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A Study of Synchronous Motor Drive

using

Static Frequency Converter

Ho-Seon Ryu, Bong-Suck Kim, Joo-Hyun Lee, Ik-Hun Lim


Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea

Abstract- SFC (Static Frequency Converter) system has


been used as drive of large synchronous machine in many
industry applications. But many papers have been presented
on the control algorithm of SFC system, not the acceleration
and start-up but the rated speed operation with line
connection and the braking operation with regeneration
which is used in the industry. This paper presents all control
algorithms for the large synchronous machine connected
with SFC system. The experimental results show that the
proposed several algorithms are proper and effective.

Network
Converter

DC Link
Reactor

Machine
Converter

Fig. 1. Scheme of load commutated inverter


TABLE I.

RELATIONS OF SWITCHING SEQUENCE AND OUTPUT CURRENT

I. INTRODUCTION

A variety of systems have been devised over the years


for starting synchronous machines and gas turbines. The
choice of control methods depended on the particular
requirements and conditions in the supply network. In
case of gas turbines, for instance, the rotating exciter or
separate DC motor has been used. For pumped storage
plants, on the other hand, it was normal to mount an
induction type pony motor on the main shaft of the
machine group. Recently, however, a general system has
been developed, the static starting device, which is
adaptable to any specific requirement. In addition, the
static starting device is not only capable of starting the
synchronous motor up to a rated speed, but also of
breaking the motor to a standstill. The synchronous
machine is started from standstill by applying a phase
synchronized, variable frequency generated by Load
Commutated Inverter (LCI) system. The starting system
can be located remotely from the motor with one start-up
system applied for several motors. The system can also be
used for driving, braking, or reversing large synchronous
machines. Many papers have been presented about the
control algorithm of SFC system, not only the acceleration
and start-up but also the rated speed operation with line
connection and the braking operation with regeneration
which is used in the industry[l][2][3]. A full description
of this system is given in this paper. The experimental
results show that the proposed algorithm is proper and
effective.

Mode model mode2 Mode3 mode4 mode5 mode6


curre

nt

T6,T1 T1,T2 T2,T3 T3,1T4 T4, T5 T5,T6

Ia
lb

Idc
-Idc

Idc
0

Ic

-Idc

Idc

-Idc
Idc

-Idc
0

-Idc

-Idc

Idc

Idc

III. OPERATING MODE

The Characteristic about driving curve of Synchronous


motor fed by LCI system can be represented by Fig. 2.
Driving ranges is divided by speed driving, synchronizing,
braking and regenerating mode
A. Driving Mode
The current of bridge MC is commutated by the motor
voltage. The motor current, therefore, lags behind the
voltage and the synchronous machine is overexcited. At
zero frequency, the amplitude of the motor voltage is
therefore zero and commutation of the current in bridge
MC is not possible. For this reason, at low frequency the
motor is driven by pulse operation. Therefore during pulse
operation, the period of '0' DC link current is existed.
Commutation is then not controlled by the motor voltage
but by the supply side bridge NC.

II. ANALYSIS OF LCI SYSTEM[1]

LCI system is consisted of Network Converter (NC),


Machine Converter (MC) and DC link Reactor. LCI
system can be represented in Fig. 1. In the LCI system, the
inverter output current contains fundamental and
harmonic components because the gating of one thyristor
establishes the 1200 conduction pattern. One mode
operates during 60 degree. The relations of switching
sequence and output current can be represented by table 1.

1-4244-0121-6/06/$20.00 (C2006 IEEE

1496

t[niin]

Fig.2. Characteristic about driving curve of LCI systemsynchronous motor

EPE-PEMC 2006, Portoro2, Slovenia

In the driving mode, the Network Converter (NC) on


the input side is functioning as a rectifier. The Machine
Converter (MC) on the motor side operates as a line
commutated inverter.
The driving control block diagram can be represented
by Fig. 3. The current and voltage reference is developed
by speed and current controller which is used by PI
controller. This control scheme is similar with DC motor
drive.
The firing angle of NC is obtained by the Cosine
method which can be described by (1).
a

cos-L

(1)

Vdcref
t1.35 x V,

where c : firing angle of NC


Vdcref DC voltage reference
Vs : supply voltage
B. Synchronization
The motor is accelerated by the SFC until the rated
speed is almost reached. At this time, Line connection is
performed. During synchronization mode, the phase angle
of NC and MC voltage is detected. So line connection is
performed when phase angle is same and NC voltage is
zero crossing. And the SFC is still driving the motor and
thus paralleled with the supply system in short period.
Therefore stability of system at the line connection time is
improves. The Control block diagram of line connection
can be represented by Fig. 4.
synchronous
motor

/ \.N

C. Braking Mode
The need for generated control occurs when
disconnected a line to a synchronous motor. Some of the
energy generated by the motor may be dissipated as heat
losses in the motor or distribution wiring. The rest of the
energy will be transferred through the DC bus to the
source line.
In this paper, Braking mode control is performed
optimally within the rated current by using the method of
the analysis of the power equivalent circuit. The
Equivalent circuit of LCI system can be represented by
Fig. 5 [6].
The diode is characteristics of only direction current
flow.
Ko is average voltage of MC DC output. The back
EMF is proportionate in motor speed, therefore it is
expressed at the price which doubles a constant in speed.
1) Machine Converter (MC) control
The MC is operated as a rectifier in some other way
with driving mode. MC operates a rated current regulator,
so it applies a same control scheme like that with driving
mode.
2) Network Converter (NC) control
The function of NC is operated as an inverter to flow
the current of LCI system for the regeneration in the
braking mode region.
Therefore Vd cos oc < Ko cos y condition must be
satisfied for the proper regeneration.
In the steady state the DC current can be derived by (2)
as shown in Fig. 5.

shaft
position
encoder

K(ocos y

Vd cosO

cos

RLRI +RC

(2)

oc

Koo- Id(RL RI +RC)

RC
VdcOs

RL

RI

aKwcos7

feedback / speed

Fig.3. Driving control block diagram of LCI system

Fig.5. Equivalent circuit of LCI system

where

RC

Network Converter (NC) resistance

RL: DC Link resistance

RI: Machine Converter (MC) resistance


Vd cos cc : NC output voltage
Vd : average voltage of DC output

c : firing angle of NC
Kcocosy : the output voltage of MC
K constant value

0o motor speed

Fig.4. Control block diagram of line connection for the synchronization

y firing angle of MC

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(3)

The nominal parameters of the synchronous machine


shown in Table 2 for the experiments, the stator
terminal voltage is back EMF because the stator circuit is
open from any network.
Vqe is to be measured to calculate Kot=0 which is the
are

output voltage of MC during the braking mode.

Vqe

is the

q-axis voltage in the synchronous reference frame [7],[8].


The formula can be obtained as following:
Kco(

fx

(4)

During the braking operation Kcot>O is proportional to


the motor speed. Therefore Kot>O can be derived by

K(ot>

=Wtpm
W

xK ot=0

(5)

rated

where Wpm is the actual motor speed, and W,ated is the

rated speed.
The reference voltage (VdCC ref ) of NC can be
determined by (3) to converter the kinetic energy of the
motor to the supply system as shown in Fig. 6.
IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The nominal parameters of the synchronous machine


shown in Table 2 for the experiments

are

A. Driving Mode
Fig. 7 shows the control characteristics of the driving
mode. Fig. 7(a) is the speed response of the step changes
for starting the synchronous machine from 0 to 1800rpm.
At very low speed range the amplitude of the stator
voltage is too small to commutate the stator current, the
pulse operation is employed.
But at the higher speed range, the stator current is
naturally commutated by means of its own back EMF.
And the synchronous motor runs up to the rated speed as
shown in Fig. 7(a). Fig. 7(b) is DC link current of LCI.
This waveform shows the difference between the pulse
operation and the machine-controlled operation. And the
waveform of Fig. 7 (c) is the stator current of A phase.

B. Synchronization Mode
During the synchronization mode, Line Connection is
performed. Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 show the characteristics of
line connection. The waveform in Fig. 8 illustrates the line
connection when phase angle of NC and MC is same and
voltage is zero crossing. Therefore the waveforms of the
motor voltage, the stator current and motor speed in Fig. 9
show the usefulness of the proposed line connection
algorithm.

C. Braking Mode
Fig. 10 shows the characteristics of the braking mode
control. Fig. 10(a) shows the speed response about the
change of the speed reference from 1,800 to 0 rpm.
Fig. 10 (b) shows the DC link current which is controlled in
rated current. The characteristics tics of this motor speed,
DC link current is to verify the avail ability for braking
control
V. CONLUSION

SFC (Static Frequency Converter) system has been used


as driving large synchronous machine in many industry
applications. But many papers have been presented on the
control algorithm of SFC system, not the acceleration and
start-up but the rated speed operation with line connection
and the braking operation with regeneration which is used
in the industry. This paper presented a full description of
the synchronous motor drive in connected with SFC
system. Specially the line connection method by detecting
voltage phase and the braking method with regeneration
by analyzing equivalent circuit was presented. Experiment
results show the validity of the proposed control
algorithms for operating the SFC system.
TABLE 2
NOMINAL PARAMETERS OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

Poles
4
Rated power 900[W] Stator resistance
Rated voltage 400[V]
Xbase
8.5 [ Q ]
1 [A]
Rated current
D-axis
133.3 [ Q]
Rated speed 1800[rpm]
inductance
205%
Field current 1.15 [A]
Q-axis
140%
in

ctan

ce

sh aft

position

encoder

synchronous
motor

machine
converter

ts
DC link
reactor

netw ork
converter

Fig.6. Control block diagram of the braking mode

1498

2400
1800

fT

-- ;

WrPn [rpm]
-

-~sec

-(a) Motor speed

/ ;J \: \
-~~~~~~~~~~\_

ilA

ii/\ 0r 18\

i.

18 00

1 75

Wrpm

~~~~~[sec

I1cc[A]

[rpm]

DC oLin cufent
(b)

Fig.9. Motor line voltage, current, speed of line connection

IP
1.6

2400

"_k

~~~~~~~I

1800 '

IIIIIII

VWp m

[A]

[sec]

-0.25

[rpm]

0
-1.6

[sec]

(c) Motor A phase current


Fig.7 Characteristics of the driving mode including the pulse operation

Va

(a) Motor speed

Idc
[A]

IVa_m
-

I
0

I
[sec]

[3]
[4]

_E

TI
[ sec]

(b) DC Link current

Fig. 10. Characteristics of braking mode

REFERENCES

[2]

0.25

Ilk,,

Fig 8. Motor phase line voltage, phase source voltage

[1]

I
II 1.-uILL.I
I
I
S-1i.
1 11~~~I
1 1
1'j'1

1.75

=A

55

[ sec]

David Finney, Variable frequency AC motor drive systems, Peter


Peregrinus Ltd., 1988 pp.202-274
F. Peneder, R. Lubasch, A. Vonmard, "Static equipment for
starting pumped storage plant, synchronous condensers and gas
turbine sets", Brown Boveri Rev., 61, 1974 (9/10), pp. 440-447.
0. Kolb, F. Pender, V. Suchanek, "Static starting equipment for
gas turbosets", Brown Boveri Rev., 66, 1979 (2), pp.104-112
R.S. Colby, M.D. Otto, J.T. Boys, "Analysis of LCI synchronous
motordrives with finite DC link inductance", Electric Power
Applications, IEE Proceedings B, Vol.140, Nov. 1993, pp.379-386

[5]

S. Morimoto, Y. Takeda, K. Hatanaka, Y. Tong, T. Hirasa,


"Design and control system of inverter-driven permanent magnet
synchronous motors for high torque operation", IEEE Tran.
Industry Applications, Vol. 29, Issue:6, Nov/Dec 1993, pp. 11501155
[6] P. Kundur, Power system stability and control, McGraw-Hill, Inc,
pp. 500-523, 2003.
[7] A. E. Fitzerald, Charles Kingsley, Jrad Stephen D. Umars, Electric
Machinery, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1983.
[8] P. C. Krause, Analysis of Electrical Machinery, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1987.

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