stones

were filled with smaller blocks

2.

Rectangular-

carefully

hewn

rectangular

blocks

arranged

in

regular

courses,

but

the

joints

between

stones in the same course are not always vertical. Examples at Mycenae - the entrance passage in ‘tholos’

or beehive-tombs 3.Polygonal- many sided blocks accurately worked so as to fit together.

Pa l a c e a t Kn o ss o s
Pa l a c e
a t
Kn o ss o s
Pa l a c e a t Kn o ss o s
 

M y c e n a e a n

Pe rio d

2000 - 4 0 0

B CE

Traded with Sicily, Southern Italy, Egypt, Sardinia and countries bordering Black sea Small kingdom lacked natural defence barriers

Eg- Around 550 textile and 400 metallurgical workers along with artisans,

goldsmiths, ivory and

Decentralized society- Small but fiercely loyal fighters

Excellent works in ivory, carpentry and metallurgy

Palaces used to be the administrative as well as industrial centres

stone carvers and potters were employed in Palace of Pylos

M y c e n a e a n

Pe rio d

2000 - 4 0 0

B CE

M y c e n a e a n Pe rio d 2000 - 4 0

Characteristic features Corbels- horizontal courses of stones were laid, projecting one beyond the other till the

apex wasreached This produced either a triangular opening (found above the

doorways of the

tholos tombs) or an apparent arch (found at the

gallery at Tiryns, or a dome-

shaped roof (found at the Treasury of Atreus) in Mycenae

M y c e n a e a n Pe rio d 2000 - 4 0

Inclined blocks- triangular headed opening.

Arches

M y c e n a e a n

Pe rio d

M y c e n a e a n Pe rio d Megaron – The Great

Megaron The Great Hall in the Palace of Pylos

A square rooms with 4 columns A hearth in the centre

Clerestory ceiling

2000 - 4 0 0

B CE

M y c e n a e a n Pe rio d Megaron – The Great
M y c e n a e a n Pe rio d Megaron – The Great

Me ga ro n

Me ga ro n

My c e n a e

My c e n a e 1300 - 4 0 0 BCE BCE- Thick ring walls
 

1300 - 4 0 0

BCE

1450

BCE-

Thick

ring

walls

(cyclopean)

were

built

around

Mycenae

 

Entry to citadel through Lion Gate

Treasury

of

Atreus-

6-chambered

tombs

containing

gold,

silver

and

bronze burial treasures

(Burial Tholos)

 

Palace

compound

on

an

elevated

level

T h e

L io n

Ga t e ,

My c e n a e

 

Relief carving of two lions facing a central column Triangular sculpture supports the load above entrance.

Ashlar masonry walls on the sides.

T h e L io n Ga t e , My c e n a e
T h e L io n Ga t e , My c e n a e
Tr e a s u r y o f At re us
Tr e a s u r y
o f
At re us

Kings were buried outside the cities in beehive tombs tholos monumental symbols of wealth and power Circular chamber - 15m high and 15m diameter; into the hillside. 36 m long and 6 m wide corridor (dromos) Corbelled dome was covered with earth to form conical hill 2 half columns and stone lintel above the entrance.

or

Tr e a s u r y

o f

At re us

Tr e a s u r y o f At re us

ARCHITECTURE

Hellenic Period 800 to 323 B.C. Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 B.C.

Hellenic Period 800 to 323 B.C. Commenced circa 900 BC, (with substantial works of

architecture appearing from about 600 BC) and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.

Hellenistic Period 323 to 30 B.C. Hellenic culture was spread widely, throughout lands

conquered by Alexander, and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture.

GREEK COLUMN ORDERS

DORIC

IONIC

CORINTHIAN

GREEK COLUMN ORDERS DORIC IONIC CORINTHIAN

GREEK COLUMN ORDERS

Introduced by a Roman architect, Marcus Vitruvius Defined column styles and entablature

Order of Architecture

A set or rules or principles for designing buildings.

Classical order of architecture

An approach to building design established in Greece or Rome during the Classical period, roughly 850 BC through 476 AD.

How Classical Architecture Began

Great buildings were constructed according to precise rules Marcus Vitruvius (De Architectura, or Ten Books on Architecture) believed Builders used mathematical principles when constructing temples Without symmetry and proportion, no temple can have a regular plan

DORIC Basic Order in Greek Architecture –used by Spartans 1. Column –height is 7 D –plinth,
DORIC
Basic Order in Greek Architecture –used by
Spartans
1. Column –height is 7 D –plinth, dado and
stylobate
Shaft–20 flutes and arrises
General Inter columnation–2 D
Distinctive Capital –Abacus and Echinus
2. Entablature –consists of Architrave, Frieze
and Cornice
a)
Architrave –¾ D, flat moulding called taenea
Regula–short band with six ‘guttae’(small cone
like blocks)
b)
Frieze –¾ D, contains Triglyph and Metope.
Triglyph–formed by two V-shaped channels
with similar half channels on both ends which
are rounded at top.
Metopes–square shaped space between
Triglyph
c)
Cornice –½ D high –crowning part, projects
beyond frieze
Acroteria–for ornamentatal block

1)

Tympanum

2)

Acroterion

3)

Cyma

4)

Cornice

5)

Mutules

6)

Frieze

7)

Triglyph

8)

Metope

9)

Regulae

10)

Guttae

11)

Taenia

12)

Architrave

13)

Capital

14)

Abacus

15)

Echinus

16)

Column

17)

Fluting

18)

Stylobate

Doric columns stood directly on the flat pavement (the stylobate) without a base

Vertical shafts were fluted with 20 parallel concave grooves

Smooth capital that flared from the column to meet a square abacus

Carried the horizontal beam(architrave)

The Parthenon has the Doric design columns.

IONIC

Named after the Ionians of ancient

Greece

1. Column 9 D, has a base, moulded base consists of upper and lower torus- separated by Scotia and fillets Shaft has 24 flutes diminishes to 5/6 D at its top.

General Intercolumniations 4 D

Remarkable for its volute(capital) 2. Entablature 2 D

  • a) Architrave¾ D, triple fasciae(three

beams)

  • b) Frieze¾ D, either plain or

ornamented

  • c) Cornice½ D, similar treatment like

Doric

Rainwater sprouts in the shape of lion’s

heads

Ionic Order is more ornate than the Doric grace, refinement of outlines and elegance as compared to Doric Order

IONIC

More slender and more ornate

capital

than the Doric style Scroll-shaped ornaments on the

A pair of volutes

Stands on a base of stacked disks

Shafts are usually fluted, but can be plain

Buildings With Ionic Columns:

The Erechtheum, Athens The Colosseum, Rome

Doric columns on the first level, Ionic columns on the second

level, and Corinthian columns on

the third level

CORINTHIAN

Emerged as an offshoot of the Ionic style

about 450 BCE Distinguished by its more decorative capitals

Corinthian capital was much taller being

ornamented with a double row of acanthus leaves topped by voluted

tendrils.

Typically, it had a pair of volutes at each corner, thus providing the same view from

all sides

The ratio of the column-height to column- diameter in Corinthian temples is usually 10:1 (compare Doric 5:1; Ionic 9:1), with the capital accounting for roughly 10 percent of the height.

CORINTHIAN

  • 1. Column 10 D height

Base ½ D high, similar to Ionic Shaftcircular and tapered to 5/6 D at top

24 flutes separated by fillets General Inter columnation3 D Distinctive capital perhaps evolved from a basket placed on the root of acanthus plant

  • 2. Entablature 2.25 D high and bears

a close resemblance to the Ionic Order.

  • a) Architrave ¾ D, divided into three

fasciae

  • b) Frieze ¾ D, ornamented by

continuous sculptures

  • c) Cornice ¾ D, dentils and corona

antefixal ornament

Rarely used by Greeks, more decorative

and delicate

CORINTHIAN 1. Column – 10 D height Base – ½ D high, similar to Ionic Shaft

AGORA AND ACROPOLIS IN

ATHENS

The agora was a central spot in ancient Greek city-states. The literal meaning of the word is "gathering place" or "assembly". The agora was the center of athletic, artistic, spiritual and political life of the city.

The Acropolis

The acropolis is the general term for the original defensive hilltop nucleus of the older Greek cities and the fortified citadel of many of the colonial foundation.

Possibly the religious sanctuary of the city like Athens or left deserted and left outside the city limit, as the Miletus.

If the acropolis is at the centre then, there were no need of city wall.

Acropolis

Athens Agora

Represented the sacred precinct of the city of Athens. • The building of the Acropolis did not have a geometrical/axial relationship with one another but had a definite visual relation with one another as well as the natural setting of the surrounding to be experienced by the human eye and people on foot. • The natural Panorama was dramatically accented by the foreground of man made temple- adding man’s world to nature’s. • The building of the Acropolis consisted of one concept of grouping buildings- as masses articulating space.

The City Wall

In Athens, Priene and Miletus, the walls are loosely spread around both unplanned and planned urban areas, in order to take maximum advantage

of the terrain.

Athens

The City Wall In Athens, Priene and Miletus, the walls are loosely spread around both unplanned

Agora

Agora is a public space in Greek cities contained sustained or intense concentration of varied activities. The Agora was in fact not only a public place, but the central zone of the city- its living heart. A ground for social life, business and politics. Being ideally positioned between the main gate and entrance to the acropolis serves as a focal point of a planned city.

The Agora

The Agora was the political and

commercial heart. It was the CBD which developed at the foot of the

Acropolis.

There was a stress on a finite size for all things.

Ideal size of a city-polis: 10000-

20000

The Greek towns attempted to fit in as another component of nature.

Architectural massing and detailing of building always gave a sense of human measure.

OPTICAL CORRECTIONS

Please refer:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzhA3yiEofI

TEMPLES

Classification

Classification is based on:

  • - the number of columns on the entrance front

  • - Type of collonade surrounding the naos

  • - Type Of Portico

Greek Temple Plans

Typical floor plan incorporated a colonnade of columns (peristyle) on all four sides; a front porch (pronaos), a back porch (opisthodomos).

Categorized based on their ground plan and the way in which the columns are arranged.

1.Prostyle temple is a temple that has columns only at the front

2.Amphiprostyle temple has columns at the front and the rear.

3.One of the more unusual plans is the tholos, a temple with a circular ground plan

4. Temples with a peripteral arrangement have a single line of columns arranged all around the exterior of the temple building.

5. Dipteral temples simply have a double row of columns surrounding the building.

Characteristics

ORIENTED TOWARDS THE EAST

NAOS ( it refers to the Cella, i.e. the inner chamber of a temple which houses a cult figure)

PRONAOS ( is the inner area of the portico of a Greek or Roman temple, situated between the portico's colonnade or walls and the entrance to the cella, or shrine)

AND EPINAOS (OPISTHODODMOS) - a room in the rear of the cella of an ancient Greek temple

SURROUNDED BY OPEN COLONNADE

ENTRANCE DOORS on the east and west walls

WINDOWS WERE RARE

PEDIMENT

TYMPANUM

TIMBER ROOFS covered with MARBLE OR TERRACOTTA TILES

ANTIFIXAE ORNAMENT at the end of the roof tiles

Parts of a Greek Temple

  • There are four distinct parts to a greek temple.

    • The bottom, horizontal part is the steps. Most Greek temples had three of them.

  • The next section is vertical and is the column.

    • Most columns had a base (though not the Doric), at the bottom, a shaft in the middle, and a capital at the top.

    • The shaft may be smooth or fluted.

Parthenon

Parthenon

Built in pentelic marble. •On the high grounds of the Acropolis, south of temple Athena. •Architects –Ictinus & Callicrates ; sculptor Pheidias. •Rectangular plan measuring 71m X 32m.

  • Stands on a crepidoma of 3 steps with tread 70cm & rise 50cm.
    Designed in octal-style, eight columns in front & back, columns having base d = 1.9m, h = 10.4mand of the Doric order.

The entablature is 3.4m high and curve up in the middle. Architrave was ornamented with bronze shields. Sculptured metopes are about 1.34m X 1.34m, 14 in on front, 32 on south and north. •The frieze lean outward slightly.

The pediment inclined at 13˚ 30 mins.

  • It has floral decoration called Acroteria about 3m high.

  • The sloping cornices of the pediment has ornamentations.
    The Tympana had fine sculptures in bright colors.

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

Reconstructed West Elevation

Reconstructed West Elevation The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

Plan
Plan

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

Plan

Plan The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

Caryatid porch

Caryatid porch The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

West elevation & East Elevation South elevation & North Elevation The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

West elevation &

East Elevation

South elevation &

North Elevation

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

East portico

East portico The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

The Erechtheion (421 B.C -406 B.C)

RESIDENTIAL DISTRICTS

Residential Districts

Residences

were

either

grouped

together, in organic growth districts or

rigidly organized lines.

along

basic

grid-iron

There was a contrast between the splendor of civic areas and squalor of housing.

Communal activities were more important than Home life.

Individual dwellings within the

same grid block were of different

sizes and plans.

Ancient Athens

Ancient Athens Houses

Priene City Block

Houses in Priene

THANK

YOU