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International Conference

on Educational Research
and Development

UNESA

Universitas Negeri Surabaya

ISBN : 978-979-028-799-0

ren s an

stan

cono

IC

December s", 201 S


Auditorium
Prof. Slamet Dajon.o
Gedu119 01 lt.3 F JPA
Kampus Unesa Ketintang
JI. Ketintang, Surabaya
Jawa Timur 60231

http://icerd.unesa.ac.id

Proceeding ofICERD 2015

INCREASE ABILITY CREATIVE ECONOMIC THINKING THROUGH


ENTREPRENUERSHIP EDUCATION

DR. Waspodo Tjipto Subroto


Faculty of Economic, The State University of Surabaya
Email: waspodqtjipto@yaho9.co.id
Abstract

Entrepreneurship education is importance to thinking development about creative economic


for student, who seek students to become good entrepreneur in the around or their society.
Thinking development for creative economic, very importance to increase ability of student
for welfare and good studentship. Phenomena of Indonesian countries, in the era of ASEAN
Economic Society will be open capital and resources. With spirit of free trade and
liberalization can will be entry offoreign capital and human resources through opened of
free trade and competitiveness so nurturing impact on high competitiveness in the welfare of
live. Moreover, student need to increase ability about creative thinking for creative economic
through Entrepreneurship Education, with hope can be competitive for welfare in the live.
With the Entrepreneurship Education, student can be treatment and drill in the case studies
about free trade and liberalization, so they have ability to foster creative thinking and
development creative economic in their live for welfare on their society. So, Entrepreneurship
Education is very importance for increase creative thinking to develop ability creative
economic for welfare development ofstudent.

Keyword: Creative Economic; Entrepreneurship Education; Student Ability.


I. INTRODUCTION
A. Introduction

Creative economy has emerged from economic environment of the 21st century and is
based not on plain consumerism made of utilitarian demand consumption, but on
sophisticated symbolic consumerism constructed of elaborate higher social demand. (Rasa,
2011 ). Creativities in the economy and in education distinguishing two accounts, personal
.

aesthetics and the design principle. The first emerges in the psychological literature from
sources in the emphasizing the creative genius and the way in which creativity emerges from
deep subconscious processes, involves the imagination, is anchored in the passions, cannot be
directed and is beyond the rational control of the individual. This account has a close fit to
business as a form of brainstorming, mind-mapping or strategic planning, and is closely
associated with the figure of the risk-taking entrepreneur. Design principle is both relational
and social and surfaces in related ideas of social capital, situated learning, and accounts of
commons-based peer production. It is seen to be a product of social and networked
.
environments and intelligent environments in which everything speaks.
,

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Creativity is the ability to generate something new, merging data perceptions and
matters in order to produce new and useful things Economic development of a country is
always associated with political development. Reciprocation of economic growth under the
influence of government policy and regulatory power. The business world is the backbone of
the national economy, so efforts should be made to be improved continuously. National
movement is expected to foster a culture of entrepreneurship and work ethic of Indonesia, so
as to give birth entrepreneurs-new entrepreneurs a reliable, competent and independent. It is
very important to remember that the actual entrepreneurial activity not only at the level of
micro-economy, but also at the level of incoming macro-economy. All that is in the
development of an intelligent, a comprehensive and fully as highlighted in the
Strategic Various observations of the reality on the ground describe the learning system in
colleges and in high schools today have not been fully and effectively build innovative
creativity to develop a comprehensive strategic plan as expected by Kemendikbud (2011).
Entrepreneurship education is defined as life-long learning, as a process of developing
concepts and practical skills to recognize opportunities, major resources and efforts to
manage a business. Entrepreneurship education requires paradigm in learning methodologies.
According Leonardos (2011) there are some cases where individuals training centered on
students and followed by coaching support and connecting to the private sector, so the impact
is obvious, particularly in relation to: (a) practical approaches, (b) the amount of students who
.

are considering opening a business in the future, ( c) the number of students who can now
connect their learning and their work in the future. Young people need help in formulating
business ideas, encouragement and motivation, while adults require more assistance related to
business management. Besides planting values and entrepreneurial spirit still needs to be
pursued to foster the younger generation so that interested to go and pursue the profession
entrepreneur. With this effort expected quality and quantity of youth entrepreneur can be
increased gradually towards quotas that are ideal for accelerating economic development and
improving people's welfare.
B. Theories Overview.

Creativity and innovation had a close relationship, because creativity means the
ability to think of something new and different, while innovation is the ability to perform,
apply something different. Thus, the most important in entrepreneurship is the ability of
.

employers to be more creative and take advantage of innovations in everyday business


activities. An entrepreneur will be successful if it has always been the creative and use their
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creativity. According Gwee (2007) to the face of increasingly complex in the global
economic competition, then creativity is very important to create competitive advantage and
business continuity. Basic values that are important in entrepreneur include: creativity,
innovation, courage to face risks, business ethics and norms, as well as responsible and selfdisciplined.
Define conceptually the ''creativity economy'' and suggest a model that interrelates
creativity, knowledge, and innovation economies. The ''creativity economy'' surpasses earlier
concepts of the ''creative economy'' ( creative industries, creative occupations). Discuss
patterns of a complex dialectic and cyclical interaction between phenomena of a crisis and
creative and/or innovative activities. Economic growth stimulates investments in innovation
that drive creativity and innovation, consequently resulting in further economic growth.
However, at a certain level, creative and innovative activity may peak in context of the
economic cycle, and the rate of economic growth could be slowing down again. If there is too
much innovation, then this creates challenges in the sense of questioning the established
structures, finally creating a need for developing new structures. Organizations, societies,
economies, or systems can be more or less successful in doing so. There operates a
coevolution between knowledge, innovation, and creativity on the one hand, and the
knowledge economy and knowledge society on the other. The more advanced and mature a
knowledge economy (creativity economy) and knowledge society (creativity society) are, the
more knowledge, innovation, and creativity can be absorbed and are even being demanded
for further progress.
Theories in economic development incorporate entrepreneurship education as an
important tool for the development of micro and small business sector is dom.inant. Many
businesses cannot develop due to, among others, the lack of qualified human resources.
Foster the spirit of entrepreneurship among the younger generation will not only contribute to
reducing unemployment, but also can help boost the productivity and competitiveness.
Attempts to conceptualize entrepreneurship education, still continues to be done. But until
now has not appeared to be mutually agreed definition, Where as, in fact, entrepreneurship is
not always synonymous with entrepreneurial character because an entrepreneurial character
may also be owned by a non-entrepreneur. Entrepreneurial covers all aspects of the work,
both private and government employees. Boopen says (2009) the linked between
entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurs are those who make efforts in creative and
innovative way to economic growth. Entrepreneurship is a process of applying creativity and
innovationess in gathering resources to find opportunities and Santrock (2005) share if
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and
to
entrepreneurship improvements in solving problems
finding
opportunities
improve
.
life. Entrepreneurship is an attempt to create added value by way of Entrepreneurship that
arise when an individual dared to combine resources in ways new and different for
developing businesses and new ideas. Entrepreneurial process includes the use of all the
functions, activities and actions related to acquisition opportunities and the creation of
business organization to win the competition (Thor & Harries, 2013).
According to economist Poulis & Plakoyiannaki (2013), the idea is a very important
economic goods, is more important than the object that is emphasized in most economic
models. In a world with physical limitations, the discovery of great ideas along with the
discovery of millions of small ideas that caused the economy to keep growing. Says of Lon
Chen (2009) the idea entrepreneurship is to combine instructions that make our physical
resources are limited preparation becomes more valuable. Internationally, the creative
economy plays an important role in enhancing the image and identity of a nation within the
framework of Nation Branding. The image is the impression that a poor country because
people do not have access to the ideas and perceptions received by a person when he saw and
heard that used in the national industry to generate economic value feel something about
Indonesia. The image should be built in a planned and found measurable results that can
provide a positive impact on the nation. According to Howkins (2009) new economy has
emerged around the creative industries are controlled by the law of intellectual property such
as patents, copyrights, trademarks. Creative Economy is a new economic era that intensify
information and creativity by relying on the ideas and the stock of knowledge of human
resource royalties, and design. Creative economy is a development concept based on the main
production factor in economic activities. The economic structure of creative assets that have
the potential to increase economic growth. (Ozughalu & Ogwumike, 2013). World
transformed rapidly with the growth of the natural resource-based economist for Human
Resources based, from the agricultural era to the industrial era and can be seen from the
development of an economy based on the fl.ow of ideas. In theory, economic growth is
divided into several waves. Which has been accepted as an economic fl.ow that can be seen in
the economic development of civilization into three waves. The first, wave is the wave of the
agricultural economy. Secondly, the wave of the industrial economy, and the third is the
wave of the information economy. Then predicted the fourth wave is a wave of creative
economy-oriented ideas and creative ideas.
That makes entrepreneurship attracts many parties to understand it is to contribute
entrepreneurial
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attitudes

acquired

various

parties

to

perform

actions

related

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entrepreneurship. For example, Timons and Spinelli (2007) make the grouping needed for
entrepreneurial action in six issues: (1) Commitment and determination, (2) Leadership, (3)
Obsession to the opportunity, (4) tolerance toward risks, ambiguity, and uncertainty, ( 5)
Creativity, and (6) Motivation for achievement. Entrepreneurship is a dynamic process for the
planned economic activity taking into account the strengths and weaknesses and the
opportunities and barriers in an effort for welfare. Therefore, the significance of which is
contained in entrepreneurship, namely: science, art, behavior, traits, characteristics, and one
character who has the ability to bring innovative ideas into real world creatively. So (Hamid,
2004) there are three major indicators of entrepreneurship, namely: (1) finding a job,
preparing a business, find it impossible to get a job, (2) already have a job but have not begun
to think of something new (creative), acting to do something new (innovative), and (3) desire
to create value-added. Therefore, a person called the ''entrepreneur'' absolutely must have the
ability to always think of something new, do something new act, and wants better. Central
Bureau of Statistics (2009) shows that the largest number of unemployed graduates from the
education unit at the elementary and secondary education. The government has sought to
promote entrepreneurship, but these efforts have not brought any significant effect because
there are many people who are not productive every year. That raisesthe question, how far
the successful implementation of the National Movement Promoting and Cultivating
Entrepreneurship has been done since 1995 and what the impact of the program as it is. If no
serious treatment to this problem is not likely the unemployment rate will continue to
increase every year.

Importance of Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education can foster


entrepreneurship in students character can even be integrated in a variety of related subjects.
Alma (2009) says lecture material developed from courses related to the norms or values
associated with the entrepreneurial context of everyday life. Thus, learning the norms and
values of the various subjects that can complement and enrich the vision of entrepreneurship
education is not only on the cognitive level, but touched on internalization, and practice in the
life of students. Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education in physiological, cognitive,
moral reasoning, psychological development can in still a responsible attitude to improve the
welfare of the students themselves. Some people say that entrepreneurship education a shared
responsibility between families, communities and the government, as implemented
entrepreneurship education within the community. In terms of organizing learning
experiences would be better if students have empirical experience in managing a business or
entrepreneurial spirit. This does not mean that the organization of the entrepreneurship
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education should be abandoned. Organizing the course needs to grow through relevant
courses, and experience developing business processes need to be developed so as to support
the development of talent and interest in entrepreneurship. Suryana says (2011) Lectures
entrepreneurship needs to communicate learning gives students the opportunity to actively
develop the potential and aspirations of its business that clearly can inspire students to
experience daily life in the community.
Creative economy is an economic flow that is more effective in bringing better
economic growth. Recognizing this, the Government through the Ministry of Commerce,
Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Cooperatives continue to study as the basis for the
development of creative economic. Given their potential for creative industries to the
economy, the government continued to hold events (activities) to stimulate the growth of the
creative industries. In Indonesia, the echo of the Creative Economy will start from the
problems the importance of improving the competitiveness of national products to face the
global market. The Government through the Ministry of Commerce in collaboration with the
Ministry of Industry and Ministry of Cooperatives and Small and Medium Enterprises
(SMEs) and supported by the Indonesian Chamber of Commerce and then form teams Design
Power which aims to put Indonesia into products of international standard products but still
has a national character received in the market world. Once aware of the contribution of the
creative economy of the state, the government subsequently conducted a more intensive study
and launch the standard guidelines for the development of the creative economy.
Strategies need to be developed in Entrepreneurship course is to develop the art and
talent backed by knowledge, skills and attitudes to effectively achieve success in the business
world. Therefore, the strategy is a combination of science and art. Studies related to
knowledge, attitudes and skills. While the arts are more likely to talents and interests and
attitudes of one's life.

C. Entrepreneurship Education to Increase Creative Economic.


Creativity is the ability to generate something new, merging data perceptions and
matters in order to produce new and useful things Economic revolution continues to roll into
various aspects of life towards the improvement and viability. Policy makers have realized
the importance of the role of entrepreneurs in creating economic growth to create economic
welfare of society. Madalina says (2012) entrepreneurship holds a dominant role in turning
the wheels of the economy both locally, regionally and globally. According Zimmerer (2008)
and the dynamic entrepreneurs who are committed to success, shown to affect the economic
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growth and prosperity. Entrepreneur who has a leadership spirit and soul of this entrepreneur
will lead the economic revolution towards raising living standards more viable. Amid the
liberalization of the ASEAN Economic Community, according Frinces (2011) need to be
instilled values of entrepreneurship, such as creativity, innovation, moderate risk, spirit and
optimistic and is responsible, in the younger generation, especially through Entrepreneurship
education, so that the soul and spirit the younger generation can be more competitive in the
face of competition in the era of the ASEAN Economic Community. The Role of
Entrepreneurship education, Duanmu (2013) says its needed to prepare the spirit of young
people to become active participants in the revolution and participatory economy toward
positive change and lasting.
As a discipline, then entrepreneurship science can be learned and taught, so that every
individual has the opportunity to perform as an entrepreneur. Even to be a successful
entrepreneur, having talent is not enough, but also need to have knowledge of all aspects of
the business to be practiced. The task of the entrepreneur very much, among others the task of
taking a decision, technical leadership, organizational leadership and to instill the values,
attitudes and nature entrepreneurship in entrepreneurship education should be developed
models of creative learning and innovative economy, among others: (1) Direct instruction, (2)
Cooperative learning, (3) Problem Based Leaming, and (4) Leaming Through Inquiry.
Direct Leaming Model many inspired by social learning theory is often called
learning by observation. John Dollard and Albert Bandura (in Rusman, 2007) believes that
most people learn through observation selectively and considering the behavior of others. The
rationale of this direct teaching model is that students learn by observing selective,
remembering and analyzing. On the basis of these ideas, which needs to be avoided is the
transmission of knowledge is too complex. In general, knowledge can be divided into two
types: declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge is
knowledge about something. While procedural knowledge is knowledge about how to do
something. In applying direct teaching, knowledge is delivered to students need to be
simplified, both declarative and procedural knowledge.
Leaming Model Cooperative by John Dewey (in Rusman, 2007) classroom should be
a reflection of the larger society. Then the activities in the classroom needs to provide
experiences for students to work in groups. Cooperative learning model is reminded that the
cooperation and work in the group will give better results. Setting the class in cooperative
learning, need to meet three conditions, namely: (a) any direct contact, (b) equally participate
in group work, ( c) an agreement between members of the group about the classroom setting.
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Cooperative learning model is quite important because students can learn by working with
friends. Members of the group are more able to be able to help his less fortunate. Each
member of the group still contributes to the achievement of the group. And more importantly
all the group members can socialize with other group members so that it will train social
skills of students in society.
Problem Based Leaming, these have common characteristics that present to students
an authentic and meaningful issues that will provide convenience to students to conduct an
the
submission
of
namely
investigation and inquiry. While the special features in this model,
.
questions and issues, focusing on the linkages between disciplines, the investigation is
authentic, to produce a product I work, and their cooperation. Authentic problem is that there
are problems in daily life and directly beneficial if found to completion. While academic
problems are problems that arise due to the influence of a problem giving rise to .other
problems. For example, how the influence of fuel price increases of prices of basic materials?
Model of learning through inquiry is a teaching model that emphasizes the importance
of helping students understand the structure or the key ideas of a discipline, the students
actively involved in the learning process, and gives confidence that learning will occur
through personal discovery. Bruner (in Rusman, 2007) who pioneered the discovery learning
model is believed that the model of the present invention will stimulate students to conduct
investigations so finding something. For example lecturer presents a topic to the students
.

about the events that provoke or cognitive conflict, so the motivation and curiosity of
students hooked. Discovery learning model is better suited to instill the concepts that can be
found through trial and investigation.
Policies related to Entrepreneurship Education is an effort to allow students to create a
business/self employment. The college graduates are expected to have the integration of
entrepreneurship education from entrepreneurial character and conduct yourself. College
graduates are required to face obstacles and challenges arising from the change. Challenges
of
is
the
of
the
and
globalization
deepletion
quality
competitiveness
,- that occurred in the era
.
of the Indonesian independence. Through the development of entrepreneurship lectures,
students are expected to be more creative and innovative ways to face the changes and
challenges of the future. Students are able to enhance the competitiveness required in the
global competition. The trend of change can not be avoided all the parties, whether
individuals, communities, nations. Students need to gain access to quality education,
affordable, relevant, efficient and effective, so that they can compete with the entrepreneurial
spirit.
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Business ethics and norms in the basic values that must be held to ensure
sustainability in business activities in any field. Business ethics is an important basis and
must be considered primarily to create and protect the reputation (goodwill) of business
regardless of its form. Therefore, according to Zimmerer (2008), business ethics is an issue
that is very sensitive and complex, because ethics is more difficult to maintain its reputation
rather than destroy it.
Entrepreneurship Education Program is essentially trying to develop the science and
the art of entrepreneurship. Since economic growth is influenced by the social and political
conditions of a country, the entrepreneurship education should equip students' skills in
.

reading and observing the social and political developments in their communities.
At first, entrepreneurship is an innate talent and honed through hands-on experience in the
field, it is now the paradigm has shifted. Entrepreneurship has become a discipline that
studies the values, skills (abilities) and behavior in the face of life's challenges with the
opportunity to obtain a variety of risks that may be encountered. As a scientific discipline, the
science of entrepreneurship can be learned and taught, so that every individual has the
opportunity to perform as an entrepreneur. Even to be a successful entrepreneur, having talent
is not enough, but also must have knowledge of all aspects of the business that will be
practiced. The task of the entrepreneur is very much, such as the task of taking decisions,
technical leadership, organizational leadership and commercial, capital adequacy etc.
Entrepreneurship education seeks foster creativity and innovation in business
opportunities. Creativity is thinking new thinking and inovation is doing something new
(doing new things). Creativity is defined as the ability to develop new ideas and to discover
new ways to solve problems and find opportunities. Inovation defined as the ability to apply
creativity in order to solve the problems and opportunities to enhance and improve living
standards. Therefore, entrepreneurship education seeks to train students to think and act
patterned new or something old thinking in new ways.

D. Conclussion
Based on the above analysis of the exposure can be stated conclusions, as follows:
1. Development Entrepreneurship Education, can be treatment and drill in the case studies
about free trade and liberalization, so they have ability to foster creative thinking and
development creative economic in their live for welfare on their society.
2. Creative economic ability can be foster skill to of student a strong workforce in spirit to
employment their source. The substance of entrepreneurship education is as a vehicle to
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encourage the creation of human resources for competitive excellence and support the
growth of the welfare society.
3. Entrepreneurship Education is very importance fo r increase creative thinking to develop
ability creative economic for welfare development of student.

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