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Chemistry

A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical


reaction. It is an additional substance that is unchanged at the
end of the reaction. In a catalytic converter the catalyst itself is
often a combination of platinum, palladium, and rhodium.
When the reactants come into contact more often, the reaction
will happen at a faster rate; two substances cant react unless
they come into contact! A higher temperature causes an increase
in the reaction rate. And finally, the rate of reaction is affected
by the phase of the reactants. For example, if both reactants
were solids, the chemical reaction would occur at a slower rate
than if both were liquids that mixed more easily.
The nucleus of an atom contains the atoms protons, which are
positively charged, and the atoms neutrons, which are
uncharged. The negatively charged electrons are found outside
the nucleus.
Protons=positive
Neutrons=neutral (uncharged)
Electrons=negative
Electrons are very small subatomic particles that are found in the
space surrounding the nucleus of the atom. They are organized in
layers called shells.
Both solids and liquids have a definite volume and density, at least
at a steady temperature and pressure. Gases do not.
Covalent bonds occur when electron pairs are shared between
atoms. This is most likely to occur between elements that have
similar electronegativities.
According to the octet rule, outermost electron shells must
contain eight electrons to be complete. This dictates (loosely)
how elements tend to combine (so that each element has eight
electrons in its outermost, or valence, electron shell).

Metallic bonding is an attractive force that occurs between a sea


of delocalized electrons. In other words, metallic bonding occurs
when there is a lattice of positively charged ions sharing free, or
delocalized, electrons.
Bond energy is a measure of the strength of a chemical bond. It is
defined as the amount of energy needed to break apart one mole
of covalently bonded gas.
If the bond energy for one mole of HCl is 430 kJ/mol, then the
bond energy of 4 moles is 4 times larger. This leaves you with 1720
kJ/mol.
Ionic compounds tend to be hard and brittle. This is because the
strong interactions between oppositely charges ions hold the
particles in relatively fixed positions.
Ionic bonds form between metals (found in the left side of the
Periodic Table) and non-metals (found in the upper-right hand of
the Periodic Table). This positioning means that there is a large
difference in electronegativity between metals and non-metals;
they have opposite charges and will attract each other.
A nuclear reaction is the process in which changes occur in the
nucleus of an atom (or more than one). In nuclear reactions,
elements can change.
Nuclear fusion is the process that powers active stars. In the suns
core, hydrogen nuclei are converted to helium nuclei. This
reaction also produces gamma rays, which are very high-energy
photons.
A molecule is formed when two or more atoms join together
chemically. Molecules are always neutrally charged; they have no
net charge.
Molecules are two or more atoms held together by chemical
bonds.
Decreasing the temperature of a gas at a constant pressure will

also decrease the volume. As temperature decreases, so does the


kinetic energy of the gas molecules; the molecules move less
rapidly and fill a smaller space.
A carboxyl group is made up of one carbon atom, two oxygen
atoms, and 1 hydrogen atom: (C(O)OH). This group makes up,
along with the R group, carboxylic acids.
CH3COOH is the chemical formula for acetic acid, also known as
ethanoic acid. Acetic acid is the second simplest carboxylic acid
and makes vinegar smell and taste as it does.
Solutions are homogeneous. This means that everything in the
solution is evenly spread out and thoroughly mixed. For instance,
when you add sugar to water and stir, the sugar dissolves and is
spread throughout your glass.