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Cellular Respiration

I.

What is Cellular Respiration?


Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes
that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical
energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then
release waste products.
Where do our cells get energy?
-6-C sugars are the MAJOR source of energy for cell
What type of macromolecule are 6-C sugars? -Carbohydrates
Cells break down glucose a 6-C sugar to make ATP energy

II. Types of Cellular Respiration


Aerobic Respiration
Anaerobic Respiration

Anaerobic Respiration
Anaerobic respiration is a type of respiration that does not use
oxygen. It is used when there is not enough oxygen for aerobic respiration.

Stages of Anaerobic Respiration


1. Glycolysis
Stage one of cellular respiration is glycolysis. Glycolysis is the
splitting, or lysis of glucose. Glycolysis converts the 6-carbon
glucose into two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules. This process

occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell, and it occurs in the


presence or absence of oxygen.

2.Fermentation
Fermentation in food processing is the process of
converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids
usingmicroorganismsyeasts or bacteriaunder anaerobic co
nditions. Fermentation usually implies that the action of
microorganisms is desired.
a.) Ethanol/Alcohol
-Bacteria and fungi (yeast)
-Ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide are the end products
-Process used to form beer, wine, and other alcoholic
beverages
-Also used to raise dough, bread
b.) Lactate/Lactic Acid
-bacteria, plants and most animals
-After glycolysis 2 pyruvic acid changed to lactic acid
-Sometimes happens in your muscles, cramps-----Exercise

Aerobic Respiration
Aerobic respiration is the process of producing cellular energy involving
oxygen. Cells break down food in the mitochondria in a long, multistep
process that produces roughly 36 ATP.

Stages of Aerobic Respiration


1.)

Glycolysis

Stage one of cellular respiration is glycolysis. Glycolysis is the


splitting, or lysis of glucose. Glycolysis converts the 6-carbon glucose into
two 3-carbon pyruvate molecules. This process occurs in the cytoplasm of
the cell, and it occurs in the presence or absence of oxygen. During
glycolysis a small amount of NADH is made as are four ATP. Two ATP are
used during this process, leaving a net gain of two ATP from glycolysis.
The NADH temporarily holds energy, which will be used in stage three.

2.) The Krebs Cycle


In the presence of oxygen, under aerobic conditions, pyruvate
enters the mitochondria to proceed into the Krebs cycle. The second stage
of cellular respiration is the transfer of the energy in pyruvate, which is the
energy initially in glucose, into two energy carriers, NADH and FADH 2. A
small amount of ATP is also made during this process. This process
occurs in a continuous cycle, named after its discover, Hans Krebs.
The Krebs cycle uses a 2-carbon molecule (acetyl-CoA) derived from
pyruvate and produces carbon dioxide.

3.)

The Electron Transport Chain

Stage three of cellular respiration is the use of NADH and FADH 2 to


generate ATP. This occurs in two parts. First, the NADH and FADH 2 enter
an electron transport chain, where their energy is used to pump, by active
transport, protons (H+) out of the thylakoid. This establishes a proton
gradient across the thylakoid membrane. These protons then flow down
their concentration gradient, moving back into the thylakoid by
facilitated diffusion. During this process, ATP is made by adding inorganic
phosphate to ADP. Most of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is
made during this stage.
Note: For each glucose that starts cellular respiration, in the presence of
oxygen (aerobic conditions), 36-38 ATP are generated. Without oxygen,
under anaerobic conditions, much less (only two!) ATP are produced.

III.

Some terms involved in Cellular


Respiration

The Reactants
What goes into the cell? Oxygen and glucose are both reactants of cellular
respiration. Oxygen enters the body when an organism breathes. Glucose
enters the body when an organism eats.
The Products
What does the cell produce? The products of cellular respiration are
carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide is transported from your
mitochondria out of your cell, to your red blood cells, and back to your
lungs to be exhaled. ATP is generated in the process. When one molecule
of glucose is broken down, it can be converted to a net total of 36 or 38
molecules of ATP. This only occurs in the presence of oxygen.
The Chemical Reaction
The overall chemical reaction for cellular respiration is one molecule of
glucose (C6H12O6) and six molecules of oxygen (O2) yields six molecules of
carbon dioxide (CO2) and six molecules of water (H2O). Using chemical
symbols the equation is represented as follows:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
ATP is generated during the process. Though this equation may not seem
that complicated. Cellular respiration is a series of chemical reactions
divided into three stages: glycolysis, theKrebs cycle, and the electron
transport chain.

Pictures:
Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis

Fermentation (Anaerobic)

Kerbs Cycle (Aerobic)

Electron Transport Chain

Other Informations:

Anaerobic vs. Aerobic

Anaerobic
- DOES NOT require
oxygen
- Simple
- fast

- produces smaller
amounts of energy (ATP

Aerobic
- requires oxygen
- Yields large
amounts of energy
- Produces more ATP

Glycolysis
Where Cytoplasm

NO O2 required
Energy Yield net gain of 2 ATP at the expense of 2 ATP
6-C glucose TWO 3-C pyruvates
Free e- and H+ combine with organic ion carriers called NAD+
NADH + H+

(nicotinamide dinucleotide)

Krebs Cycle
Where Mitochondrial matrix
Energy Yield 2 ATP and more e Acetyl-CoA (2-C) combines with 4-C to form 6-C CITRIC ACID
Citric Acid (6-C) changed to 5-C then to a 4-C
Gives off a CO2 molecule
NAD+ and FAD pick up the released e FAD becomes FADH2
NAD+ becomes NADH + H+
Cycle ALWAYS reforming a 4-C molecule

ETC

Where inner membrane of mitochondria


Energy Yield Total of 32 ATP
O2 combines with TWO H+ to form H2O

Exhale - CO2, H2O comes from cellular respiration

Total ENERGY Yield


Glycolysis 2 ATP
Krebs Cycle 2 ATP
ETC 32 ATP
Total 36 ATP