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[COMM 151] Organizational Behaviour

Chapter 1 / Lecture 1 & 2
Organizations social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort
Organizational behaviour the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in
organizations. The field of OB is about understanding people and managing them to
work effectively, is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change,
and with how to get people to practice effective teamwork
Management the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others
History of Organizational Behaviour
In early 1900s, rapid industrialization and factory work, movement toward
Scientific Management Taylors system for using research to determine the
optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks
Bureaucracy Max Webers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of
command, detailed rules, high specialization, centralized power, and selection and
promotion based on technical competence
Classical Viewpoint/Scientific management/Taylorism:
1. high degree of specialization in jobs
2. routinized procedures
3. decision making power concentrated in upper management
4. promotion for conformity
problems: boring, easy to lose sight of significance of work, can lead people
to do the bare minimum, entry level employees have no means to influence
upper management
In 1920s and 1930s, human relations were analyzed, they found that
psychological and social factors influence the behaviour of workers
Hawthorne studies research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric
near Chicago in the 20s and 30s that illustrated how social and psychological processes
affect productivity and work adjustment
Human relations movement a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that
advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee
Today, Contingency approach, there is no one best way to manage an
appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation

Managerial Roles:


and Status












Managerial Activities:
Routine communication handling of paperwork, meetings
Traditional management planning, decision making & controlling
Networking interacting with people outside organization
Human Resource Management employee management
Managerial Agendas:
Agenda setting goals, plans
Agenda Implementation using network to implement agendas
Talent Management an organizations processes for attracting, developing, retaining
and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) an organization taking responsibility for the
impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders
Chapter 5 / Lecture 3
Motivation the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
Intrinsic motivation motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the
worker and the task; it is usually self applied
Extrinsic motivation motivation that stems from the work environment external to the
task, it is usually applied by others
-even if upper management thinks a motivation technique is working well in the short
run, it may not be helpful (or may even be harmful) in the long run (linebacker terry tate
commercial example)
-money is a motivator but if youre only 5 or 10 percent underpaid, the other perks are
probably stronger motivators
Motivation techniques:

Perks i.e. day care, gym facilities, monetary bonus

Flexibility i.e. telecommuting, casual dress, flex hours
Growth i.e. offer career management, invest in training
Self Determination theory a theory of motivation that considers whether peoples
motivation is autonomous or controlled
Autonomous motivation when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
Controlled motivation when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or
extrinsic award
Performance the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving
the objectives of the organization
Factors Contributing to Job Performance

e, and Motivation Personality Cognitive Understan Intelligenc
of Effort



General cognitive ability a persons basic information processing capacities and

cognitive resources
Emotional intelligence the ability to understand and manage ones own and others
feelings and emotions
1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking
3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by
4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
Need theories motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and the
conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that
contributes to performance

Maslows hierarchy of needs a five level hierarchical need theory of motivation that
specifies that the lowest level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential
1. Physiological needs needs that must be satisfied for the person to survive I.e
food, water, shelter
2. Safety needs needs for security, stability, freedom from anxiety, and a structured
and order environment. May include safe working conditions, fair rules and
regulations, job security, pension plans, etc
3. Belongingness needs needs for social interaction, affection, love, friendship i.e.
opportunity to interact with others on the job, friendly and supportive supervision
4. Esteem needs needs for feelings of adequacy, competence, independence,
strength, and confidence, and the appreciation and recognition of these
characteristics by others i.e. the opportunity to master tasks leading to feelings of
achievement and responsibility, awards, promotions, professional recognition
5. Self-actualization needs involve the desire to develop ones true potential as an
individual to the fullest extent and to express ones skills, talent, and emotions in a
manner that is most personally fulfilling i.e. absorbing jobs with the potential for
creativity and growth as well as a relaxation of structure to permit self
development and personal progression
Alderfers ERG theory a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows
for movement up and down the hierarchy (a lower-level need mustnt be satisfied to
fulfill a higher level need). ERG theory assumes that if the higher level needs are
unsatisfied, individuals will increase their desire for the gratification of lower level needs.
1. Existence needs needs that are satisfied by some material substance or
condition. Correspond to Maslows physiological needs and to those safety needs
that are satisfied by material conditions rather than interpersonal relations. i.e.
shelter, food, pay, safe working conditions
2. Relatedness needs needs that are satisfied by open communication and the
exchange of thoughts and feelings with other organizational members. They
correspond to Maslows belongingness needs and to those esteem needs that
involve feedback from others. However, Alderfer stresses that relatedness needs
are satisfied by open, accurate, honest interaction rather than by uncritical
3. Growth needs the needs satisfied by strong personal involvement in the work
setting, full utilization of ones skills and abilities and the development of new
skills and abilities. This corresponds to Maslows self actualization needs and the
aspects of esteem needs that concern achievement and responsibility
McClellands Theory of Needs a non hierarchical need theory of motivation that
outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of
Need for achievement a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well. Individuals
who are high in need for achievement will have a preference in which personal
responsibility can be taken for outcomes, a tendency to set moderately difficult goals
that provide for calculated risks, and a desire for performance feedback
Need for affiliation a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible
interpersonal relationships

Need for power a strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or
Process theories motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs
Expectancy Theory a process theory that states that motivation is determined by the
outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on the job
Instrumentality the probability that a particular first level outcome will be followed by
a particular second level outcome
Valence the expected value of work outcomes; the extent to which they are attractive or
-the valence of a first level outcome depends on the extent to which it leads to favourable
second level outcomes
Expectancy the probability that a particular first level outcome can be achieved
Force the effort directed toward first level outcome
Force = first level valence x expectancy
Valence, I =




Expectancy theory says:

People will be motivated to perform in those work activities that they find
attractive and that they feel they can accomplish
The attractiveness of various work activities depends on the extent to which they
lead to favourable personal consequences
Equity Theory - a process theory that states that motivation stems from a comparison of
the inputs one invests in a job an the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs
and outcomes of another person or group. Fairness matters to us: individuals are
motivated to maintain an equitable exchange relationship
When inequity is present, people will devote considerable energy to reducing inequity by:
Perceptually distorting ones own inputs or outcomes
Perceptually distorting the inputs/outcomes of the comparison person or group
Choose another comparison person or group
Alter ones inputs or outcomes
Leave the exchange relationship
For example, if your performance is very high with an $85000 salary, and your
coworkers performance is high with a $95000 salary:
You will feel cheated you may ask for a raise, wait & hope mgmt. notices, or
resign, but most likely you will just decrease your performance
Your coworker might feel guilty, lucky, or happy he/she may increase
performance, but most likely he/she will come up with reasons why they are paid more
self serving bias
Goal the object or aim of an action
Goal setting theory a process theory that states that goals are motivational when they
are specific, challenging, and when organizational members are committed to them and
feedback about progress toward goal attainment is provided
-goals are most effective when workers are actively involved in setting them the worker
has a sense of ownership and ensures the goal is realistic
-if you make a goal public, you become publicly accountable good motivator
Goal orientation an individuals goal preferences in achievement situations
Learning goal orientation a preference to learn new things and develop competence in
an activity by acquiring new skills and mastering new situations
Performance goal orientation a preference to obtain favourable judgments about the
outcome of ones performance
Performance-avoid goal orientation a preference to avoid negative judgments about
the outcome of ones performance
-a performance prove orientation is not related to learning or performance outcomes
-a learning goal orientation is most effective for learning and performance outcomes,
while a performance avoid goal orientation is detrimental for learning and performance
Distal goal long term or end goals
Proximal goal short term or sub-goals. Proximal goals involve breaking down a distal
goal into smaller, more attainable sub goals. They provide clear markers of progress
toward a distal goal.

Chapter 6 / Lecture 4
Piece-rate a pay system in which individual workers are paid a certain sum of money
for each unit of production completed
Benefits increased productivity and decreased turnover
Potential Problems lowered quality, differential opportunity (might be less opportunity
to produce a lot for fault of equipment or resources at different factories), reduced
cooperation, incompatible job design, restriction of productivity)
Wage incentive plans various systems that link pay to performance on production jobs
-wage incentives will increase productivity, but can cause lowered quality and reduced
-also, a threat to the establishment of wage incentives exists when workers have different
opportunities to produce at a high level, or the way the job is designed is incompatible
with wage incentives (i.e on an assembly line, difficult to identify and reward individual
contributions to productivity)
Restriction of productivity the artificial limitation of work output that can occur under
wage incentive plans. This happens if workers come to an informal agreement about
what constitutes a fair days work. This happens because employees may fear that
increased productivity may result in reductions in the workforce or that if employees
produce at an exceptionally high level, employer may reduce the rate of payment
Merit pay plans systems that attempt to link pay to performance on white-collar jobs
The problems with merit pay plans are:
Low discrimination managers might be unwilling or unable to discriminate
between good and bad performers
Small increases - merit increases may be simply too small to be good motivators
Pay secrecy even if merit pay is administered fairly, is contingent on
performance, and is generous, employees may remain ignorant of these facts as they have
no way of comparing their own merit treatment with that of others. Employees are
inclined to invent salaries of other members: they underestimate their bosses pay,
overestimate their peers pay, and overestimate their subordinates pay. These tendencies
reduce satisfaction with pay, damage perceptions of the linkage between performance and
rewards, and reduce the valence of promotion to a higher level of management.
Lump sum bonus merit pay that is awarded in a single payment and not built into base
Profit sharing the return of some company profit to employees in the form of a cash
bonus or a retirement supplement. However, difficult to see one employees impact on a
companys profit, so likely not too motivational.
Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) incentive plans that allow employees to
own a set amount of a companys shares and provide employees with a stake in the
companys future earnings and success
Gain sharing a group pay incentive plan based on productivity or performance
improvements over which the workforce has some control
Skill based pay a system in which people are paid according to the number of job skills
they have acquired
Pay Plan
-employees have a sense of
-many factors beyond the control of


receive a cash
bonus based on


Employees can
own a set
amount of the


When measured
costs decrease,
receive a bonus
based on a
Employees are
paid according to
the number of
job skills they


-aligns employee goals with
organization goals
-only pays when the
organization makes a profit
-creates a sense of legal and
psychological ownership for
-aligns employee goals and
interests with those of the

-aligns organization and

employee goals
-encourages teamwork and
cooperative behaviour

-encourages employees to learn

new skills
-greater flexibility in task
-provides employees with a
broader picture of the work

employees can affect profits

-it is difficult for employees to see
the impact of their actions on
-many factors influence the value
of a companys shares, regardless
of employees effort and
-difficult for employees to see
connection between stock price and
their effort
-motivational potential lost in a
weak economy (value of stocks
-bonuses might be paid even when
the organization does not make a
-employees might neglect
objectives that are not included in
the formula
-increases cost of training and
labour costs (if employees have
more skills, will demand more

Job scope the breadth and depth of a job

Breadth the number of different activities performed in a job
Depth the degree of discretion or control a worker has over how tasks are performed
High Depth,
Low Breadth

High Scope

Low Scope
Breadth, low
-high scope jobs should
than low scope jobs.
can fulfill higher order needs by the opportunity to perform high scope jobs.


-you can increase the scope of a job by offering stretch assignments (challenging ones) or
job rotation
Job rotation rotating employees to different tasks and jobs in an organization
Core job characteristics: STAFT
Skill variety the opportunity to do a variety of job activities using various skills
and talents
o High variety owner/operator of a garage does electrical repair, rebuilds
engines, body work, and customer interaction
o Low variety a body shop worker spray paints 8 hours a day
Autonomy the freedom to schedule ones own work activities and decide work
o High autonomy a telephone installer who schedules his own work for the
day, makes unsupervised visits, and decides on the most effective
techniques to use
o Low autonomy a telephone operator who must handle calls according to
a routine, highly specified procedure
Task significance the impact that a job has on other people
o High significance nursing the sick in a hospital intensive care unit
o Low significance sweeping hospital floors
Task identity The extent to which a job involves doing a complete piece of
work, from beginning to end
o High identity a cabinet maker who designs a piece of furniture, selects
the wood, builds the object, and finishes it to perfection
o Low identity a worker in a furniture factory who operates a lathe solely
to make table legs
Feedback Information about the effectiveness of ones work performance
o High feedback an electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and
then tests it to determine if it operates properly
o Low feedback an electronics factory worker who assembles a radio and
then routes it to a quality control inspector
Motivating potential score = S + T + T x A x F
Growth need strength the extent to which people desire to achieve higher order need
satisfaction by performing their jobs. This may be why jobs high in motivating potential
do not always lead to favourable outcomes for every individual
Job enrichment the design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working
life, and job involvement. Typically involves increasing the motivation potential of jobs
via the arrangement of their core characteristics.
Job enrichment schemes:
Combining tasks increases variety and may contribute to task identity
Establishing external client relationships increase identity and significance of
the job, as well as feedback
Establishing internal client relationships see above
Reducing supervision or reliance on others increases autonomy

Forming work teams increases variety and identity

Making feedback more direct increases feedback
-job enrichment can create problems if there is a poor diagnosis, a lack of workers
desire/skill, a demand for rewards, and union or supervisory resistance
Job involvement a cognitive state of psychological identification with ones job and
the importance of work to ones total self image
Job enlargement increasing job breadth by giving employees more tasks at the same
level to perform but leaving other core characteristics unchanged (workers given more
boring, fragmented, routine tasks not motivating)
Work design characteristics attributes of the task, job, and social and organizational
Task characteristics how the work itself is accomplished and the range and
nature of tasks associated with a particular job (involves autonomy, task variety,
significance, identity, and feedback)
Knowledge characteristics the kinds of knowledge, skill, and ability demands
that are placed on an individual as a function of what is done on the job (includes
job complexity, as well as the information processing, problem solving, skill
variety, and specialization required by the job)
Social characteristics the interpersonal and social aspects of work (social
support, interdependence, interaction outside organization required by job, and
feedback from others)
Contextual characteristics the context within which work is performed
including the physical and environmental contexts (ergonomics, physical
demands, work conditions, equipment use)
Management by Objectives (MBO) an elaborate, systematic, ongoing program
designed to facilitate goal establishment, goal accomplishment, and employee
development. Manager will meet with workers to agree on objectives, there are periodic
meetings, and an appraisal meeting is held to evaluate the success/failure with regards to
meeting the objectives
-alternative working schedules are also a motivator:
Flex time an alternative work schedule in which arrival and departure times are
Compressed workweek employees work fewer than the normal 5 days a week
but still put in a normal number of hours per week
Job sharing two part time employees divide the work of a full time job
Work sharing reducing the number of hours employees work to avoid layoffs
when there is a reduction in normal business activity
Telecommuting a system by which employees are able to work at home but
stay in touch with their offices through the use of communications technology
Task performance how well you do on the activities that are assigned to you
Organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) activities that are not a part of your
formal job description but nonetheless help the organization to succeed
Counterproductive work behaviour opposite of OCB, activities that harm the
organization and are willful. For example, showing up late, spreading rumors about

-when judging job performance, there are three types of managers: those for whom task
performance dominates, those for whom counterproductive performance dominates, and
those for whom task and counterproductive performance are weighed equally
-notice that OCB does not influence the way a manager rates an employees level of job
-the strongest job performers are individuals who score high on IQ and EI (emotional
intelligence) tests, and conscientious individuals
-people who score high on EI tests are strong performers because they are aware of their
strengths and weaknesses, they deal with stress better, theyre good and managing your
and others emotions (and it helps to be well-liked)
-extraversion and agreeableness are also related to job performance, but less so than

nn ofof Effort


Cognittiivvee Abi
General Cogni
Task understandi
Emotioonalnal IInnteltellliiggence

Chapter 4 / Lecture 5
Values a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others i.e. different
generations (X vs Y value different things, different cultures value different things)
Hofstedes Study Four basic dimensions along which work related values differ across
Power Distance the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is
accepted by society members. In small power distance countries, inequality is
minimized, superiors are accessible and power differences are downplayed; they
include Austria, Denmark, and New Zealand
Uncertainty Avoidance the extent to which people are uncomfortable with
uncertain and ambiguous situations. Strong uncertainty avoidance cultures stress
rules and regulations, hard work, conformity and security, and include Japan,
Greece and Portugal. Weak uncertainty avoidance cultures are less concerned with
rules and risk taking is valued, including Singapore, Sweden.
Masculinity/Femininity more masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender
roles, support the dominance of men, and stress economic performance. Feminine
cultures accept fluid gender roles, stress sexual equality and quality of life. Japan
is the most masculine, and Scandinavian countries are the most feminine


Individualism vs. Collectivism individualistic societies stress independence,

individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and
loyalty to family or clan. USA and Australia are individualistic, where Columbia
and Pakistan are collective
Long term vs. Short term orientation culture with a long term orientation
stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, and close attention to status differences
while cultures with a short term orientation stress personal steadiness and
stability, face saving, and social niceties. China and Japan are more long term
while US and Nigeria are more short term.
-an appreciation of cross cultural differences in values is essential to understanding the
needs and tastes of customers or clients around the world, as well as to translate
management practices to other cultures
Attitude a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific
object, situation, person, or category of people. Attitudes influence behaviour.
Belief + Value Attitude Behaviour
Job satisfaction a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs
What determines job satisfaction?
Disposition (born with it)
Mood and Emotion
Career Opportunities
The key contributors, however, are:
Mentally challenging work
Adequate Compensation
Job Performance (especially when pay is tied to performance)
Satisfying Social Relationships
Personality Traits
-when measuring job satisfaction, you must take into account multiple items because
there are multiple facets to satisfaction. When measuring, dilute carelessness by
including many questions on a survey
What does job satisfaction predict?
1. Weak relation with task performance so many things contribute to task
performance (i.e. EI, IQ etc) so just not enough to make a strong correlation
2. Moderate relation with customer satisfaction and turnover intentions
3. Strong relation with organizational citizenship behaviour
Discrepancy theory a theory that job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between
the job outcomes wanted and the job outcomes that are perceived to be obtain
Job outcome perceived to be obtained > job outcome desired = high satisfaction
Distributive fairness fairness that occurs when people receive the outcomes they think
that they deserve from their jobs
Equity theory a theory that job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs ones
invests in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and
outcomes of another person or group
My outcomes
Others outcomes

My inputs
Others inputs
Procedural fairness fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work
outcomes is seen as reasonable. Rather than the actual distribution of resources or
rewards, it is concerned with how these outcomes are allocated and decided. The
following factors contribute to perceptions of procedural fairness: (the allocator)
Follows consistent procedures over time and across people
Uses accurate information and appears unbiased
Allows two way communication during the allocation process
Welcomes appeals of the procedure or allocation
Interactional fairness fairness that occurs when people feel they have received
respectful and informative communication about an outcome
Emotions intense, often short lived feelings caused by a particular event
Mood less intense, longer lived and more diffuse feelings
Emotional contagion tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or
throughout a group
Emotional regulation (emotional labour) requirement for people to conform to
certain display rules in their job behaviour in spite of their true mood or emotions. The
frequent need to suppress negative emotions takes a toll on job satisfaction and increases
-stress negatively impacts your health: recall example from class with nuns who wrote
autobiographies; those who used positive emotions lived on average 10 years longer than
those with the least positive emotion words
Consequences of High Job Satisfaction:
Low absence from work
Low turnover rates
High performance
High organizational citizenship behaviour
High customer satisfaction and profit (employee job satisfaction translates into
customer satisfaction due to moods, less turnover, etc)
Organizational commitment an attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage
between an employee and an organization
Affective commitment commitment based on identification and involvement
with an organization. People with high affective commitment stay with an organization
because they want to.
Continuance commitment commitment based on the costs that would be
incurred in leaving an organization. People with high continuance commitment stay with
an organization because they have to.
Normative commitment commitment based on ideology or a feeling of
obligation to an organization. People with high normative commitment stay with an
organization because they think that they should do so.
-continuance commitment can negatively affect performance
-changes in the workplace (i.e. change in workforce size, change in managerial style, etc)
are having an impact on the nature of employee commitment and employee-employer

Chapter 13 (437-458) / Lecture 6

Stressors environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress
Stress a psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor that has the
potential to make a person feel tense or anxious. Stress is not intrinsically bad, and
moderate levels of stress can even be a motivator. But when stress leads to high levels of
anxiety and tension, it is not good.
Stress reactions the behavioural, psychological, and physiological consequences of
Locus of control a set of beliefs about whether ones behaviour is controlled mainly by
internal or external forces
Internals are more likely to confront stressors directly because they assume that
this response will make a difference
Externals are anxious but do not feel that they are masters of their own fate they
are more prone to simple anxiety reduction strategies that only work in the short run
Type A Behaviour Pattern a personality pattern that includes aggressiveness,
ambitiousness, competitiveness, hostility, impatience, and a sense of time urgency. These
people seem to either encounter more stressful situations than type B people do, or
perceive themselves as doing so
Negative Affectivity the propensity to view the world, including oneself and other
people, in a negative light. Those who are high in negative affectivity re more
susceptible to stress, and this is probably because of a) a predisposition to perceive
stressors in the workplace b) hypersensitivity to existing stressors c) a tendency to
gravitate to stressful jobs d) a tendency to provoke stress through their negativity e) the
use of passive, indirect coping styles that avoid the real sources of stress
Executive and Managerial Stressors:
Role overload the requirement for too many tasks to be performed in too short a time
Heavy Responsibility the work can have extremely important consequences for the
organization and its members, meaning very high pressure
Operative Level Stressors:
(operatives are individuals who occupy non professional and non managerial positions in
Poor Physical Working Conditions employees may face excessive heat, cold, noise,
pollution, and the chance of accidents
Poor Job Design when job scope is either too low or too high it can be a stressor.
Monotony and boredom can prove extremely frustrating to people who feel capable of
handling more tasks
Boundary Role Stressors:
(boundary roles are positions in which organizational members are required to interact
with members of other organizations or with the public)
Role Conflict an individual working with clients have to make both the client and the
company happy, for example a sales rep has to sell while protecting another function
from unreasonable demands that could result in a broken contract

Burnout a syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced self efficacy.

Often results when an individual works with people who require special attention or are
experiencing severe problems i.e. social workers, teachers, nurses etc. Burnout seems to
be most common among people who entered their jobs with especially high ideals, their
expectations of being able to change the world are frustrated when they experience a
reality shock
Work engagement a positive work related state of mind that is characterized by vigor,
dedication, and absorption
Job demands-resources model a model that specifies how job demands cause burnout
and job resources cause engagement
Demands are physical, psychological, social or organizational features of a job
that require sustained physical or psychological effort that can in turn result is
physiological or psychological costs (i.e. work overload, time pressure etc.
Resources are features of a job that are functional in that they help achieve work
goals, reduce job demands, and stimulate personal growth, learning, and
development (i.e. pay, team climate, task significance)
High job resources foster work engagement, while high job demands exhaust
employees physically and mentally an lead to burnout. Resources can buffer the
negative impacts of demands on well-being
Some General Stressors:
Interpersonal Conflict
Bullying repeated negative behaviour directed toward one or more individuals
of lower power or status that creates a hostile work environment
Work-family conflict
Job insecurity and change
Role ambiguity
Sexual harassment

Boundary Roles
-role conflict

Execs and

Operative Roles
-poor physical
-poor job design

All Employees
-job insecurity and
-role ambiguity
-work family conflict
-sexual harassment

Behavioural Reactions to Stress:

Problem solving problem solving is directed toward terminating the stressor or reducing
its potency, not simply making the person feel better in the short run
i.e. Delegation, time management, talking it out, asking for help, searching for alternative
Seeking social support people with stronger social networks exhibit better
psychological and physical wellbeing, and when people encounter stressful events, those
with good social networks are likely to cope more positively
Performance changes some stressors can damage performance (i.e. role ambiguity,
interpersonal conflict), while others may increase or decrease performance, since they
add challenge & have motivating potential (i.e. heavy workload and responsibility)
Withdrawal in organizations, withdrawal takes the form of absence and turnover
Use of addictive substances the least satisfactory behavioural responses to stress for
both the individual and the organization. They fail to terminate stress episodes, and may
even worsen or cause additional stress
Psychological Reactions to Stress:
Defense Mechanisms psychological attempts to reduce the anxiety associated with
stress. Common defense mechanisms include:
Rationalization attributing socially acceptable reasons or motives to ones actions so
that they will appear reasonable and sensible, at least to oneself
Projection attributing ones own undesirable ideas and motives to others so that they
seem less negative
Displacement directing feelings of anger at a safe target rather than expressing them
where they may be punished

Reaction formation expressing oneself in a manner that is directly opposite to the way
one truly feels, rather than risking negative reactions to ones true position
Compensation applying ones skills to a particular area to make up for a failure in
another area
-the occasional use of defense mechanisms as a short term anxiety reducer probably
benefits both the individual and the organization, but when their use becomes a chronic
reaction to stress, the problem remains unresolved, and the stress may increase with the
knowledge that the defense has been essentially ineffective
Physiological Reactions to stress:
-Work stress is associated with elevated levels of blood pressure, cholesterol, and pulse.
Also, it is associated with the onset of some diseases due to its ill effects on the immune
Managing Stress




e Feeling

Focusing on the BLUE means antecedent focused emotion regulation strategies long
term strategies that focus on solutions. They can be applied at time of event or at time of
appraisal of situation so there is a less negative emotional impact
Focusing on the RED means response focused emotion regulation strategies deals
with symptoms of the situation and doesnt solve it
-people who use antecedent focused emotion regulation strategies rather than response
focused often end up more cheerful and calm (according to study of teachers we looked
at in lecture)
Chapter 2 / Lecture 7 & 8
Personality the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the
way an individual interacts with his or her environment

Dispositional approach individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence

their attitudes and behaviours
Situational approach factors in the work environment, such as rewards and
punishments, influence peoples feelings, attitudes, and behaviour
Interactionist approach OB is a function of both dispositions and the situation
Five Factor Model ACONE
Extraversion the extent to which a person is outgoing versus shy. Persons who score
high on extraversion tend to be sociable, outgoing, energetic, joyful and assertive.
Extraversion is especially important for jobs that require a lot of interpersonal interaction,
such as sales and management
Emotional stability / Neuroticism the degree to which a person has appropriate
emotional control. People with high emotional stability (low neuroticism) are self
confident and have high self esteem while those with low emotional stability (high
neuroticism) tend toward self doubt and depression. They tend to be anxious, hostile,
impulsive, depressed, insecure, and more prone to stress.
Agreeableness the extent to which a person is friendly and approachable. Less
approachable people tend to be more cold and argumentative, uncooperative, intolerant
etc. Agreeableness is most likely to contribute to job performance in jobs that require
interaction and involve helping, cooperating, and nurturing others, as well as teamwork
Conscientiousness the degree to which a person is responsible and achievement
oriented. More conscientious people are dependable and positively motivated, also
orderly, self disciplined, and diligent. Persons who are high in conscientiousness are
likely to perform well on most jobs given their tendency towards hard work and
Openness to experience the extent to which a person thinks flexibly and is receptive to
new ideas. More open people tend toward creativity and innovation, while less open
people favour the status quo. People who are high in openness to experience are likely to
do well in jobs that involve learning and creativity
-the big five are highly related to motivation, neuroticism and conscientiousness being
the most related
-for job satisfaction, neuroticism > conscientiousness > extraversion > agreeableness
-openness to experience is not related to job satisfaction
-the traits are independent of one another
Strong situation real social pressures, clear expectations behave a certain way.
Personality traits often do not shine through I.e. very formal networking dinner
Weak situation no pressure, personality predicts behaviour
Self monitoring the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and
behave in social settings and relationships
-high self monitors tend to gravitate towards jobs that require a degree of role playing and
the exercise of their self presentation skills. Self monitors tend to be more involved in
their jobs, to perform at a higher level, and to be more likely to emerge as leaders;
however, high self monitors are also likely to experience more role stress and show less
commitment to their organization
Self esteem the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation

-people with low self esteem are more susceptible to external influence, good at
behavioural modeling, and respond poorly to negative feedback
-when giving negative feedback to someone with low self esteem, make clear if there is
an external factor that has negatively affected performance so that they dont blame
themselves (focus on the behaviour, not the person)
-high self esteem is positively related to job performance
Behavioural plasticity theory people with low self esteem tend to be more susceptible
to external and social influences than those who have high self esteem. This occurs
because, being unsure of their own views and behaviour, they are more likely to look to
others for information and confirmation, and seek social approval from others
-note: with regards to locus of control (previously defined), uncertainty is a stressor, so
people with high internal locus of control manage stress better. They also believe it is
within their power to change their circumstances
Positive affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in
a positive light
Negative affectivity propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people,
in a negative light
-those with high PA report higher job satisfaction and job performance, while those high
on NA report lower job satisfaction and performance
Proactive behaviour taking initiative to improve current circumstances or creating new
Proactive personality a stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to take
personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change
in ones environment
General self efficacy a general trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her
ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations. It is a motivational
trait rather than an affective trait. An individuals GSE is believed to develop over the
life span as repeated successes and failures are experiences across a variety of tasks and
Core self evaluation a broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits
that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self worth. Includes
self esteem, general self efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism/emotional stability
Learning a relatively permanent change in behavioural potential that occurs due to
practice or experience
Practical skills job specific skills, knowledge, and technical competence
Intrapersonal skills skills such as problem solving, critical thinking, learning about
alternative work processes, and risk taking
Interpersonal skills interactive skills such as communicating, teamwork, and conflict
Cultural awareness learning the social norms of organizations and understanding
company goals, business operations, and company expectations and priorities
Operant learning learning by which the subject learns to operate on the environment
to achieve certain consequences i.e. a salesperson learns effective sales techniques to
achieve commissions and avoid criticism from the manager
Reinforcement the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours

Positive reinforcement the application or addition of a stimulus that increases or

maintains the probability of some behaviour i.e. an analyst tends to read a particular et of
financial newspapers regularly; he developed this habit because a series of successful
business decisions resulted from reading those papers
Negative reinforcement the removal of a negative stimulus that in turn increases or
maintains the probability of some behaviour. i.e. PepsiCos smoking cessation program
if employees smoke and do not join the program, they must pay a $600 benefits
surcharge. The benefits surcharge operates as a negative reinforcer to the extent that it
increases the probability that employees will participate in the program. Also, if
employers nag their employees unless they work hard
-organizations often confuse rewards with reinforcers; they give rewards not contingent
on behaviour even though they may have strong potential as a reinforcer
-organizations sometimes also neglect diversity in preferences for reinforcers (i.e. give a
workaholic time off work as a reinforcer) or neglect important sources of reinforcement
(i.e. performance feedback, social recognition)
-to obtain fast acquisition of some response, continuous and immediate reinforcement
must be used (reinforcer applied every time behaviour of interest exists)
-behaviour will be persistent when it is learned under the conditions of partial and
delayed reinforcement (it will persist under reduced or terminated reinforcement)
Performance feedback providing quantitative or qualitative information on past
performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways.
Performance feedback is most effective when it is a) conveyed in a positive manner b)
delivered immediately after the performance is observed c) represented visually, such as
in a graph and d) specific to the behaviour that is being targeted for feedback
Social recognition informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine
appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another
Extinction the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of
reinforcement i.e. man who cracks jokes at meetings because coworkers laughed, VP tells
coworkers not to laugh next time, man stops being a jokester
Punishment the application of an aversive stimulus following some behaviour
designed to decrease the probability of that behaviour i.e. a boss criticizes her assistant
after seeing her on the office phone for personal calls
-punishment will only temporarily suppress the unwanted response unless you provide an
acceptable alternative for the punished response
-punishment also has the tendency to provoke a strong reaction on the part of the
punished individual
-notice the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement: in negative
reinforcement a nasty stimulus is removed following some behaviour, increasing the
probability of that behaviour; in punishment a nasty stimulus is applied after some
behaviour, decreasing the probability of that behaviour
Social Cognitive Theory human behaviour can be best explained through a system of
triadic reciprocal causation, in which personal factors and environmental factors work
together and interact to influence peoples behaviour. In addition, peoples behaviour
also influences personal factors and the environment. SCT consists of:
Observational learning the process of observing and imitating the behaviour of

Self efficacy beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a
specific task (unlike the personality trait GSE, it is a task specific cognitive
appraisal of ones ability to perform a specific task). Self efficacy is influenced
by ones experiences and success in performing the task, observation of others
performing the task, verbal persuasion and social influence, and ones emotional
or physiological state
Self regulation the use of learning principles to regulate ones own behaviour.
The basic process involves observing ones own behaviour, comparing with a
standard, and rewarding oneself if the behaviour meets the standard (self
reinforcement). When there exists a discrepancy between ones goals and
performance, individuals are motivated to modify their behaviour in the pursuit of
goal attainment (discrepancy reduction). When individuals attain their goals, they
are likely to set even higher and more challenging goals, known as discrepancy
Organizational behaviour modification the systematic use of learning principles to
influence organizational behaviour
Employee recognition problems formal organizational problems that publicly
recognize and reward employees for specific behaviours. To be effective, a formal
employee recognition program must specify a) how a person will be recognized b) the
type of behaviour being encouraged c) the manner of the public acknowledgment and d) a
token or icon of the event for the recipient
Training planned organizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and
skill acquisition to change behaviour and improve performance
Behaviour modeling training (BMT) one of the most widely used and effective
methods of training, involving five steps based on the observational learning component
of social cognitive theory
1. Describe to trainees a set of well defined behaviours/skills to be learned
2. Provide model(s) displaying the effective use of those behaviours
3. Provide opportunities for trainees to practice using the behaviours
4. Provide feedback and social reinforcement to trainees following practice
5. Take steps to maximize the transfer of those behaviours to the job
Career development an ongoing process in which individuals progress through a
series of stages that consist of a unique set of issues, themes, and tasks
Can stable personality traits change?
Yes! For example, openness to experience as you get older, you settle down, may have
a family, and may become less adventurous
-conscientiousness dramatically increases as you age you get more responsibilities
-agreeableness tends to gradually rise as you age, and extraversion is pretty stable
Does your personality limit you?
For most criteria, more than 50% depends on skills and abilities that you can learn
regardless of personality traits. In addition, with effort you may be able to change
-personality captures how people behave across time > typical behaviour
-abilities may or may not be reflected in a persons typical behaviour > how well a
person can perform a particular task

ability x motivation typical performance

Cognitive intelligence abilities that have to do with thinking; verbal, quantitative,
reasoning ability. It is the single best predictor of job performance of all abilities. The
timed Wonderlic personnel test measures cognitive intelligence.
Crystallized intelligence body of knowledge with which you walk around, stuff
youve learned through past education
Fluid intelligence a persons ability to detect relationships, independent of past
experience or instruction with those relationships. There is a strong genetic component
and usually is tested by pattern progression recognition.
Myths about emotions:
Emotions impede rational thinking
It is impossible to make good decisions when we feel emotions
Reality of emotions:
Emotions are useful/functional i.e. when a car is about to hit you, your emotion of
fear will make you jump out of the way
Emotional intelligence includes the following abilities:
Identifying emotions
Using emotions to guide thinking
Understanding why emotions happen
Regulating emotion in one self and others
-EI is positively related to task performance
Chapter 11 / Lecture 9 & 10
Decision Making the process of developing a commitment to some course of action
Problem a perceived gap between an existing state and a desired state
Well-structured problem a problem for which the existing state is clear, the desired
state is clear, and how to get from one state to the other is fairly obvious
Program a standardized way of solving a problem i.e. rules, routines, standard
operating procedures, rule of thumb
Ill structured problem a problem for which the existing and desired states are unclear
and the method of getting to the desired state is unknown
Perfect rationality a decision strategy that is completely informed, perfectly logical,
and oriented toward economic gain. The Economic Person making the decision can:
Gather info about problems and solutions without cost and is therefore completely
Be perfectly logical if solution A is preferred over solution B, and B is preferred
over C, then A is necessarily preferable to C
Use only one criterion for decision making: economic gain
Bounded rationality a decision strategy that relies on limited information and that
reflects time constraints and political considerations
-people use heuristic info processing, do not have complete information, are not perfectly
logical, and use many criterion
Decision Making Heuristics:

Availability heuristic people make decisions based on what is easily accessible

in their minds (vivid information, like info about plane crashes, and information
that is common, like words ending in ING)
Representativeness heuristic when making a judgement about an individual or
event, people look for characteristics the individual or event may have in common
with previously formed thoughts. Judgments about people are often based on
previously formed stereotypes, and judgements of events are often based on
previously formed thoughts on these events that preclude attention to sample size.
i.e. probability woman is a bank teller vs. probability woman is a feminist bank
Framing heuristic people make different decisions on the same problem
depending on the way the problem is frame
o when people view a problem as a choice between losses, they tend to
make risky decisions, rolling the dice in the face of a sure loss
o when people view the alternatives as a choice between gains, they tend to
make conservative decisions, protecting the sure win
Anchoring and adjustment heuristic when people make decisions, they use
anchors to be in their decision process and fail to sufficiently adjust
The power of default a number of decisions are made for us i.e. organ donation, opt in
vs. opt out programs recall TED talk
Contrast effect some information helps people to amek a decisions about what they
want by raising awareness of what they do not want (and the opposite can be true) i.e. all
expenses weekends in Paris vs. Rome, add 3rd option: Rome with coffee (predictable
Cognitive Biases tendencies to acquire and process information in an error prone way
Bounded rationality can lead to difficulties in problem identification:
Perceptual defence our perceptual system may act to defend the perceiver
against unpleasant perceptions
Problem defined in terms of functional specialty decision makers may view a
problem as being in the domain of their own specialty even when some other
perspective might be warranted
Problem define in terms of solution jumping to conclusions effectively short
cuts the rational decision making process
Problem diagnosed in terms of symptoms a concentration on surface symptoms
will provide few clues about an adequate solution
Confirmation bias the tendency to seek out information that conforms to ones own
definition or solution to a problem
Information overload the reception of more information than is necessary to make
effective decisions. Can lead to errors, omissions, delays, and cutting corners. In
addition, decision makers facing overload often attempt to use all the info at hand, then
get confused and permit low quality information or irrelevant information to influence
their decisions
Maximization the choice of the decision alternative with the greatest expected value
Satisficing establishing and adequate level of acceptability for a solution to a problem
and then screening solutions until one that exceeds this level is found

Sunk costs permanent losses of resources incurred as the result of a decision. The
justification of fault decisions is best seen in the irrational treatment of sunk costs: since
they have been lost due to a past decision, they should not enter into future decisions
Escalation of commitment the tendency to invest additional resources in an apparently
failing course of action, in which the escalation involves devoting more and more
resources to actions implied by the decision. Why would people do this? They want to
prove their decision was right all along, and a social norm that favours consistent
behaviour exists. Changing ones mind and reversing previous decisions may be seen as
a sign of weakness
How to fix: Change the frame (what do I stand to gain youre now risk averse). Set
proximal goals. Make sure theres emphasis on the decision making process
Hindsight the tendency to review the decision making process to find what was done
right or wrong, reflects cognitive bias. i.e. a money manager who consciously makes a
very risky investment that turns out to be very successful might revise her memory to
assume that the decision was a sure thing.. the next time, the now confident investor
might not be as lucky. Another form of faulty hindsight is the tendency to take personal
responsibility for successful decision outcomes and to deny responsibility for
unsuccessful outcomes
Mood & Emotions effect on decision making:
People in a positive mood tend to remember positive info, vice versa for negative
People in a positive mood will evaluate objects, people, and events more
positively, vice versa
People in a good mood tend to overestimate the likelihood that good events will
occur and underestimate the occurrence of bad events, vice versa
People in a good mood adopt simplified, shortcut making decision strategies,
more likely violating the rational model. People in a negative mood are prone to
approach decisions in a more deliberate, systematic way
Positive mood promotes more creative, intuitive decision making
Perfect Rationality
Bounded Rationality
Problem Identification
Easy, accurate perception
Perceptual defence; jump to solutions;
of gaps that constitute
attention to symptoms rather than
problems; mood affects memory
Information Search
Free, fast, right amount of Slow, costly, reliance on flawed
information obtained
memory; obtain too little or too much
Development of
Can conceive of all
Not all known
Alternative Solutions
Evaluation of alternative Ultimate value of each
Potential ignorance of or
known; probability of each miscalculation of values &
known; only criterion is
probabilities; criteria include political
economic gain
factors; affected by mood
Solution Choice
Solution Implementation Considered in evaluation
May be difficult owing to reliance on
of alternatives
Solution Evaluation
Objective, according to
May involve justification, escalation

previous steps
to recover sunk costs, faulty hindsight
Summary of cognitive Biases in decision making:
Decision makers tend to
Be overconfident about the decisions that they make
Seek out info that confirms their own problem definition and solutions
(confirmation bias)
Remember and incorporate vivid, recent events into their decisions
Fail to incorporate known existing data about the likelihood of events into their
Ignore sample sizes when evaluating samples of info
Overestimate the odds of complex chains of events occurring
Not adjust estimates enough from some initial estimate that serves as an anchor as
they acquire more information (anchoring effect)
Have difficulty ignoring sunk costs when making subsequent decisions
Overestimate their ability to have predicted events after-the-fact, take responsibility
for successful decision outcomes, and deny responsibility for unsuccessful
outcomes (hindsight)
Decision making paradox most of the time, people make good decisions. Even so, it is
impossible to make optimal decisions all of the time, and mistakes can be costly. So, it is
important to know the flaws of the decision making system, and to correct for the flaws
when the stakes are high.
Chapter 11 Group Decision Making
Why use groups?
Decision quality groups are more vigilant than individuals, generate more ideas,
and evaluate ideas better
Decision acceptance and commitment a decision made in groups will be more
acceptable to those involved (people wish to be involved in decisions that will
affect them). People will better understand a decision in which they participated
and will be more committed to a decision in which they invested personal time
and energy
Diffusion of responsibility there exists the ability of group members to share the
burden of the negative consequences of a poor decision
Groups should perform better than individuals when:
The group members differ in relevant skills and abilities, as long as they do not
differ so much that conflict occurs
Some division of labour can occur
Memory for facts is an important issue
Individual judgments can be combined by weighting them to reflect the expertise of
the various members
Disadvantages of Group Decision Making:
Time the speed of arriving at a solution to a problem decreases as group size

Conflict decision quality could take a back seat to political wrangling and
Domination advantages of group decision making wont be realized if meetings
are dominated by a single individual or a small coalition
Groupthink groupthink is the capacity for group pressure to damage the mental
efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment of decision-making groups.
Groupthink arises from structural and procedural flaws, cohesiveness, and
provocative situational context, leading to a concurrence seeking tendency and
then groupthink. Groupthink occurs when group pressures lead to reduced mental
efficiency, poor testing of reality, and lax moral judgment; unanimous acceptance
of decisions is stressed over quality of decisions
Symptoms of Groupthink:
o Illusion of invulnerability members are overconfident and willing to
assume great risks, ignoring obvious danger signals
o Rationalization problems and counterarguments that members cannot
ignore are rationalized away (seemingly logical but improbable excuses
are given)
o Illusion of morality the decisions the group adopts are not only
perceived as sensible, they are also perceived as morally correct
o Stereotypes of outsiders the group constructs unfavourable stereotypes
of those outside the group who are the targets of their decisions
o Pressure for conformity members pressure each other to fall in line and
conform with the groups views
o Self-censorship members convince themselves to avoid voicing opinions
contrary to the group
o Illusion of unanimity members perceive that unanimous support exists
for their chosen course of action
o Mindguards some group members may adopt the role of protecting the
group from information that goes against its decisions
How to avoid groupthink:
Assign someone to the role of devils advocate
Bring in outsides (people who dont work at the company, have no vested interests)
Avoid being too directive dont shortcut the decision making process
Generate comprehensive alternatives
Search for information to determine quality
Examine the pros and cons of the alternatives
Examine the costs, benefits, and risks of the preferred choice
Monitor the results and react in the event that known risks become a reality
-the more you like someone, the more you feel comfortable criticizing them, which can
decrease groupthink
-often, people seek to agree with those who are more senior than them because they may
control their salary or promotions, regardless of their position with the decision
Risky shift the tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than the average risk
initially advocated by their individual members

Conservative shift the tendency for groups to make less risky decisions than the
average risk initially advocated by their individual members
-when group members are somewhat conservative before the interaction, they tend to
exhibit a conservative shift when they discuss the problem
-when group members are somewhat risky initially, they exhibit a risky shift after
-therefore group discussion seems to polarize or exaggerate the initial position of the
Why do risky and conservative shifts occur when groups make decisions?
1.Group discussion generates ideas and arguments that individual members have not
yet considered. The info naturally favours the members initial tendency toward
risk or conservatism. Since discussion provides more and better reasons for the
initial tendency, the tendency ends up being exaggerated
2.Group members try to present themselves as basically similar to other members but
even better. Thus, they try to one-up others in discussion by adopting a slightly
more extreme version of the groups initial state
Ways to improve decision making in organizations:
Train a discussion leader ensure no autocratic behaviour ensues
Stimulate and manage conflict full blown conflict isnt conducive to good
decision making, but neither is complete lack thereof
i.e. Devils advocate a person appointed to identify and challenge the
weaknesses of a proposed plan or strategy in an objective, unemotional manner
Traditional and electronic brainstorming if a large number of ideas is generated,
the chance of obtaining a truly creative solution is increased
Brainstorming an attempt to increase the number of creative solution
alternatives to problems by focusing on idea generation rather than evaluation
Electronic brainstorming the use of computer mediated technology to improve
traditional brainstorming practices
-face to face interaction can actually reduce individual brainstorming performance
because of inhibition, domination, or physical limitations on multiple people
brainstorming at once; over the size of 2 members, groups perform better in
brainstorming in quality and quantity of ideas when using electronic
Nominal group technique carefully separating the generation of ideas from their
evaluation. Ideas are generated nominally (without interaction) to prevent
inhibition and conformity. Evaluation permits interaction and discussion, but
occurs in a fairly structured manner to be sure that each idea gets adequate
attention. The main disadvantage is that it takes a lot of time, which is addressed
by the Delphi Technique
Nominal group technique a structured group decision making technique in
which ideas are generated without group interaction and then systematically
evaluated by the group
The Delphi Technique A method of pooling a large number of expert judgments
by using a series of increasingly refined questionnaires. Relies solely on a
nominal group no face to face interaction
-in class, recall the carter racing exercise the data shows the relationship between

gasket failures and air temperatures, and you are to decide whether or not to race. Often
groups choose to race, but this is actually very similar to choosing to launch the
challenger (the spacecraft that experienced an O-ring failure accident). Shows the affect
on group dynamic impacts on decision making the decision was made on inconclusive
data, and rushed due to time constraints and other pressures
Chapter 13 Conflict and Stress (424-437)
Interpersonal conflict the process that occurs when one person, group, or
organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another
Causes of organizational conflict:
Group identification and intergroup bias even without interaction or cohesion,
people have a tendency to develop a more positive view of their own in group
and a less positive view of the out group of which they are not a member
Interdependence when individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each
other to accomplish their own goals, the potential for conflict exists.
Interdependence implies that each party has some power over the other, making it
relatively easy for one side or the other to abuse its power and create antagonism
Differences in power, status, and culture:
o Power if dependence is not mutual but one way, the potential for conflict
o Status status differences provide little impetus for conflict when people
of lower status are dependent on those of higher status. But when people
who have lower status are in control of the tasks of higher status, conflict
may occur i.e. when servers have to give orders to higher status chefs, or
junior staff have more IT knowledge than their bosses
o Culture when two or more very different cultures develop in an
organization, the clash in beliefs and values can result in overt conflict i.e.
when one organization hires professionals from several different
companies with their own strong cultures
Ambiguity ambiguous goals, jurisdictions, or performance criteria can lead to
conflict. Under such ambiguity, the formal and informal rules that govern
interaction break down. It might also be difficult to assign responsibility for good
and bad outcomes when it is hard to see who was responsible for what
Scarce resources limited budget, secretarial support, or lab space can contribute to
conflict. I.e. two scientists who do not get along very well may be able to put up a
peaceful front until a reduction in lab space provokes each to protect her or her
Relationship conflict interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with
their relationship per se, not the task at hand i.e. personality clashes
Task conflict disagreements about the nature of the work to be done i.e. differences of
opinion about goals or technical matters
Process conflict disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished
i.e. disagreements about responsibility, authority, resource allocation, and who should do
-not all conflict is detrimental as it can help to provide a variety of perspectives, but it
often can be detrimental to team member satisfaction and performance
-when conflict begins, the following events often transpire:

Winning the conflict becomes more important than developing a good solution to
the problem at hand
The parties begin to conceal information from each other or to pass on distorted
Each side becomes more cohesive. Deviants who speak of conciliation are
punished, and strict conformity is expected
Contact with the opposite party is discouraged except under formalized, restricted,
While the opposite party is negatively stereotyped, the image of ones own position
is boosted
On each side, more aggressive people who are skilled at engaging in conflict may
emerge as leaders
Ways to manage conflict include avoiding, accommodating, competing, compromise, and
Avoiding a conflict management style characterized by low assertiveness of ones own
interests and low cooperation with the other party. Can provide short term stress
reduction, it does not really change the situation
Accommodating a conflict management style in which one cooperates with the other
party while not asserting ones own interests. If people see accommodation as a sign of
weakness, it does not bode well for future interactions. However, it can be an effective
reaction if you are wrong, the issue is more important to the other party, or you want to
build good will
Competing a conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes
cooperation. This style holds promise when you have a lot of power, you are sure of your
facts, the situation is truly win-lose, or you will not have to interact with the party in the
Compromise a conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of
assertiveness and cooperation. Does not always result in the most creative result, and is
not useful for resolving conflicts that stem from power asymmetry. However, it is a
sensible reaction to conflict stemming from scarce resources
Collaborating a conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and
cooperation, in the hope of finding an integrative agreement that fully satisfies the
interests of both parties. It probably works best when the conflict is not intense and when
each party has information that is useful to the other

Negotiation a decision making process among interdependent parties who do not share

identical preferences
Distributive negotiation win-lose negotiation in which a fixed amount of assets is
divided between parties. Essentially a single issue negotiating (i.e. negotiating the price

Partys Aspiration range

Degree of Satisfaction of the partys concerns

Others Aspiration range

of a used car, each dollar you save is a dollar out of sellers pocket, vice versa)
-distributive negotiation tactics include threats and promises, firmness versus
concessions, and verbal persuasion
-threats will only work if you have a lot of power; if more subtle and civilized, people
will be more receptive but still no one likes to be threatened
-if you are too firm, the opposite party will be firm back, leaving you in a deadlock
-persuasive arguments will be effective if you are an expert, are likeable, and/or are
unbiased. The persuasive argument should have technical merits, state how the other
party stands to benefit, and appeal to fairness

Integrative negotiation win-win negotiation that assumes that mutual problem solving
can enlarge the assets to be divided between parties
-integrative negotiation tactics include copious information exchange, framing
differences as opportunities, cutting costs, increasing resources, and introducing
superordinate goals
-creating value
-begin by sharing unimportant information (DO NOT share your reservation point). Cut
costs for your opponent to say yes, and consider multiple issues simultaneously to make
package deals
i.e. when youre buying a new car, youre not just negotiating price but also warranty,
services, model, options, colour etc.
Superordinate goals attractive outcomes that can be achieved only by collaboration
Conventional arbitration the arbitrator an choose any outcome, such as splitting the
difference between the two parties
Final offer arbitration each party makes a final offer, and the arbitrator chooses
between them. This one was devised to motivate the two parties to make sensible offers
that have a chance of being upheld
Conflict stimulation a strategy of increasing conflict to motivate change. Should be
used if:
There are signs that a friendly rut exists peaceful relationships take precedence
over organizational goals
Parties that should be interacting closely have chosen to withdraw from each other
to avoid overt conflict
Conflict is suppressed or downplayed by denying differences, ignoring controversy,
and exaggerating points of agreement
-Organizational conflict can promote necessary organizational change, since in order for
organizations to survive, they must adapt to their environments
In order to effectively negotiate (maximize total value and claim more than opponent),
you must prepare. Preparation includes self-assessment, other party assessment, and
situational assessment
1.Self assessment What is my target? What is my BATNA (best alternative to a
negotiated agreement)?
i.e. if you have several offers, your BATNA to a negotiated agreement with
McKinsey is a job with Boston Consulting Group you may want to try to
assertively negotiate a high wage. If your only other option to McKinsey is
working at Tim Hortons, youre in a much weaker bargaining position
Social proof phenomenon if it becomes public that you have many offers on
the table, it is likely you will receive many more offers as other companies (in this
case) follow suit
What is my reservation point?

Reservation point the lowest value you would accept before walking away from
a negotiation. There is a positive relationship between your BATNA and your
reservation point. If you dont know this point going into a negotiation, you will be
pushed down and look weak.
2.Opponent Assessment Who is my opponent? What is my opponents position, and
what are my opponents interests?
Your opponents position is what they say they want, while their interests are what
they actually want; these may or may not be the same
What is my opponents BATNA?
3.Situation Assessment Is the negotiation a one-off or part of an ongoing
relationship? Is an agreement required?
If its a one-off, you can get away with being devious. The tone will change,
however, with a long standing customer as goals may change (i.e. establish a
relationship rather than win negotiation) If you have multiple offers, an
agreement is not required so you are in a better bargaining position

-when the negotiation slows and loses traction, you may be at the reservation point
Chapter 7 Groups and Teamwork
Group two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal
Formal work groups groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the
achievement of organizational goals i.e. production manager and 6 shift supervisors
Task forces temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve
particular problems, such as suggesting productivity improvements
Informal groups groups that emerge naturally in response to the common
interests of organizational members. Can either help or hurt an organization
Stages of Group Development
1.Forming group members orient themselves, get to know others, purpose of group
2.Storming conflict often emerges, and confrontation and criticism occur as
members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is
developing. Sorting out roles and responsibilities are often at issue here
3.Norming members resolve the issues that provoked the storming and develop
social consensus, often requiring compromise. Interdependence is recognized,
norms are agreed to, and the group becomes more cohesive. Information &
opinions flow freely
4.Performing with the social structure sorted out, the group devotes its energies
toward task accomplishment. Themes of this stage include achievement
(measurable progress), creativity, and mutual assistance
5.Adjourning some groups (i.e. task forces and design project teams) have a

definite life span and disperse after achieving their goals. Rites and rituals that
affirm the groups previous successful development are common
-some organizational settings are so structured that storming and norming are
unnecessary for even strangers to coalesce into a team i.e. commercial airline cockpit
Punctuated Equilibrium model a model of group development that describes how
groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions
(was developed using student groups). Especially applicable for groups with a problem
solving task and a deadline to solve it
1.Phase 1 begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the
groups existence. The very first meeting is very critical for setting the agenda for
what will happen in the remainder of the phase. Assumptions, approaches, and
precedents that members develop in the first meeting end up dominating the first
half of the groups life. Although it gathers information and holds meetings, the
group makes little visible progress toward the goal
2.Midpoint Transition the midpoint transition occurs at almost exactly the halfway
point in time toward the groups deadline. The transition marks a change in the
groups approach, and how the group manages the change is critical for the group
to show progress. All approaches, assumptions, and precedents are back open for
negotiation. The transition may consolidate any previously acquired information
or even mark a completely new approach, but it crystallizes the groups activities
for phase 2 just like the first meeting did for Phase 1
3.Phase 2 the decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out. It
concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity before the deadline
and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product

Advice offered by the punctuated equilibrium model:

Prepare carefully for the first meeting, as it will strongly determine what happens in
the rest of phase 1
As long as people are working, do not look for radical progress in phase 1
Manage the midpoint transition carefully. Evaluate strengths & weaknesses of the
ideas generated in phase 1, clarify questions with whoever is commissioning your

work, and recognize that a fundamental change in approach must occur here for
progress to occur. Essential issues are not likely to work themselves out during
phase 2
Be sure that adequate resources are available to actually execute the phase 2 plan
Resist deadline changes as these could damage the midpoint transitions
Group size & satisfactionan increase in group size can decrease satisfaction, as
opportunities for friendship increase but the chance to work on and develop these
opportunities might decrease owing to the sheer time and energy required. In addition,
incorporating more members with different viewpoints, larger groups might prompt
conflict and dissension. Also, the time available for each member to participate verbally
will decrease, and people may be more inhibited to do so. Finally, members of larger
groups identify less easily with the success and accomplishments of the group (harder to
see your own contributions)
Group size and performance depends on how performance is defined. For additive
tasks, the potential performance increases with group size. For disjunctive tasks, the
potential performance also increases with group size because as group size increases, the
probability that the group includes a superior performer is greater. For conjunctive tasks,
the potential and actual performance would decrease as group size increases because the
probability of including a weak link in the group goes up.
Additive tasks tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the
performance of individual group members i.e. building a house, we can estimate the
potential speed of construction by adding the efforts of individual carpenters
Disjunctive tasks tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance
of the best member i.e. if a research team is looking for a single error in a complicated
computer program
Conjunctive tasks tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of
a single group member, the worst performer i.e. an assembly line operation
Process Losses group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of
motivating and coordinating larger groups. Even with good intentions, problems of
communication and decision making increase with size imagine 50 carpenters trying to
build a house.
Thus, actual performance = potential performance process losses
Therefore, both potential performance and process losses increase with group size for
additive and disjunctive tasks, meaning that total average productivity increases with size
up to a point and then drops off. This means that the average actual productivity per
group member decreases as each one is added diminishing marginal returns.
Group diversity and effectiveness more diverse groups have a more difficult time
communicating effectively and becoming cohesive, meaning that they will take longer to
do their forming, storming, and norming. Once they develop, however, more and less
diverse groups are equally cohesive and productive. Diverse groups sometimes perform
better when their task requires cognitive, creativity demanding tasks and problem solving
rather than more routine work because members consider a broader array of ideas
Norms collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the
behaviour of each other. Groups have an extraordinary range of rewards and
punishments available to induce conformity to norms sometimes people will comply

with norms that go against their privately held attitudes and opinions i.e. couples often
get married with religious services even if they arent religious
-typical norms include dress norms, reward allocation norms (equity reward according
to inputs like effort, equality reward everyone equally, reciprocity reward people the
way they reward you, and social responsibility reward those who truly need the
reward), performance norms (what an appropriate level of performance is)
Roles positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them.
Represent packages of norms that apply to particular group members. Assigned roles
are formally prescribed by an organization as a means of dividing labour and
responsibility to facilitate task achievement. Emergent roles are roles that develop
naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job
accomplishment i.e. someone emerges as the class clown or the newcomer helper
Role ambiguity lack of clarity of job goals or methods. Ambiguity could be
characterized by confusion about how performance is evaluated, how good performance
can be achieved, or what the limits of ones authority and responsibility are. A variety of
elements can lead to ambiguity:
Organizational factors some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their
function in the organization I.e. middle management roles might fail to provide
the big picture that upper management roles do
The role sender role senders (like the managers) might have unclear expectations
of a focal sender, or might not send his/her expectations clearly i.e. weak
orientation session, vague performance reviews, inconsistent feedback &
The focal person role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not
be fully digested by the focal person (the employee). Ambiguity tends to decrease
as the time in the job role increases
-role ambiguity can lead to job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational
commitment, lowered performance, and intentions to quit
Role conflict a condition of being faced with incompatible role expectations. Role
expectations might be completely clear (not role ambiguity) but mutually exclusive,
cannot be filled simultaneously, or do not suit the role occupant
Intrasender role conflict a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations
to a role occupant i.e. a manager might tell an employee to take it easy and not work so
hard, while delivering a batch of reports that require immediate attention (could also
provoke ambiguity)
Intersender role conflict two or more role senders provide a role occupant with
incompatible expectations i.e. a first level manager is pressured from above to get the
work out and keep the troops in line, but from below to behave in a considerate and
friendly manner
Interrole conflict several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible
expectations i.e. a person who is head of a product development task force and a market
research group has competing demands for his/her time
Person-role conflict role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the
personality or skills of a role occupant i.e. if an organization demands role behaviour that
the occupant considers unethical
Status the rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members

-the formal status system represents managements attempt to publicly identify those
people who have higher status than others. It is so obvious because this identification is
implemented by the application of status symbols that are tangible indicators of status,
like titles, particular working relationships, pay packages, work schedules, etc.
-informal status systems are often linked to factors other than job performance, such as
gender or race
-most people like to communicate with others at their own status or higher rather than
with people who are below them; this should mean that communication moves up the
status hierarchy, but if the status differences are large, people can be inhibited from
communicating upward
Group cohesiveness the degree to which a group is especially attractive to its
members, influenced by:
Threat and competition external threat to the survival of the group increases
cohesiveness in a wide variety of situations i.e. a board of directors quickly forms
a united front in the face of a takeover bid. This likely happens because groups
feel a need to improve communication and coordination so that they can better
cope with the situation at hand. Under extreme threat or unbalanced competition,
increased cohesiveness will serve little purpose
Success a group becomes more attractive to its members when it has successfully
accomplished some important goal, such as defending itself against threat or
winning a prize. By the same token, cohesiveness will decrease after failure,
although there may be misery loves company exceptions
Member diversity groups that are diverse in terms of gender, age, and race can
have a harder time becoming cohesive than more homogenous groups. However,
if a group is in agreement about how to accomplish some particular task, its
success in performing the task will often outweigh surface dissimilarity in
determining cohesiveness
Size other things being equal, bigger groups should have a more difficult time
becoming and staying cohesive. Larger groups often divide into subgroups, which
is also contrary to the cohesiveness of the larger group
Toughness of initiation groups that are difficult to get into should be more
attractive than those that are easy to join
Consequences of Cohesiveness
More participation & communication in group activities members wish to remain
in the group and like being with each other, so absence and turnover will be lower
than in less cohesive groups
More conformity members of cohesive groups are especially motivated to engage
in activities that will keep the group cohesiveness, and will apply pressure to
deviants to get them to comply with group norms
More success cohesiveness are effective at goal accomplishment because of the
high degree of participation and communication coupled with active conformity
to group norms and commitment
-it must be emphasized that cohesive groups are effective at goal accomplishment, but
they are affective at accomplishing their own goals. If these goals correspond with those

of the organization, cohesiveness would have substantial benefits, but if not,

organizational effectiveness could be threatened
-in highly cohesive groups, the productivity of individual group members tends to be
fairly similar to that of other members, while there is more variation in productivity in
less cohesive groups
-highly cohesive groups tend to be either more or less productive than less cohesive
groups, depending on a number of variables
-cohesiveness is more important when the task requires more interdependence i.e.
football versus golf teams
Social loafing the tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing
a group task. They would work harder if they were alone rather than part of the group. If
you think the other group members are smart, motivated, you may throttle back. It is
more prevalent in individualistic cultures as less thought is given to the groups well
Free rider effect people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of their
fellow group members
Sucker effect people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free
riding, that is, they are trying to restore equity in the group
Ways to counteract social loafing:
Make individual performance more visible keeping group small is a way
Make sure that the work is interesting will stimulate intrinsic motivation
Increase feelings of indispensability provide group members with unique inputs
Increase performance feedback
Reward group performance
Collective efficacy shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task.
Self efficacy doesnt necessarily translate into collective efficacy i.e. 5 skilled musicians
dont necessarily result in a good band
Self-managed work teams (SMWTs) work groups that have the opportunity to o
challenging work under reduced supervision. Critical to the success of a SMWT is the
nature of the task, the composition of the group, and the various support mechanisms in
place. If these are met, coordination should be improved, social loafing discouraged, and
collective efficacy fostered
Tasks should have the qualities of enriched jobs: teams should see the task as significant,
they should perform it from beginning to end, and they should use a variety of skills. The
team needs to have something useful to self manage, and it is fairly complex tasks that
capitalize on the diverse knowledge and skills of a group.
The composition should be stable (no frequent rotation of members in and out of the
group, as it requires considerable interaction and high cohesiveness. It should be as small
as is feasible to keep coordination problems and social loafing to a minimum. The group
members should have a high level of expertise about the task at hand (at least as a whole
when all expertise is combined) and a certain standard of social skills. Lastly, a team
should have members who are diverse: similar enough to work well together and diverse
enough to bring a variety of perspectives and skills to the task at hand
Support factors should include training (technical, social, language or business), rewards
(tie to team accomplishment rather than individual while still providing individual

performance feedback), and management (to mediate relations between teams and by
dealing with union concerns, also encouraging independence, which increases

Group Processes

Group Composition


-knowlede and
and skill
-performance strategies

Group Effectiveness
(acceptability of
of output,
members' needs met,
continuity of group)


Cross functional teams work groups that bring people with different functional
specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service. Especially
useful for new product development; rather than moving ideas through different
departments to design different aspects (which would create conflict, decrease
speediness, and foster complexity), cross functional teams will bring members from
different departments to work together
-cross functional teams need to include all relevant specialties, set superordinate goals, be
able to meet (physically close), have autonomy from the larger organization, follow basic
rules and procedures, and have a strong leader with good people skills
Shared mental models team members share identical information about how they
should interact and what their task is. Difficult to instill in cross functional teams
because of divergent backgrounds of team members, but very important
Virtual teams work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across
time, space, and organizational boundaries. Can be asynchronous (I.e. fax, voicemail,
email), which allows team members to reflect before responding, or synchronous (i.e.
chat, groupware) allowing members to communicate in real time
-the advantages of virtual teams are:
Around the clock work taking advantage of time change, workflow can be
Reduced travel time and cost no costs associated with face to face meetings
Larger talent pool companies dont have to only higher in limited geographic
-the challenges of virtual teams are:

Trust difficult to develop trust between virtual team members, as it is typically

established through physical contact and socialization
Miscommunication loss of face to face could harm non-verbal cues to
communicate meaning and feeling in a message
Isolation people have needs for companionship, but casual interactions arent
possible for virtual teams
High costs cutting edge technology can be expensive, and technology
maintenance is pricey
Management issues how can you assess individual performance, monitor
diligence, and ensure fairness in treatment when your team is dispersed around
the globe and not easily visible?
-when developing virtual teams, it is important to find people with good interpersonal
skills, not just technical expertise, and invest in training these people. Encourage them to
get to know each other through informal communication, and set goals and ground rules,
and provide feedback to keep team members informed of progress and the big picture
Group Decision Making
-pooling of resources
-sharing of expertise and experience
-increased support for the decision
-likelihood of group conflict (interpersonal)
-increased motivation with respect to
-pressure to conform to group norms
following through with the decision
-pressure to conform to leader
-group memberships have important effects on our well-being, our behaviour, and our
i.e. the Arizona football team: the identities with the players are intertwined with the
students. If the football team won, its we, whereas if they lost, its they you
distance yourself from the team. Their wins feel like your wins, and their losses feel like
your losses
basking in reflected glory feelings about the self are influenced by group affiliation
Class Robbers Cave example
-22 caucasian boys in 5th grade with similar demographics are randomly assigned to two
groups, lived in separate cabins and developed attachments to their respective groups
through group activities. Then they were pitted against each other in a 4 day series of
competition. The result was verbal prejudice, a flag was set on fire, and the rattlers broke
into the Eagles camp, stole their belongings and trashed the place. There are even broader
implications when the difference in groups is based along racial lines, national lines,
religious lines etc. You think that your group is morally superior to the other group,
which makes it easier to pull the trigger.
In-group favoritism the tendency to view your own group and its members positively
and other groups and their members negatively
Out-group homogeneity the tendency to perceive members of other groups as very
similar to each other
-these satisfy the need for belongingness Maslows hierarchy

2nd class example the Asch experiment participants are asked which line matches the
length of one of the lines, the answer should be very obvious. Only one of the people is
an actual research participant, the rest are actors (but he isnt aware). All of the actors
will choose the obviously incorrect answer, and often the research participants would go
against their own opinions to side with the majority think in the context of world war 2.
When one of the actors agree with you, conformity was decreased as there was now
social support: even if youre wrong, youre not wrong alone. In that context there is
higher self confidence and less self doubt.
-conformity is lowest in individualistic (vs. collectivistic) cultures
3rd Class Example Group membership & performance there are 2 competing
sterotypes: Asians are good at math and females are bad at math. A group of Asian
American women are asked questions to be made subconsciously aware of each identity
salient (female identity salient, Asian identity salient, and no-identity salient. All
participants going in have the same level of quantitative ability. The ones who were
made aware of the Asian salient performed better on the math competition test, the
female identity salient performed worse, and no identity salient was in the middle.
Stereotype threat individuals perform more poorly on a task when a relevant negative
stereotype is salient. This is because stereotype threat reduces ones ability to
temporarily store information in memory and to suppress irrelevant information. You
dont want to be the one to confirm the stereotype, which causes anxiety and in turn
Impacts performance, even if you dont believe it. If the stereotype is positive, gives
confidence and is called stereotype lift. The only way to combat stereotype threat is to be
aware of it
4th class Example Bad Apples 3 undergrads and one actor who acts as one of the three
types of bad apples (attack/insulting others, depressive pessimist, slacker). The groups
with the actor performed worse as the bad apple behaviour dramatically affected the way
that the group communicated with each other. The team members would begin to imitate
the bad apples behaviour, not just in response to the actor but to each other
-therefore the best predictor of group performance is not necessarily the performance of
the best performer, but more like the average performer
Chapter 8 Social Influence, Socialization, and Culture
Information Dependence reliance on others for information about how to think, feel,
and act. Gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions via
the signals they send to us
Effect dependence reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and
Motives for social conformity:
1. Compliance conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire
rewards or avoid punishment i.e. convicts conforming to formal prison norms,
young children behaving themselves

2. Identification conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those

who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself i.e. a newly promoted
exec might try to dress and act like her admired, successful boss
3. Internalization conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the
beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm i.e. a priest conforming to
norms of religion, army officer because he believes in its values
Socialization the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and
behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization
Socialization Methods

Proximal Socialization

Distal Socialization

Realistic Job previews


Job satisfaction

Employee Orientation Programs

Task Mastery

Organizational commitment

Socialization Tactics

Social Integration

Organizational citizenship


Role conflict

Job performance

Proactive Tactics

Role ambiguity


Person-job Fit


Person-organization Fit

Person-job fit the match between an employees personal values and the values of an
Person-organization fit the match between an employees personal values and the
values of an organization
Organizational identification the extent to which an individual defines him or herself
in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent; reflects an individuals
learning and acceptance of an organizations culture
Stages of Socialization in a sense, the first two stages represent hurdles for achieving
passage into the third stage
1. Anticipatory socialization before a person becomes a member of a particular
organization, there might be skill/attitude acquisition (going to college), or
informal working in summer jobs or even watching the portrayal of organizational
life in TV shows. Not all anticipatory socialization is accurate and useful for the
new member
2. Encounter the new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational
life, encounters the day to day reality of this life. May include orientation
programs and rotation through various parts of the organization. Informal aspects
include getting to know and understanding the style/personality of ones boss &
coworkers. If successful, the recruit will have complied with critical

organizational norms and should begin to identify with experienced organizational

3. Role management the new members attention shifts to the fine tuning and
actively managing his/her role in the organization. May attempt to modify own
role, balance organizational role with non-work roles, etc.
-if someone enters an organization with high expectations (that are often unrealistically
high or inaccurate) they may end up disappointed; research shows that newcomers who
have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment,
job performance, job survival and lower intentions to leave
Psychological contract beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations
and promises between them and their organization. i.e. an employee might expect to
receive bonuses and promotions in return for hard work and loyalty
Psychological contract breach employee perceptions that his or her organization
failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations of the psychological contract.
Leads to affective reactions (higher feelings of contract violation and mistrust toward
management), work attitudes (lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and
higher turnover intentions) and work behaviours (lower organizational citizenship
behaviour and job performance)
Realistic job previews the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and
negative aspects of a job to the applicant. Provides corrective action to expectations at
the anticipatory socialization stage. Ensure that people who have low P-J and P-O fit
perceptions to withdraw from the application process, called self selection
Traditional Procedures
Realistic Procedures
Set initial Job Expectations too high
Set job expectations realistically
Job is typically viewed as attractive
Job may or may not be attractive,
depending on individuals needs
High rate of job offer acceptance
Some accept, some reject job offer
Work experience disconfirms expectations
Work experience confirms expectations
Dissatisfaction and realization that job not
Satisfaction; needs matched to job
matched to needs
Low job survival, dissatisfaction, frequent
High job survival, satisfaction, infrequent
thoughts of quitting
thoughts of quitting
Employee orientation programs programs designed to introduce new employees to
their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization i.e. ROPES
Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress, teaches newcomers how to use cognitive
and behavioural coping techniques to manage workplace stressor in addition to providing
realistic information. Proven to increase organizational commitment and have more
knowledgeable employees in terms of the organizations goals, values, history etc. Also,
decreased turnover
Socialization tactics the manner in which organizations structure the early work
experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another



l Fixed


ed Tactics





Collective vs. Individual Tactics when using the collective tactic, a number of new
members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the
same challenges i.e. army boot camps, fraternity pledge, flight attendant training. The
Individual tactic consist of socialization experiences that are tailor made for each new
member i.e. simple on the job training and apprenticeship to develop skilled craftspeople
Formal vs. Informal Tactics formal tactics involve segregating newcomers from
regular organizational members and providing them with formal learning experiences
during the period of socialization. Informal tactics do not distinguish a newcomer from
more experienced members and rely on more informal and on the job learning
Sequential vs. random tactics have to do with whether there is a clear sequence of
steps or stages during the socialization process. There is a fixed sequence of steps
leading to the assumption of the role with a sequential tactic, while there is an ambiguous
or changing sequence with random tactics
Fixed versus Variable tactics if socialization is fixed, there is a timetable for the
newcomers assumption of the role. If the tactic is variable, then there is no time frame to
indicate when the socialization process ends and the newcomer assumes his or her new
Serial versus Disjunctive Tactics the serial tactic refers to a process in which
newcomers are socialized by experienced members of the organization. The disjunctive
tactic refers to a socialization process where role models and experienced organization
members do not groom new members or show them the ropes
Investiture versus divestiture tactics divestiture tactics refer to what is also known as
debasement and hazing; this occurs when organizations put new members through a
series of experiences that are designed to humble them and strip away some of their
initial self confidence. Debasement is a way of testing the commitment of new members
and correcting for faulty anticipatory socialization. Having been humbled and stripped of
preconceptions, members are then ready to learn the norms of the organization. An
extreme example is the rough treatment & shaved heads of the US marines. The

investiture socialization affirms the incoming identity and attributes of new hires rather
than denying them and stripping them away. Organizations that carefully select new
members for certain attributes and characteristics would be more likely to use this tactic
Institutionalized versus individualized socialization institutionalized socialization
consists of collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics.
Individualized socialization consists of individual, informal, random, variable,
disjunctive, and divestiture tactics. The main difference between the two is that
institutionalized reflects a more formalized and structured program of socialization that
reduces uncertainty and encourages new hires to accept organizational norms and
maintain the status quo. On the other hand, individualized socialization reflects a relative
absence of structure that creates ambiguity and encourages new hires to question the
status quo and develop their own approach to their role.
-institutional socialization tactics have been found to be related to proximal outcomes,
such as lower role ambiguity and conflict and more positive perceptions of P-J and P-O
fit, as well as distal outcomes, such as more positive job satisfaction and organizational
commitment and lower stress and turnover. In addition, institutional results in a more
custodial role orientation, in which new hires accept the status quo and the requirements
of their roles
-individualized socialization tactics result in a more innovative role orientation, in which
new recruits might change or modify the way they perform their tasks and roles
-the SOCIAL tactics have been found to be the most strongly related to socialization
Mentor an experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a junior
person special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or
her during the early stages of his/her career. For a mentor to be effective, they must
provide two functions:
Career Functions of Mentoring - made possible by the senior persons
experience, status, knowledge of how the organization works, and influence with
powerful people in the organization. Includes:
Sponsorship the mentor might nominate the apprentice for advantageous
transfers and promotions
Exposure and visibility the mentor might provide opportunities to work with
key people and see other parts of the organization
Coaching and feedback the mentor might suggest work strategies and
identify strengths and weaknesses in the apprentices performance
Developmental assignments the mentor can provide challenging work
assignments that will help develop key skills and knowledge that are crucial to
career progress
Psychosocial functions of mentoring mentors can provide certain psychosocial
functions that are helpful in developing the apprentices self confidence, sense of
identity, and ability to cope with emotional traumas that can damage a persons
effectiveness. These include:
Role modeling this provides a set of attitudes, values, and behaviours for the
junior person to imitate
Provide acceptance and confirmation this provides encouragement and
support and helps the apprentice gain self-confidence

Counseling this provides and opportunity to discuss personal concerns and

anxieties concerning career prospects, work-family conflicts, etc.
-mentored individuals have higher objective career outcomes, such as compensation and
number of promotions, and higher subjective outcomes, including satisfaction with ones
job and career and greater career commitment.
Proactive socialization the process through which newcomers play an active role in
their own socialization through the use of a number of proactive socialization behaviours.
i.e. request feedback and seek information about work tasks and roles as well as about
their group and organization, networking, relationship building, involvement in work
related activities, observing
Organizational culture the shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an
organization. Tends to be fairly stable over time, can involve internal and/or external
values, and can have a strong impact on organizational performance and member
Subcultures smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational culture that are
based on differences in training, occupation, or departmental goals
Strong culture an organizational culture with intense and pervasive beliefs, values, and
assumptions. Assets of strong cultures include coordination (due to lots of
communication), conflict resolution (sharing core values can be a powerful mechanism
that helps to ultimately resolve conflicts) and financial success (when the culture supports
the mission, strategy, and goals of the organization). Liabilities of strong cultures include
resistance to change (because of the strong consensus about common values and
appropriate behaviour), culture clash (strong cultures can mix badly when a merge or
acquisition pushes two of them under the same corporate banner, i.e. HP is engineering
oriented while Compaq was sales oriented, ended up in a difficult merger), and pathology
(if a strong culture is based on beliefs, values, and assumptions that support infighting,
secrecy, and paranoia, it will likely threaten organizational effectiveness. i.e. Enron
collapse partly because lies were valued)
Companies with strong cultures go to great pains to expose employees to a careful, step
by step socialization process:
1. Careful selection of entry-level candidates
2. Humility inducing experiences that promote openness toward accepting
organizations norms & values (i.e. debasement and hazing)
3. In the trenches training leads to mastery of a core discipline (starting at the
4. Rewards and control systems are meticulously refined to reinforce behaviour that
is deemed pivotal to success in the marketplace
5. Adherence to values enables the reconciliation of personal sacrifices
6. Reinforcing folklore for the nature of the organizations culture
7. Consistent role models that serve as tangible examples for new members to
-a strong culture may be marked by symbols, rituals (i.e. buzz nights), and stories (i.e.
can the little person rise to the top? Will the organization help me when I have to move?
Is the big boss human?)
Chapter 9 - Leadership

Traits individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and

Traits associated with Leadership Effectiveness (great person theory):
Motivation to lead
Emotional stability
Honesty and integrity
Need for achievement
-the trait approach is mostly concerned with what leaders bring to a group setting, but
ignores what leaders do in a group setting and what behaviours caused them to become
-some traits might appear to be related to leadership capacity, but there are no traits that
guarantee leadership across various situations
-extraversion explains about 10% of leadership effectiveness, and conscientiousness 8%,
but all 5 together still only explain about 31% of leadership emergence and success:
Personality Trait
Emotional Stability
Openness to Experience
Total variance
-leaders are not just born, you can develop leadership skills
Consideration the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal
concern and respect for employees. The considerate leader is seen as friendly and
egalitarian, expresses appreciation and support, and is protective of group welfare
Initiating structure the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal
attainment. The structuring leader clearly defines and organizes his or her role and the
roles of followers, stresses standard procedures, schedules the work to be done, and
assigns employees to particular tasks
-both consideration and initiating structure contribute positively to employees
motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness. However, consideration tends to be
more strongly related to follower satisfaction, motivation, and leader effectiveness, while
initiating structure is slightly more strongly related to leader job performance and group
When employees are under a high degree of pressure due to deadlines, unclear
tasks, or external threat, initiating structure increases satisfaction and performance
i.e. soldiers stranded behind enemy lines should perform better under directive
When the task itself is intrinsically satisfying, the need for high consideration and
high structure is generally reduced i.e. the teacher who really enjoys teaching

should be able to function with less social-emotional support & less direction
from the principal
When the goals and methods of performing the job are very clear, consideration
should promote employee satisfaction, while structure might promote
dissatisfaction i.e. the job of garbage collection is very clear in goals & methods;
employees would appreciate social support but view excessive structure as
redundant and unnecessary
When employees lack knowledge as to how to perform a job, or the job itself has
vague goals or methods, consideration becomes less important, while initiating
structure takes on additional importance i.e. the new astronaut recruit should
appreciate direction in learning a complex, unfamiliar job
Leader reward behaviour the leaders use of compliments, tangible benefits, and
deserved special treatment; when made contingent on performance, will motivate
employees to perform at a higher level and experience job satisfaction
Leader punishment behaviour the leaders use of reprimands or unfavourable task
assignments and the active withholding of rewards; harder to use effectively and could
lead to employee dissatisfaction. When contingent on performance will lead to more
favourable employee perceptions, attitudes and behaviour, but when non-contingent will
lead to unfavourable outcomes
Contingency theory Fred Fiedlers theory that states that the association between
leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the
situation is for exerting influence. Basically, means that some situations are more
favourable for leadership than others, and these situations require different orientations
on the part of the leader
Least Preferred Co Worker (LPC) a way to measure leadership orientation; a current
or past co worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task is
described by the leader
-if described favourably (a high LPC score) then the leader is relationship
oriented; despite the fact that the LPC is/was difficult to work with, the leader can still
find positive qualities
-if described unfavourably (a low LPC score) then the leader is task oriented; the
leader allows the low-task competence of the LPC to colour his or her views of the
personal qualities of the LPC
Factors that affect situational favorableness for Leadership (for contingency theory)
Leader-member relations when the relationship between the leader and the
group is good, the leader is in a favourable situation to exert influence. A poor
relationship could damage the leaders influence
Task structure when the task at hand is highly structured, the leader should be
able to exert considerable influence on the group.
Position power the more formal authority granted to the leader by the
organization, the more favourable is the leadership situation
- a task orientation (Low LPC) is most effective when the leadership situation is very
favourable or when it is very unfavourable, whereas a relationship orientation (high LPC)
is better in conditions of medium favourability
Favourableness High
Leader-Member Relations


Task Structure
Position Power Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Weak
Most Effective Leader Orientation
Why? Because leaders can get away with a task situation when the situation is
very favourable (employee are ready to be influenced) or very unfavourable (it is the only
way to get anything accomplished). In conditions of medium favourability, the boss is
faced with some combination of an unclear task or a poor relationship with employees.
Here a relationship orientation will help to make the best of a situation that is stress
provoking but not impossibly bad
Cognitive Resource Theory (CRT) a leadership theory that focuses on the conditions
in which a leaders cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, and experience)
contribute to effective leadership. Basically, the importance of intelligence for leadership
effectiveness depends on the following conditions: the directiveness of the leader, group
support for the leader, and the stressfulness of the situation. Leader intelligence is
predicted to be the most important when the leader is directive, the group supports the
leader, and the situation is low stress, because the leader is able to think clearly and use
his/her intelligence. In high stress situations a leaders cognitive resources are impaired,
so there his or her work experience will be most important
Path-Goal Theory Robert Houses theory concerned with the situations under which
various leader behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented)
are most effective. He states that the most important activities of leaders are those that
clarify the paths to various goals of interest to employees (goals like a promotion, sense
of accomplishment, or pleasant work climate). The opportunity to achieve such goals
should promote job satisfaction, leader acceptance, and high effort thus the leader forms
a connection between employee goals and organizational goals.
-managers should align employee goals with organization goals
The effectiveness of each of the following behaviours is dependent on the situation that
the leader encounters:
Directive behaviour directive leaders schedule work, maintain performance
standards, and let employees know what is expected of them; this behaviour is
essentially identical to initiating structure
Supportive behaviour supportive leaders are friendly, approachable, and
concerned with pleasant interpersonal relationships; this behaviour is essentially
identical to consideration
Participative behaviour participative leaders consult with employees about work
related matters and consider their opinions
Achievement oriented behaviour these leaders encourage employees to exert
high effort and strive for a high level of goal accomplishment. They express
confidence that employees can reach these goals
The leader effectiveness of the leader behaviours is contingent on the situational factors,
including employee characteristics and environmental factors
Employee characteristics:
Employees who have a high need for achievement should work well under
achievement oriented leadership
Employees who prefer being told what to do work best under directive

When employees feel that they have rather low task abilities, they should
appreciate directive leadership and coaching behaviour. When they feel quite
capable of performing the task, they will view such behaviours as unnecessary
and irritating

Low Skill

High Skill

Directive or Supportive

Participative or Achievement Oriented

Environmental factors:
When tasks are clear and routine, employees will perceive directive leadership as
redundant and unnecessary, reducing satisfaction and acceptance of the leader.
Similarly, participative leadership would not seem useful since there is little in
which to participate
When tasks are challenging but ambiguous, employees would prefer directive and
participative leadership as such styles should clarify the path to good performance
and demonstrate that the leader is concerned with helping employees to do a good
Frustrating, dissatisfying jobs should increase employee appreciation of
supportive behaviour

Non Routine/ Ambiguous


Directive or Participative

-note that the theory appears to work better in predicting employees job satisfaction and
acceptance of the leader than in predicting job performance
Participative leadership involving employees in making work related decisions. Can
vary between a manager permitting employees to function within limits defined by
superior, all the way to opposite where manager makes decision and announces it (non
participate leadership)
-participative leadership can increase employee motivation because it may permit them to
contribute to the establishment of work goals and to decide how they can accomplish
these goals. Also, it can increase intrinsic motivation by enriching employees job, as it
adds some variety to the job and promotes autonomy.
-participation can enhance quality as more employees may mean a larger wealth of
knowledge, and often the professional employees have more up to date technical
expertise than their superiors.
-participation can increase employees acceptance of decisions even if it does not
promote motivation or increase the quality of decisions because the process is seen as
more fair
-potential problems of participative leadership include extra time and energy required, a
loss of power, and a lack of receptivity or knowledge (if a leader is distrusted, or when a
poor labour climate exists, employees might resent having to do managements work,
even when receptive employees might lack the actual knowledge to make good decisions)

Vroom and Jagos Situational Model of Participation attempts to specify when leaders
should use participation and to what extent they should use it. For issues involving the
entire work group, the following range of behaviours is plausible (A stands for autocratic,
C for consultative, and G for group; I indicates an individual and II indicates that a group
is involved)
AI you solve the problem or make the decision yourself, using information
available to you at the time
AII you obtain the necessary information from your employees, then decide the
solution to the problem yourself. You may or may not tell your employees what
the problem is in getting the info from them. The employees only provide
necessary info, no generation or evaluation of alternatives/solutions
CI you share the problem with the relevant employees individually, getting their
ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Then you make
the decision, which may or may not reflect your employees influence
CII you share the problem with your employees as a group, obtaining their
collective ideas and suggestions. Then you make the decision, which may or may
not reflect your employees influence
GII you share the problem with your employees as a group. Together you
generate and evaluate alternatives and attempt to reach a consensus. Your role is
like that of a chairperson; you do not try to influence to group to adopt your
solution, and you are willing to accept and implement any solution that has the
support of the entire group
The effectiveness of the above strategies depends on the situation/problem at hand:
QR Quality Requirement
How important is the technical quality of this decision?
CR Commitment
How important is subordinate commitment to the decision?
LI Leaders Information
Do you have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?
ST Problem Structure
Is the problem well structured?
CP Commitment Probability If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your
subordinates would be committed to the decisions?
GC Goal Congruence
Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving the
CO Subordinate Conflict
Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely?
SI Subordinate information Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?

Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX theory) a theory of leadership that focuses

on the quality of the relationship that develops between a leader and an employee. High
LMX (high quality relationships) involve a high degree of mutual influence, trust,
loyalty, and respect between a leader and an employee. High LMX leaders provide
employees with challenging tasks and opportunities, greater latitude and discretion, task
related resources, and recognition; in these relationships employees perform tasks beyond
their job description. In low LMX (low quality relationships) there is low trust, respect,
obligation and mutual support. The leader provides less attention and latitude to the
employees, and employees do only what their job descriptions and formal role
requirements demand
-high quality of LMX is related to high overall satisfaction, organizational commitment,
organizational citizenship behaviour, role clarity, job performance, and lower role conflict
and turnover intentions
Transactional leadership leadership that is based on a straightforward exchange
relationship between the leader and the followers. The leader uses a participatory style,
and involves contingent reward behaviour, management by exception and path-goal
Management by exception leadership that involves the leader taking corrective action
on the basis of results of leader-follower transactions. They monitor follower behaviour,
anticipate problems, and take corrective actions before the behaviour creates serious
Transformational leadership leadership that provides followers with a new vision that
instills true commitment. Transformational leadership is strongly related to follower
motivation and satisfaction, leader performance and effectiveness, and individual, group,
and organizational performance. Will buy you employees who internalize the companys
values. Transformational leader behaviour involves some key dimensions:

Intellectual stimulation the leader challenges assumptions, takes risks, and

solicits followers ideas. The vision provoking creativity
Individualized consideration treating employees as distinct individuals,
indicating concern for their needs and personal development, and serving as a
mentor or coach when appropriate
Inspirational motivation involves the communication of visions that are
appealing and inspiring to followers. They have a strong vision for the future
based on values and ideals and stimulate enthusiasm, communicate optimism,
provide meaning for tasks etc. The speech itself & the delivery of deeply held
Charisma the leader has the ability to command strong loyalty and devotion
form followers and thus has the potential for strong influence among them.
Followers come to trust and identify with charismatic leaders and to internalize
the values and goals they hold charisma provides the emotional aspect of
transformational leadership. Possibly most important part, but part we know least
Ethical leadership the demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through
personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to
followers through two way communication, reinforcement, and decision making. Ethical
Communicate a clear and consistent positive ethics message from the top
Create and embrace opportunities for everyone in the organization to
communicate positive ethics, values, and practices
Ensure consequences for ethical and unethical conduct
-ethical leadership is positively associated with employee perceptions of honesty,
fairness, and effectiveness and with less counterproductive work behaviour
Authentic leadership a positive form of leadership that involves being true to oneself.
Authentic leaders know and act upon their true values, beliefs, and strengths, and they
help others to do the same. Followers of authentic leaders report higher organizational
citizenship behaviour, organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and satisfaction with
their supervisor, and job performance. Authentic leadership consists of 4 related but
distinct dimensions:
Self awareness authentic leaders have an understanding of ones strengths and
weaknesses and an awareness of ones impacts on others
Relational transparency the presenting of ones true or authentic self to others
and the sharing of info and expressions of ones true thoughts and feelings
Balanced processing the objective analysis of relevant information before
making a decision and consideration of views that challenge ones own position
Internalized moral perspective the internal moral standards and values that
guide ones behaviour and decision making. Authentic leaders exhibit behaviour
thats consistent with their internal moral standards
GLOBE is a research project that involved researchers looking at cultural attributes and
global leadership dimensions around the world

Performance Orientation the degree to which a collective encourages and

rewards (and should encourage and reward) its members for improvement and
excellence in their performance
Assertiveness the degree to which individuals are (and should be) assertive,
confrontational, and aggressive in their interactions with others
Future orientation the extent to which individuals prepare (and should
prepare) for the future, for example by delaying gratification, planning ahead, and
investing in the future
Humane orientation the degree to which a collective encourages and rewards
Individuals for their fairness, altruism, generosity, caring and kindness to others
Institutional collectivism the degree to which the institutional practices of
organizations and society encourage and reward collective distribution of
resources and collective action
Ingroup collectivism the degree to which individuals express pride, loyalty, and
cohesiveness in their families or organizations
Gender egalitarianism the degree to which a collective minimizes gender
Power distance the degree to which members of a collective expect power to be
distributed evenly
Uncertainty avoidance the extent to which a society, organization or group
relies on social norms, rules, and procedures to lessen the unpredictability of
future events
Implicit leadership theory - a theory that states that individuals hold a set of beliefs
about the kinds of attributes, personality characteristics, skills, and behaviours that
contribute to or impede outstanding leadership
-these belief systems are shared among individuals in common cultures, called culturally
endorses implicit leadership theory (CLT)
Six global leadership dimensions that are contributors to outstanding leadership:
Charismatic/value based reflects the ability to inspire, to motivate, and to expect
high performance outcomes from others on the basis of firmly held core beliefs
Team oriented emphasizes effective team building and implementation of a
common purpose or goal among team members
Participative the degree to which managers involve others in making and
implementing decisions
Humane oriented reflects supportive and considerate leadership, but also
includes compassion and generosity
Autonomous refers to independent and individualistic leadership
Self protective focuses on ensuring the safety and security of the individual
-the GLOBE created leadership profiles for each national culture and cluster of culture
based on their scores on the 6 global leadership dimensions, they all differed greatly in
scores, but found that some attributes that were favourable for leaders in some cultures
were not in others (for example, being individualistic, being constantly conscious of
status, and taking risks). And some attributes (honesty, decisive, motivational,
communicative) were desirable globally, while others (loners, irritable, egocentric,
imposing your views on others) were undesirable globally

Global leadership a set of leadership capabilities required to function effectively in

different cultures and the ability to cross language, social, economic, and political
borders. Must have the following characteristics:
Unbridled inquisitiveness required to cross language, social, economic and
political borders
Personal character an emotional connection to people from different cultures
and uncompromising integrity
Duality must be able to manage uncertainty and balance global and local
Savvy need to understand the conditions they face in different countries and be
able to recognize new market opportunities or their organizations goods and
Laissez-faire leadership a style of leadership that involves the avoidance or absence of
-women and men may adopt different leadership styles; said that women are more
transformational and engaged in contingent reward behaviours, while men may use more
management by exception and laissez faire perhaps because women have better social
skills than men
Glass ceiling the invisible barrier that prevents women from advancing to senior
leadership positions in organizations; perhaps more like a labyrinth, as women face all of
the following barriers:
Vestiges of prejudice men continue to receive higher wages and faster
promotions than women with equal qualifications at all organizational levels
Resistance to womens leadership mean are perceived as having agentic traits
(convey assertion and control and are generally associated with effective
leadership) while women are perceived as having communal traits (convey a
concern for the compassionate treatment of others)
Issues of leadership style women leaders often struggle to find an appropriate
leadership style that reconciles the communal traits associated with females and
the agentic traits associated with leaders. When women exhibit an agentic style
they are criticized for lacking communal traits, and when they exhibit a
communal style they are criticized for not being agentic enough to be a leader
Demands of family life women remain responsible for domestic work and child
rearing and as a result have fewer years of work experience and fewer hours of
employment, which slows their career progress and results in slower pay
Underinvestment in social capital women have less time for socializing with
colleagues and developing social networks and often have difficulty breaking in to
social networks because they are predominantly male, meaning they have less
social capital
Examples of agentic traits dedicated, charismatic, intelligent, determined, aggressive,
Examples of communal traits caring, sensitive, honest, understanding, compassionate,
Class Example 1 The Milgram Experiments

Participants were told they were doing a study on memory and

learning. The other participant is a middle aged man, and a random
drawing gives you the role of teacher and the man the role of the
learner. The learner is supposed to be trying to remember word
pairs, and the teacher is required to administer a shock to the learner
when he makes mistakes because the study is designed to explore the
effects of punishment on learning. Participants were free to leave
anytime. The shock machine has levels from 15-450 volts, labeled
ranging from slight shock to danger severe shock to XXX, and
the teacher is given a mild electric shock at first to know what it
feels like (unpleasant). The experimenter is in the same room as
you, presented as a leader he designed study, perfected it, is really smart, went to
prestigious schools etc. As the teacher administers shocks, the learner sounds as if hes
in excruciating pain. The experimenter says things like the experiment requires that you
continue it is absolutely essential that you continue and Please go on
-the experts predicted that only 1-3% of participants would keep going to the end (this is
the percent of population that are psychopaths)
-the results were that 62.5% of participants obeyed until the end, men and women to the
same extent, similar results across cultures; 100% of participants obeyed up to an
intense 100 volt shock
-shows that people will go against their own better judgment even if they know what is
right; people do what they are told to do so long as they perceive that the command
comes from a legitimate authority
-when the experimenter was replaced by another teacher (just another research
participant who would also be nervous), only 20% reached 450 volts
-when told that two other teacher refused to continue, only 10% reached 450 volts part
of a panel, ally in room, no longer fear social isolation
-2% reached 450 volts when they could choose the level of shock psychopaths
Halo effect extrapolate from a positive attitude (this isnt present when its just another
teacher replacing the experimenter because there is not enough to extrapolate from)
-the social influence of a leader explains the atrocities of the holocaust
Organizational Lessons
To Influence
To avoid being Influenced
Use Titles
Be wary of people who insist on using titles (i.e. Im a senior associate
Dress the part Focus on substance above style
Drive the part A V12 engine sounds nice but evidence and logic are preferable
Basically, when you are confronted with an authority figure, ask yourself two questions:
1. Is this authority truly an expert?
2. How honest can I expect this authority to be (whats in it for them)?
Managerial Grid: A focus on behaviours
-note people focus is a general concern about employee well being (not customers)

1) Task management leaders who believe that since you earn a salary, you owe the
organization negatively impacts performance and threatens employees
2) Country Club Management love your job, love your boss, but get nothing done
performance will suffer
3) Impoverished management managers just trying to keep their job, dont engage
employees, keep a low profile have the lowest levels of job performance
4) Middle of the road management see people focus and task focus as mutually
exclusive cant see a reality where employees are very happy and very
productive, so go somewhere in the middle
5) Team management minimize status differentials, employees happy and
Class Example 2 Effect of leadership on behaviour in public good dilemmas
-De Cremer and Van Knippenberg examined this by doing a study of people working on
an investment task where people could earn money for themselves and for their group;
each participant received 300 cents and chose how much to contribute. The total amount
contributed to the group was multiplied by 2 ad then divided amongst all group members,
regardless of their individual contributions
-when there was a transformational leader in the group, participants gave 130 cents on
average, while when there was no transformational leader they gave 90.92 cents (a 30%
-the best leaders are good at both transactional and transformational leadership
Chapter 3 Perception, Attribution, and Diversity
Perception the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and
meaning to the environment
Perceptual defence the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver
against unpleasant emotions i.e. you see what you want to see or hear what you want to
Social identity the theory that states that people form perceptions of themselves based
on their characteristics and memberships in social categories. While our personal identity
is based on our personal characteristics (interests, abilities, traits), our social identity is

based on our perception that we belong to various social groups (gender, nationality,
religion, occupation etc.)
-perception is selective, as perceivers dont use all available clues, and those that they do
use are thus given special emphasis.
-perception is constant as the target will be perceived in the same way over time across
situations i.e. when you get off on the wrong foot with someone, it sticks
-perception creates a consistent picture of the target we tend to select, ignore, and
distort cues in a manner so that they fit together to form a homogenous picture of the
Primacy effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions
Recency effect the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions
Central traits personal characteristics of a target that are of particular interest to a
perceiver I.e. on developing her perceptions of her new coworker, the experienced
engineer developed her impressions around the trait of intellectual capacity, many people
will center around attractiveness, or physical height or weight
Projection the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts and feelings to
others i.e. the honest warehouse manager may perceive others as honest, but may find
stock disappearing
Stereotyping the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and
ignore variations among them. We distinguish some category of people, assume that the
individuals in this category have certain traits, and that thus everyone in this category
possesses these traits. Not all stereotypes are inaccurate, but usually they are. Stereotypes
persist nonetheless because inaccurate stereotypes are reinforced by selective perception
(you may be on the lookout for the stereotypical behaviour) and it may be easier for the
perceiver to rely on an inaccurate stereotype rather than work to discover the true nature
of the target
-stereotypes are not necessarily bad, but stereotyping is more of a problem
-powerful people tend to sterotype others more
-low power groups are seen as more homogenous while high power groups are
seen as heterogenous (you know high power peoples names because they dictate your
future, so you pay attention to them)
-it is self serving for people in power to use stereotypes they will preserve the
status quo
-higher power people also have to ability to stereotype because they are in contact
with high power
-stereotype persistence is also attributable to the vicious cycle:
Stereotypes are based on power differences, and they lead to power differences
(they reinforce power differences
Attribution the process by which causes or motives are assigned to explain peoples
Dispositional attributions explanations for behaviour based on an actors personality
or intellect
Situational attributions explanations for behaviour based on an actors external
situation or environment
To decide whether we should attribute behaviour to dispositional or situational causes,
look for these cues:

Consistency cues attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person

engages in a behaviour over time. High consistency leads to dispositional
attributes, when behaviour occurs inconsistently it may be situational attributes
i.e. if a persons performance cycles between mediocre and excellent, we might
look to variations in workload to explain the cycles
Consensus cues attribution cues that reflect how a persons behaviour compares
with that of others. Unusual, low-consensus behaviour leads to more
dispositional attributions than typical, high-consensus behaviour. The person who
acts differently from the majority is seen as revealing more of his/her true motives
i.e. a co workers private statements bout his boss will be more genuine than his
public relations with the boss
Distinctiveness cues attribution cues that reflect the extent to which a person
engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations. When a behaviour
occurs across a variety of situations, it lacks distinctiveness, and the observer is
prone to provide a dispositional attribution about its cause
Biases in Attribution
Fundamental attribution error the tendency to overemphasize dispositional
explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations. We often discount
the strong effects that social roles can have on behaviour, and we fail to realize that the
observed behaviour is distinctive to a particular situation. i.e. we see bankers as truly
conservative people because we ignore the fact that their occupational role and employer
dictate that they act that way, and fail to realize that the banker could be a weekend
skydiver. Also, a manager might think an employee is lazy or unintelligent, while poor
training or bad sales territory is the real problem
Actor-observer effect the propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the
actors behaviour differently. Actors will attribute much of their own behaviour to
situational causes because they are much more aware of their private thoughts, feelings
etc about their behaviour, and might be more aware than observers of the constraints and
advantages that the environment offered. i.e. I might know that I sincerely wanted to get
to a meeting on time, that I left home extra early, and that the accident that delayed me
was truly unusual while my boss might be unaware of all of this information and figure
that I am just unreliable
Self-serving bias the tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and deny
responsibility for failures. i.e. a marketing VPs project turns out to be a sales success, she
attributes this to her retailing savvy; its a big failure, she attributes it to the poor
performance of the marketing research firm she used. This bias overcomes the tendency
of actors to attribute their behaviour to situational factors when the behaviour is
Workforce diversity differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such
as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation
-there are many advantages to valuing and managing a diverse workforce, including
superior financial performance and improved competitiveness in global markets
Stereotype threat members of a social group feel hey might be judged or treated
according to a stereotype and that their behaviour or performance will confirm the

Common ways a company can try to ensure its workforce reflects the diversity of the
Select enough minority members to get them beyond token status. When this
happens, the majority starts to look at individual accomplishments rather than
group membership because they can see variation in the behaviours of the
Encourage teamwork that brings minority and majority members together
Ensure that those making career decisions about employees have accurate
information about them rather than having to rely on hearsay
Train people to be aware of stereotypes
Trust a psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take
risks with respect to the actions of another party. You can trust managements ability,
benevolence, and integrity
-building trust in the workplace is achieved by practicing credibility, respect, and
fairness, and by encouraging pride and camaraderie
Perceived organizational support (POS) employees general belief that their
organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. When employees
have positive POS, they believe that their organization will provide assistance when it is
needed for them to perform the job effectively and deal with stressful situations higher
trust. Also leads to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, higher performance,
reduced turnover etc.
Organizational support theory a theory that states that employees who have strong
perceptions of organizational support feel an obligation to care about the organizations
welfare and to help the organization achieve its objectives
Contrast effects previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewers
perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between
applicants. i.e. if the interviewer has seen 2 excellent candidates and then encounters an
average candidate, she might rank this person lower than if he had been preceded by two
average applicants
-interviewers are susceptible to perceptions, maybe influenced by looking at the resume
first, and the interviewee will be putting off a best face interview validity increases
when interviews are more structured
-in order to be the most structured, the interview should involve question sophistication
(the extent to which the interviewer uses job related behavioural questions and situational
questions), question consistency (he extent to which the interviewer asks the same
questions in the same order of every candidate), and rapport building (the extent to which
the interviewer does not ask personal questions that are unrelated to the job
-an interview structured like this will reduce info overload and ensure that applicants can
be more easily compared since theyve all responded to an identical sequence of
Signaling theory job applicants interpret their recruitment experiences as cues or
signals about what it is like to work in an organization i.e. if questions are invasive and
discriminatory, applicant might think that is what the organization is like
Leniency the tendency to perceive the job performance of rates as especially good
Harshness the tendency to perceive the job performance of rates as especially

Central tendency the tendency to assign most rates to middle range job performance
Halo effect the rating of an individual on one trait or characteristic tends to colour
rating on other traits or characteristics i.e. a student perceives his teachers as really nice,
which favourably influences his perception of the teachers knowledge of the material; a
manager rates an employee as frequently late for work, and in turn devalues the
employees productivity and quality of work
Similar-to-me effect a rater gives more favourable evaluations to people who are
similar to the rater in terms of background or attitudes
-behaviourally anchored rating scales can help prevent any biases from affecting
employee ratings
Chapter 12 Power, Politics, and Ethics
Power the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence
Legitimate power power derived from a persons position or job in an organization
Reward power power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and
prevent negative outcomes
Coercive power power derived from the use of punishment and threat, supporting
legitimate power
Referent power power derived from being well liked by others
Expert power power derived from having special information or expertise that is value
by an organization
-referent and expert power are most likely to generate true commitment and enthusiasm
for the managers agenda. Coercion is likely to produce resistance and lack of
cooperation; legitimate and reward will produce compliance
Empowerment giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take
initiative and solve organizational problems
-service encounters predicated on high volume and low cost need careful engineering;
those predicated on customized, personalized service need more empowered personnel
(i.e. waiter can make adjustments to a plate without having to ask chef)
-too much power can lead to ineffective performance and abuse of power, while too little
leads to low performance and lack of power
Influence tactics tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over
others. Includes:
Ingratiation (using flattery and acting polite, friendly or humble)
Upward appeal (making formal/informal appeals to organizational superiors for
Coalition formation (seeking united support from other organizational members)
To get power, pursue activities that are:
Extraordinary unusual you will have an audience if what youre doing is new
and novel
Visible make sure people are aware of what youre doing and its importance

Relevant relevant to the core of the organization, people need to care

And cultivate the right people (everyone!):
Superiors theyre in a position to grant you power
Peers & subordinates they also evaluate you, if a company is using a 360 degree
feedback especially, if no there is still a reputational impacts. Peer/subordinates
dont always STAY your peers/subordinates. And lastly, as a manager your job is
to get work done through other people, if subordinate dont like you, you are les
likely to get a lot of power
Outsiders its good to have friends in high places people will seek you out
through this relationship, their status reflects on your status
-having a high level of power can give you rose coloured lenses a positive affect, high
self-confidence, and optimistic interpretation of social cues (i.e. interpret someone
smiling at you as getting hit on, rather than weird, why)
Sexual harassment
-includes quid-pro-quo harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual comments,
jokes, and materials
Old view assumed to be motivated by sexual desire
New view not motivated by sexual desire but by enforcing traditional sex roles. There
is a desire to maintain power inequalities and traditional social roles
not man enough harassment men being ridiculed for not telling about sexual
exploits about women
-if sexual harassment was based on sexual desire, feminine women will receive the most
traditional forms of harassment. If its about sex roles, masculine women will be
harassed the most (because are the most threatening to traditional sex roles), and feminine
men will be targeted the most for not man enough harassment
-a study goes through employees, and find that masculine women and feminine men are
harassed the most the new view is accurate