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Local Government

Lecture Presentation for

Philippine Councilors League
MPA - Legazpi City

Local government in the

Philippines has its roots in the
colonial administration
of Spain, which lasted in the

Philippines for 327 years.

The establishment of Cebu
City in 1565 started the
local government system

The Philippines has had a long tradition of

centralized government. Since the arrival of the
Spaniards in 1521, the period of Spanish and American
colonization, the Philippine commonwealth and
republic up to the Marcos dictatorship in 1972, the
Philippines has been ruled from the national capital,
derisively referred to as Imperialist Manila.

Marcos Administration 1965-1986

The inertia of centralization, brought about by deeplyrooted administrative and bureaucratic procedures
and hierarchical and organizational arrangements, is
exacerbated by a culture predisposed to dependency
and centralized arrangements and paradigms in the
belief that the canter knows best.

Earlier attempts to decentralize power and

authority to local institutions through various
means are testimony to the fact that the
problem of over centralization, while longrecognized, has continued to persist
throughout the years.

This attempt was actually an

administrative formalism since real
power continued to be
concentrated in Manila with local
units heavily dependent upon
central government. In fact, before
the enactment of the 1983 code,
local governments were becoming
restive and, more important,
assertive in demanding that the
umbilical cord that tied them to
Manila be severed as this was the
root cause of their stunted growth

Following the overthrow of the Marcos

dictatorship in 1986, a strong sense of optimism
accompanied the ascendancy to power of Corazon
Aquino. The Policy Agenda for People-Powered
Development, which was adopted by the Cabinet in
June 1996, outlined the general strategy for
structural reforms of the Aquino administration:
decentralization of government structures and minimum
government intervention;
an expanded role for the private sector as the prime engine
for sustained growth; and
greater involvement of people in the decision-making,
planning and implementation of programs through
community organizations and NGOs.

The general strategy was based

on the emerging paradigm of
growth with equity, where
development efforts are focused
on meeting minimum basic needs
of the poor rather than on simply
achieving macro economic
targets. It rejected the trickle
down economics of the 1970s
which assumed that development
would occur as a natural
consequence of sustained
economic growth.

with a pledge to change things through what they call
institutional, structural, and radical reform.
Corazon C. Aquino promised structural
reforms,people empowerment, and a centerpiece
comprehensive agrarian reform to put an end to land

sustained GDP growth boosts

tax revenues and provides the
government with extra money
to improve public services such
as education and healthcare. It
makes it easier for a
government to reduce the size
of a budget deficit

Every program was defined

according to the term limits
thus is devoid of the strategy
and continuity needed. Every
short-term solution was

Development or
modernization models
such as privatization,
deregulation, and
structural adjustment
programs (SAPs)

Since that time, devolution and

decentralization have marked Philippine
government policies over the past ten years
after EDSA. The emergent thinking is that
while central government provides the broad
policy framework and social environment, it is
the Local Government Units (LGUs), private
sector and civil society entities who shall act
as the prime engines for growth, equity and
sustainability (Quizon:1997).

These decentralization processes are of

three major types:
1. Shift from national to local. The shift from
national to local aims to bring the government
closer to the people and involves the two processes of

deconcentration and devolution. Deconcentration,

also known as administrative or sectoral decentralization,
takes place when the central government transfers power,
authority and responsibility or the discretion to plan, decide,
manage from a central point to lower or local levels that are
within the central or national government itself. For instance,
the agrarian reform program gives DAR provincial officers
quasi-judicial powers for handling land transfer and resolving
land disputes.

Devolution of authority, assets and

personnel of various national government
agencies (NGAs) to local government units
(LGUs) to provide primary responsibility for
basic services and facilities. This involves the
mandatory delivery of five basic front-line
services - health, social welfare, natural
resources and environment, agricultural
extension and public works. Other services
include education, tourism,
telecommunications and housing programs
and projects.

Devolution, also called political

decentralization, involves the transfer of
power and authority from the national
government to Local Government Units
(LGUs), which are defined in the 1987
Constitution as the territorial and political
subdivisions of the state. The nature of power
transfer is political and the approach is
territorial. Taken within this context,
devolution is inherently tied to the concept of
local autonomy.

2. Shift to
Public Private

The airport is being privatized under the public-private

partnership model. The project includes the construction of a
new 8 million-passenger international terminal in the first
phase, with a further expansion after 2023. The airport
breached its 4.5 million capacity in 2010 and served 6.9
million passengers last year

3. Shift from state to civil society. This

refers to the process by which civil society
participates directly in government programs
and systems of governance, as characterized
by: (i) the focus on self-organized sectors of
civil society (e.g., NGOs, POs, professional
associations, the academe and others); and (ii)
the institution of participatory mechanisms
that go beyond elections and similar
traditional norms.

The O. B. Montessori Child and Community

Foundation, Inc. is a 30-year-old foundation
that has been spreading the quality
affordable version of the Montessori system
of education in less privileged areas of the
country, called the Pagsasarili Prechools.
Starting with 7 project sites in slumimproved areas of Metro Manila, it has
partnered with local government units,
DSWD, DepEd, and CHED to cover 9 other
regions of the Philippines to establish about
150 self-sustaining preschools, including the
Pagsasarili Basic Education for Pulung-bulu
public school in Angeles City, Pampanga

Membership in Local Special Bodies (LSBs).

NGOs and POs are represented in Local
Special Bodies, primarily but not limited to the
Local Development Council, the Local School
Board, the Local Health Board, the
Prequalification, Bids and Awards Committee
and the Local Peace and Order Council.

Sectoral Representation to Local

Sanggunians. NGOs and POs are expected to
play an active part in the selection and
fielding of sectoral representatives to local
sanggunians from labor (industrial or
agricultural), women and one representative
from either the urban poor, indigenous
peoples or the disabled.

The Local Government Code of 1991

represents the most radical and
comprehensive policy instrument of the
Aquino administration to further its
people power agenda. With its avowed
objective of reversing the centrist
tendencies of the Marcos and other
previous administrations, the Code
incorporates all three above forms of

In the words of then

Senator Aquilino
Pimentel, our only hope
for developing the
country is to move power,
responsibility and
resources from the
central to the local level.
This is what we tried to
do in the Local
Government Code.

Given this perspective, the 1991 Local

Government Code and its implementation is
nothing less than an instrument to promote
sustainable development and address the
related problems of poverty, inequity and

Local Government Administration

and the Challenges of
Rural Development Local Governance
serves its big importance for the
development of a certain country as it is
considered as the basic governing

It is the means of reaching people

and a way of uniting them. It is the
avenue of the common people to
address their needs and for them to
know that they are part of this what we
called government (Lagura: 2012)

It must act as the immediate medium

of peace and prosperity, a problem solver and
a provider of cure or remedies in any
problems of the diverse people living in the
country, thus such a big responsibility to be
one of the persons involved in local
government sector

It part of a larger set of anti-poverty laws

and programs which also bear on its
implementation. Its companion laws include:
the Cooperative Code of the Philippines; the
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law; the
Magna Carta for Small Farmers (RA 7606) and
the Magna Carta for Countryside
Development (Kalakalan 20).

On the other hand, the related national

programs of government include: Human and
Ecological Security, Philippine Agenda 21 and
the Localization of the Philippine Council for
Sustainable Development (PCSD) and various
councils and commissions, such as the
Philippine Council for Countryside
Development, the Presidential Commission to
Fight Poverty and the Presidential Commission
for the Urban Poor.

Fidel V. Ramos talked about pole

vaulting the economy
Under the Ramos administration, this
package of anti-poverty measures have been
consolidated through the adoption of the
Social Reform Agenda (SRA) as the integrated
national action agenda for poverty alleviation.

The achievements of President

Joseph Estrada are the
Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999,
the second RP-US Visiting Forces
The country heard a
radical restructuring Agreement, and the Retail Trade
Liberalization Act. He was the
(not just reforms) and a 13th President of the
decisive end to
Philippines. He also signed many
other acts and treaties during his
four years in office from 1998 to

Joseph E. Estrada

Gloria M.M.
term pledged longterm structural
reforms, one million
jobs every year, food
for every family, and a
strong republic.
The Strong Republic Nautical Highway
Job creation

emergence of many domestic and

international airports
Holiday Economics
The relatively peaceful and orderly

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo is a Filipino

politician who served as the 14th
President of the Philippines from
2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice
President of the Philippines from
1998 to 2001

In July 2010, Aquino III pledged a

transformational presidency that
would free the nation from the
quagmire of corruption and poverty
and set the pace for reforms in

Aquino III, who was elected

with a big margin of votes
under a defective
automated election
system, tried to raise hopes
that he will be a
president with a straight
road (daang matuwid)
for social change. The
social contract that he
promised to fulfill,

Role of the Local Government in

Sec. 2. Declaration of Policy. the territorial &
political subdivisions of the State shall enjoy
genuine and meaningful local autonomy to
enable them to attain their fullest development
as self-reliant communities & make them more
effective partners in the attainment of national
goals; provide a more responsive and
accountable local government structure
instituted through a system of decentralization
whereby LGUs shall be given more powers,
authority, responsibilities, and resources.

LGUs Role in Development

(c) national agencies and offices are required to
conduct periodic consultations with
appropriate LGUs, NGOs,& POs before any
project or program is implemented
(g) capabilities of LGUs, especially municipalities
& barangays, shall be enhanced thru active
participation in the implementation of
national programs & projects.

LGUs Role in Development

(i) LGUs shall share with the national

government the responsibility in

managing & maintaining ecological
balance within their territorial

Four Outstanding Features

Devolves to LGUs
for delivery of
basic services that have always belonged to the

national government
Grants LGs significant regulatory powers that
traditionally always belonged to the national
government agencies
Significantly increases the financial resources
available to LGUs thru increased IRA
Recognizes & encourages the active participation
of the private sector, NGOs, & POs in the process
of governance

LGUs Role in Development

Sec. 16. General Welfare. LGUs shall ensure and

support preservation & enrichment of culture,
promote health & safety, enhance right of people
to a balanced ecology, encourage & support devt
of appropriate & self-reliant scientific &
technological capabilities, improve economic
prosperity & social justice, promote full
employment among residents, maintain peace &
order, & preserve the comfort & convenience of

LGUs Role in Development

Sec. 17. Basic Services & Facilities. LGUs shall
discharge the functions & responsibilities of
national agencies & offices devolved to them;
exercise powers & discharge functions &
responsibilities incidental to efficient &
effective provision of the basic services and
facilities enumerated

Significant Contents and Provisions

Devolved Services



Regulatory Powers



Governmental and
Corporate Powers

Management of economic enterprise

Domestic and foreign grants

NGO-LGU Role in

Participation to LDG, LSB, LHB


Human Resource

OS, staffing pattern

Capability building

Local Government
Code of 1991: 23
Years After

Where are we now?

Notable achievements
Top 10 Cities in the Philippines
with Highest Per Capita
Top 10 Next Wave Cities
ISO Certified

in Local in
In a paper documenting
AIMs experience
the Awards, Brilliantes
(2010) cited the
following initiatives to illustrate the wide
variety of projects and programs that have
been undertaken as a result of the devolution

1. Taking Care of People and the Environment

in Negros Oriental is an example of how
development and improving the lives of the quality
of life of the people and meeting their basic needs
is the best approach to counterinsurgency. This
involved the construction of a Community Primary
Hospital in the hinterlands of Negros Oriental that
provided basic health services to the people
coupled with the Community Based Resource
Management approach that empowered local
fisherfolk in the province to lead in environmental

2. Energizing the Purok in Sampaloc Quezon

through a Kapit Bisig Program was the
municipalitys approach to solving its
insurgency through the establishment of an
organizational machinery beginning with the
Purok to the municipal council. This was
supported by NGOs and peoples
organizations with specific sectoral concerns
such as peace and order, health, agriculture
and livelihood.

3. Saving the Mangroves of Kalibo, Aklan

involved the reforestation of a fifty hectare
swampland undertaken by families of
fisherfolk who were organized by a local NGO,
Kalibo Save the Mangrove or KASAMA.

4. Saving the Marikina River shows us how a

dirty and dying river was brought back to life
and transformed into a major tourist
attraction by sheer political will of the
government and support of all sectors.

5. The Mandaluyong Public Market was

constructed through the Build-OperateTransfer scheme. The LGU, in partnership with
the private sector built a public market/mall
that approaches world class standards. The
City provided the land. The private sector built
and operated it. The Citys revenues have
increased because of the numerous business
and license taxes paid to the city by the
establishments operating in the mall.

6. Transforming Malalag into a Provincial AgroIndustrial Center in Davao Del Sur is an

example of how a holistic approach towards
building the capability of the local government
unit, the barangay officials and the partner
agencies in local administration and
management, human resource development,
local legislation, service delivery and local
enterprises can improve the quality of life of
the people.

7. Acquiring a Complete Equipment Pool in

Munoz, Nueva Ecija demonstrates synergy in
action : it shows how a municipal government
actually met its basic infrastructure
equipment needs by creatively acquiring
through memorandum receipt underutilized
equipment of national and provincial
government agencies in the area.

8. Floating Bonds for Low Cost Housing in

Victorias, Negros Occidental shows us how a
small municipality, with the support of the
people, used the bold economic strategy to
float bonds in order to provide shelter and
housing to its people, a minimum basic need.
Victorias is one of the first local government
units to float bonds for a housing project in
the country.

9. Improving the Productivity of Naga City was

one of the municipalitys version of
reinventing government by demonstrating
how, by focusing on four major areas of local
government productivity, the full potentials of
the various departments and offices of the
entire city government for effective, efficient
and adequate delivery of public services can
be unleashed.

10. Lote Para sa Mahirap (Land for the Poor) :

Land Banking in San Carlos City was a
program specifically designed for the very
poor of the City. Although a product of
concerted efforts of the different units and
locally based national government agencies
and NGOs, it was actively participated in by
mostly fire victims. The beneficiaries have
mostly been pedicab drivers, fish and
vegetable vendors, construction and dock
workers. They paid only five pesos a day, and
after full payment, were issued the land title.

11. Solid Waste Management Program in Sta.

Maria Bulacan is an innovative pioneering
program in slid waste management which
veers away from the traditional concept of
garbage disposal. The program introduces a
new dimension of waste disposal
management by emphasizing the concepts of
waste reduction, recovery and reuse.

12. Eco-Walk for the Environment in Baguio

City is a year round environmental awareness
program for children. It addresses the need for
schoolchildren to develop relationships with
the environment through a series of guided
hikes to the Busol watershed, Baguio Citys
major, but denuded, watershed. The project
evolved into a community undertaking
involving many different sectors, including civil
society, the church, NGOs and POs.

13. Health Insurance Project of Guimaras

Province provides medical insurance to the
low income sectors of one of the more
depressed provinces of the country. It makes
health care services accessible and affordable
to low income households through a cost
sharing scheme among the beneficiaries, and
the provincial and municipal governments.

14. Carabao and Tractor Pool in Puerto Princesa

was a time sharing scheme of sorts among
farmers in partnership with the city
agriculturists office, which maintained a pool
of carabaos (water buffalos) and tractors for
use in their farms. Productivity has
subsequently increased, not to mention the
sense of community and responsibility it
develops among its members.

15. Talahib Handicraft in Jones Isabela has

shown how a small municipality can go into
business creating wealth out of talahib (wild
grass stalks) by making them into handicrafts.
This project has provided livelihood to the
people who have since been invited to
participate in many national trade fairs.

Local Government Code in Action: Naga

Citys Empowerment Ordinance
A success story in the implementation of the
Local Government Code Naga Citys enactment of
its Empowerment Ordinance in 1995 which led to
the design and implementation of several
initiatives involving partnership between local
government and civil society. The City chose to
develop its own Empowerment Ordinance to
establish the structure to achieve active
partnership between the city government and the
people of Naga City.

NGO and PO participation has been marginal, the

picture is not totally bleak. Following are some notable
exceptions of effective LGU-NGO/PO collaboration in
local governance (Tordecilla, IPG, 1997).
17. Irosin, Sorsogon. The declaration of
Irosin as a zone of peace and development
and a juetengfree town through the support
of almost all of the sectors in the municipality
particularly the basic sector cooperatives. The
declaration was a direct output of the Irosin
Municipal Multi-

Top 10 Cities in the

Philippines with Highest
Per Capita Income




2009 Per
Income (in






























Per capita income refers

to the total income earned
divided by the citys total
population. In a sense, the
figures show how effective
and efficient the local
government unit (LGU) is
in producing income.
True, LGUs are not in the
business of making money,
but the data show how
efficient (or inefficient) they
are in using their Internal
Revenue Allotment (IRA)
or budget allocated to
them by the national
government and how
productive their initiatives
are in generating economic

The landscape of digital is constantly changing and being redefined with
every new development, technology breakthrough, success and failure. We
need digital public sector leaders who can properly navigate this

Top 10 Next Wave Cities (NWC) for

2012. According to the Department of
Science and Technology-Information and
Communications Technology Office (DOSTICTO) and Information Technology and
Business Process Association of the
Philippines (IBPAP), the top 10 locations for
the next wave of growth are, in alphabetical
order: Baguio City, Davao City, Dumaguete
City, Iloilo City, Lipa City, Metro Bulacan
(Baliuag, Calumpit, Malolos City, Marilao,
and Meycauayan City), Metro Cavite
(Bacoor City, Dasmarias City, and Imus
City), Metro Laguna (Calamba City, Los
Baos, and Sta. Rosa City), Metro Naga
(Naga City and Pili), and Metro Rizal
(Antipolo City, Cainta, and Taytay).

growth of the
technology and
and industry

Remember too that in our increasingly interconnected globalizing world, economic growth
does not happen in isolation. Events in one
country and region can have a significant
effect on growth prospects in another.

Countrys first ISO

Cavite provincial government country's first ISOcertified LGU. By: Philippine News Agency
Cavite Provincial

LGU Jagna is ISO 14001:2004
The Municipality of Jagna is the second LGU in
the whole Philippines to have been awarded
an ISO 14001:2004 certification

Nothing Small in Muntinlupa: "The Model LGU"

(The Best Practice of the City Government of
Muntinlupa) the local government
implemented a program entitled,
MUNTINLUPA CITY Improving Productivity and
Efficiency of LGU Through ISO 9001:2000.

Laoag City Earns ISO Certificate Oct 5, 2012

- Philippines News Agency ( General News |
Newswire ) Published Laoag City in Ilocos
Norte that bagged International Organization
for Standardization (ISO) certification,

Ilocos Norte is first fully ISO certified 5, 2013 - LAOAG
CITY, Feb. 4
Ilocos Norte Mayors Endorse All ISO
Certification of LGUs
Oct 4, 2013

San Fernando City [La Union] gets 3 ISO

pines/.../san-fernando-city... Dec 18, 2013 The certifications are ISO 9001:2008 for
Quality Management Systems,... for the ISO

Metro Cities

Former capital of the country (19481976). Largest

city in Metro Manila in population and land area.
Hosts the House of Representatives of the
Philippines the Batasang Pambansa Complex and
the metropolis' largest source of water, the
Novaliches Reservoir

Capital of the country (from 1571-1948 and 1976

present). Historically centered around the walled city
of Intramuros, by the mouth of the Pasig River. Host
to the seat of the chief executive, the Malacaang
Palace. By far the most densely populated city in the

Historic city where Andres Bonifacio and
the Katipunan held many of its meetings in
secrecy. Much of its territory was ceded to
form Quezon City, resulting in the formation of
two non-contiguous sections under the city's
jurisdiction. Caloocan is the third most
densely populated city in the country, lying
immediately north of the city of Manila. It
serves as an industrial and residential area
inside Metro Manila

The largest city in - Davao City

also the largest city in the Philippines in
terms of land area and is also known as
"the City of Royalties" because of home of
some of the prestigious kings and queens
in flora and faunas like the Durian and the
Philippine Eagle. It is also the Eco
Adventure Capital in the Philippines. It
has an estimated population of 1,530,365
as of 2011.

The City Mayors Foundation ranks

Davao City as the 87th fastest growing city
in the world and the only Philippine city to
make it in top 100. Davao has been listed
by the 5th magazine as the 10th "Asian City
of the Future". Davao's excellence in
service and livability made this city as its

Popularly nicknamed as "The Queen City of

the South." First capital of the country. Capital of

the province of Cebu and regional center of
Region VIII . Most populous city in the Visayas .
Core of Metro Cebu. Cebu City has been honored
as the 8th Asian City of the Future owing to its
expansive business districts, premier
entertainment destinations, and its pristine
waters which attracts tourists worldwide. The city
is home to the most popular Sinulog festival
celebrated every January which attracts tourists
and Filipinos alike.

Nicknamed "Ciudad de las Flores" and marketed
by its city government as "Ciudad Latina de Asia"
for its substantial Spanish Derived Creolespeaking population called Zamboangueo", the
largest in the world. Former capital of the Moro
Province and of the undivided province of
Zamboanga. Former regional center of
Zamboanga Peninsula. Former Republic of
Zamboanga (18991903) under the leadership of
President General Vicente Alvarez.

Nicknamed "City in the Sky" for its location
on the hills immediately east of Metro Manila.
Well-known pilgrimage and tourist center,
being host to a Marian shrine and the
Hinulugang Taktak National Park. Most
populous city in Luzon outside of Metro

Hosts most of the Ortigas Center.
Part of the province of Rizal until 1975,
when it was incorporated into Metro
Manila. Formerly hosted the capitol and
other government buildings of that

Currently exercises fiscal jurisdiction
over Fort Bonifacio. Was part of Rizal
Province until 1975, when it was
incorporated into Metro Manila. Lies on
the western shores of Laguna de Bay.

Known as the "City of Golden
Friendship" and famous for its
whitewater rafting or Kayaking
adventures, that has been one of the
tourism activity being promoted in the
Cagayan de Oro River. Regional
center of Northern Mindanao.
Provincial capital city of the province of
Misamis Orietnal.

Asian Metro Cities

Tokyo Japan


Jakarta, Indonesia



Shanghai, China

Delhi, India


Mumbai India


Manila Philippines

Beijing China

Osaka, Japan

Calcutta, India

Karachi Pakistan



Shenzhen China

Tehran, Iran


Bangkok, Thailand

Chennai India


Bangalore India


Hong Kong, China.


Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam


Most Expensive Asian cities


Hong Kong


Poverty The
income distribution.
persistence of poverty is a consequence
of the highly inequitable distribution of
income and assets.

Poor performance in poverty

alleviation. The performance of the
Philippines in poverty alleviation is
particularly disturbing when compared with
the achievements of neighboring Asian

Regional disparities in quality of life.

The UNDP Human Development Report for the
Philippines gave a Human Development Index (HDI)
value for each of the country's regions, which was
computed using levels of life expectancy,
educational attainment and income
. As expected, the NCR
ranked highest overall. This
may be attributed to the
concentration of economic
activity, infrastructure,
education ad health facilities
in the capital. Southern
Tagalog, Central Luzon,
Central Visayas, Ilocos and
Western Visayas ranked
second to sixth, respectively.

Rural Poverty. Poverty in the Philippines is still

largely a rural phenomenon. In 1991, half of
rural families were poor and rural poverty
accounted for nearly two-thirds of the
country's total poor.

On the other hand, the urban poor live closer to

the poverty line than their rural counterparts
and, in the assessment of the World Bank, are
more likely to be pulled over the line by
economic growth.
However, there is a high
degree of uncertainty in the lives
of the urban poor, either because
of the risk that income could fall
unexpectedly (due to loss of
employment) or expenditure
needs escalate sharply (through
government or private demolition
of their housing settlements).

of Administrators
With its importance,
it is imperative that
certain knowledge must be acquired to those
who will handle such big obligations; they are
the public servants of the local government
unit. Such equipment of knowledge and
good governance must be practiced in any
operations involved such as in planning and
decision making.

The claim of GDP growth in the first quarter

of 2012 was driven by a surge in government
consumption and is therefore unsustainable. The
main drivers of economic growth, productivity,
and jobs creation such as agriculture and overall
investment performed poorly. Unemployment has
worsened alarmingly from 10.9 million in 2010 to
11.7 million today or 11.7 percent of the labor
force; of those employed only 57 percent have
regular jobs indicating the fast deterioration of
work quality.

The economy will continue to rely

heavily on overseas workers remittances
the perennial rescuer of the economy.
Compared with the daily outflow of 3,000
Filipinos seeking overseas jobs in 2010, the
number has risen to 4,000 this year.
Government is aggressively exporting
labor: it aims to double the countrys share
of world seafarers from 25 percent or
347,150 seafarers to 50 percent by 2016.

The social divide in the country has

widened: the combined wealth of the 40
richest Filipinos more than doubled growing
by $24.6 billion (108 percent) to total $47.7
billion this year which is equal to 21 percent
of the GDP. The number of households who
rated themselves poor increased from 9.1
million (2011) to 11.1 million (April 2012) or
55 percent of the population.

Where do we want to go?

Philippine Agenda 21 envisions a better quality
of life for all through the development of a
just, moral, creative, spiritual, economically
vibrant, caring, diverse yet cohesive society
characterized by appropriate productivity,
participatory and democratic processes, and
living in harmony within the limits of the
carrying capacity of nature and the integrity of

Growth Drivers for Sustainable

Economic Growth

There have been numerous research studies in what

determines long term GDP growth. Every country is different,
each factor will vary in importance for a country at a given
point in time


Agra, Alberto C.
12 Basic Features of Local Autonomy.
Lecture presented to the Local Autonomy Forum,
Baguio City.
Brillantes, Alex Jr. B.
Decentralized Democratic Governance
Under the Local Government Code: A Government
Perspective, Manila: Philippine Journal of Public

Brillantes, Alex Jr. B.
Local Government Code Encourages
NGO Participation in Local Governance, Manila
Legaspi, Perla E.
The Enabling Role of Local
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