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Lindsay Morton

Test # 1

Changing Ocean Ecosystems Study Guide (Chapter 1

Chapter 1:
Loren Eiseley:
- If there is magic in this planet, it is contained in water
- 20th century anthropologist
Charles Darwin
- HMS Beagle, 1831
- 5 year voyage
- Came up w/ theory of evolution
- Relationship between beaks of finch species & food
- Theorized that finches colonized the islands from
mainland S. America isolated populations became
Charles Thompson
- The Challenger, 1872
- 3.5 year voyage
- Took 19 years to publish all of his results
- Foundation of Modern Marine Science
Jacque Cousteau
- Revolutionized Scuba
- More than 120 television documentaries
- Published over 50 books

Important Facts
- Less than 1% of the sea floor has actually been
- Global surface temperatures have increased about 1
degree F since the late 19th century and about .4
degrees F over last 25 years
o Increases severity of hurricanes
o Sea level rise due to global warming (Louisianas
wetlands washed away)
o Ocean Acidification
Increased CO concentrations in atmosphere
- Dead Zones
o Nutrient loading causes spring algal blooms
o Algal blooms die/sink to deep water
o Decomposition removes O2
o Anoxic = water completely void of O2
o Hypoxic = water greatly depleted of O2
o What comes up, must come down
- Greenhouse gasses are rising at a faster rate now than
they did in the 1990s, 3 main causes cited by scientists
o Growth in world economy
o Increased fossil fuel emissions
o Decline in the efficiency of the ocean and land for
CO2 absorption
- Scientific Method
o Make careful observations
o Identify and define problem
o Define hypothesis
o Write a testable prediction
o Formulate and conduct experiment

o Interpret results
o Independent Variable: what the researcher
controls, affects the DV
o Dependent Variable: Changes as a result of the IV,
o Control Variable: what is held constant throughout
the experiment
- Advantages of Schooling
o Protection
o Swimming efficiency
o Finding natural resources
o Reproduction
- Ocean Acidification
- Eutrophication
- Commercial vs. Recreational Fisheries
Chapter 2:
Marine Geology: study of earth- the materials of which it is
made, the structure of those materials, and the processes
acting upon them
Big Bang Theory: great cosmic explosion 13.7 billion years
ago created clouds of dust and gas

- Dust particles rocks boulders

- Solar system is thought to be 4.5 billion years old
Density = mass/volume
- While the earth formed, dense materials flowed to the
center while lighter materials floated to the surface
Earths Interior: core, mantle, crust
- Core: most dense and hottest, made mostly of iron (fe),
solid inner core rotates inside a liquid core creating a
magnetic field
- Mantle: slightly less dense but still very hot, solid near
its melting point but flows like viscous liquid, made
mostly of silicon, magnesium, and iron
o Lithosphere: lithos = rock, cool/rigid outer layer,
composed of the oceanic and continental crust &
very upper solid portion of mantle
o Asthenosphere: asthenes = weak, hot/partially
melted flowing layer of upper mantle
o Lithosphere floats and moves across
- Crust: thin outer layer
o Continental Crust: granite, thick but less dense,
light color, 3.8 billion years old
o Oceanic Crust: basalt, thin but dense, dark color,
200 million years old
5 Ocean Basins (in order largest to smallest)
1. Pacific largest ocean
2. Atlantic
3. Indian
4. Arctic
5. Southern

Marianna Trench: worlds deepest place, located in Pacific

Evidence of Continental Drift
- Sir Francis Bacon
- Alfred Wegener
- Sonar Use after WWII detailed maps of ocean floor
- Mid- Ocean Ridge System
o Largest geological feature on earth
o Continuous chain of volcanic mountains
o Spreading centers ridges
o Sediment = thicker and older away from ridge
o Collision of Oceanic & Continental Plates
Example: South American Place + Nazca
Plate = Andes
o Collision of Two Oceanic Plates
Example: Pacific Plate + North American
Plate = Aleutian Islands
o Collision of Two Continental Plates
Example: Eurasian Plate + Indian Plate =
o Shear Boundary: when 2 plates skid past one
another, lithosphere is neither created nor
destroyed, creates earthquakes, lock stress
builds break free
Plate Tectonics and Hotspots

Slab and Pull Convection: mantle warms up near core and

cools down closer to outer surface, is a cycle w/ mineral
deposition created black smokers
Continental Margin: active but not passive = trench, passive
but not active = sediments
Active: narrow shelves, steep slopes, & little/no rise
Passive: wide shelves, gentle slopes, well developed

Continental Shelf: shallowest part of margin, constitutes only

8% of oceans surface area, biologically most productive
Continental Slope: begins at the shelf break and extends to
sea floor, channels sediments to the sea floor
Continental Rise: consists of sediments deposited at the
canyons base (deep-sea fan)
Abyssal Plane: 80% of sea floor, 50% of earths surface,
relatively flat but features topography such as channels,
hills, and plateaus
190 million years ago 1 continent (Pangaea), 1 sea
(Tethys), 1 ocean (Panthalassa)
Present Day (15 million years ago) all continents and

Walsh & Jacque Piccard:

Able to reach bottom of Marianna Trench
Walsh: US navy lieutenant
Piccard: Son of Engineer- Augusta

Francis Bacon:
- 1620, noted that shape of continents fit together like
- Similar geographical features and fossil records on
opposite sides of Atlantic Ocean
Alfred Wegener:
- Proposed theory of continental drift

- Suggested that all continents were joined as on

supercontinent Pangaea
- Theory lacked driving force, so not widely accepted
Hydrothermal Vents: caused by mineral deposition, reach
very high heights when dont experience erosion, are deep
sea hot springs
Chapter 3:
Important Facts
Water covers 70% of Earths surface
Characteristics of Water
- Due to an unequal sharing of electrons in a water
- Hydrogen atoms are pos charged
- Oxygen atoms are neg charged
- Water = polar molecule
- Hydrogen bonds = weak electrical attraction between O
& H atoms in adjacent molecules
- Polarity & Hydrogen bonding cause physical properties
o Surface Tension: ability of surface of a liquid to
resist an external force
o Cohesion & Adhesion: ability of water to stick to
itself & other objects
o Solvent: a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves
another liquid, solid or gas
o Solubility: water dissolves more elements than any
other naturally occurring substance, universal
o Latent Heat of Melting: the amount of heat
required to melt a substance
o High Heat Capacity: amount of energy required to
raise the temperature of a substance
o Latent Heat of Evaporation: amount of heat
required to evaporate a substance

o Water has highest of all naturally occurring

o Evaporative cooling: overall mean temp
decreases, going from liquid to gas, fastest
molecules escape acting as a coolant
o Density of water: 1 g/cm ^3
Changes w/ temp
Less dense in ice stage
Same mass, different volume = lower density
Characteristics of Sea Water
- Temperatures affect seawater densities cold water
more dense than warm water but ice is less dense
- Freezes @ -2 degrees C
- Mean global water temp warmer near equator
- Contains dissolved substances (salts, gases, organic
compounds, and pollutants)
- Solutes: dissolved materials often charged w/ ions
o Sodium (Na +) % Chloride (Cl -) account for 85% of
all solutes in saltwater
- Dissolved Gasses: enter & leave atmospheres at air-sea
interface called gas exchange, water may or may not
be in equilibrium w/ air above it
o Dissolved Oxygen: amount of O than can be
dissolved in water at saturation depends upon
temp of water, cold holds more O than warmer
o Super saturation: if there is suddenly more O in
water than water can hold, O bubbles will form
Anoxic = 0 mg/l

Hypoxic = 1 mg/l

Saturated = 5

- Transparency: directly correlated w/ amount of

dissolved material in ocean, biologically important for
o Coastal waters vs. open sea
o Secchi Disk: used to measure water clarity & light
- Progression of color vibrancy, decreases w/ depth
o Blue penetrates water column the most, red the
- Pressure: measured in atmospheres (ATMs)
o 1 atm = 14 psi
o The Bends: decompression sickness caused by
quick ascent from depth, formation of bubbles of
inert gases within tissues of the body
- Vertical Profiles changes of ocean w/ increasing
o Surface: mixed layer, affected by winds,
currents, waves
o Intermediate: main thermocline in ocean
o Deep: below intermediate, uniform salinity, temp,
& density
- Stability & Overturn: large differences in density
between layers combined w/ low wind, wave energy
(stable) small differences in density between layers,
combined w/ high wind/wave energy (low stability)
o Down welling; surface waters uniform in temp and
density, if slightly more dense, surface waters
sink, displace, & mix w/ deep water
- Surface waters and waves are driven by wind (created
by solar heating) & Coriolis Effect
o Coriolis Effect: effects long distances such as
winds, currents b/c earth is spinning objects
moving along surface that tend to curve
N Hemisphere curve right, 45 degrees
S Hemisphere curve left, 45 degrees
Major Surface Currents of the Ocean

* know North Pacific and North Atlantic Currents*



- Move in elliptical patterns

- Fetch: amount of open area that can come into contact
w/ wind
- Wave Cancellation: when a wave crest & trough come
into contact w/ each other
- Wave Reinforcement: when two crests come into
contact w/ each other

Spring Tides:
highest highs,
lowest lows

Neap Tides:

- Moon & Earth rotate around each other w/ common

center of mass centrifugal force causes earth to
- Moon gravitational pull overcomes centrifugal force on
side of earth closest to the moon
- Tidal bulges are greatest when the moon, earth, & sun
are in align
- Intertidal Zone: environment of alternating immersion
and emersion, organisms must cope w/ severe
conditions such as rough waves & temp extremes

o Bay of Fundy: experiences a tidal difference in

excess of 48 feet in the upper parts of the bay
Chapter 4:
Important Facts:
All Living Things
- Possess a highly ordered chemical and physical
- Use energy (ability to do work) to maintain themselves
and grow
o Ability to do work is accomplished through
numerous interrelated chemical reactions known
as metabolism
- Maintain a relatively stable internal condition,
- Sense and react to external environment
- Reproduce passing genetic info to offspring, ultimate
Water = most important chemical in life, provides the basic
chemical soup inside all organisms where chemical
reactions of metabolism take place
Organic Compounds
- Building blocks of life
- Contain C, H, & O
- Can be simple low energy molecules or complex high
energy molecules
- 2 reactions when synthesized & broken down
o Those the REQUIRE energy
o Those that RELEASE energy
- Organisms have developed the ability to control this
breakdown in order to utilize released energy
o Carbohydrates
Composed of C, H, & O
May be in linear or ring formation
Possess high energy covalent bonds: C-C &

Are used for metabolism processes, energy

storage, & structure (support)
Formed from molecules known as sugars
Monosaccharaides single sugars
Disaccharides two sugars
Oligosaccharides three to twenty
Polysaccharides long chains of >20
sugars called polymers (many parts)
Starch & Glycogen: storage forms of A- linked
glucose in plants & animals
Chitin: hard, tough polymers used by 80%
species on Earth example: insect
Cellulose: most abundant organic compound
on earth, polymers of glucose, component of
plant cell walls giving support to plant cells
o Proteins
Composed of C, H, O, & N
Composed of smaller chains of amino acids
Used for transport, messengers (cell
signaling), structure (muscles), enzymes
Polypeptides: long polymers of 20 common
amino acids (a C, amino group N, carboxyl
group C, side chain R)
o Lipids
Formed by fatty acids which are excellent
energy stores
Saturated vs. Unsaturated
Membrane phospholipids & Triglycerides = 2
most common types of lipids
Blubber = thick layer of fat under skin of all
marine animals, covers whole body except for
appendages, can make up 50% of body mass
o Nucleic acids (RNA/DNA)
Linear polymers for storing/transmitting info

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): contains an

organisms genetic info, passed to offspring
who inherit genetic traits of the parents
RNA (ribonucleic acid): many different roles,
catalyzing biological reactions, protein

= common energy currency

High energy molecule
ADP = low energy molecule
Chemical energy RELEASED by converting ATP ADP
Energy is STORED by converting ADP ATP
Organisms have developed ability to control breakdown
to utilize released energy

- Allows plants to capture the suns energy & produce
organic matter in form of glucose & oxygen
- Plants also contribute energy upon their death DOM
(food & nutrients), energy (fossil fuels such as gas & oil)
- Solar energy is captured by chlorophyll & converted to
chemical energy aka ATP
- Autotrophs = self feeding plants
- Carbon fixation: conversion of inorganic C to organic C
- Respiration = opposite of photosynthesis
- Primary production: net increase in organic matter,
happens when autotrophs produce more organic matter
(photosynthesis) than they consume (respiration)
Increases mean more living material, O2, &
food for heterotrophs
Limited in oceans by light & nutrient levels

Cells: Self-contained unit that can carry out all of the

functions necessary for life
- Prokaryotes: simple, ancient cell types, which lack
most organelles but have an outer cell wall & a circular
molecular or DNA
o Cell Membrane: selective permeable
o Cytoplasm: gelatinous contents
o Organelles: complex structures
o Cytoskeleton: support
o Ribosomes: sites of protein synthesis
o Flagella: locomotive filament

- Eukaryotes: animal cell, more complex w/ various

membrane bound organelles
o Nucleus: genetic info, linear chromosomes of DNA
o Endoplasmic Reticulum/ Golgi Apparatus:
package/transport needed organic molecules
o Mitochondria: site of respiration, cell power house,
o Ribosomes: site of protein synthesis
o Flagella: cilia when short

- Eukaryotes: plant cell, more complex w/ various

membrane bound organelles
o Nucleus, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondrion,
Ribosomes, Flagella
o Cell Wall: protective layer external to plasma
o Chloroplasts: contain chlorophyll, site of
o Vacuole: more than 30% of cells volume, many

Challenges for Cells in Marine & Aquatic Organisms

- Diffusion: random motion of molecules from an area of
high concentration to one of lower concentration
- Selectively Permeable: cell membranes are this, may
stop solutes from moving but water tends to rush in or
out freely
- Osmosis: diffusion of water across a selectively
permeable membrane
- Active Transport: moves solutes against a
concentration, 1/3 of cells energy to power membrane
is used
- Isotonic: equal solute concentration
- Hypotonic: greater solute concentration in cell

- Hypertonic: greater solute concentration in solution

- Osmoregulators: water loss by osmosis through gills or
skin (marine fish), water gain by osmosis through gills
or skin (freshwater fish)
- Greatly affects metabolism
- At extreme temps enzymes (catalysts)
malfunction/cease to function
- Most organisms have evolved to live in certain
environments so enzymes in body work best at certain
- Ectotherms: cold blooded, metabolic heat lost to
environment, doesnt raise body temp
- Endotherms: warm blooded, metabolic heat is retained,
raised body temp
- Poikilotherms: body temp changes, remains more or
less constant w/ environment
o All Ectotherms
o Some endotherms
- Homeotherms: organisms able to regulate their body
temps in varying environment temps
o Example: mammals, birds
- Smaller organisms have a large S/V ratio compared to
larger ones
o Means that a higher % of their body is in direct
contact w/ environment
o Smaller organisms can rely on diffusion
- Natural environment in which an organism lives
- Marine environment consists of several different
- Planktonic organisms: drift in water (diatoms)
- Benthic organism: live on the bottom of sea (sea star)
- Nekton: strong swimmers of the water column (tuna)
Modes of Reproduction
- Asexual: reproduction w/o involvement of a partner

o Produces exact copies of parent (clones)

o Fission: simple split of organisms to two identical
o Budding: parent develops small growths (buds)
that break away & become separate organisms
- Sexual: offspring are the product of fusion of gametes
(2 separate cells- 1 from each parent)
o Sperm + egg = fertilization zygote embryo
o Most marine organisms develop a larvae stage too
Reproductive Strategies
- Broadcast Spawners: release millions of eggs and
sperm into water column and no further interaction w/
- Hermaphrodites: individuals having both male & female
reproductive organs, same or different times
- R-Selection: many offspring, small body size, short life
spa, minimal to no parental care
- K-Selection: few offspring, large body size, long life
span, extensive parental care
Sea Life Diversity
- Diversity: # of species inhabiting an environment
- Natural Selection: survival of the fittest, individuals best
adapted to the environment produce more offspring
which then carry favorable traits
- Evolution: change over time of individual organisms
differing in one or more inherited traits, Darwin
Biological Classification
- Biological species concept, defines a species as a
population of organisms that have common
characteristics and can successfully breed w/ one
another and produce fertile offspring
o Example: dogs
- Reproductive Isolation: when two populations are
unable to breed successfully
- Two name system, identifying organism by genus and

o Example: Dogs, Canis Familiaris

- Important b/c
o minimizes confusion
o same species may have different
common name
o different species may have same
common name
Phylogenics: study of evolutionary