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Republic of the Philippines


Miagao Campus
Miagao, Iloilo

Food safety hazards


are found throughout the food supply chain and can be described

biological, physical or chemical agents in food that are reasonably

likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of their control.
There are three main types of food safety hazards:
1. Biological Hazards
Caused by bacteria, viruses or parasites that are present in
air, food, water, soil, animals and humans.
Food infections and food intoxications can cause severe vomiting,
diarrhoea, nausea, abdominal pain and fever to one or lots of people,
they can even result in death in some serious cases.
Biological hazards receive the most attention in HACCP systems due to
presenting the greatest risk of harm and the highest frequency of
Microorganisms of concern include:
Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus,
Shigella, Clostridium perfringens, Clostridium botulinum, Listeria
monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Hepatitis A and Rotovirus.
2. Physical Hazards
Foreign bodies in food are usually due to accidental
contamination and / or poor handling practices. Physical hazards are
most recognized by consumers as they usually find this food safety
Examples of physical hazards include:
Metal, glass, wood, insects, stones, soil, dirt, jewellery, hair,
fingernails, plasters, personal items, bone, nuts / bolts, wire,
plastic, paper and cardboard.
3. Chemical Hazards
is any substance that can cause harm, primarily to
people. Chemicals of all kinds are stored in our homes and can result
in serious injuries if not properly handled. Household items such as
bleach can result in harmful chlorine gas or hydrochloric acid if
carelessly used.
Chemicals used for cleaning and sanitizing food contact surfaces
FACTORY CONTAMINANTS: Pest control chemicals, lubricants, coatings,
paints, refrigerants and water treatment chemicals
AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES: Pesticides, fertilizers, fungicides,
antibiotics and growth hormones

FOOD ALLERGENS: Eggs, fish, milk, peanuts, sesame seeds, soy,

sulphites, tree nuts and wheat
(histamine), mushroom toxins and shellfish toxins

A Bacteria are tiny living beings (microorganisms

they are neither plants nor animals - they belong to a group all
by themselves. Bacteria are tiny single-cell microorganisms, usually a
few micrometers in length that normally exist together in millions.
A virus
is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the
living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life
forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms,
includingbacteria and archaea
as traditionally defined, are mainly microscopicorganisms,
ranging in size from 10 to 52 micrometers. Some, however, are
significantly larger. Among the largest are the deep-sea
dwelling xenophyophores, single-celled foraminifera whose shells can
reach 20 cm in diameter.[19] Free-living forms are restricted to moist
environments, such as soils, mosses and aquatic habitats, although
many form resting cysts which enable them to survive drying. Many
protozoan species are symbionts, some are parasites, and some are
predators of bacteria,algae and other protists.
A fungus
is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes
unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts andmolds, as well as
multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known
as mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi,
which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms
ofplants and animals.
is an informal term for a large, diverse group
of photosyntheticorganisms which are not necessarily closely related
and are thus polyphyletic.

Prepared by: Ma.Shiena Nonato

Janice Factes