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CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION
CAPARO MARUTI . Is a premier industry setup in Bawal, Haryana dedicated for the
production and designing of various sheet metal parts and components associated
with automobiles. It has been a vendor MARUTI INDIA PVT.LTD. It is a multi-disci
plinary and multi-dimensional organization dedicated for the production of numbe
r of components.It is one of the sister company out of group of companies. It is
serving several of its clients. Large number of components ranging from simple
to highly sophisticated ones, have been designed and developed by the company an
d their know-hows have been passed on to the various of its clients. Over a perio
d of time, CAPARO has acquired state-of-art expertise in designing components fo
r different applications associated with automobile industry. Keeping pace with
emerging trendsCAPARO has developed various components using state of the art te
chnologies. Its an ISO / TS 16949 : 2002 Certified company. It performs all of it
s operations under the norms as laid by the International Standardization Organi
zation, keeping in view the well being of its employees and workers at every lev
el.It is spread over an area total of 11406 Sq. Yards and th covering area is be
ing 65196 Sq. Ft. .
1.2 LOCATION
It is located in Bawal, the industrial city of Haryana state. Plot no. 85 to 102
,sec.-7,HSIIDC Industrial Growth Centre , Bawal, Distt. Rewari (Haryana) INDIA 1
23501 One of the great advantages for the location is being that it is situated
very near to the Gurgaon.
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1.3 An Overview of CAPARO MARUTI LTD.


Fig 1.1
CAPARO MARUTI LTD.
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1.4
i. ii.
PLANT STRUCTURE
Total Area :11406 Sq. Yards
Covered Area: - 65196 Sq. Ft.
Power Back-Up Facility
i. ii. Gen Set :- 500 KVA Gen Set :- 162 KVA
Plant Spare Capacity
50% Spare Capacity
1.5 ACHIEVEMENTS & AWARDS
Best vendor award from MUL (Maruti Udyog Ltd.)
Udyog Ratna Award
Maintaining ZER
O DEFECT Products for GMI ; AVTEC ; M & M since Last 3 Years Delivering Products
ON TIME EVERY TIME for all Customers.
1.6 OBJECTIVE
Aims at producing professionals endowed with technical competence and leadership
qualities.
To infuse thorough knowledge and impart industry -oriented practical
training to make the students a breed apart.
To inculcate a sense of discipline
and responsibility coupled with logical thinking, so that they are an asset for
their employers.
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To instill a high level of self-confidence to make them successful in all walks


of life including entrepreneurship.
To emphasize their all round development, by
ensuring participation in cultural activities, group discussions, social get-to
gethers, sports, etc. To imbibe a quality that makes them better citizens. To cr
eate professional competence.
1.7
DEPARTMENTS
(i) Engineering Department (ii) Production Department (iii) Welding department (
iv) Quality section
(i)
ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT
1. Engineering department deals with development of the fore coming parts of Mar
uti.
2. Generally, majority of the parts are from MUL, Ggn. Parts are prepared and th
ere trial is taken. This department also deals with costing of sheet metal parts
, in which quotation are prepared in order to submit to the customers and vendor
s.
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(ii)
Production Department
In production department metal sheets are given desired shapes through stamping
process.Stamping press is used to produce the stamping operation.
What is a stamping press ? A stamping press is a machine that houses the stampin
g tools (tooling) and carries them around according to the kinematics indicated
by the users (process set-up). The knowledge of the press used for a stamping op
eration provides us with useful clues regarding:
Values and distribution of rest
raining forces Tool deformation caused by stamping forces Contact and/or gap bet
ween tools and blank
However, we should recall that,at the moment when the die design is carried out,
the press is usually not yet known, so that its characteristics are rather a fa
ctor of noise than a useful information.Therefore,it bwill be important to have
a design that is robust with respect to the press type.
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What is a stamping tool? What is process design?


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GLOSSARY: Design surface Blankholder surface Part as designed to fit in the car
(after trimming) Surfaces that hold the blank before the forming operation, incl
uding the restraining
Production surface/run-offs
Junction between the two former surfaces, protecting the design surface and cont
rolling material flow
Dieface
Run-offs + blankholder
(iii)
WELDING DPARTMENT
Resistance Welding is a welding process, in which work pieces are welded due to
a combination of a pressure applied to them and a localized heat generated by a
high electric current flowing through the contact area of the weld.
(a)
Spot Welding (RSW) Spot Welding is a Resistance Welding (RW) process, in which t
wo or more overlapped metal sheets are joined by spot welds. The method uses poi
nted copper electrodes providing passage of electric current. The electrodes als
o transmitt pressure required for formation of strong weld. Diameter of the weld
spot is in the range 1/8 - 1/2 (3 - 12 mm). Spot welding is widely used in automo
tive industry for joining vehicle body parts.
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Fig 1.2: Spot Welding (b) Resistance Butt Welding Resistance Butt Welding is a R
esistance Welding (RW) process, in which ends of wires or rods are held under a
pressure and heated by an electric current passing through the contact area and
producing a weld.
Fig 1.3: Butt Welding
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Butt welding is used for welding small parts. The process is highly productive a
nd clean. In contrast to Flash Welding, Butt Welding provides joining with no lo
ss of the welded materials.
(iv)
QUALITY CONTROL SECTION
As the name suggests this section houses all sorts of tools and measuring instru
ments like vernier calipers, vernier height gauge, slip gauges, surface plates,
radius gauges, inside/outside micrometers, depth gauges and hardness testing mac
hines, torque wrench testing machine etc. for checking the components purchased
from the vendors from outside the firm before being stored into the store lying
adjacent to this section. This section monitors whether the components supplied
by the allied vendor party covers the quality specifications of the company or n
ot and according takes corrective action as and when required. It also keeps a t
rack record of the stock of components inside the store. Being an ISO certified
company; the firm is deeply concerned with managing of quality of the purchased
components which ultimately affect the quality of its final product. The Quality
Policy of the company can be quoted as:
Producing world class tractors in quali
ty and reliability Total customer satisfaction through services Creating a cultu
re among all employed toward total quality concepts Constant up gradation of tec
hnology and human excellence
After so many accomplishments, the company is still striving hard to expand its
capabilities and setting up new establishments and manufacturing units in differ
ent parts of the country. Some of the manufacturing units are under construction
and soon will be ready to work. It has signed MOUs with several international fi
rms to match up with the latest trends in the automobile industry, the fastest g
rowing industry of its kind in the current scenario.
Quality improving steps followed by caparo
1. 5S 2. Kaizen 3. 3R 4. 3M
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1. 5S:5S is the name of a workplace organization methodology that uses a list of five
Japanese words which are seiri, seiton, seiso, seiketsu and shitsuke
English meaning of 5S
I.
Sorting (Seiri): Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and instructions. Go th
rough all tools, materials, and so forth in the plant and work area. Keep only e
ssential items and eliminate what is not required, prioritizing things per requi
rements and keeping them in easily-accessible places. Everything else is stored
or discarded.
II.
Straightening or setting in order / stabilize (Seiton) There should be a place f
or everything and everything should be in its place. The place for each item sho
uld be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner that
promotes efficient work flow, with equipment used most often being the most easi
ly accessible. Workers should not have to bend repetitively to access materials.
Each tool, part, supply, or piece of equipment should be kept close to where it
will be used in other words, straightening the flow path. Seiton is one of the
features that distinguishes 5S from "standardized cleanup". This phase can also
be referred to as Simplifying[1].
III.
Sweeping or shining or cleanliness / systematic cleaning (Seiso) Clean the works
pace and all equipment, and keep it clean, tidy and organized. At the end of eac
h shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place. Th
is makes it easy to know what goes where and ensures that everything is where it
belongs. Spills, leaks, and other messes also then become a visual signal for e
quipment or process steps that need attention. A key point is that maintaining c
leanliness should be part of the daily work not an occasional activity initiated
when things get too messy.
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IV.
Standardizing (Seiketsu) Work practices should be consistent and standardized.
ll work stations for a particular job should be identical. All employees doing
he same job should be able to work in any station with the same tools that are
n the same location in every station. Everyone should know exactly what his or
er responsibilities are for adhering to the first 3 S s.

A
t
i
h

V.
Sustaining the discipline or self-discipline (Shitsuke) Maintain and review stan
dards. Once the previous 4 S s have been established, they become the new way to
operate. Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradual decline back
to the old ways. While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yet b
etter ways. When an issue arises such as a suggested improvement, a new way of w
orking, a new tool or a new output requirement, review the first 4 S s and make
changes as appropriate.
2.
Kaizen:Masaaki Imai defined Kaizen as a means of continuing improvement in person
al life, home life, social life, and working life. At the workplace, Kaizen mean
s continuing improvement involving everyonemanagers and workers alike. The Kaizen
business strategy involves everyone in an organization working together to make
improvements without large capital investments. Mark R. Hamel has a slightly dif
ferent definition: Kaizen is much more than an event; it is a philosophy, mindset
and, for breakthrough performance, a most critical vehicle to achieve strategic
imperatives and execute value stream/process improvement plans. The five main el
ements of kaizen
Teamwork Personal discipline Improved morale Quality circles
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Suggestions for improvement


Kaizen is a daily process, the purpose of which goes beyond simple productivity
improvement. It is also a process that, when done correctly, humanizes the workp
lace, eliminates overly hard work ("muri"), and teaches people how to perform ex
periments on their work using the scientific method and how to learn to spot and
eliminate waste in business processes. In all, the process suggests a humanized
approach to workers and to increasing productivity.
3. 3R:
Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, a hierarchy of waste management strategies to minimize w
aste
4. 3M:i. Muda ii. iii. Mura Muri
"muda" meaning activity that is wasteful and doesnt add value. "mura", meaning "u
nnevenness" "muri" meaning "overburdening".
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CHAPTER-2 MANUFACTURING OF PARTS


For the manufacturing of the parts first of all the Overview Of The plant is giv
en. Different operations are performed during the manufacturing of the different
parts. The operations performed during the manufacturing of different parts the
following processes are involved (1) Press Shop (2) Welding Shop (3) Quality Se
ction
2.1
Press Shop: During the press shop firstly the sheet of Aluminum passes through t
he different presses and performed different operations on it. The different pre
sses & different operations which are performed on the sheet are:
The different kind of presses used in the press shop is: Type Of Press (1) (2) 8
00 Tones 400 Tones Table 2.1 No. Of. 2 3
The various operations are performed on the sheet during the press shop are (1)
Drawing (2) Trimming (3) Restrike (4) Piercing/ Punching During the drawing the
sheet can be passed through the press of 800 Tones & the specific shape of the g
iven part provided to the sheet and during trimming the extra part of the sheet
which is not in work can be trim by the press and the extra part can be thrown i
nto the scrap. During the process of restriking the die can be strike on the par
t again so that it can acquire the exact shape of the part & during the process
of
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punching the different holes can be drawn on the part according to the shape. Pr
ess contains different parts such as: (1) Cushion Bed (2) Lower Die (3) Upper Di
e The inner parts of a press which help to support the die are: (1) Damping Unit
(2) Air Cylinder (3) Lubrication System The parts are shifted from one press to
another by the loader & unloader. The transfer belt is used to transfer the par
t from first press to another.
The different parts of press are:
(i)
Cushion Bed:
Fig 2.1: Cushion Bed
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(ii)
Lower Die:
Fig 2.2: Lower Die
(iii)
Upper Die:
\ Fig 2.3: Upper Die
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The different internal parts of the press are: (i) DampingUnit:


Fig 2.4: Damping Unit
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(ii)
Air Cylinder:
Fig 2.6: Air Cylinder
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(iii)
Lubrication System:
Fig 2.7: Lubrication System

Loader & Unloader:


Fig 2.8: Loader & Unloader
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Transfer Belt:
Fig 2.9: Transfer Belt
2.2 Welding Section : Spot welding can be done on the parts for the joining of d
ifferent small parts on the main part. For example studs are attached to the dif
ferent parts with the help of spot welding. Spot welding mainly of two types (i)
(ii) Integrated Transformer Gun Non-Integrated Transfer Gun
These are the two methods mainly used for the spot welding.
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Integrated transformer gun means a gun which is used for the spot welding contai
ns the transformer inside the gun. There is no outside transformer placed for th
e working of the gun. On the other hand Non Integrated Transformer gun can be us
ed for the spot welding of the parts contain a transformer side from the gun. (i
) Integrated Transformer Gun :
Fig 2.10: I.T. Gun
(ii)
Non Integrated Transformer Gun :
Fig 2.11: Non I.T. Gun
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These are the two guns which are used for the welding purpose of the parts manuf
actured. 2.3 Quality Section:
In the quality section the part manufactured can be checked out completely. In q
uality section these things can be checked out in the part: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(v) (vi) Overlapping Wrinkle Deformation Crack Dent Material Strength
These are different facts that can be checked out in quality section which are n
ecessary to be checked out for the strength and accuracy of the part. o Manufact
ured Parts:
Dash Waganor Dash Versa Wheel Housing Chessy Quarter Inner Lower Frame Floor Doo
r Hinge
2.4
Manufacturing Process:
For the manufacturing of the above discussed parts a part is to be followed by t
he different operations. Firstly, a part is to be moved from the press shop wher
e the drawing, trimming, restrike & piercing/punching can be & the
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shape can be provided to the sheet of the given specific die & then it can be se
nd to the welding section where the spot welding of the manufactured part can be
done & different studs, nut & bolt can be attached to the part according to the
specification of the part. ` Manufacturing Process In Press Shop: In press shop
first of all a sheet of aluminum can be taken then it can be placed in the diff
erent dies where different operations can be done on it. DRAWING: Firstly, the p
rocess of draw can be done where the given specific shape can be applied on the
sheet by placing it on the die of that specific shape. The die can be placed on
M.B. in which cushion pins can be put according to the shape these cushion pins
pull up the die & a upper die is attached to upper M.B. with the help of studs.
For the manufacturing of part first of all power is put on and then pressure is
applied to upper die by the air cylinder situated at the top of press and with t
he pressure the upper die moves towards down and hit on the lower die. When the
upper die strikes on the lower die the sheet present on the lower die attain the
shape of the die. The lower die does not move towards down because of cushion p
in which support the die. The cushion plays an important role during the manufac
turing of the parts because it support the die if any cushion is placed in a wro
ng way inside the M.B. then it will damage the die so it is necessary to place t
he cushion pins inside the M.B. correctly. The M.B. is placed on the cushion bed
which helps to absorb the damps which produced when the upper die strikes on th
e lower with a pressure of 800 Tones. During the drawing the specific shape can
be applied to the sheet. According the part the can be loaded on the M.B. and th
e placed on the cushion bed and then the process of manufacturing starts. Loader
takes the sheet from the shelf where it can be provided by the workers. The loa
der picks the sheet and placed it on the die. Then the operation of draw is star
ted and the shape of the die can be applied on the sheet. There is a big importa
nce of angle of stroke during the press operations. The accuracy of the part dep
ends upon the stroke of press, commonly the stroke is 180*(Degree). Lubrication
system also plays an important role during the operation of press because withou
t lubrication it cant be easier to
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drive such kind of heavy press so it is necessary that lubricating pump should w
ork properly.
Fig 2.12: Drawing Operations
TRIMMING : Trimming is a operation in press shop in which after the process of d
rawing the remaining part which is useless on behalf of the structure of part is
to cut by this press. In trimming the upper die contains blade on the edges of
it and when it strike on the lower die where the part with extra useless part is
placed is to be trimmed. So trimming is a necessary operation on behalf of the
structure of the part. This press is of 400 Tones and strikes on the lower die w
hich is placed on the M.B. and supported by the cushion pins which are necessary
to hold the die during the striking operation. If any of the cushion pin put in
wrong way inside the M.B. then it will damage the die & sometimes die will brea
kdown due the pressure of the press and cant be able to absorb the vibrations pr
oduced by the cushion bed and as a result the die will damage so it is necessary
to placed the cushion pins correctly according to the drawing of the part. Duri
ng trimming it is necessary to take care of angle of stroke and the lubrication
system because it is necessary for the accurate working of the press. The press
contains a air cylinder on the top of the press in these cylinder air is to be c
ompressed and it helps in the stroke of the press so there are so many things wh
ich can be checked during the working of press.
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Fig 2.12: Trimming Operation So trimming is a operation in which the remaining p


ortion of the part which is not useful is to be removed by the cutting operation
s RESTRIKING: Restriking is a operation in which after the trimming operation th
e part is taken by the unloader and put it on the transfer belt which takes it u
p to the another press from where the unloader takes the part and put it on the
press where the die of same kind is already placed and the part is placed on the
die and then operation of restrike done again. In the operation of restrike the
upper die is again strike on the part which is placed on the lower die. The low
er die is placed on the M.B. and the operation of restrike can be done because d
uring the operation of drawing some design can be missed and during the restriki
ng operation these designs can be made on the part so restriking operation is th
e important operation on behalf of the design of the manufacturing of part becau
se the accuracy of the part depends upon the operation. During this operation th
e stroke of press can be take care so that the complete process of the designing
of part can be completed with complete accuracy because the accuracy of the par
t is necessary because the complete design of the car can be based on the accura
cy of that part. So restriking operation can be done on the part after the trimm
ing operation so that the complete design can be made on the part. In this proce
ss again the cushion pin plays important role on the die because the cushion pin
s support the die to absorb the damps which are produced by the striking of uppe
r die on the lower die and the die press is of 400 Tones which is used for the r
estriking operation.
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The part on which the restriking operation an be done:


Fig 2.13: Restriking Operation
So restriking operation is done for the accurate design of the part by restrike
the press on the part placed at the die. PUNCHING/PIERCING: Punching is operatio
n in which the punch can be made on the part for the complete accuracy of it. Du
ring the punching the punches can be made on the part because punches can be nec
essary according to the construction and working of it, because without punches
a part cant be fit into the car, so the punches are necessary according to the c
onstructional accuracy of it. After the operation of restrike the unloader picks
the part from the press and put it on the transfer belt which transfer it up to
the another press where the punching operation can be done. The loader takes th
e part from the belt and put it on the die which is placed at the M.B. the upper
part of the M.B. contains a die on it with the punches so that when it strike o
n the lower die the punches can be made on the part according to the constructio
n of the die. So the punching operation is necessary according to the constructi
on of the part. The press works fully automatically and the different parts of t
he press such as loader- unloader, transfer belt works automatically and plays a
n important role for the construction of the part during the all operations of t
he press. The lubricating system is also necessary for the accurate working of t
he press because without the complete and accurate lubrication it cant be possibl
e to drive such kind of heavier press. The punching operation is the last operat
ion that can be done in the press shop and the die used for the punching operati
on is of 400 Tones and upper die strike on the lower die with the pressure of 40
0 Tones and this pressure can be maintained by the air cylinders which are place
d at the top of the press. The part which is to be punched is complete in its co
nstruction and then sends it to
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the quality check department for checking the accuracy and the defects producing
during the press shop operations. The part manufactured after the press shop op
eration is:
Fig 2.14: Complete Structure Of the Part So during the Press Shop Department the
four operations can be done (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Drawing Trimming Restrike Punch
ing/Piercing
After these four operations the part is completely ready according the construct
ion and shape of it. These four operations can be done on the dies of different
loads the die used for the Drawing Operation is of 800 Tones and the presses use
d for the remaining three operations are of 400 Tones. WELDING OPERATION: After
the press shop operation the part is ready for adding the different nut and bolt
s to be attached on it the part is sends to the welding section where the spot w
elding can done on it. The Spot Welding can be done on it with two different kin
d of welding:
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(i) (ii)
I.T. Gun Spot Welding Non-I.T. Gun Spot Welding
(i)
I.T. Gun Spot Welding: In I.T. Gun Spot Welding the spot welding can be done wit
h the help of a gun which contain the transformer in it. This kind of press call
ed as the I.T. Gun and the spot welding can do on it more easily as compare to t
he other welding operations. The gun used for the I.T. Gun Spot Welding is:
Fig 2.15: I.T. Gun
(ii)
Non I.T. Gun Spot Welding: In Non I.T. Gun Spot Welding operation the gun used f
or spot welding does not contain transformer in it. The transformer is placed ou
tside of the gun. The name of the Non I.T. Gun is Non Integrated Transformer Gun
for spot welding. The gun used for Non I.T. Gun Spot Welding is:
Fig 2.16: Non I.T. Gun
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Spot Welding can be done on the parts because it support the aerodynamic conditi
on because it is light in weight as comparison to the other welding techniques a
nd its cost is less as compare to other welding techniques. After the welding pr
ocess the part is sends to the final Quality Section where the quality of the pa
rt and the accuracy of the part can be checked. QUALITY SECTION: After the weldi
ng process the part is sends to the quality section where the quality checker ch
ecks the quality and accuracy of the part because it is essential to check the a
ccuracy of part. The defects can be checked at that department because it is nec
essary that a part should be accurate because without the accuracy it cant be fit
ted into the car. So it is necessary to checked out and solves these problems of
the part the certain defects that can be produced on the surface of the sheet d
uring the press shop operations are: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) Overlap Cracks Wrin
kle Deformation Dent
These are the different defects that produced on the surface of the sheet during
the press operation such as drawing, trimming, restriking and punching. During
these operations these defects can produced so it is necessary to check these de
fects because these defects are not to be favorable according to the structure o
f the part. So in quality checking section the checker check this defects and so
lves these by different operations. So this is the manufacturing process of the
parts in which following three stages can be used: (i) (ii) (iii) Press Shop Ope
rations Welding Shop Operations Quality Checking Section
And after these three stages the part is ready for the supply and fitted into th
e car. So this is the manufacturing process of the different parts.
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CHAPTER-3
RESULTS & DISCUSSION
3.1 RESULTS:
3.1.1 Successful Development Of The Part: In the final we getting the result of
the
successful development of the part. The part can be developed according to its p
rofile which is provided by the company to the engineers. According to its struc
ture a die can be used for the manufacturing of the part. For the manufacturing
of the different parts different dies can be used which are according to the sha
pe of the part. The die is loaded on the M.B. and M.B. can be placed inside the
press as the lower unit and a upper portion of the die can be attached to the up
per M.B. with the help of studs. When the die is loaded then the complete automa
tic process of the press starts and the pressure starts creating in the cylinder
s which are attached at the top portion of the press. When the pressure complete
s then the upper die completes its stroke and the single- single operations can
be completed on different presses. The presses used for these different operatio
ns are of different pressures the press used for the drawing operation is of 800
Tones and the presses used for the remaining operations are of 400 Tones that m
eans the upper die strikes on the lower one with that pressure. The damps produc
ed in the press by this strike are absorbed by the damping unit which is under t
he cushion bed. The M.B. is placed on the cushion bed and the damps can be absor
bed by the damping unit. After the every operation complete the part sends to th
e welding shop where the nut and bolts are attached to the part according to the
constructional detail of the part with the help of the spot welding and at last
the part is checked by the quality checkers and ready for delivery. So this is
the successful development of the part.
3.1.2
Get The Chance To Gain The Knowledge: After watching the complete
phenomenon of manufacturing of part we are able to getting the knowledge about t
he different press operation such as drawing, trimming, restriking and punching.
The different part of the die works in a different manner and these are automat
ically done so after watching these operations we are able to get the knowledge
of different press operations.
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After the different press phenomenon the different welding operations are perfor
med on it. The welding operation is used is the Spot Welding operation in which
spot welding can be done in different two ways: (i) (ii) I.T. Gun Non I.T. Gun
These are the two welding operation which are used for the spot welding so we ge
t the knowledge about the different spot welding techniques and machines which a
re used for spot welding. By watching this complete we are able to get the knowl
edge of the different processes that can be used in the factory for the manufact
uring of different parts. So after getting the complete training we get the know
ledge of different processes.
3.2 3.2.1
DISCUSSIONS: Defects Produced In Sheet: During discussion we discuss about the p
roblem
facing during the manufacturing process of the different parts. Basically the ma
in problem can be faced is of different defects produced during the manufacturin
g phenomenon. The different defects produced are:
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)
Wrinkle Overlapping Crack Deformation Dent.
These are the main problems that are faced during the manufacturing process of p
art. These defects can be discussed during the training
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Fig 3.1: Defects Produced In The Sheet


3.2.2
Problem Produced In The Presses: There are different problem that
produced during the working condition of press and these defects can be studied
or discussed during training. The different defects produced in the presses are
: (i) Lubrication Problem
(ii) Pressure Problem These are the problems that are produced during the workin
g condition of the press. So these defects can be discussed or solved out during
training.
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CHAPTER-4
CONCLUSION
In conclusion we are discussed to solve the problems produced during the working
condition of the press and manufacturing of the parts. To solve the defects pro
duced on the surface of the sheet during different press operations different pr
ocesses can be used if the damage is small and it can easily be repaired then it
can be machined and repaired it but if the defect is not be able to correct the
n the sheet can be thrown into the scrap. If the problems are small and it can e
asily be repaired then different operations such as hammering, machining can be
used. After applying these processes the defects can be removed the surface of s
heet because without removing these defects it cant be possible to use these part
s. A defected piece cant be used in the manufacturing of the car so it is necessa
ry to remove theses defects. In conclusion we discussed the process used for the
removal of the defects. There are certain defects produced during the working o
f press. The different defects produced during the press operation are lubricati
on problem, less pressure produced in the cylinders. It is necessary to solve th
ese problems because without solving these problems the press cant work automatic
ally. If any operation of the press stops working then press stops working so it
is necessary to solve these problems. Sometimes the pump of lubrication stop wo
rking and the press stops working. So this effect can be checked out and clear i
t so that the press should work properly. Sometimes the cylinder cannot produce
proper pressure for the stroke of the die so it is necessary to solve this probl
em that the press should stroke properly. The pump stops working and the pressur
e stops producing in the cylinders and due to this the press stops working so we
find out the problem and solve this so that press should work properly. So thes
e are the basic conclusions that are made to solve the problems produced during
the different operations.
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